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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1213: 149-163, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030669

RESUMO

The skin is the largest organ of our body. Skin disease abnormalities which occur within the skin layers are difficult to examine visually and often require biopsies to make a confirmation on a suspected condition. Such invasive methods are not well-accepted by children and women due to the possibility of scarring. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive technique enabling in vivo examination of sub-surface skin tissue without the need for excision of tissue. However, one of the challenges in OCT imaging is the interpretation and analysis of OCT images. In this review, we discuss the various methodologies in skin layer segmentation and how it could potentially improve the management of skin diseases. We also present a review of works which use advanced machine learning techniques to achieve layers segmentation and detection of skin diseases. Lastly, current challenges in analysis and applications are also discussed.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Aprendizado de Máquina , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Pele/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Humanos
2.
An Bras Dermatol ; 94(4): 473-475, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644625

RESUMO

Atrophoderma of Pasini and Pierini is a skin disorder affecting dermal collagen and is clinically characterized by well-defined plaques of depressed skin. Histopathological changes are subtle, and in most cases, the diagnosis requires a comparative study with healthy skin from the same anatomical site. High frequency ultrasound is a useful imaging method for diagnosis of atrophic skin changes. A case is presented in which ultrasound can support the clinical and the histopathological diagnosis of atrophoderma of Pasini and Pierini.


Assuntos
Derme/diagnóstico por imagem , Derme/patologia , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Dermatopatias/patologia , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores/métodos , Adulto , Atrofia/diagnóstico por imagem , Atrofia/patologia , Biópsia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos
4.
Radiol Med ; 124(10): 1049-1061, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270724

RESUMO

Scalp lesions can be classified as congenital, traumatic, inflammatory, or neoplastic in origin. Although patients presenting with scalp masses are frequently seen in daily practice, differentiation of scalp lesions is often challenging for radiologists who are not familiar with the imaging of cutaneous lesions. The majority of scalp lesions are fortunately benign, with cystic lesions accounting for over 50% of all benign scalp lesions. Such lesions include trichilemmal cysts (pilar cysts), sebaceoma, epidermoid cysts, dermoid cysts, and teratoid cysts. Radiologists may also occasionally encounter benign neoplasms of the scalp, including melanocytic nevi, keratoacanthoma, pilomatricoma, neurofibroma, and lipoma. Malignant scalp tumors are uncommon; however, they carry a potential risk of delayed detection, resulting in poorer outcomes. Most scalp lesions show nonspecific imaging findings, although some possess characteristic features on CT and MRI. Radiologists must be familiar with the appearances of common scalp lesions to reach an accurate diagnosis. Hence, the aim of this article is to describe the clinical and imaging features of scalp lesions.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Couro Cabeludo/diagnóstico por imagem , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Humanos
5.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 40(3): 462-464, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medialization laryngoplasty is a common procedure for voice rehabilitation in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Complications are uncommon and delayed infections involving implants are rare. We report a delayed infectious complication following an animal scratch resulting in a laryngocutaneous fistula. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 73-year-old female underwent a successful and uneventful medialization laryngoplasty for idiopathic unilateral vocal fold paralysis using a silastic implant. More than one year after surgery, she presented with an anterior neck infection following an animal scratch with CT neck findings of a left strap muscle abscess. After incision and drainage, cultures grew methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Despite culture-directed antibiotic therapy, the neck continued to drain persistently. Laryngoscopy with stroboscopy revealed a medialized vocal fold with no obvious granulation tissue and normal mucosal pliability. The patient underwent neck exploration revealing a laryngocutaneous fistula. Thus, both the fistulous tract and implant were removed. The wound was closed with a strap muscle advancement into the laryngoplasty window. One month after surgery and antibiotics, the patient had no signs of recurrent neck infection, with a well-healing wound and stroboscopic findings of complete glottic closure, symmetric vocal fold oscillation and acceptable phonation with mild supraglottic compression. CONCLUSIONS: Delayed complications of medialization laryngoplasty are rarely reported. This case demonstrates a delayed infection of a laryngeal implant after an animal scratch requiring implant removal, local tissue reconstruction, and culture-directed antibiotic therapy.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/complicações , Fístula/etiologia , Doenças da Laringe/etiologia , Laringoplastia/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/etiologia , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/cirurgia , Idoso , Animais , Dimetilpolisiloxanos , Cães , Feminino , Fístula/diagnóstico por imagem , Fístula/terapia , Humanos , Doenças da Laringe/terapia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Próteses e Implantes , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/terapia , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Dermatopatias/terapia , Fatores de Tempo
6.
An Bras Dermatol ; 94(1): 93-95, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726472

RESUMO

Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a noninvasive imaging technique that allows visualization of the epidermis and papillary dermis with cellular-level resolution. Granulomatous reactions such as sarcoidosis could be assessed using RCM. The identification of bright beaded-like structures that could correspond to reticulin fibers overlying granulomas, in association with dermoscopy, may be a very useful approach in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis and for the differentiation of this granulomatous entity with superficial cutaneous metastasis.


Assuntos
Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Sarcoidose/diagnóstico por imagem , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Biópsia , Dermoscopia/métodos , Feminino , Granuloma/diagnóstico por imagem , Granuloma/patologia , Humanos , Sarcoidose/patologia , Dermatopatias/patologia
7.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 36(3): 355-359, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809832

RESUMO

We report three cases of patients with pseudohypoparathyroidism or pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism. These diseases are considered GNAS inactivating mutation syndromes that are characterized by a diversity of alterations among which a particular phenotype and specific endocrine or ossification abnormalities may be found. These patients may present with hard cutaneous nodules, which can represent osteoma cutis. The presence of these lesions in pediatric patients should prompt the dermatologist's consideration of this group of diseases when reaching a diagnosis. A multidisciplinary team of pediatricians, endocrinologists, geneticists, and dermatologists should carefully evaluate these patients.


Assuntos
Pseudo-Hipoparatireoidismo/complicações , Pseudo-Hipoparatireoidismo/diagnóstico , Pseudopseudo-Hipoparatireoidismo/complicações , Pseudopseudo-Hipoparatireoidismo/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Dermatopatias/patologia
8.
Skin Res Technol ; 25(4): 434-439, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: In skin beauty area, interest in diagnosis and management methods for acne is increasing. However, it is difficult to diagnose protruding skin disease by two-dimensional (2D) image. Three-dimensional (3D) approach is needed. The purpose of this study was to propose a system for reconstructing 3D model (visual hull) of 2D images obtained using mobile devices. METHODS: Acne images were acquired using a 3D printing mobile image acquisition system. Using two attached mirrors, five multi-view acne silhouette images were obtained. They were then, reconstructed to 3D. To measure the volume of the formed 3D model (visual hull), post-processing, calculation, and texture mapping were performed. The volume of acne samples designed with 3D printing was compared with the volume calculated in the produced system using statistical analysis program. RESULTS: The 3D modeling program demonstrated its superiority by showing high correlation (r = 0.783) between the actual volume of acne and the volume calculated by the system. The 3D model (visual hull) was successfully reconstructed by capturing 2D images of actual acne. CONCLUSION: In this study, we created a system to reconstruct small sized protruding skin disease images such as acne obtained with mobile devices. The 3D printing system was used to obtain images from mobile camera and reconstructed to 3D. To verify the volume of the reconstructed model, 3D printing samples were produced and compared with the calculated actual volume. It can be used, for initial diagnosis by receiving information about the protruding skin disease without space-time constraints using a mobile device.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Impressão Tridimensional/instrumentação , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Masculino , Aplicativos Móveis , Consulta Remota/métodos
9.
Int J Dermatol ; 58(3): 345-349, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several dermoscopy training programs have found the accuracy of dermoscopy examination depends on adequate training of practitioners. Smartphones are readily available and time-efficient tools for dermoscopy training. AIM: To evaluate the learning efficacy of utilizing dermoscopy smartphone wallpapers to train medical students, PGY (postgraduate year)-1 trainees, and junior dermatological residents without prior dermoscopy training. METHODS: We designed smartphone wallpapers with dermoscopy pictures and features of several common melanocytic and nonmelanocytic conditions. Pretests and posttests were performed before and after a 10-day-long smartphone wallpaper training program to evaluate their diagnostic accuracy using dermoscopy images. RESULTS: Significant progressions were noted between the pretest and posttest scores both in the nonmelanocytic (P < 0.001) and the melanocytic (P = 0.003) sections. Medical students and PGY-1 trainees demonstrated more significant improvement in nonmelanocytic lesions, compared to dermatology residents. Residents of dermatology showed more progression in the melanocytic section than nonresidents. LIMITATIONS: There were limited participants. The frequency and time allotted by each participant in perusing the wallpapers were variable. Further study of the application on clinical practice is still needed. CONCLUSION: Smartphone wallpapers training improves dermoscopic interpretation significantly in medical students, PGY-1 trainees, and dermatological residents. The background knowledge of dermatology has an effect on the degree of improvement in the training course.


Assuntos
Dermatologia/educação , Dermoscopia/educação , Internato e Residência/métodos , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Smartphone , Humanos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudantes de Medicina
10.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 80(4): 1121-1131, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30528310

RESUMO

Clinical examination is critical for the diagnosis and identification of response to treatment. It is fortunate that technologies are continuing to evolve, enabling augmentation of classical clinical examination with noninvasive imaging modalities. This article discusses emerging technologies with a focus on digital photographic imaging, confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomography, and high-frequency ultrasound, as well as several additional developing modalities. The most readily adopted technologies to date include total-body digital photography and dermoscopy, with some practitioners beginning to use confocal microscopy. In this article, applications and limitations are addressed. For a detailed discussion of the principles involved in these technologies, please refer to the first part of this review article.


Assuntos
Dermatologia/métodos , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Tecnologia Biomédica , Dermoscopia , Fluorescência , Humanos , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Fotografação , Análise Espectral Raman , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Ultrassonografia/métodos
11.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 80(4): 1114-1120, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30528311

RESUMO

Dermatologists rely primarily on clinical examination in combination with histopathology to diagnose conditions; however, clinical examination alone might not be sufficient for accurate diagnosis and skin biopsies have associated morbidity. With continued technological advancement, there are emerging ancillary imaging technologies available to dermatologists to aid in diagnosis and management. This 2-part review article will discuss these emerging technologies including: digital photographic imaging, confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomography, and high-frequency ultrasound, as well as several additional modalities in development. In this first installment, the authors describe the breadth of technologies available and the science behind them. Then, in the second article, the authors discuss the applications and limitations of these technologies and future directions.


Assuntos
Dermatologia/métodos , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Tecnologia Biomédica , Dermoscopia , Fluorescência , Humanos , Microscopia Confocal , Técnicas Fotoacústicas , Fotografação , Análise Espectral Raman , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Ultrassonografia/métodos
14.
Ultrasonics ; 93: 26-36, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384007

RESUMO

The current work investigates the performance of a real-time scan conversion algorithm for generating a 2-D ultrasound image from a laterally scanned single-element ultrasound transducer, which has applications in point-of-care devices such as for skin imaging. The algorithm employs a fixed calibration curve to update a predefined image grid in real time. Simulations showed that the calibration curve (with a maximum of 1) is robust to changes in scatterer concentration (8.3×10-3 mean absolute error), signal to noise ratio (1.0×10-3 mean absolute error for -5 dB SNR), and can be accurately predicted from a small number (31) of point scatterers (6.9×10-3 mean absolute error). Good agreement was also found between the calibration curves obtained from simulated and experimental data (1.19×10-2 mean absolute error). The scan conversion algorithm was validated by evaluation of the position estimation errors on both simulations and experiments. Clinical images of skin lesions (N = 20) demonstrate the feasibility of the algorithm for real, non-homogeneous tissue. Use of a fixed calibration curve compared to an adaptive calibration curve gave similar accuracies in the scanning step size range of 150-350 µm (with an average overlap of the accuracy ranges of 92.94% for simulations and 42.83% for experiments), and a 350-fold improvement in computation time.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Transdutores , Ultrassonografia/instrumentação , Calibragem , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Imagens de Fantasmas , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Razão Sinal-Ruído
15.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 143(3): 326-329, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30295069

RESUMO

CONTEXT.­: Histopathology is the current standard to diagnose skin disease. However, biopsy may not always be feasible, such as in patients with multiple nevi, a patient with a lesion on an aesthetically significant site, or in children. Recently, noninvasive techniques, including reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM), optical coherence tomography, and Raman spectroscopy, have enabled dermatologists to manage skin lesions in real time without the need for biopsy. OBJECTIVE.­: To report the updated diagnostic accuracy of RCM for equivocal skin lesions. DESIGN.­: In this study, we retrospectively reviewed our data of clinically suspicious lesions from 2010 to 2017 that were evaluated by RCM. RESULTS.­: Our results showed an overall sensitivity of 98.2% and specificity of 99.8%. CONCLUSIONS.­: In conclusion, RCM is a noninvasive real-time tool with the potential to diagnose skin lesions with high accuracy and without biopsy.


Assuntos
Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
Neth J Med ; 76(10): 445-449, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30569891

RESUMO

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disorder, characterised by a monoclonal proliferation of aberrant histiocytes that accumulate in and infiltrate into different organs. When the hypothalamic-pituitary axis is involved, central diabetes insipidus (CDI) can be its first manifestation. Three cases of LCH with central diabetes insipidus were retrospectively analyzed: Case 1 is a 41-year old female presenting with polyuria and polydipsia. Diabetes insipidus was diagnosed and treated with desmopressin. MRI pituitary showed hypophysitis. Subsequently, she developed bone lesions and a biopsy demonstrated LCH. Case 2 is a 51-year old female presenting in 2009 with polyuria and polydipsia. Diabetes insipidus was diagnosed and treated with desmopressin. MRI pituitary revealed hypophysitis. LCH was suspected because of known pulmonary histiocytosis. Coexisting bone lesions were biopsied and confirmed LCH. Case 3 is a 44-year old female presenting with diabetes insipidus. She was treated with desmopressin as well. MRI of the pituitary gland showed impressive thickening of the infundibulum. A few months later, she developed skin lesions and a biopsy revealed LCH. Conclusively, LCH is a rare, elusive and probably underdiagnosed disease with a broad disease spectrum. Due to infiltration of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, CDI can be the first manifestation, even before LCH is diagnosed. Therefore, LCH should be considered in the diagnostic workup of CDI.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas , Desamino Arginina Vasopressina/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans , Hipófise , Dermatopatias , Adulto , Antidiuréticos/administração & dosagem , Biópsia/métodos , Doenças Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Ósseas/etiologia , Doenças Ósseas/patologia , Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico/diagnóstico , Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Insípido Neurogênico/etiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/diagnóstico , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/fisiopatologia , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/terapia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças da Hipófise/diagnóstico , Doenças da Hipófise/etiologia , Hipófise/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipófise/patologia , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Dermatopatias/patologia
18.
J Med Syst ; 43(1): 3, 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30460413

RESUMO

This study describes the usage of neural community based on the texture evaluation of pores and skin a variety of similarities in their signs, inclusive of Measles (rubella), German measles (rubella), and Chickenpox etc. In fashionable, these illnesses have similarities in sample of infection and symptoms along with redness and rash. Various skin problems have similar symptoms. For example, in German measles (rubella), Chicken pox and Measles (rubella) a similarity can be observed in skin rashes and redness. The prognosis of skin problems take a long time as the patient's previous medical records, physical examination report and the respective laboratory diagnostic reports have to be studied. The recognition and diagnosis get tough due to the complexity involved. Subsequently, a computer aided analysis and recognition gadget would be handy in such cases. Computer algorithm steps include image processing, picture characteristic extraction and categorize facts with the help of a classifier with Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The ANN can analyze the patterns of symptoms of a particular disease and present faster prognosis and reputation than a human doctor. For this reason, the patients can undergo the treatment for the pores and skin problems based totally on the symptoms detected.


Assuntos
Dermoscopia/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico , Pele/diagnóstico por imagem , Inteligência Artificial , Humanos , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/métodos , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Análise de Ondaletas
19.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2018: 1542-1545, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30440687

RESUMO

Stratum corneum is the outer most part of skin for barrier function. Disorder in stratum corneum is related with many skin diseases including acne, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. In developed countries, about 20% of the population has disorder in the barrier function of stratum corneum. Adhesive tape stripping is a method to disrupt skin barrier function in studying disorder in stratum corneum. In this study, we obtained NIR (Near-Infrared) spectrum of human skin after tape stripping. Changes in skin spectra after barrier disruption were investigated through principal component analysis (PCA) of spectrum. PCA analysis revealed that peaks for -NH stretching and -CH vibration mainly contributed to the spectral variation caused by barrier disruption. Furthermore, second derivative of spectrum revealed that acute barrier disruption contributes to spectral changes in the region related with secondary structure of protein, lipid and water associated with lipid in stratum corneum. We demonstrated that acute barrier disruption affected features in NIR spectrum. These spectral changes revealed that acute barrier disruption affected keratin protein and ceramide in human stratum corneum. These results suggest that NIR spectroscopy can be used to monitor changes in filamentous network and lamellar structure in stratum corneum. NIR spectroscopy can provide non-invasive method to investigate skin disease related with barrier disruption by monitoring disturbance in protein and lipid structure in stratum corneum.


Assuntos
Epiderme/patologia , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Pele/patologia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Epiderme/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Lipídeos/química , Proteínas/química , Pele/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
Appl Opt ; 57(27): 7651-7658, 2018 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462028

RESUMO

Optical spectroscopy can be used to distinguish between healthy and diseased tissue. In this study, the design and testing of a single-pixel hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system that uses autofluorescence emission from collagen (400 nm) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (475 nm) along with differences in the optical reflectance spectra to differentiate between healthy and thermally damaged tissue is discussed. The changes in protein autofluorescence and reflectance due to thermal damage are studied in ex vivo porcine tissue models. Thermal lesions were created in porcine skin (n=12) and liver (n=15) samples using an IR laser. The damaged regions were clearly visible in the hyperspectral images. Sizes of the thermally damaged regions as measured via HSI are compared to sizes of these regions as measured in white-light images and via physical measurement. Good agreement between the sizes measured in the hyperspectral images, white-light imaging, and physical measurements were found. The HSI system can differentiate between healthy and damaged tissue. Possible applications of this imaging system include determination of tumor margins during surgery/biopsy and cancer diagnosis and staging.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Fotografação/instrumentação , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Análise Espectral/métodos , Animais , Desenho de Equipamento , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Pele/diagnóstico por imagem , Suínos
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