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1.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669627

RESUMO

Essential oils (EOs) are known to have varying degrees of antimicrobial properties that are mainly due to the presence of bioactive compounds. These include antiviral, nematicidal, antifungal, insecticidal and antioxidant properties. This review highlights the potential of EOs and their compounds for application as antifungal agents for the treatment of skin diseases via conventional and nonconventional approaches. A search was conducted using three databases (Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar), and all relevant articles from the period of 2010-2020 that are freely available in English were extracted. In our findings, EOs with a high percentage of monoterpenes showed strong ability as potential antifungal agents. Lavandula sp., Salvia sp., Thymus sp., Citrus sp., and Cymbopogon sp. were among the various species found to show excellent antifungal properties against various skin diseases. Some researchers developed advanced formulations such as gel, semi-solid, and ointment bases to further evaluate the effectiveness of EOs as antifungal agents. To date, most studies on the application of EOs as antifungal agents were performed using in vitro techniques, and only a limited number pursued in vivo and intervention-based research.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Dermatomicoses/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Animais , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Humanos , Publicações
2.
Am Nat ; 197(1): 128-137, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417518

RESUMO

AbstractAnimals challenged with disease may select specific habitat conditions that help prevent or reduce infection. Whereas preinfection avoidance of habitats with a high risk of disease exposure has been documented in both captive and free-ranging animals, evidence of switching habitats after infection to support the clearing of the infection is limited to laboratory experiments. The extent to which wild animals proximately modify habitat choices in response to infection status thus remains unclear. We investigated preinfection behavioral avoidance and postinfection habitat switching using wild, radio-tracked boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas boreas) in a population challenged with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a pathogenic fungus responsible for a catastrophic panzootic affecting hundreds of amphibian species worldwide. Boreal toads did not preemptively avoid microhabitats with conditions conducive to Bd growth. Infected individuals, however, selected warmer, more open habitats, which were associated with elevated body temperature and the subsequent clearing of infection. Our results suggest that disease can comprise an important selective pressure on animal habitat and space use. Habitat selection models, therefore, may be greatly improved by including variables that quantify infection risk and/or the infection status of individuals through time.


Assuntos
/fisiologia , Bufonidae/microbiologia , Bufonidae/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Temperatura Corporal , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Telemetria , Wyoming
3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241052, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091068

RESUMO

Traditional pathogen surveillance methods for white-nose syndrome (WNS), the most serious threat to hibernating North American bats, focus on fungal presence where large congregations of hibernating bats occur. However, in the western USA, WNS-susceptible bat species rarely assemble in large numbers and known winter roosts are uncommon features. WNS increases arousal frequency and activity of infected bats during hibernation. Our objective was to explore the effectiveness of acoustic monitoring as a surveillance tool for WNS. We propose a non-invasive approach to model pre-WNS baseline activity rates for comparison with future acoustic data after WNS is suspected to occur. We investigated relationships among bat activity, ambient temperatures, and season prior to presence of WNS across forested sites of Montana, USA where WNS was not known to occur. We used acoustic monitors to collect bat activity and ambient temperature data year-round on 41 sites, 2011-2019. We detected a diverse bat community across managed (n = 4) and unmanaged (n = 37) forest sites and recorded over 5.37 million passes from bats, including 13 identified species. Bats were active year-round, but positive associations between average of the nightly temperatures by month and bat activity were strongest in spring and fall. From these data, we developed site-specific prediction models for bat activity to account for seasonal and annual temperature variation prior to known occurrence of WNS. These prediction models can be used to monitor changes in bat activity that may signal potential presence of WNS, such as greater than expected activity in winter, or less than expected activity during summer. We propose this model-based method for future monitoring efforts that could be used to trigger targeted sampling of individual bats or hibernacula for WNS, in areas where traditional disease surveillance approaches are logistically difficult to implement or because of human-wildlife transmission concerns from COVID-19.


Assuntos
Acústica , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Ascomicetos , Quirópteros/microbiologia , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia , Dermatomicoses/veterinária , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela/veterinária , Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Betacoronavirus , Quirópteros/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Florestas , Hibernação , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Montana/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
4.
Rev. iberoam. micol ; 37(2): 58-62, abr.-jun. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-199132

RESUMO

ANTECEDENTES: El género Curvularia incluye hongos filamentosos dematiáceos cada vez más reconocidos como patógenos en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. Las entidades clínicas más comunes con las que se asocia este hongo son la sinusitis alérgica, la infección cutánea y la queratitis. En este trabajo se describe el primer caso descrito en España de infección cutánea por Curvularia pallescens y su tratamiento. CASO CLÍNICO: Un varón de 68 años con antecedente de trasplante pulmonar acudió al servicio de dermatología por presentar una lesión cutánea en la rodilla de 6 meses de evolución. Se realizó una biopsia cutánea para estudio. La histopatología mostró una intensa reacción inflamatoria inespecífica en la dermis y mediante la tinción de Grocott y ácido peryódico de Schiff se observaron abundantes hifas septadas y esporas en la dermis. El cultivo de la muestra reveló un hongo filamentoso cuyo examen microscópico permitió identificar el género como Curvularia. Mediante espectrometría de masas MALDI-TOF e identificación molecular, el hongo finalmente se identificó como Curvularia pallescens. Se realizó resección quirúrgica de la lesión y el paciente recibió tratamiento con posaconazol, con resolución clínica de la lesión. CONCLUSIONES: El género Curvularia debe ser considerado un agente causal de micosis subcutáneas en pacientes inmunodeprimidos. Este caso clínico constituye el primero descrito en España producido por esta especie, el cual presentó buena respuesta clínica tras resección quirúrgica y tratamiento con posaconazol


BACKGROUND: Curvularia is a filamentous dematiaceous fungus increasingly recognized as a pathogen in immunocompromised patients. The most common clinical entities associated with this fungus are allergic sinusitis, cutaneous infection and keratitis. In this article, a report on the first clinical case of Curvularia pallescens cutaneous infection in Spain and its treatment is described. CASE REPORT: A 68 year-old man with a history of lung transplantation presented to Dermatology Unit due to a skin lesion in the knee that had been evolving for 6 months. A skin biopsy was performed for its study. In the histopathological study, an intense and non-specific inflammatory reaction in the dermis was observed, and with Grocott stain and periodic acid Schiff abundant septate hyphae and spores were found in the dermis. The culture of the sample revealed a filamentous fungus whose microscopic examination allowed to identify the genus as Curvularia. Using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and molecular identification, the fungus was finally identified as Curvularia pallescens. The patient underwent surgical resection of the lesion and was treated with posaconazole, evolving favorably. CONCLUSIONS: The species of Curvularia should be considered causal agents of fungal skin infections in immunosuppressed patients. This clinical case, which showed good clinical response after surgical resection and treatment with posaconazole, is the first described in Spain due to this species


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transplante de Pulmão/efeitos adversos , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Dermatomicoses/terapia , Espanha
5.
Dermatol Ther ; 33(4): e13481, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369240

RESUMO

In view of the new viral COVID-19 pandemic, the fungal Candida auris epidemic still in progress worldwide highlights non-Candida albicans candidal infections. We describe an immunocompetent woman with a cutaneous manifestation of Candida parasilopsis fungemia, a prominent eschar, which proved to be the nidus for the candidemia. We stress the value of selectively removing eschars. C. parasilopsis and C. auris are increasingly important causes of sepsis and wound infections. We emphasize that commercially available biochemical-based tests may misidentify C. auris as C. parapsilosis, and stress the added danger of C. auris to critically ill-hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Any health care facility with evidence of infection or colonization with C. auris requires very close monitoring, since this fungus is a nosocomial threat comparable to SARS-CoV-2 in its mortality and fomite adhesiveness! Both organisms have the potential to be transmitted as nosocomial pathogens; health care workers need to follow strict CDC guidelines. During this COVID-19 pandemic, every health care facility should closely monitor for the possible deadly combination of the SARS-CoV-2 and C. auris. The identification of C. auris necessitates use of sophisticated technology not readily available to make this essential diagnosis since C. auris is multi-drug resistant and isolation precautions would become paramount.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidemia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pele/microbiologia , Candidemia/microbiologia , Comorbidade , Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pele/patologia
7.
An Bras Dermatol ; 95(3): 372-375, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278631

RESUMO

Pseudomycetoma is an extremely rare deep mycosis, caused by dermatophytic fungi that penetrate the tissue from infected follicles of tinea capitis. Both clinically and histopathology are similar to eumycetoma, being distinguished through the isolation of the fungus, which in the case of pseudomycetoma can be Microsporum spp. or Trichophyton spp. genre. We present a 24-year-old man with an exuberant tumor in the occipital region with fistula, whose histopathological examination evidenced grains composed of hyaline hyphae and the culture for fungi isolated the agent Microsporum canis. Combined treatment of surgical excision followed by oral griseofulvin for two years was performed, with resolution of the condition.


Assuntos
Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Microsporum/isolamento & purificação , Micetoma/microbiologia , Dermatoses do Couro Cabeludo/microbiologia , Dermatomicoses/patologia , Dermatomicoses/cirurgia , Humanos , Imunocompetência , Masculino , Micetoma/patologia , Micetoma/cirurgia , Dermatoses do Couro Cabeludo/patologia , Dermatoses do Couro Cabeludo/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
Infection ; 48(3): 429-434, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fungal infections of the skin, hair, and nails are the largest and most widespread group of all mycoses. Nannizzia nana is a relatively rare etiological factor of dermatomycosis in humans, as it usually affects animals, e.g. pigs and boars. In addition to the zoophilic nature, there are also reports of the geophilic reservoir of this dermatophyte species. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we present symptomatic infections with N. nana aetiology in humans reported recently in Poland. Interestingly, these cases had a non-specific clinical picture and occurred as skin lesions on the neck and foot as well as onychomycosis of the toenails. From the medical history, the patients had no contact with pigs. METHODS: Diagnostics of these infections was performed with a combination of classical phenotypic and molecular genomic methods. The genomic diversity of the isolates was determined using the MP-PCR method. In vitro antifungal susceptibility tests against itraconazole, ketoconazole, terbinafine and naftifine hydrochloride were also performed. RESULTS: Nannizzia nana has been identified as an etiological factor of dermatomycosis. Moreover, heterogeneity of the genomes was revealed for the obtained strains. In vitro activities of antifungal agents showed that isolates were susceptible to all tested drugs. The patients were treated with oral terbinafine and topical ketoconazole cream, which led to a complete recovery. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the cases studied by us may indicate that the infrequency of N. nana infections may not necessarily be related to the low infectivity of this fungal agent, but they are rather associated with misdiagnosis. Furthermore, N. nana reservoirs should also be sought in soil.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Cetoconazol/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Administração Tópica , Adulto , Idoso , Arthrodermataceae/classificação , Dermatomicoses/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Onicomicose/diagnóstico , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Onicomicose/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Terbinafina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Mycol Med ; 30(2): 100935, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dermatophytes are a group of keratinophilic fungi that invade and infect the keratinized tissues and cause dermatophytosis. We investigated effectiveness of novel triazole (luliconazole and lanaconazole) in comparison with available antifungal agents against dermatophyte species isolated from patients with tinea pedis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 60 dermatophytes species were isolated from the patients with tinea pedis. Identification of species was done by DNA sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 rDNA region. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing with luliconazole and lanaconazole and available antifungal agent was done in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, M38-A2 document. RESULTS: In all investigated isolates, luliconazole had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (MIC range=0.0005-0.004µg/mL), while fluconazole (MIC range=0.4-64µg/mL) had the highest MICs. Geometric mean MIC was the lowest for luliconazole (0.0008µg/mL), followed by lanoconazole (0.003µg/mL), terbinafine (0.019µg/mL), itraconazole (0.085 µg/mL), ketoconazole (0.089µg/mL), econazole (0.097µg/mL), griseofulvin (0.351 µg/mL), voriconazole (0.583µg/mL) and fluconazole (11.58µg/mL). CONCLUSION: The novel triazoles showed potent activity against dermatophytes and promising candidates for the treatment of tinea pedis caused by Trichophyton and Epidermophyton species. However, further studies are warranted to determine the clinical implications of these investigations.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Tinha dos Pés/microbiologia , Triazóis/farmacologia , Arthrodermataceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dermatomicoses/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Griseofulvina/farmacologia , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Itraconazol/farmacologia , Cetoconazol/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Terbinafina/farmacologia , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha/microbiologia , Tinha dos Pés/tratamento farmacológico , Trichophyton/efeitos dos fármacos , Trichophyton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Voriconazol/farmacologia
10.
Mycoses ; 63(5): 494-499, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dermatophytosis is one of the most frequent superficial mycoses in the world. MAIN AIM: To describe the cases of skin dermatophytosis and its main aetiologic agents in patients referred to a Mycological Reference Laboratory in Medellín, Colombia. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out with records of patients referred between 1994 and 2016 to the Corporación para Investigaciones Biológicas (CIB), Medellín-Colombia, because of clinical suspicion of skin dermatophytosis. RESULTS: Of a total of 5628 clinical records of patients with suspicion of skin dermatophytosis analysed, 2780 (49.4%) had a proven or probable dermatophytosis diagnosis, 2774 cultures were performed, and aetiologic agents were isolated in 2576 samples (92.9%). The most frequently isolated aetiologic agents were Trichophyton rubrum (44.3%), followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex (33.3%), Epidermophyton floccosum (12.4%), Nannizzia gypseum complex (5.7%, formerly Microsporum gypseum), Microsporum canis (3.5%) and Trichophyton tonsurans (0.8%). The most frequent clinical forms were tinea pedis (72.7%) and tinea corporis (12.7%). In addition, a group of patients (0.9%) developed mixed infections by two dermatophyte agents and another (4.1%) developed infections in more than one anatomical site. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study are coherent with previous reports where T rubrum and T mentagrophytes complex were the main causative agents of dermatophytosis. However, the increased incidence of N gypsea complex over M canis is worth highlighting.


Assuntos
Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Tinha/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Arthrodermataceae/classificação , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Epidermophyton/classificação , Epidermophyton/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/classificação , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Microsporum/classificação , Microsporum/isolamento & purificação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Tinha/epidemiologia , Trichophyton/classificação , Trichophyton/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(3): 436-442, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068525

RESUMO

Introduction. Malassezia folliculitis (MF) and pityriasis versicolor (PV) are common dermatoses caused by Malassezia species. Their molecular epidemiology, drug susceptibility and exoenzymes are rarely reported in China.Aim. To investigate the molecular epidemiology, drug susceptibility and enzymatic profile of Malassezia clinical isolates.Methodology. Malassezia strains were recovered from MF and PV patients and healthy subjects (HS) and identified by sequencing analysis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of nine antifungals (posaconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, bifonazole, terbinafine and caspofungin) and tacrolimus, the interactions between three antifungals (itraconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine) and tacrolimus, and the extracellular enzyme profile were evaluated using broth and checkerboard microdilution and the Api-Zym system, respectively.Results. Among 392 Malassezia isolates from 729 subjects (289 MF, 218 PV and 222 HS), Malassezia furfur and Malassezia globosa accounted for 67.86 and 18.88 %, respectively. M. furfur was the major species in MF and PV patients and HS. Among 60M. furfur and 50M. globosa strains, the MICs for itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole and ketoconazole were <1 µg ml-1. M. furfur was more susceptible to itraconazole, terbinafine and bifonazole but tolerant to miconazole compared with M. globosa (P<0.05). Synergistic effects between terbinafine and itraconazole or between tacrolimus and itraconazole, ketoconazole or terbinafine occurred in 6, 7, 6 and 9 out of 37 strains, respectively. Phosphatases, lipases and proteases were mainly secreted in 51 isolates.Conclusions. Itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole and ketoconazole are theagents against which there is greatest susceptibility. Synergistic effects between terbinafine and itraconazole or tacrolimas and antifungals may be irrelevant to clinical application. Overproduction of lipases could enhance the skin inhabitation of M. furfur.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia , Foliculite/epidemiologia , Malassezia/isolamento & purificação , Tinha Versicolor/epidemiologia , Azóis/farmacologia , China/epidemiologia , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Foliculite/microbiologia , Humanos , Lipase/metabolismo , Malassezia/efeitos dos fármacos , Malassezia/enzimologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Epidemiologia Molecular , Pele/microbiologia , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Terbinafina , Tinha Versicolor/microbiologia
14.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(2)2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047088

RESUMO

A 71-year-old woman with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the lung and insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes mellitus presented with a necrotic lesion on her lower abdomen. Further history revealed that this was the site of repeat insulin injections with reuse of the same needles. On investigation, biopsy of the site was positive for broad, aseptate, right-angle branching fungal hyphae consistent with mucormycosis. Studies have shown that insulin needle reuse is a common practice among diabetics for several reasons, including cost and convenience. While the current American Diabetes Association guidelines suggest that this is an acceptable practice among the general population of diabetics, they advise against it in patients who are actively ill or immunocompromised. Discussion about insulin needle reuse should be of utmost importance among providers and their diabetic patients, especially for patients who are immunocompromised.


Assuntos
Abdome/patologia , Dermatomicoses/terapia , Reação no Local da Injeção/microbiologia , Injeções Subcutâneas/efeitos adversos , Mucormicose/etiologia , Mucormicose/terapia , Idoso , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Necrose , Nitrilos/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Triazóis/uso terapêutico , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico
15.
J Appl Microbiol ; 129(2): 212-232, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048417

RESUMO

Dermatophytes are the aetiological factors of a majority of superficial fungal infections. What distinguishes them from other pathogenic filamentous fungi is their unique ability to degrade keratin. The remarkable ability of this group of fungi to survive in different ecosystems results from their morphological and ecological diversity as well as high adaptability to changing environmental conditions. Paradoxically, despite the progress in medicine, the prevalence of dermatophyte infections is increasing from year to year. At the beginning of the third millennium, practical diagnostic and therapeutic options are still very limited. This review focuses on understanding the major problems in this aspect of dermatophyte infections and indicates future strategies and perspectives for novel approaches to identification and drugs for elimination of dermatophytes. Particular importance is placed on development of a strategy for a diagnostic pathway and implementation of rapid and reliable diagnostics methods designed by international teams. Furthermore, among compounds that currently arouse great interest, representatives of terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and essential oils deserve attention. Many of these compounds are undergoing clinical trials as potential antifungal agents, and future research should focus on attempts at determination of the applicability of tested substances. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages in implementation of new diagnostic paths and medicinal substances for routine use are indicated.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Dermatomicoses/tratamento farmacológico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Ecossistema , Humanos , Técnicas Microbiológicas
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 171, 2020 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trichophyton benhamiae is a zoophilic dermatophyte that can cause tinea in humans and animals. Lesions caused by T. benhamiae tend to be highly inflammatory, and patients are often infected by animals or other patients infected with T. benhamiae. In this paper, we report the first case of tinea faciei caused by T. benhamiae in a Chinese girl who might be transmitted from a fox. CASE PRESENTATION: A 4-year-old girl from HaiNing city developed an itchy, erythematous, and annular plaque on her right face for the past 2 months. Before the lesion appeared, she was in close contact with the fur of a fox for almost 1 week. Septate hyaline hyphae were detected by direct mycological examination of the scales. Cultures grew on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) at 26 °C for 2 weeks revealed the presence of T. mentagrophytes. A molecular sequencing test confirmed that the isolate was consistent with reference strains to T. benhamiae. Then, the diagnosis of tinea faciei due to T. benhamiae was made. Treatment with terbinafine (oral 125 mg/d) and sertaconazole nitrate cream (topical, twice daily) for 4 weeks was initiated and achieved significant improvement of the skin lesions. CONCLUSIONS: This rare dermatophytosis case highlights the importance of ITS sequencing in helping to recognize rare pathogenic fungi that can be easily misdiagnosed with a conventional morphological diagnosis.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/genética , Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Tinha/diagnóstico , Trichophyton/genética , Administração Oral , Administração Tópica , Animais , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Pré-Escolar , China , Dermatomicoses/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Face/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Pele/patologia , Terbinafina/administração & dosagem , Terbinafina/uso terapêutico , Tiofenos/administração & dosagem , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Trichophyton/isolamento & purificação
17.
J Mycol Med ; 30(1): 100927, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983544

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Medicinal plants extracts and plant-derived compounds are one of the natural sources for discovering new antifungal agents, the objectives of this work were to investigate for the first time the antidermatophytic, antipathogenic activities of methanol, acetone extracts, and essential oil of Marrubium vulgare L. grown in Tunisia and its active compound marrubiin on pathogenic for animals and humans, such as some dermatophytes and pathogenic for plants, and to evaluate antioxidant activities of different extracts with consideration to their chemical compositions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Acetone and methanol extracts were evaluated by HPLC, the essential oil was also analyzed by GC/MS. PCL assay was used to determine the antioxidant activity. RESULTS: Results showed that methanol and acetone extracts exhibited a significant antioxidant activity (261.41 and 272.90µmol TE/g respectively), while the lowest one was observed in the case of marrubiin and essential oil. The antifungal activity of different extracts, marrubiin and essential oil at two concentrations (20 and 100µg/mL) were screened against the dermatophytes fungi Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis, Arthroderma cajetani, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton tonsurans, Epidermophyton floccosum and against two fungi strains (Botrytis cinerea, Pythium ultimum). Among tested extracts, marrubiin at 100µg/mL showed about 50% inhibition for T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum. The anti-phytopathogenic activity was also carried out, only marrubiin had in activity against B. cinerea at the highest dose (32.40%), while methanol extract of M.vulgare and marrubiin are able to increase the mycelial growth of P. ultimum at the highest concentration (45.15 and 40.30% respectively). CONCLUSION: In our study, we conclude that M.vulgare and marrubiin can be used as natural antioxidants and antifungal agent for treatment of skin dermatophyte infections.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Marrubium/química , Animais , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Arthrodermataceae/classificação , Arthrodermataceae/patogenicidade , Dermatomicoses/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Epidermophyton/efeitos dos fármacos , Epidermophyton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microsporum/efeitos dos fármacos , Microsporum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Trichophyton/efeitos dos fármacos , Trichophyton/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
Diagn Cytopathol ; 48(4): 401-404, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930706

RESUMO

A young woman on long term corticosteroid therapy presented with a discrete hyperpigmented nodular cystic swelling on her upper thigh to the buttock region. There was history of discharging sinuses however at presentation the lesion was painless nondischarging. The lesion was subjected to fine-needle aspiration. The cytological smears on routine and special stains showed branching, septate fungal hyphae present extracellularly and intracellularly. The background showed dense mixed inflammation and granulomatous inflammation. The aspirated material was further subjected to culture. A nonsporulating melanized fungus was obtained and a culture isolate was sent for molecular characterization. Medicopsis romeroi, a rare melanized fungus belonging to the order Pleosporales was isolated on Internal transcribed spacer sequencing.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/genética , Dermatomicoses , Feoifomicose , Adulto , Ascomicetos/classificação , Biópsia por Agulha Fina , Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Dermatomicoses/genética , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Feoifomicose/diagnóstico , Feoifomicose/genética , Feoifomicose/microbiologia
20.
J Mycol Med ; 30(1): 100919, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901425

RESUMO

We evaluated the in vitro activity of miltefosine against 29 Pythium spp. and the in vivo therapeutic response of 2mg/kg/day of miltefosine given orally to rabbit with pythiosis induced experimentally. The MICs (in µg/mL) of miltefosine was medium-dependent and ranged from 0.5 to 2 and 32-64 on RPMI 1640 and Mueller Hinton broth, respectively. The treatment with miltefosine demonstrated significantly lower subcutaneous lesion areas compared to the control group but was not sufficient for the complete remission of the lesions. This study indicates that miltefosine has limited efficacy against pythiosis and furthers in vitro and in vivo studies are necessary to determine the possible potential of this drug in the treatment of pythiosis.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Dermatomicoses/tratamento farmacológico , Fosforilcolina/análogos & derivados , Pitiose/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Dermatomicoses/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fosforilcolina/uso terapêutico , Pitiose/microbiologia , Pitiose/patologia , Pythium/isolamento & purificação , Pythium/patogenicidade , Coelhos , Tela Subcutânea/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
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