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1.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 19(1): 122-130, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: NB-UVB phototherapy is still an effective treatment in vitiligo but requires more than 1 year for its completion. Topical 5-flurouracil could improve the proliferation and migration of melanocytes. Laser-assisted dermabrasion results in stimulation of the inactive melanocytes present at the outer root sheath of the lower portion of the hair follicle, which migrates upward until they reach the surface of the skin. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of Er:YAG laser skin ablation followed by topical 5-flurouracil on the outcome of NB-UVB phototherapy as a short term technique in resistant and stable vitiligo. METHODS: The current study included 40 patients suffering from bilateral stable vitiligo resistant to NB-UVB. For each patient, one side of the body subjected to 4 months NB-UVB sessions (control side). While the other side of the body subjected to one session of Er:YAG laser ablation combined with topical 5% 5-flurouracil application under occlusion followed by NB-UVB sessions for 4 months after complete re-epithelization. Outcomes were evaluated objectively based on standard digital photographs, histopathological examination, patient satisfaction, and adverse effects. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant improvement in the repigmentation in laser side compared with control side. Histopathological examination revealed expression of prominent melanin pigmentation, with marked expression for Melan-A in laser side, whereas these findings were negative in control side. CONCLUSION: Er:YAG laser ablation, followed by 5FU application before NB-UVB phototherapy for vitiligo, is a safe and tolerable technique that improves the outcome of short-term NB-UVB therapy and is expected to increase patient compliance.


Assuntos
Dermabrasão/instrumentação , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Terapia Ultravioleta/métodos , Vitiligo/terapia , Administração Cutânea , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Terapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Dermabrasão/métodos , Feminino , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Pigmentação da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pigmentação da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Resultado do Tratamento , Terapia Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Dermatol Ther ; 33(1): e13167, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714651

RESUMO

Hori's nevus is a pigmentation disorder reported mainly in middle-aged Asian women. There is no systematic review addressing its pharmacotherapy. The population for our systematic review was patients with a clinical/histological diagnosis of Hori's nevus (both sex, any age group). We screened five literature databases using relevant keywords. All RCTs, observational studies and case series mentioning at least one intervention and outcome of that intervention were included. Nineteen studies were included in the final systematic review from total 680 identified nonduplicate records. Different forms of laser (alexandrite laser [QSAL and PSAL], Nd:YAG laser [QSNYL high fluence, low fluence, 532 followed by 1064 nm], Er: YAG and Nd:YAG combination, ruby laser [QSRL], CO2 laser followed by QSRL) and dermabrasion were found to be useful in treatment of Hori' nevus. Among alexandrite lasers, PSAL is more efficacious and safe than QSAL. In case of high fluence QSNYL, hyperpigmentation rate is quite high while low fluence QSNYL requires more number of treatment sessions. The combined 1064 nm + 532 nm protocol is better in terms of efficacy and safety. Er:YAG + Nd:YAG combination have similar efficacy and added advantage of synergistic action and no adverse event.


Assuntos
Dermabrasão/métodos , Terapia a Laser/métodos , Nevo de Ota/terapia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nevo de Ota/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
3.
Cutis ; 104(1): 79-80, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487339

RESUMO

With an ever-increasing prevalence of cosmetic treatments, there also have been increasing rates of skin and soft tissue infections due to cosmetic procedures and other popular procedures such as acupuncture. We report a case of a 32-year-old woman who presented with a tender lump on the face of 6 weeks' duration that developed acutely after using an at-home microdermabrasion device. She was eventually diagnosed with a skin infection due to Mycobacterium abscessus, which is part of a more specific group known as rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria. Due to multidrug resistance, treatment of the solitary lesion required combination intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy for more than 2 months. This report considers the significance of these infections within the context of cosmetic procedures that are generally considered to be minimally invasive.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Dermabrasão/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Dermabrasão/métodos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/etiologia , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/etiologia
6.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 18(3): s124-126, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909359

RESUMO

Acne is a common disease among patients with Latin American ancestry. Its presentation is very similar to that in all skin types, but nodulocystic acne is more frequent in patients with oily and darker skin than in white Caucasians. Acne sequelae in patients with Latin American ancestry and with darker skin include postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) and atrophic and hypertrophic scars or keloids, with PIH being the most common complication affecting the quality of life of patients. Lately, more attention has been paid to rosacea in patients with darker skin. It has been seen that some of the patients, especially women, diagnosed with adult acne and who did not respond to treatment, were actually patients with rosacea. It is important to recognize the clinical characteristics of this disease in patients with darker skin in whom erythema and telangiectasia are difficult to observe. Here, we present the most relevant clinical characteristics of both diseases, as well as their treatment in patients with darker skin with Latin American ancestry. J Drugs Dermatol. 2019;18(3 Suppl):s124-126.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar/terapia , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Hispano-Americanos , Rosácea/terapia , Acne Vulgar/complicações , Acne Vulgar/diagnóstico , Acne Vulgar/etnologia , Administração Cutânea , Administração Oral , Cicatriz Hipertrófica/etnologia , Cicatriz Hipertrófica/etiologia , Cicatriz Hipertrófica/prevenção & controle , Cosmecêuticos/uso terapêutico , Criocirurgia , Dermabrasão/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperpigmentação/etiologia , Hiperpigmentação/prevenção & controle , Terapia a Laser/métodos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Rosácea/complicações , Rosácea/diagnóstico , Rosácea/etnologia , Fatores Sexuais , Pigmentação da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pigmentação da Pele/fisiologia , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Protetores Solares/administração & dosagem , Estados Unidos
7.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 18(2): 444-450, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861627

RESUMO

The authors of this review present a comprehensive assessment of the techniques and indications in the treatment of the long upper lip. Setting aside the maxillofacial malformations, the review is focused on senescence as the most frequent etiology. A graphical reminder of the anatomical entities and of the upper lip proportions allows optimal preoperative planning. All current treatment options, from fillers to surgical excision and dermabrasion, are reviewed and summarized in order to provide an overview of each technique's expected results and contraindications.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Técnicas Cosméticas/normas , Lábio/fisiologia , Rejuvenescimento , Dermabrasão/métodos , Dermabrasão/normas , Preenchedores Dérmicos/administração & dosagem , Preenchedores Dérmicos/normas , Estética , Humanos , Lábio/anatomia & histologia , Lábio/cirurgia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
8.
Aesthet Surg J ; 39(7): 767-776, 2019 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629103

RESUMO

White scars are defined in this study as mature hypopigmented surgical or traumatic scars whose color is much lighter than surrounding skin, to the extent that they appear white. These scars are often obvious and very difficult to treat or mask. This 3-year retrospective study reports the outcomes from 38 recipients of a new microdermal grafting surgery we developed, which introduces melanocytes into the white scar lesion to regenerate skin color. The study shares 18 years of experience with this procedure, describes the surgical steps, offers videos of the procedures, and presents 4 cases. Between September 2013 and December 2016, 38 patients (30 females; 8 males) underwent microdermal grafting for color regeneration of white scars in our plastic surgery clinic. Most patients, 78.9%, received 1 treatment, 15.8% received 2 treatments, and 5.3% received 3 treatments. Three lay judges were asked to assess percentage pigmentation recovery by comparing photographic images of patients' preoperative and postoperative scars. Patients were also asked to assess, via a questionnaire, satisfaction and percentage improvement 1 year after surgical treatment. Lay judges found an average of 49% improvement after 1 session, 75% after 2 sessions, and 90% after 3 sessions. In total, 71.1% of the patients completed the questionnaire 1 year after the surgery. Average subjective improvement was 55% after 1 session, 88% after 2 sessions, and 95% after 3 sessions. The patient satisfaction rate was high. Microdermal grafting provides adequate treatment of white scars by regenerating melanocytes, although more than 1 session treatment may be needed.


Assuntos
Cicatriz/complicações , Dermabrasão/métodos , Derme/transplante , Hipopigmentação/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Hipopigmentação/etiologia , Satisfação do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pigmentação da Pele , Adulto Jovem
9.
Curr Drug Saf ; 14(1): 72-76, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30084337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fixed drug eruption is a clinical entity occurring at the same site each time the drug is administered. They are usually found on lips, genitalia, abdomen, and legs but can occur at any location. The eruptions usually occur within hours of administration of the drug and resolves spontaneously. Most common drugs causing them include antimicrobials. Fluroquinolones especially norfloxacin is commonly used in the treatment of gastrointestinal infections. Cutaneous adverse drug reactions are very rare with norfloxacin. CASE REPORT: In this case report, a young female, soon after taking Nofloxacin tablet, developed a blister with erythema and itching after self treatment for urinary tract infection. It got cured after stopping the drug and taking treatment from a dermatologist. It resolved as a hyper-pigmented scar. She experienced a similar episode of drug eruption on the same site when she again self medicated herself with Norfloxacin for diarrhoea. This time the reaction occurred within few hours and resolved with hyperpigmentation after medication. She was advised not to indulge in self-treatment in future. Suspecting association between the drug and the rash was confirmed and a diagnosis of Norfloxacin induced fixed drug eruption was made. CONCLUSION: Causality assessment by Naranjo's algorithm revealed a definite relationship between the cutaneous adverse drug reaction and the offending drug.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Erupção por Droga/diagnóstico , Erupção por Droga/terapia , Norfloxacino/efeitos adversos , Automedicação/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Dermabrasão/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Norfloxacino/administração & dosagem , Recidiva
10.
J Cosmet Laser Ther ; 21(1): 49-57, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29451986

RESUMO

Striae distensae (SD), otherwise known as "stretchmarks," are a common presenting complaint, particularly in young healthy women. SD are hypothesized to form in a patient when the cross-linked collagen is "overstretched" and rupture of this collagen matrix causes the striae. Thus, many treatments work by increasing collagen synthesis. This review critically appraises the evidence to date for the treatment of SD, including both energy-based devices and topical treatments.


Assuntos
Estrias de Distensão/terapia , Dermabrasão/métodos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Ceratolíticos/uso terapêutico , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/métodos , Fototerapia/métodos , Tretinoína/uso terapêutico
11.
J Cosmet Laser Ther ; 21(5): 286-290, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300026

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess objectively the effects of the combination of corundum microdermabrasion and cavitation peeling in the therapy of seborrheic skin with visible symptoms of acne punctata. Material and methods: The study involved a group of nine women. A series of six treatments with the combination of microdermabrasion and cavitation peeling were performed within facial skin at 10-14 days intervals. Corneometric measurements examining skin hydration level and sebumetric measurements analyzing skin sebum level were made before the series of treatments and after second, fourth and sixth procedure in five facial areas. Clinical assessment of the efficacy of the therapy was performed on the basis of photographic documentation (Fotomedicus). Anonymous questionnaires were used in order to evaluate patients' satisfaction rate. Results: Statistically significant improvement in skin sebum level was observed in all examined areas (forehead p = 0.002; nose p = 0.001, chin p = 0.01, left cheek p = 0.009, right cheek p = 0.007). In case of skin hydration, significant improvement was found only in the area of chin (p = 0.03). 78% of participants estimated that the improvement was in the range of 55-70%, while 22% of participants of 75-100%. The reduction in the amount and visibility of comedones and pimples were demonstrated on the basis of questionnaire and photographic documentation. Conclusions: Combined microdermabrasion and cavitation peeling treatments improve the condition of seborrheic skin.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar/terapia , Dermabrasão/métodos , Dermatite Seborreica/terapia , Ácido Salicílico/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Br J Dermatol ; 180(4): 756-764, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30117140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical pretreatments can potentiate the efficacy of daylight photodynamic therapy (dPDT), but clinical comparative studies remain limited. OBJECTIVES: Performed in large skin areas with actinic keratoses (AKs) and photodamage, this blinded, randomized clinical trial compared the efficacy and safety of dPDT after tailored skin pretreatment using ablative fractional laser (AFL) or microdermabrasion (MD). METHODS: Two ≥ 50-cm2 side-by-side skin areas were randomized to receive a single treatment with AFL-dPDT or MD-dPDT. Pretreatment parameters were tailored according to AK grade and skin constitution to ensure standardized immediate end points. Subsequently, methyl aminolaevulinate was applied, followed by 2-h daylight exposure. The primary outcome comprised blinded assessment of AK clearance at the 3-month follow-up. RESULTS: In 18 patients with 832 AKs, AFL-dPDT provided significantly higher AK clearance (81% vs. 60%, P < 0·001), led to fewer new AKs (P < 0·001) and showed superior improvement in dyspigmentation (P = 0·003) and skin texture (P = 0·001) vs. MD-dPDT. Peaking at days 3-6, AFL-PDT induced more intensified local skin responses (P = 0·004), including instances of Staphylococcus aureus infection (n = 3). Patients nonetheless preferred AFL-dPDT (P = 0·077), due to lower pretreatment-related pain (P = 0·002) and superior cosmesis (P = 0·035) and efficacy compared with MD-dPDT. CONCLUSIONS: AFL-dPDT is an effective treatment for patients with AK with extensive field cancerization, although AFL pretreatment is associated with intensified local skin reactions.


Assuntos
Dermabrasão/métodos , Ceratose Actínica/terapia , Terapia a Laser/métodos , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ácido Aminolevulínico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Aminolevulínico/efeitos adversos , Ácido Aminolevulínico/análogos & derivados , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinogênese/efeitos da radiação , Terapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Dermabrasão/efeitos adversos , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Ceratose Actínica/patologia , Terapia a Laser/efeitos adversos , Luz , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fotoquimioterapia/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/efeitos adversos , Método Simples-Cego , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Cosmet Laser Ther ; 21(2): 118-121, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29741410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Halo nevus (HN) is a rare dermatologic disorder characterized by typical whitish rim surrounding an existing melanocytic nevus resembling halo. It is a cosmetic problem that may be linked to vitiligo, and it is advised to remove these nevi in order to avoid development of vitiligo. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the cosmetic outcome after nevus removal and leukoderma dermabrasion with epithelial graft followed by narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) phototherapy as management of resistant halo nevi and avoidance of development of vitiligo. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ten patients with persisting halo nevi were selected as candidates in this study. Superficial dermabrasion was carried out using proper diamond fraises on depigmented rim and then punch biopsy probes with suitable size were used to harvest the nevus. Thiersch graft was prepared and applied on the dermabraded depigmented area. After 1 week of the procedure, patients were exposed to NB-UVB twice weekly and were followed up for 3 months. RESULTS: Repigmentation was noticed in 2 weeks and was nearly fully accomplished in all 10 patients within the 3-month period. No other vitiligo lesions developed during this period in all patients except for one case. CONCLUSION: Excision of Sutton's nevus with combined dermabrasion and Thiersch grafting followed by phototherapy is a good aesthetic maneuver in treating halo nevi and helps in avoiding further vitiligo depigmentation.


Assuntos
Dermabrasão/métodos , Nevo com Halo/terapia , Fototerapia/métodos , Transplante de Pele/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nevo com Halo/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Cosmet Laser Ther ; 21(1): 39-43, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29547019

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of galvano-puncture (GG) and dermabrasion (DG) in reducing striae distensae in the gluteal region of women. METHODS: This randomized, controlled, single-blind clinical trial was conducted at the UNIFAL-MG. Participants were 48 female who had striae distensae alba in the gluteal region. They were randomly divided in GG; DG; and Control Group (CG). The length and width of the largest striae were measured (in millimeters) using a caliper. The same striae were assessed before and after treatment. Infrared thermography was performed in the gluteal region to assess local microcirculation. RESULTS: Intragroup analysis showed a significant reduction in the dimension of the striae between baseline and treatment session 10 in the GG and DG groups. Between-group analysis revealed a reduction in the width and length of the striae for both the GG and DG groups, but there were no significant differences between the two groups. When compared to the CG and the DG group, the GG group had significant improvements, as shown by thermography. CONCLUSION: Both GG and DG are effective in reducing striae length and width. However, only the thermography results showed significant differences between GG and control, and between GG and DG.


Assuntos
Técnicas Cosméticas , Dermabrasão/métodos , Punções/métodos , Estrias de Distensão/terapia , Adulto , Terapia Combinada , Dermabrasão/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Microcirculação , Punções/efeitos adversos , Método Simples-Cego , Termografia , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Cosmet Laser Ther ; 21(1): 58-60, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29488816

RESUMO

For decades it has been widely accepted that elective procedures should be delayed for at least 6-months following completion of isotretinoin therapy. However, numerous 2017 publications demonstrate the need for change in best practice. The evidence has yet to be succinctly summarized in a single article or in a stand-alone quick reference algorithm for physicians. This article's review of all 2017 publications confirms that the 6-month delay is not necessary for all procedures and provides a simple algorithmic approach to summarize the updated recommendations for procedural delay of cosmetic procedures following systemic isotretinoin therapy. This is a useful tool for clinicians and allows patients to receive the most appropriate and timely cosmetic therapy to minimize the psychosocial impact of the skin condition.


Assuntos
Fármacos Dermatológicos/administração & dosagem , Isotretinoína/administração & dosagem , Dermabrasão/métodos , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/métodos , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Am J Clin Dermatol ; 19(5): 733-757, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30043128

RESUMO

Keratosis pilaris is a common skin disorder comprising less common variants and rare subtypes, including keratosis pilaris rubra, erythromelanosis follicularis faciei et colli, and the spectrum of keratosis pilaris atrophicans. Data, and critical analysis of existing data, are lacking, so the etiologies, pathogeneses, disease associations, and treatments of these clinical entities are poorly understood. The present article aims to fill this knowledge gap by reviewing literature in the PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases and providing a comprehensive, analytical summary of the clinical characteristics and pathophysiology of keratosis pilaris and its subtypes through the lens of disease associations, genetics, and pharmacologic etiologies. Histopathologic, genomic, and epidemiologic evidence points to keratosis pilaris as a primary disorder of the pilosebaceous unit as a result of inherited mutations or acquired disruptions in various biomolecular pathways. Recent data highlight aberrant Ras signaling as an important contributor to the pathophysiology of keratosis pilaris and its subtypes. We also evaluate data on treatments for keratosis pilaris and its subtypes, including topical, systemic, and energy-based therapies. The effectiveness of various types of lasers in treating keratosis pilaris and its subtypes deserves wider recognition.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/terapia , Doença de Darier/terapia , Dermabrasão/métodos , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Sobrancelhas/anormalidades , Fototerapia/métodos , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/etiologia , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Administração Cutânea , Doença de Darier/diagnóstico , Doença de Darier/etiologia , Doença de Darier/patologia , Dermatite Atópica/complicações , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Sobrancelhas/patologia , Humanos , Ictiose/complicações , Ictiose/genética , Proteínas de Filamentos Intermediários/genética , Mutação , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Pele/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Proteínas ras/genética , Proteínas ras/metabolismo
20.
Skinmed ; 16(2): 113-117, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29911529

RESUMO

Surgical management of benign or malignant cutaneous tumors may result in noticeable scars that are of great concern to patients, regardless of sex, age, or ethnicity. Techniques to optimize surgical scars are discussed in this three-part review. Part 3 focuses on scar revision for erythema, hyperpigmentation, and hypopigmentation. Scar revision options for erythematous scars include moist exposed burn ointment (MEBO), onion extract, silicone, methyl aminolevulinate-photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT), pulsed dye laser, intense pulsed light (IPL), and nonablative fractional lasers. Hyperpigmented scars may be treated with tyrosinase inhibitors, IPL, and nonablative fractional lasers. Hypopigmented scars may be treated with needle dermabrasion, medical tattoos, autologous cell transplantation, prostaglandin analogues, retinoids, calcineurin inhibitors, excimer laser, and nonablative fractional lasers.


Assuntos
Cicatriz/prevenção & controle , Eritema/terapia , Hiperpigmentação/terapia , Hipopigmentação/terapia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Dermabrasão/métodos , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Dermatológicos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Dermatológicos/métodos , Eritema/etiologia , Estética , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperpigmentação/etiologia , Hipopigmentação/etiologia , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/métodos , Masculino , Retinoides/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
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