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1.
An Bras Dermatol ; 94(6): 744-746, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789256

RESUMO

This report describes a case of unusual deep skin ulcers with tortuous sinus tract formation in an immunocompetent woman. She was initially diagnosed with a Staphylococcus aureus skin infection and histopathologically diagnosed with pyoderma gangrenosum. However, culture from the deep end of ribbon gauze inserted into the subcutaneous sinus tract revealed shiny, light-yellow mucoid colonies, which were identified as Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii. She was treated with fluconazole for nine months and completely healed. Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic infection caused by variants of C. neoformans species. Cutaneous manifestations of cryptococcosis are quite divergent, rarely occurring as deep skin ulcers with sinus formation.


Assuntos
Criptococose/patologia , Cryptococcus neoformans/isolamento & purificação , Dermatomicoses/patologia , Imunocompetência , Úlcera Cutânea/microbiologia , Úlcera Cutânea/patologia , Adulto , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Criptococose/tratamento farmacológico , Criptococose/microbiologia , Dermatomicoses/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Feminino , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Úlcera Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico
2.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(11): 1641-1648, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526456

RESUMO

Introduction: Onychomycosis is a debilitating, difficult-to-treat nail fungal infection with increasing prevalence worldwide. The main etiological agents are dermatophytes, which are common causative pathogens in superficial fungal mycoses. Conventional detection methods such as fungal culture have low sensitivity and specificity and are time-consuming.Aim: The main objective of this study was to design, develop and validate a real-time probe-based multiplex qPCR assay for the detection of dermatophytes and Fusarium species.Methodology: The performance characteristics of the qPCR assays were evaluated. The multiplex qPCR assays targeted four genes (assay 1: pan-dermatophytes/Fusarium spp.; assay 2: Trichophyton rubrum/Microsporum spp.). Analytical validation was accomplished using 150 fungal isolates and clinical validation was done on 204 nail specimens. The performance parameters were compared against the gold standard (fungal culture) and expanded gold standard (culture in conjunction with sequencing).Results: Both the single-plex and multiplex qPCR assays performed well especially when compared against the expanded gold standard. Among the 204 tested nail specimens, the culture method showed that 125 (61.3 %) were infected with at least one organism, of which 40 yielded positive results for dermatophytes and Fusarium spp. These target organisms detected include 20 dermatophytes and 22 Fusarium spp. The developed qPCR assays demonstrated excellent limit of detection, efficiency, coefficient of determination, analytical and clinical sensitivity and specificity.Conclusion: The multiplex qPCR assays were reliable for the diagnosis of onychomycosis, with shorter turn-around time as compared to culture method. This aids in the planning of treatment strategies to achieve optimal therapeutic outcome.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Fusariose/microbiologia , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Arthrodermataceae/classificação , Arthrodermataceae/genética , Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Fusariose/diagnóstico , Fusarium/genética , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
3.
Med Mycol J ; 60(3): 75-82, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474694

RESUMO

We report here the results of the 2016 epidemiological survey of dermatomycosis in Japan. In total, 6,776 cases were analyzed as follows: dermatophytosis, 5,772 cases (85.2%); candidiasis, 757 cases (11.2%); Malassezia infection, 235 cases (3.5%); and other fungal infections, 11 cases (0.2%). In dermatophytosis, tinea pedis was the most frequent (3,314 cases: male, 1,705; female, 1,609), followed by tinea unguium (1,634 cases: male, 766; female, 868), tinea corporis (423 cases: male, 241; female, 182); tinea cruris (316 cases: male, 242; female, 74); tinea manuum (58 cases: male, 29; female, 29); tinea capitus, Celsus' kerion (26 cases: male, 19; female, 7); and tinea barbae (1 case: male, 1). The most frequent pathogen was Trichophyton rubrum. In candidiasis, candidal intertrigo was the most frequent (181 cases: male, 98; female, 83), followed by oral candidiasis (165 cases: male, 84; female, 81), genital candidiasis (119 cases: male, 45; female, 74), diaper candidiasis (113 cases: male, 49; female, 64), erosio interdigitalis (63 cases: male, 13; female, 50), onychomycosis (41 cases: male, 17; female, 24), onychia et paronychia (28 cases: male, 2; female, 26), and angular cheilitis (23 cases: male, 6; female, 17). Although the number of cases varied depending on the role of each cooperating medical institution in the area and on population composition, no significant differences in the frequencies of clinical types were observed.


Assuntos
Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia , Malassezia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Candidíase/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Onicomicose/epidemiologia , Onicomicose/microbiologia , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Tinha/epidemiologia , Tinha/microbiologia , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/epidemiologia , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/microbiologia , Tinha dos Pés/epidemiologia , Tinha dos Pés/microbiologia , Trichophyton/patogenicidade , Adulto Jovem
4.
Mycoses ; 62(11): 1043-1048, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376228

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to estimate the annual burden of fungal infections in Sweden using data mainly from 2016. Data on specific populations were obtained from Swedish national data registries. Annual incidence and prevalence of fungal disease was calculated based on epidemiological studies. Data on infections due to Cryptococcus sp., Mucorales, Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis and Pneumocystis jirovecii were retrieved from Karolinska University Laboratory and covers only 25% of Swedish population. In 2016, the population of Sweden was 9 995 153 (49.8% female). The overall burden of fungal infections was 1 713 385 (17 142/100 000). Superficial fungal infections affect 1 429 307 people (1429/100 000) based on Global Burden of Disease 14.3% prevalence. Total serious fungal infection burden was 284 174 (2843/100 000) in 2016. Recurrent Candida vulvovaginitis is common; assuming a 6% prevalence in women. Prevalence of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation were estimated to be 20 095 and 26 387, respectively. Similarly, chronic pulmonary aspergillosis was estimated to affect 490 patients after tuberculosis, sarcoidosis and other conditions. Candidemia incidence was estimated to be 500 in 2016 (4.7/100 000) and invasive aspergillosis 295 (3.0/100 000). In Stockholm area, Mucorales were reported in three patients in 2015, while Cryptococcus spp. were reported in two patients. In 2016, there were 297 patients PCR positive for P jirovecii. The present study shows that the overall burden of fungal infections in Sweden is high and affects 17% of the population. The morbidity, mortality and the healthcare-related costs due to fungal infections warrant further studies.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Micoses/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micoses/microbiologia , Prevalência , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia , Vulvovaginite/epidemiologia , Vulvovaginite/microbiologia
5.
Braz J Microbiol ; 50(4): 985-987, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463867

RESUMO

Arthroderma benhamiae is a zoophilic dermathophyte that can cause highly inflammatory tinea corporis and tinea capitis in humans. This is the first report of a patient with dermatophytosis caused by A. benhamiae in Brazil. The lesion was an erythematous, annular plaque on the lumbar region that appeared few weeks after playing with a street cat in a 19-month-old girl. Initial presumed diagnosis was tinea corporis caused by Microsporum canis. Topical treatments were ineffective and the patient required systemic treatment with griseofulvin. Mycological diagnosis was inconclusive: morphological differentiation between M. canis and Trichophyton benhamiae may be difficult, especially when the latter present yellow colonies. The etiological agent was identified only by ITS sequencing of the isolates aligned with reference strains to A. benhamiae. This report highlights the importance of ITS sequencing in the identification of isolates from some cases of dermatophytosis, because conventional morphological diagnosis may result in misdiagnosis of the agent and delay proper treatment.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/microbiologia , Tinha/microbiologia , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Arthrodermataceae/classificação , Arthrodermataceae/genética , Brasil , Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Dermatomicoses/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Tinha/diagnóstico , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/diagnóstico
6.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 18(8): 798-802, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424710

RESUMO

Cutaneous fungal infections account for millions of office visits per year, yet their varied presentations often lead to misdiagnosis. If dermatology clinics are Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment (CLIA) certified, direct microscopy with potassium hydroxide or other stains can be used to inexpensively and rapidly diagnose fungal infections. In this survey, we examined dermatologists' perceptions of fungal preparations and CLIA certification to identify barriers that prevent the use of these bedside diagnostics. The response rate was 13% (n=308, based on the number of emails opened). When a cutaneous fungal infection is suspected, 20.94% rarely/never and 19.86% sometimes perform fungal preparations, often because they think clinical diagnosis is adequate or that preparations take too long. 21.32% reported not having CLIA certification, most frequently because the process requires too much work, or they do not know how to apply. Of providers with CLIA certification, over 25% thought it was difficult to obtain. Our results demonstrate that numerous barriers prevent the common use of fungal preparations, including the perception that clinical diagnosis is sufficient and the lack of required CLIA certification. These barriers emphasize the need for additional education about cutaneous fungal infections and use of bedside diagnostics. Additionally, policy-based interventions are necessary to ease the process of CLIA certification.


Assuntos
Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Indicadores e Reagentes/química , Adulto , Idoso , Dermatologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Dermatologia/métodos , Dermatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Dermatomicoses/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Hidróxidos/química , Masculino , Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Técnicas Microbiológicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Microscopia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Visita a Consultório Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Compostos de Potássio/química , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Mycoses ; 62(11): 1069-1078, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microsporum canis is a zoophilic species, found to be the most frequently isolated species in animals. M. canis causes sporadic outbreaks of infections in humans, such as the one that occurred in Canada, where more than 1000 human cases were detected over an 8-year period. Despite the medical importance of M. canis infections, there are limited in vitro data on the antifungal susceptibility to antifungal drugs, including new generation triazoles and imidazoles. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to comprehensively evaluate the in vitro activity of new azoles and comparator drugs against a large panel of M. canis isolates using a microdilution assay. METHODS: The in vitro susceptibility to novel triazoles and imidazoles was compared to that of other antifungal drugs using a large collection of M. canis clinical isolates (n = 208) obtained from patients and animals with dermatophytosis in Iran, France and Turkey. RESULTS: All isolates exhibited high susceptibility to the majority of the tested antifungal agents. However, luliconazole, lanoconazole and efinaconazole, as well as econazole, demonstrated superior activity against all strains in comparis on with the other drugs. CONCLUSION: FDA-approved antifungal drugs, that is luliconazole, efinaconazole and lanoconazole, showed the highest antifungal activity and should be promising candidates for the treatment of dermatophytosis caused by M canis. However, their therapeutic effectiveness remains to be determined in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Microsporum/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Azóis/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , França , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Turquia
9.
J Mycol Med ; 29(3): 265-272, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285126

RESUMO

Onychomycosis or fungal nail infection is one of the most common fungal infections. Nearly 50% of all nail disorders are caused by fungi. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to determine the prevalence of onychomycosis across Iran. We searched English and Persian databases for studies reporting the epidemiologic features of onychomycosis in Iranian people from January 2000 to December 2018. Literature search revealed 307 studies, of which 24 studies met the eligibility criteria. In order to identifying the existence of publication bias among studies, funnel plots were used. The results of the meta-analysis were visualized as a forest plot representing the prevalence estimates of each study. Heterogeneity was also analyzed using the I2, Chi2, and Tau2 statistics. A high level of I2 and Chi2 was obtained among studies, which provides evidence of notable heterogeneity between studies. The results of current study revealed that the highest prevalence of onychomycosis was related to Mazandaran and Tehran provinces, respectively. As in the literature hypothesized shift in etiologic agents from yeasts to dermatophytes or molds could not be confirmed. Females were affected more frequently than males and in both sexes the highest incidence of infection occurrence was at the ages of >50 years. It seems the highest prevalence of onychomycosis in Mazandaran and Tehran provinces is due to the concentration of specialist doctors and research centers in these two provinces compared with others which leads to more detection and more care of the disease. Therefore, further educational strategies in order to accurate diagnosis in other provinces is necessary to reduce the risk of onychomycosis in Iran.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia , Onicomicose/epidemiologia , Leveduras/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Etários , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Onicomicose/microbiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
10.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(2): 405-413, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260207

RESUMO

Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging mycotic disease caused by Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, and has been demonstrated to impact snake populations of conservation concern in the United States negatively. Although Ophidiomyces has been shown to affect diverse taxa and to have a broad distribution, host factors associated with infected individuals and optimal testing protocols are not yet well characterized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate host factors and agreement across testing modalities associated with Ophidiomyces infection in a free-ranging snake population in southeast Ohio. Wild-caught snakes were swabbed and biopsied to test for Ophidiomyces via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), culture, and histopathology. The host parameters assessed were species, sex, snout-vent length, body weight, month captured, and presence of gross skin lesions. A total of 8/30 individuals across three species-Black Racers (Coluber constrictor), Grey Ratsnakes (Pantherophis spiloides), and Eastern Gartersnakes (Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis)-tested positive via at least one testing modality for Ophidiomyces infection. There were no associations between sex, snout-vent length, or weight and Ophidiomyces infection status. A higher proportion of individuals with gross lesions tested positive for Ophidiomyces than those without gross lesions, and most individuals that tested positive were caught in April or May. A low level of agreement was observed across testing modalities. Swab qPCR identified the most Ophidiomyces-positive individuals, and fungal culture identified the fewest at 0 individuals. Although there are limitations associated with a sample size of 30, these findings support the potential of this pathogen to infect individuals broadly across species and size, highlighting the relevance of this disease for snake conservation efforts. They also suggest that although little agreement was observed across test modalities, the concurrent use of multiple modalities is a more sensitive method for characterizing prevalence and distribution of Ophidiomyces.


Assuntos
Dermatomicoses/veterinária , Onygenales/isolamento & purificação , Serpentes , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Ohio/epidemiologia , Pele/microbiologia
11.
Mycoses ; 62(10): 932-936, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278884

RESUMO

The immediate immune response developed by the keratinocytes against Malassezia yeasts has been addressed yielding conflicting results. This study aims the assessment of cytokines and antimicrobial peptides gene expression elicited by M. sympodialis and M. furfur once in contact with a reconstructed human epidermis. A yeast suspension was prepared in RPMI 1640 medium (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) supplemented with Tween 60 and oleic acid to obtain approximately 1 × 106 cells in a volume of 100 µL. Clinical isolates of M. sympodialis (from pityriasis versicolor) and M. furfur (from seborrhoeic dermatitis) were inoculated, separately, onto a reconstructed human epidermis. A distinct expression pattern was found between the two tested species, with a tendency for overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines very soon after infection, whereas no significant expression or gene downregulation was often noticed following 24 and 48 h of incubation. A possible Malassezia species-dependent immune response pattern is highlighted.


Assuntos
Epiderme/imunologia , Epiderme/microbiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Queratinócitos/imunologia , Queratinócitos/microbiologia , Malassezia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malassezia/imunologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/análise , Citocinas/análise , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Dermatomicoses/patologia , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
12.
Trop Doct ; 49(4): 306-308, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179890

RESUMO

Cutaneous chrysosporium infection is extremely rare and underdiagnosed. We present an immunocompromised patient who presented with recurrent cutaneous abscesses. Histopathology of the abscess showed thick-walled conidia and septate fungal hyphae within the subcutis and fungal culture grew Chrysosporium species.


Assuntos
Abscesso/diagnóstico , Abscesso/etiologia , Chrysosporium/fisiologia , Dermatomicoses/complicações , Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Abscesso/imunologia , Abscesso/microbiologia , Adulto , Chrysosporium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chrysosporium/isolamento & purificação , Dermatomicoses/imunologia , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Masculino , Recidiva , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Esporos Fúngicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esporos Fúngicos/isolamento & purificação
13.
Med Mycol J ; 60(2): 45-49, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155571

RESUMO

Lophophyton gallinae (Microsporum gallinae) is a zoophilic fungus that causes ringworm in chickens and related species, and occasionally in humans. There are 45 human cases worldwide including a Japanese case from Okinawa in 2009. After the finding of the human L. gallinae case, 793 chickens in Japan, including 293 from the mainland and 500 from the Nansei Island areas, were investigated to determine the prevalence of dermatophytes and their related fungal species. The survey was carried out from December 2008 to March 2013. Various dermatophytes and related fungal species were isolated from the studied chickens, with a prevalence of 24.6%. In total, 224 dermatophytes and related species were isolated in the survey. The most commonly isolated species included, in descending order of frequency, Arthroderma multifidum, Aphanoascus terreus, and Chrysosporium spp. Ar. multifidum and Ap. terreus have no record of pathogenicity, and the present isolates of Chrysosporium spp. were not matched to pathogenic Chrysosporium spp. based on the ITS rDNA sequences. Interestingly, an L. gallinae isolate was detected in a male 10-month-old shamo (fighting cock) from the main island. Furthermore, one strain of Arthroderma simii was also isolated as the second record in Japan following that from an imported chimpanzee. Although L. gallinae and Ar. simii are likely to be endemic in our country, the transmission of dermatophytosis from chickens to humans is unlikely to occur because of the reduced chances for citizens to come in contact with chickens due to various factors.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Arthrodermataceae/patogenicidade , Galinhas/microbiologia , Chrysosporium/isolamento & purificação , Chrysosporium/patogenicidade , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Dermatomicoses/veterinária , Microsporum/isolamento & purificação , Microsporum/patogenicidade , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Animais , Arthrodermataceae/genética , Chrysosporium/genética , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Dermatomicoses/transmissão , Humanos , Japão , Microsporum/genética , Pan troglodytes/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
Rev. iberoam. micol ; 36(2): 90-92, abr.-jun. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185483

RESUMO

Background: Phaeoacremonium parasiticum is considered a rare infectious agent that is part of a heterogeneous group of fungi causing phaeohyphomycosis. This organism is capable of producing subcutaneous infections, eumycetomas, osteomyelitis, arthritis, myositis and also disseminated diseases, such as fungemia and endocarditis. Case report: We describe a case of cutaneous infection by P. parasiticum in a kidney transplant patient. The identification of this microorganism was performed by microbiological and histopathological studies and confirmed with the sequence of the gene encoding β-tubulin and a real time panfungal PCR targeting 18S ribosomal RNA gene. The microorganism was correctly identified by phenotypic and molecular methods. The patient was treated with oral antifungal therapy and a debulking surgery and evolved without any complication. Conclusions: The diagnosis of this infection is difficult and usually affects kidney transplant patients, but the reasons of this association are still unknown


Antecedentes: Phaeoacremonium parasiticum es considerado un agente infeccioso poco común que forma parte de un grupo heterogéneo de hongos causantes de feohifomicosis. Este microorganismo es capaz de producir infección cutánea, eumicetoma, osteomielitis, artritis, miositis e incluso enfermedad diseminada como fungemia y endocarditis. Caso clínico: Se describe un caso de infección cutánea por P. parasiticum en un paciente trasplantado renal. Para la identificación del microorganismo se realizaron pruebas microbiológicas e histopatológicas, y se confirmó la identificación con la secuenciación del gen de la β-tubulina y una PCR a tiempo real para la detección del gen 18S rRNA. El microorganismo fue identificado correctamente por métodos fenotípicos y moleculares. El paciente recibió tratamiento con antifúngicos orales y citorreducción quirúrgica, y evolucionó sin ninguna complicación. Conclusiones: El diagnóstico de esta infección es difícil y se presenta habitualmente en pacientes trasplantados renales. Sin embargo, la asociación de esta infección con este tipo de pacientes no ha sido aún explicada


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Rim , Feoifomicose/microbiologia , Transplantados , Ascomicetos/genética , Dermatomicoses/terapia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Feoifomicose/terapia , Fenótipo , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética
15.
Rev. iberoam. micol ; 36(2): 93-95, abr.-jun. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185484

RESUMO

Paciente de 21 años, de sexo masculino, infectado por el VIH y que no sigue adecuadamente el tratamiento antirretroviral, que acude a consulta debido a una erupción papular en el tronco y las extremidades, acompañada de manera simultánea por manchas hipocrómicas en la espalda. El paciente estaba afebril y hemodinámicamente estable. En el estudio micológico de las muestras clínicas de diferentes lesiones se observaron levaduras compatibles con Malassezia. Se prescribió itraconazol por vía oral, con una excelente respuesta clínica. El hallazgo del mismo agente etiológico con 2 presentaciones clínicas diferentes en un solo paciente es poco habitual


A 21 year-old man, HIV infected, and with poor adherence to antiretroviral treatment, consulted us due to a papular rash on trunk and extremities, showing simultaneously hypochromic stains on his back. He was afebrile and hemodynamically stable. In the mycological study of the clinical samples taken from different lesions, yeasts compatible with Malassezia were observed. Oral itraconazole was prescribed, with an excellent clinical response. Finding the same etiolologic agent in 2 different clinical pictures on a single patient is extremely rare


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Malassezia/isolamento & purificação , Administração Oral , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Dermatomicoses/tratamento farmacológico , Itraconazol/administração & dosagem , Transtornos da Pigmentação/microbiologia
16.
Hautarzt ; 70(8): 561-574, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139861

RESUMO

The basis for effective treatment of any dermatomycosis is the correct and timely identification of the pathogen, which allows the targeted choice of the most suitable antimycotic and is important for the prevention of repeated infections. In recent years, infections with dermatophytes seem to have increased. In fact, from 2007 to 2018, there was an increase in the number of samples processed in the Mycology Laboratory of the Department of Dermatology at the University Hospital Jena. The most common isolated dermatophytes between 2007 and 2018 were Trichophyton (T.) rubrum, T. interdigitale, Microsporum (M.) canis and T. benhamiae. However, dermatophytoses may also be caused by rare anthropophilic agents such as Epidermophyton floccosum, zoophiles such as T. verrucosum, T. quinckeanum or Nannizzia (N.) persicolor as well as by geophiles such as N. gypsea. Therefore, these dermatophytes should at least be known, so that in case of unusual observations investigations can be performed accordingly. Changes in the pathogen spectrum of dermatophytoses have taken place over time and it is expected that the occurrence of dermatophytes will be subject of continuous fluctuations, which may mean that the incidence of some of these "rare" dermatophytes, as described here in five clinical examples, may be changing.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Epidermophyton/isolamento & purificação , Microsporum/isolamento & purificação , Trichophyton/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Tinha
17.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(6): 823-836, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050630

RESUMO

Dermatophytes are a highly specialized group of keratinophilic and keratinolytic filamentous fungi causing a ringworm disease called dermatophytosis or superficial mycoses. Although dermatophyte infections do not threaten the host's life, they lower its quality in humans by causing discomfort related to cosmetic problems and through their epidemiological significance, whereas in farm animals they are responsible for economic losses and constitute a source of the spread of spores. Evidence from countless observational studies that have been conducted over the last 90 years indicates that dermatophytes infect humans of every age, race, gender and socioeconomic status with strikingly high rates, as well as both farmed and wild animals in various health conditions and with various epidemiological statuses. However, the prevalence of superficial fungal infections is highly variable, since it depends on several parameters associated with the infected individual and the dermatophyte, their mutual interactions, and epidemiological and geographical factors. The curious disparity in dermatophyte infection patterns has prompted many investigators to search for a link between the host, the host's predispositions and susceptibility to the disease, and the dermatophyte species and virulence. Thus, the question arises as to whether, in addition to the generally recognized factors predisposing hosts to diseases, there are some other predispositions to dermatophyte infections in a species-specific host. In this review, we describe recent findings about the mechanism of dermatophyte infections, focusing on the adaptation of the fungi to the host and conditions predisposing each side to the disease.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/fisiologia , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Tinha/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Animais Selvagens , Arthrodermataceae/patogenicidade , Causalidade , Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Humanos , Prevalência , Tinha/epidemiologia , Virulência
19.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(3): 440-447, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943876

RESUMO

Malassezia pachydermatis is part of the normal microbiota of canine skin and external ear canal, and is also associated with otitis externa in dogs. Laboratory detection of Malassezia otitis relies on the presence of elevated numbers of the yeast on cytologic examination of otic exudate. Although cytology has high specificity, it has low sensitivity, resulting in false-negatives and posing a challenge for clinicians to accurately diagnose Malassezia otitis. We developed a quantitative PCR (qPCR) to detect and quantify M. pachydermatis yeasts and validate the method with swabs from external ear canals of dogs. Our qPCR uses the ß-tubulin gene, a single-copy gene, as a target. The limit of quantification was established as 0.18 ng/reaction, equivalent to 2.0 × 104 genome equivalents (gEq). Swabs from healthy dogs yielded quantification values of ≤2.7 × 104 gEq in the qPCR, whereas swabs from dogs with otitis yielded quantification values of ≥2.5 × 105 gEq. Our qPCR assay provides accurate quantification of M. pachydermatis yeasts from swab samples from dogs, is more sensitive than cytology, and could be used to monitor response to treatment. Our assay could also be valuable in a research setting to better understand the pathogenesis of M. pachydermatis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Meato Acústico Externo/microbiologia , Malassezia/isolamento & purificação , Otite Externa/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Animais , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Dermatomicoses/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Malassezia/classificação , Otite Externa/diagnóstico , Otite Externa/microbiologia
20.
Rev Iberoam Micol ; 36(2): 93-95, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862391

RESUMO

A 21 year-old man, HIV infected, and with poor adherence to antiretroviral treatment, consulted us due to a papular rash on trunk and extremities, showing simultaneously hypochromic stains on his back. He was afebrile and hemodynamically stable. In the mycological study of the clinical samples taken from different lesions, yeasts compatible with Malassezia were observed. Oral itraconazole was prescribed, with an excellent clinical response. Finding the same etiolologic agent in 2different clinical pictures on a single patient is extremely rare.


Assuntos
Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Malassezia/isolamento & purificação , Administração Oral , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Dermatomicoses/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Itraconazol/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Transtornos da Pigmentação/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
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