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1.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488279

RESUMO

Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene can induce a series of immune diseases which include systemic rash, multiple system and organ damage, which are defined as occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis due to trichloroethylene (OMLDT) . This article reviews the research progress of the role of T cell immunity, humoral immunity and complement system in the immunological pathogenesis of OMLDT to provide theoretical basis for the diagnosis and treatment of OMLDT.


Assuntos
Dermatite Ocupacional , Exposição Ocupacional , Tricloroetileno , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento , Dermatite Ocupacional/etiologia , Humanos , Tricloroetileno/toxicidade
2.
Med Lav ; 112(4): 320-326, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occupational hand dermatitis (OHD) is a skin disease occurring on employees' hands in certain jobs. Little is known about prevalence, incidence and characteristics of this adverse skin reaction and its associated risk factors during COVID-19 pandemic. To evaluate both prevalence and incidence of OHD and associated risk factors in Italian clinicians. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed using a self-report questionnaire. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty clinicians responded to the survey and 82% of responders did not report previous OHD history before the COVID-19 pandemic. Daily use of gloves was reported by 80% of responders. OHD prevalence was 18%, while incidence was 80%. We found a protective effect on symptom occurrence for vinyl/nitrile gloves if the time with gloves was ≥ 6 hours per day. CONCLUSIONS: This survey reveals a high OHD incidence in an Italian population of clinicians. Furthermore, wearing vinyl/nitrile gloves for at least 6 hours a day had a protective effect on symptom onset.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dermatite Ocupacional , Dermatoses da Mão , Estudos Transversais , Dermatite Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/etiologia , Luvas Protetoras , Dermatoses da Mão/epidemiologia , Dermatoses da Mão/etiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Occup Med (Lond) ; 71(6-7): 294-297, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allergic contact dermatitis is a common occupational skin disease among healthcare workers (HCWs). AIMS: This study describes causes of allergic contact dermatitis in New Zealand HCWs. METHODS: All HCWs undergoing patch testing between July 2008 and January 2020 at a public hospital patch test clinic and between June 2019 and January 2020 at a private dermatology clinic were included. Data collected included patient demographics, occupation, results of patch testing and pre- and post-patch test diagnoses. RESULTS: Out of 837 patients tested, 67 were HCWs. The mean age of HCWs was 41 years (SD 14) and 58 (87%) were female. The most common occupations were nurses (40%), allied health (22%) and doctors (18%). Forty-six (69%) patients had a background of atopic dermatitis. Hand dermatitis was the most common presentation (49%), followed by facial/neck dermatitis (25%). Thirty-eight (57%) had at least one positive reaction on patch testing, including 19 (28%) with a positive result of current relevance. There were 16 relevant reactions to rubber accelerators, 11 to fragrances, 10 to preservatives and 6 to corticosteroids. The most frequent relevant allergens were methylisothiazolinone/methylchloroisothiazolinone (4%), hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (4%) and methylisothiazolinone (4%). CONCLUSIONS: The most common allergens in HCWs were rubber chemicals, fragrances, preservatives and topical corticosteroids. Important allergens for patch testing HCWs are outlined, in particular, those with hand dermatitis should be tested to a rubber series.


Assuntos
Dermatite Alérgica de Contato , Dermatite Ocupacional , Adulto , Alérgenos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/diagnóstico , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/epidemiologia , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/diagnóstico , Dermatite Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/etiologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Testes do Emplastro
4.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5756-5767, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241899

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a significant health problem globally. The virus has spread widely and become a global pandemic. The pathophysiology for SARS-CoV-2 has not been explained clearly. It has been associated with several multiorgan symptoms, among which its dermatological manifestations are of great interest. Primarily, there has been no report of skin features among COVID-19 patients. Nevertheless, recently there have been several reports regarding COVID-19 patients who presented with cutaneous manifestations. In the current review, we focus on the various cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Dermatopatias/etiologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite Ocupacional/diagnóstico , Dermatite Ocupacional/etiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/patologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/terapia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Erupção por Droga/diagnóstico , Erupção por Droga/etiologia , Erupção por Droga/patologia , Erupção por Droga/terapia , Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/efeitos adversos , SARS-CoV-2 , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias/patologia , Dermatopatias/terapia
7.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 128(6): 323-330, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096932

RESUMO

In recent decades, hand eczema has been seen more frequently in oral care practices. Hand eczema is a difficult problem, especially since the start of the current COVID-19-pandemic, and can lead to absence due to illness at work. The main trio in the development of eczema is predisposition (atopy), irritation and allergy. Irritative contact dermatitis is caused by damage to the skin barrier. In dentistry, this is often caused by frequent contact with water, soaps, disinfectants and the use of gloves. The cause of allergic contact dermatitis is related to the use of various materials in oral care practice, such as acrylates, rubber and rubber additives. Essential measures are very important in oral care practice to prevent hand eczema. Various measures are key: adequate skin care with liniments, good skin protection with proper gloves and no-touch techniques. Knowledge of possible allergens and adequate hand hygiene and hand care are crucial to minimize the risk of chronic eczema.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dermatite Ocupacional , Dermatoses da Mão , Saúde do Trabalhador , Dermatite Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/etiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Dermatoses da Mão/epidemiologia , Dermatoses da Mão/etiologia , Dermatoses da Mão/prevenção & controle , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Ital J Dermatol Venerol ; 156(2): 220-225, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the recent COVID-19 outbreak, masks became mandatory and shortages frequent, therefore the prevalence of non-CE (European Conformity Mark) approved masks increased in the general population. We aimed to quantify the prevalence of mask-related cutaneous side effects and the differences between CE and non-CE approved masks. METHODS: In this multicenter prospective observational study conducted from March 20, 2020 to May 12, 2020(during and after quarantine), patients attending emergency departments for a dermatological consult were clinically assessed and their masks were inspected to detect CE marks and UNI (Italian National Unification Entity) norms. Patients with history of facial dermatoses or under current treatment for facial dermatoses were excluded. RESULTS: We enrolled 412 patients (318 during quarantine and 94 after quarantine). CE-approved masks were observed 52.8% vs. 24.5%, whilst subsets of non-CE approved masks were 9.7% vs. 14.9% (Personal protective equipment (PPE)-masks), 16.4% vs. 12.8% (surgical masks [SM]), and 21.1% vs. 47.9%(non-PPE) and (non-SM masks), respectively during and after quarantine. Remarkably, non-CE-approved masks resulted in patients displaying a statistically significant higher incidence of facial dermatoses and irritant contact dermatitis compared to CE-approved masks, and these differences were mainly driven by non-PPE non-SM masks. Comparing quarantine and after quarantine periods, no statistically significant differences were found for CE-approved masks, whilst differences were detected in non-CE-approved masks regarding incidence of facial dermatoses (P<0.0001)and irritant contact dermatitis (P=0.0041). CONCLUSIONS: Masks are essential to prevent COVID-19 but at the same time higher awareness regarding mask specifications should be promoted in the general population. Non-PPE and non-SM masks should undergo more rigorous testing to prevent the occurrence of cutaneous side effects and future patients' lawsuit damages.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dermatite Ocupacional/etiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Dermatoses Faciais/etiologia , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Máscaras/normas , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
Cutan Ocul Toxicol ; 40(3): 207-213, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047217

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious infectious disease that first appeared in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Health care workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of infection because the virus is highly contagious and can be transmitted by a variety of routes. Health care workers are required to use a variety of personal protective equipment (PPE) for prolonged hours and, as a result, they face varying degrees of cutaneous complications. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional online questionnaire survey to investigate skin problems caused by the use of PPE and personal hygiene measures. We developed a survey with 32 questions using Google forms and distributed it via WhatsApp and Facebook groups. RESULTS: A total of 1142 responses were obtained. Among the respondents, 88.1% reported adverse skin reactions due to PPE and personal hygiene measures. Female sex, working as a nurse, wearing PPE more than 6 h/day, and working more than 3 days/week increase the risk of PPE-related skin problems. CONCLUSION: In this study, we highlighted skin problems related to PPE and found out risk factors for PPE-related skin problems.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Dermatite Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/instrumentação , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Estudos Transversais , Dermatite Ocupacional/etiologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Hautarzt ; 72(6): 474-483, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The environment is continuously subject to change. Exposures in the work environment and therefore the importance of occupational type I and type IV allergens may change. OBJECTIVES: The most important trends concerning occupational allergens, new occupational allergens/allergen exposures, the diagnostic procedure to detect new allergens in practice and regulatory developments are presented. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Building on known relevant allergen exposures in occupational dermatology, published trends from clinical cohorts are evaluated and a systematic literature search (PubMed 2016-2021) for new occupational allergens is also performed RESULTS: Occupations with the highest incidence of occupational allergic contact urticaria and/or protein contact dermatitis include bakers, farmers and farm workers, veterinary technicians, veterinarians, cooks, dairy and livestock workers, gardeners, and hairdressers. The highest risk of developing occupational contact dermatitis is in health care, agriculture, metalworking occupations and machine operators, the food sector, service industries, and construction occupations. The search strategy "new occupational allerg*" yielded 603 hits and "novel occupational allerg*" 158 hits. A total of 25 papers included results relevant to the research question and were processed. New protein-based immediate-type allergens, as well as contact allergens (haptens) relevant for occupational dermatology, are presented. CONCLUSIONS: Current trends on known occupational allergens and new occupational allergens in the period 2016-2021 can be identified. Only a thorough individual workplace history and testing of patients' own materials can identify new allergens in occupational dermatology.


Assuntos
Dermatite Alérgica de Contato , Dermatite Ocupacional , Dermatologia , Exposição Ocupacional , Urticária , Alérgenos , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/diagnóstico , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/epidemiologia , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/diagnóstico , Dermatite Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/etiologia , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Testes do Emplastro
12.
Eur J Dermatol ; 31(2): 199-204, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, wearing face masks is mandatory not only for health care workers (HCWs) but also for the general population in many countries around the globe. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the onset of adverse facial skin reactions due to compulsory face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic in HCWs and non-HCWs, and draw awareness of this new dermatological condition and its preventive measures. MATERIALS & METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed to 550 patients and HCWs from the Department of Dermatology and Allergy of the University Hospital Munich (LMU), Germany. Participants were surveyed regarding mask type, duration of usage and adverse facial skin reactions. Information on symptoms and the use of skin care products and topical drugs were retrieved. RESULTS: The duration of wearing masks showed a significant impact on the prevalence of symptoms (p < 0.001). Type IV hypersensitivity was significantly more likely in participants with symptoms compared to those without symptoms (p = 0.001), whereas no increase in symptoms was observed in participants with atopic diathesis. HCWs used facial skin care products significantly more often than non-HCWs (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Preventive and therapeutic measures should be established in order to avoid "face mask dermatitis", especially for people with underlying risk factors.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Dermatite de Contato/etiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/etiologia , Dermatoses Faciais/etiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Dermatite de Contato/epidemiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Dermatoses Faciais/epidemiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos
13.
Work ; 68(4): 1113-1119, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occupational skin disease (OSD) is a common health issue in the food processing sector. However, risk factors for OSD are suspected to differ according to the nature of the operation. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain if the risk factors for OSD vary depending on the type of food processing operation, namely meat processing vs. a commercial bakery. METHODS: Participants were asked to answer questions regarding workplace exposures and the current skin condition of their hands. Bivariate analyses were conducted to identify differences between the two participating operations. RESULTS: The meat processing workers were more likely to have wet work exposure, used hand sanitizer more often and changed their gloves more frequently. These findings from meat processing represented a statistically significant difference compared to the commercial bakery workers. Also, workers from meat processing reported more severe skin symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for OSD apparently differ between types of food processing operations. Differences in the nature of skin symptoms were also found between the two participating operations. It is therefore suggested that future studies examining OSD within the food processing sector should evaluate this health effect based on the nature of operations rather than the sector as a whole.


Assuntos
Dermatite Ocupacional , Exposição Ocupacional , Dermatite Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/etiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Mãos , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Local de Trabalho
14.
Hautarzt ; 72(6): 493-501, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The food industry is a high-risk area for work-related allergic immediate skin reactions (contact urticaria, contact urticaria syndrome, protein contact dermatitis) with or without respiratory symptoms (allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma) due to proteins of animal origin. OBJECTIVES: The present work gives an overview of allergenic seafood and meat proteins and their clinical and occupational relevance in different work settings. METHODS: A review of current knowledge and a supplementary selective literature search were performed. RESULTS: Protein contact dermatitis is one of the more common occupational dermatoses in workers exposed to seafood and meat, after irritant hand eczema. Fishermen, cooks, and butchers are most commonly affected. Crustaceans and mollusks are more frequent triggers of food allergies than fish and can in individual cases also be life threatening. In contrast, primary meat allergy is rare. Beef among mammals and chicken among birds are the most common triggers. CONCLUSIONS: All employees with allergic immediate skin and/or respiratory reactions exposed to proteins of animal origin in the workplace should undergo a careful allergological workup at an early stage. Determination of the specific IgE plays a central role in confirming the diagnosis and it is of great importance in individual cases to include the suspected native material in the skin tests. The course of the disease is generally characterized by a poor prognosis and is commonly associated with a change in occupation.


Assuntos
Dermatite Alérgica de Contato , Dermatite Ocupacional , Urticária , Alérgenos , Animais , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/diagnóstico , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/diagnóstico , Dermatite Ocupacional/etiologia , Humanos , Testes Cutâneos , Urticária/diagnóstico , Urticária/etiologia
16.
Int J Dermatol ; 60(9): 1082-1091, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710640

RESUMO

This review article seeks to provide an overview of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) as a significant environmental and occupational skin disease, the phases of ACD, its causes from the occupational and environmental perspectives, its detection, the effects of ACD with respect to the social, psychological, occupational, and financial perspectives, and its cure and/or prevention. Human skin is very sensitive and as the largest organ in the body, it is highly prone to direct and indirect contact with the substances from its environment. The skin reacts to these substances (xenobiotics) differently depending on the individual's tolerance level or threshold. Allergic contact dermatitis is a significant environmental and occupational skin disease that should not be ignored in our society because it can affect the quality of life of an affected individual. There are multiple causes of ACD, and these causes of ACD have been discussed from two perspectives: environmental and occupational. The effects of ACD can be psychological, social, financial, and occupational. There is need for more public enlightenment on the effects of ACD as well as a precise understanding that it is not a contagious disease so as to significantly reduce the psychological and social effects of ACD on these patients.


Assuntos
Dermatite Alérgica de Contato , Dermatite Ocupacional , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/epidemiologia , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/etiologia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Pele
17.
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep ; 21(4): 26, 2021 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779825

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article aims to summarize some recent trends in occupational allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), including dermatitis related to pandemic-level personal protective equipment in healthcare workers, hazards patients may experience when working from home, and occupational perspectives on the recent American Contact Dermatitis Society (ACDS) allergens of the year and ACDS Core Allergen Series updates. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent ACDS Allergens of the Year may be particularly relevant to healthcare workers, including isobornyl acrylate, which is present in glucose sensors and propylene glycol present in hand cleansers and disinfectants. Lavender, limonene, and linalool, all of which are new additions to the ACDS Core Allergen Series, have been reported as causes for occupational ACD in massage therapists and aromatherapists. Isothiazolinone allergy continues to rise in both consumer and occupational settings. Finally, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a wave of occupational ACD in healthcare workers to personal protective equipment, and revealed new potential allergens for individuals working from home. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis continues to exert a significant occupational disease burden. Remaining aware of the current trends in allergens may allow for earlier recognition, diagnosis, and treatment, subsequently helping our patients to work in healthier and safer environments.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/diagnóstico , Dermatite Ocupacional/diagnóstico , Acrilatos , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/efeitos adversos , Alergia e Imunologia/tendências , Canfanos , Dermatite Ocupacional/etiologia , Dermatologia/tendências , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Lavandula/efeitos adversos , Limoneno/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , Testes do Emplastro/efeitos adversos , Propilenoglicol , Sociedades Médicas , Estados Unidos
18.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 84(4): 965-976, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preservatives are often necessary components of commercial products. Large-scale North American studies on preservative allergy are limited. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate demographics, positive patch test reactions (PPTRs), clinical relevance, and trends for preservatives tested by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of North American Contact Dermatitis Group patch testing results of preservatives from 1994 through 2016. RESULTS: A total of 50,799 patients were tested; 11,338 (22.3%) had a PPTR to at least 1 preservative. The most frequent reactions were to methylisothiazolinone 0.2% aqueous (aq) (12.2%), formaldehyde 2% aq (7.8%), formaldehyde 1% aq (7.8%), quaternium-15 2% petrolatum (pet) (7.7%), and methyldibromo glutaronitrile/phenoxyethanol 2% pet (5.1%). Paraben mix 12% pet (1%), iodopropynyl butylcarbamate 0.1% pet (0.4%), benzyl alcohol 1% pet (0.3%), and phenoxyethanol 1% pet (0.2%) had the lowest PPTRs. Linear regression analysis of preservatives tested showed that only methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone 0.01% aq (parameter estimate, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.17-0.66; P < .005) had a significant increase in PPTRs over time. LIMITATIONS: Collected variables are dependent on clinical judgment. Results may be prone to referral selection bias. CONCLUSIONS: This large North American study provides insight on preservative PPTRs and trends from 1994 through 2016.


Assuntos
Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Conservantes Farmacêuticos/efeitos adversos , Distribuição por Idade , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/diagnóstico , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/epidemiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/etiologia , Feminino , Dermatoses da Mão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/epidemiologia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Especificidade de Órgãos , Testes do Emplastro , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Dermatitis ; 32(2): 86-93, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606414

RESUMO

Occupational contact dermatitis accounts for 95% of all cases of occupational skin disease with irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) constituting 80% to 90% of these cases. Health care workers, hairdressers, and food service workers are typically most affected by occupational ICD of the hands as these occupations require frequent hand hygiene and/or prolonged exposure to water, also known as "wet work." In the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic, frequent hand hygiene has become a global recommendation for all individuals, and new workplace guidelines for hand sanitization and surface sterilization are affecting occupations not previously considered at risk of excessive wet work including grocery or retail workers, postal workers, sanitization workers, and others. In this review, we discuss the etiology and pathogenesis of occupational ICD with additional focus on treatment and interventions that can be made at an institutional and even national level for education and prevention of ICD resulting from frequent hand hygiene.


Assuntos
Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/epidemiologia , Dermatite Irritante/epidemiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Dermatoses da Mão/epidemiologia , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Dermatite Irritante/etiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/etiologia , Feminino , Dermatoses da Mão/etiologia , Higiene das Mãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos
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