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1.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 46(1): 142-144, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705718

RESUMO

COVID-19 healthcare workers (HCWs) require frequent handwashing and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) to prevent infection. However, evidence is emerging that these practices are causing adverse effects on their skin integrity. A single-centre, cross-sectional study of HCWs from an Irish hospital was undertaken to evaluate the degree of COVID-19-related irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) between April and May 2020. Of 270 participants surveyed, 223 (82.6%) reported symptoms of ICD. The hands were the most commonly affected site (76.47%) and the most frequently reported symptom was dry skin (75.37%). Nearly all (268; 99.26%) HCWs had increased hand-washing frequency, but 122 (45.35%) did not use emollients. In the ICD group, 24.7% cited a history of dermatitis compared with 4.3% of unaffected staff (P < 0.001). The ICD group recorded PPE usage for an average of 3.15 h compared with the non-ICD group at 1.97 h (P = 0.21). Promoting awareness of COVID-19-related ICD is vital to highlight prevention and treatment for frontline staff.


Assuntos
/complicações , Dermatite Irritante/etiologia , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/efeitos adversos , /genética , Conscientização , /patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Dermatite de Contato/etiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/etiologia , Emolientes/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Irritantes/efeitos adversos , Masculino
2.
Int J Dermatol ; 60(3): 327-331, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral illness caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 which spreads via droplets from an infected person. There has been an unprecedented rise in the use of personal protective equipment and practice of personal hygiene measures against COVID-19. The extended use of protective measures (PM) can lead to ill effects on the skin. Our aim was to investigate PM-induced dermatoses amongst healthcare workers and the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of 2 months. The study subjects were patients who presented to dermatology outpatient clinics or sought teleconsultation for skin problems related to the use of PMs against COVID-19. A detailed history was obtained and cutaneous examination was documented for all the patients in a pre-set proforma. Diagnoses of the adverse skin effects were formulated based upon history and clinical examination. RESULTS: A total of 101 cases with cutaneous adverse effects due to the use of PMs against COVID-19 were included in the study. The general population and healthcare workers were affected similarly, comprising of 54.5% and 45.5%, respectively. The mean age of the study participants was 36.71 ± 15.72 years. The most common culprit material was soap and water (56.4%). Contact dermatitis was found to be the most common adverse effect in the majority of our patients (72.3%). The most common symptom reported was pruritus (45.5%). The wearing of personal protective equipment for a longer duration was significantly associated with multiple symptoms (P = 0.026). CONCLUSION: The enhanced use of different PMs against COVID-19 can result in a variety of adverse skin effects. In our study, the use of soap and water was the most common culprit PM, and contact dermatitis was the most common adverse effect noted.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Dermatite de Contato/epidemiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/efeitos adversos , Adulto , /transmissão , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/instrumentação , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Estudos Transversais , Dermatite de Contato/etiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/etiologia , Feminino , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Sabões/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Toxicol Sci ; 45(11): 725-735, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132246

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitization potential of 82 compounds classified as volatile and/or semi-volatile organic compounds using the direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA), given that these chemical compounds have been detected frequently and at high concentrations in a national survey of Japanese indoor air pollution and other studies. The skin sensitization potential of 81 of these compounds was evaluable in our study; one compound co-eluted with cysteine peptide and was therefore not evaluable. Twenty-five of the evaluated compounds were classified as positive. Although all glycols and plasticizers detected frequently and at high concentrations in a national survey of Japanese indoor air pollution were negative, hexanal and nonanal, which are found in fragrances and building materials, tested positive. Monoethanolamine and 1,3-butanediol, which cause clinical contact dermatitis, and several compounds reported to have weak sensitization potential in animal studies, were classified as negative. Thus, it was considered that compounds with weak sensitization potential were evaluated as negative in the DPRA. Although the sensitization potential of the formaldehyde-releasing preservative bronopol has been attributed to the release of formaldehyde (a well-known contact allergen) by its degradation, its degradation products-bromonitromethane and 2-bromoethanol-were classified as positive, indicating that these degradation products also exhibit sensitization potential. The compounds that tested positive in this study should be comprehensively assessed through multiple toxicity and epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Testes de Irritação da Pele/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/toxicidade , Aldeídos , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Dermatite de Contato/etiologia , Formaldeído , Glicolatos , Humanos , Japão , Odorantes , Peptídeos , Plastificantes , Pele , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/classificação
4.
Int J Dermatol ; 59(12): 1437-1449, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107038

RESUMO

Numerous unexplained pneumonia cases were reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) by Wuhan, China, in December 2020. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), a zoonotic pathogen, came into sight, spreading coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) all over the globe. Association of cutaneous signs and symptoms with COVID-19 is being studied worldwide, principally, to determine if these dermatoses can help in early recognition of SARS-CoV-2 infection. These dermatological manifestations can range from erythematous rash, urticaria to livedo reticularis, and acrocyanosis in patients of all age groups. Correspondingly, dermatologists treating COVID-19 patients, suffering from inflammatory dermatoses, with biologics or immunomodulators should exert caution and use specific protocols to adjust the doses of these medications. Prevention of person-to-person transmission of COVID-19 is being promoted universally, with the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), hand washes, and hand sanitizers around the clock. However, an array of cutaneous adverse effects such as contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, friction blisters, contact urticaria, acne, and infections are associated with the use of PPE. Extra-pulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 are still emerging in the community, and physicians and researchers are working together globally to strengthen the clinical management of these patients. Cases of COVID-19 continue to rise across the world, and an unprecedented approach has been taken to develop effective vaccines and therapeutic strategies against existing and forthcoming mutagenic strains of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dermatite de Contato/epidemiologia , Dermatologia/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/instrumentação , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dermatite de Contato/diagnóstico , Dermatite de Contato/etiologia , Dermatologia/normas , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/efeitos adversos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/virologia
7.
Clin Dermatol ; 38(4): 485-488, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972607

RESUMO

Many factors affect the health and physiology of human skin, with some of them arising from outer space. This contribution explores four celestial influences on the skin: (1) the sun's ultraviolet light, which has both beneficial and deleterious dermatologic effects, (2) meteorite injuries, (3) possible lunar effects on the body's health, and (4) cosmic radiation as a risk factor for skin cancer and pregnancy-related complications. Some of these extraterrestrial influences on skin health have taken on added significance as human beings increasingly spend more time at higher altitudes in aircraft, spaceships, and space stations.


Assuntos
Radiação Cósmica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Pele/lesões , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Aeronaves , Altitude , Dermatite de Contato/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meteoroides , Lua , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia
9.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 83(6): 1730-1737, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707253

RESUMO

The recent COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in increased hand hygiene and hand cleansing awareness. To prevent virus transmission, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends frequent hand washing with soap and water. Hand hygiene products are available in a variety of forms, and while each of these formulations may be effective against COVID-19, they may also alter skin barrier integrity and function. As health care workers and the general population focus on stringent hand hygiene, the American Contact Dermatitis Society anticipates an increase in both irritant contact and allergic contact hand dermatitis. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers with moisturizers have the least sensitizing and irritancy potential when compared to soaps and synthetic detergents. This article provides an overview of the most frequently used hand hygiene products and their associations with contact dermatitis as well as recommendations from the American Contact Dermatitis Society on how to treat and prevent further dermatitis.


Assuntos
Dermatite de Contato/prevenção & controle , Dermatite Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Dermatoses da Mão/prevenção & controle , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/efeitos adversos , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Dermatite de Contato/etiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/etiologia , Dermatoses da Mão/induzido quimicamente , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Irritantes/administração & dosagem , Irritantes/efeitos adversos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sabões/efeitos adversos , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Estados Unidos
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(24): e20603, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541493

RESUMO

In December 2019, a new coronavirus was found in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, and spread rapidly throughout the country, attracting global attention. On February 11, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially named the disease caused by 2019-nCoV coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). With the increasing number of cases, health care workers (HCWs) from all over China volunteered to work in Hubei Province. Because of the strong infectivity of COVID-19, HCWs need to wear personal protective equipment (PPE), such as N95 masks, latex gloves, and protective clothing. Due to the long-term use of PPE, many adverse skin reactions may occur. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore the adverse skin reactions among HCWs using PPE.Questionnaires were used for the research; a quantitative study was carried out to determine the incidence of adverse skin reactions among HCWs using PPE.A total of 61 valid questionnaires were collected. The most common adverse skin reactions among HCWs wearing N95 masks were nasal bridge scarring (68.9%) and facial itching (27.9%). The most common adverse skin reactions among HCWs wearing latex gloves were dry skin (55.7%), itching (31.2%), and rash (23.0%). The most common adverse skin reactions among HCWs wearing protective clothing were dry skin (36.1%) and itching (34.4%).When most HCWs wear PPE for a long period of time, they will experience adverse skin reactions. The incidence of adverse skin reactions to the N95 mask was 95.1%, that to latex gloves was 88.5%, and that to protective clothing was 60.7%.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Dermatite de Contato/etiologia , Exantema/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Roupa de Proteção/efeitos adversos , Prurido/etiologia , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Clin Dermatol ; 38(2): 176-192, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513398

RESUMO

Contact dermatitis (CD) refers to a group of cutaneous diseases caused by contact with allergens or irritants. It is characterized by different stages of an eczematous eruption and has the ability to mimic a wide variety of dermatologic conditions, including inflammatory dermatitis, infectious conditions, cutaneous lymphoma, drug eruptions, and nutritional deficiencies. Irritant CD and allergic CD are the two main presentations of the disease. The diagnosis is based on a detailed history, physical examination, and patch testing, if necessary. Knowing the conditions mimicked by CD should improve the accuracy of the diagnosis. Avoiding the causative substances and taking preventive measures are necessary for the treatment.


Assuntos
Dermatite de Contato/diagnóstico , Dermatite de Contato/patologia , Pele/patologia , Dermatite de Contato/etiologia , Dermatite de Contato/prevenção & controle , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos
13.
Toxicology ; 441: 152474, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380031

RESUMO

2-Methoxy-4-nitroaniline (MNA), an intermediate in the synthesis of azo dyes used in textiles and paints, is structurally similar to carcinogenic anilines. Human exposure occurs primarily in the occupational setting through handling of dye dust, and through use and disposal of MNA-containing products. MNA has been reported to induce contact hypersensitivity in a human, myocardial necrosis in rats, and bacterial mutagenicity. This study assessed the subacute toxicity, genotoxicity, contact hypersensitivity, and reproductive toxicity of MNA in rodents in an effort to more fully characterize its toxicological profile. B6C3F1/N mice were exposed to 0, 650, 1250, 2500, 5000, or 10,000 ppm MNA by dosed feed for 14-days to evaluate subacute toxicity and histopathological endpoints. In female mice, decreased body weight (13.5 %) and absolute kidney weight (14.8 %), compared to control, were observed at 10,000 ppm MNA; increased relative liver weight (10-12 %), compared to control, occurred at 5,000-10,000 ppm MNA. In male mice, absolute (15 %) and relative liver weights (9-13 %) were increased at 2,500-5,000 ppm and 1250-10,000 ppm MNA, compared to control, respectively. In both sexes of mice, minimal elevations of hemosiderin pigmentation (a breakdown product of erythrocytes), relative to control, were observed in the liver (10,000 ppm); minimal to moderate elevations of hemosiderin pigmentation (5,000-10,000 ppm) and minimal increases in hematopoietic cell proliferation occurred in the spleen (≥ 1250 ppm). In a reproductive toxicity study, timed-mated female Harlan Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to 0-10,000 ppm MNA by dosed feed from gestation day 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21. Decreases in mean litter weights were observed at 5000 ppm MNA, compared to control, beginning at PND1. To evaluate potential contact hypersensitivity, MNA (2.5-50 %, in dimethylformamide) was applied to the dorsa of both ears of female Balb/c mice once daily for three days. The increase observed in lymph node cell proliferation (10-50 % increase in thymidine uptake compared to control) did not reproducibly achieve the Sensitization Index (SI) 3 level, and there was no ear swelling evident following sensitization with 10-50 % MNA and challenge with 25 % MNA in the mouse ear swelling test. In bacterial mutagenicity assays, MNA (250-1000 µg/plate) induced significant increases, compared to control, in mutant colonies with and without metabolic activation enzymes in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100 and TA98. These data indicate that MNA is genotoxic, and may induce erythrocyte damage and reactive phagocytosis by macrophages in the liver and spleen.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/toxicidade , Dermatite de Contato/etiologia , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaio Cometa , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfonodos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes para Micronúcleos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
16.
Complement Ther Med ; 49: 102316, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Contact dermatitis is a common complication in prosthetic limb users. There are no effective, available and cheap treatments for skin problems of these patients. In traditional Iranian medicine, henna (Lawsonia inermis L.) is a plant that has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and skin-enhancing properties, all of which are beneficial for people with artificial limbs. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a topical henna preparation in management of contact dermatitis in patients using lower limb prosthetics. METHODS: The current randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on ninety-five participants with lower extremity amputation using limb prosthetics, aged 12-70 years who complained of contact dermatitis. They were randomly assigned to receive either two weeks of topical henna preparation every night as the intervention group, or topical placebo as the control group. Participants were instructed to spread henna preparation on the surfaces of the amputated limb that were in contact with the prosthesis. Severity of contact dermatitis symptoms was set as the primary outcome measure. Edema, papules and erythema were evaluated by a physician using standard color atlas. Secondary outcomes included symptoms such as burning, itching, pain, thickness and skin sweating evaluated by a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: A significant improvement was observed in the symptoms of contact dermatitis including skin edema, itching, sweating, skin thinning and pain (p-value<0.05) in the henna group compared to the placebo group. Skin burning decreased more in the henna group compared to the placebo group, but this was not statistically significant (p-value = 0.052). Moreover, skin redness significantly increased in the henna group (p-value = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Topical formulation of henna might be a complementary choice for improving contact dermatitis in patients using lower limb prosthetics.


Assuntos
Amputados , Membros Artificiais/efeitos adversos , Dermatite de Contato/tratamento farmacológico , Lawsonia (Planta) , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Administração Tópica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Dermatite de Contato/etiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 734, 2020 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959814

RESUMO

Loss-of-function mutations in IL36RN cause generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP), which is characterized by neutrophil-infiltrated lesions. Neutrophils are important during contact hypersensitivity in mice. However, it has never been determined whether interleukin-36 receptor antagonist (IL-36Ra) deficiency is an exacerbating factor in contact dermatitis. We examined whether a loss-of-function IL36RN mutation exacerbates contact dermatitis and evaluated the changes in contact dermatitis-related cytokines. Wild-type and Il36rn-/- mice were treated with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitorobenzene (DNFB) and evaluated for ear thickness, histopathological features, numbers of infiltrated neutrophils, and numbers of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. Furthermore, mRNA levels of contact dermatitis-related cytokines were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and effects of TAK-242, a toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) inhibitor, on the contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response were evaluated. We found that the ear thickness, cytokine expression, and neutrophil infiltration significantly increased in Il36rn-/- mice compared with that in wild-type mice. TAK-242 alleviated CHS and prevented neutrophil infiltration, cytokine expression, and ear thickening in Il36rn-/- mice. These data indicate that Il36rn-/- mutations are an exacerbating factor for CHS and that TAK-242 can reduce the inflammatory responses that are associated with the CHS response.


Assuntos
Dermatite de Contato/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite de Contato/genética , Interleucinas/deficiência , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Relação CD4-CD8 , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dermatite de Contato/etiologia , Dermatite de Contato/imunologia , Dinitrofluorbenzeno/efeitos adversos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Camundongos Transgênicos , Infiltração de Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/antagonistas & inibidores
19.
Mycoses ; 63(2): 189-196, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lanoconazole (LCZ) is a topical antifungal agent clinically used to treat fungal infections such as tinea pedis. LCZ has not only antifungal effects but also anti-inflammatory effects, which have the potential to provide additional clinical benefits. However, the characteristic features of the inhibitory effects of LCZ on skin inflammation remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the inhibitory effects of topical application of LCZ, and compared the effects of LCZ with those of other antifungal agents including liranaftate, terbinafine and amorolfine. METHODS: Each antifungal agent was topically applied on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced irritant dermatitis and 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl chloride-induced contact dermatitis in mice (BALB/c). The ear thickness, myeloperoxidase activity and inflammatory mediator contents were evaluated. RESULTS: LCZ dose-dependently suppressed 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced irritant dermatitis, suppressed the production of neutrophil chemotactic factors such as keratinocyte-derived chemokine and macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and inhibited neutrophil infiltration to the inflammation site. Moreover, 1% LCZ reduced the ear swelling in mice with 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl chloride-induced contact dermatitis in accordance with the inhibition of interferon-γ production. The inhibitory potency of LCZ on these types of dermatitis in mice was stronger than that of other types of antifungal agents. CONCLUSION: The anti-inflammatory effects of LCZ were exerted through the inhibition of inflammatory mediator production. These effects may contribute to the relief of dermatitis symptoms in patients with tinea pedis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Dermatite de Contato/tratamento farmacológico , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Picratos/efeitos adversos , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol/efeitos adversos , Tinha dos Pés/patologia , Animais , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Dermatite de Contato/etiologia , Dermatite de Contato/prevenção & controle , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Orelha Externa/efeitos dos fármacos , Orelha Externa/patologia , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Tinha dos Pés/complicações
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