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1.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361642

RESUMO

The skin is the largest multifunctional organ in the human body, serving as an excellent barrier against chemical and biological hazards [...].


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Pele/metabolismo , Humanos , Pele/patologia , Dermatopatias/metabolismo , Dermatopatias/patologia
2.
Biomolecules ; 11(8)2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439887

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has completely disrupted the health systems of the entire planet. From the earliest months, it became increasingly clear that in addition to affecting the upper airways and lungs, there were other organs that could be affected. Among these, the skin became a real "sentinel signal" to be able to even suspect COVID-19. Background: this study deals with a little-explored issue for now: the study of skin immunopathology in SARS-CoV-2 positive subjects ascertained using the most reliable methods available. Methods: we used skin biopsy samples from SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative patients, studying morphology (Hematoxylin-Eosin), T lymphocyte population (CD4 and CD8), three markers such as HMGB-1, TIM-3 and HO-1 by immunohistochemistry. Results: although the presence of the CD4 and CD8 T population did not differ statistically significantly, we found greater activation and release of HMGB-1 in skin samples from SARS-CoV-2 positive patients, greater immunolabeling for TIM-3 at the level of CD4 and CD8 and a reduced expression of Heme oxygenase 1. Conclusions: these results support the possibility that there is immune deregulation in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients who develop skin manifestations of various kinds.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase (Desciclizante)/metabolismo , Receptor Celular 2 do Vírus da Hepatite A/metabolismo , Dermatopatias/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pele/patologia , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Dermatopatias/patologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
3.
Vet Q ; 41(1): 242-249, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Masai Giraffes have declined dramatically in recent decades due to loss of habitat and illegal hunting. Hence, it is critically important that the epidemiology and etiology of so-called giraffe skin disease (GSD) is understood well. AIM: To assess the prevalence and histopathological characteristics of GSD in the Tarangire-Manyara Ecosystem (TME), northern Tanzania. METHODS: The study used road transects to gather field information on GSD. Eighty-four giraffes were sighted by systematic random sampling in the six study sites. Examination of giraffes involved body distribution of lesions, severity of the lesions and whether they were associated with age and sex of the affected giraffes. Five giraffes with GSD were immobilized for tissue collection and histopathological analysis. RESULTS: Prevalence among adults was 79%. Affected animals typically had 1-5 lesions which were mostly moderate and were predominantly observed on the forelegs. GSD positivity rate was higher among females versus males, whereas males had a higher rate of severe lesions and generally had more lesions than females. Calves showed no lesions. All tissue sections from five affected giraffes showed the presence of large quantities of fungal elements (hyphae and spores) that involved hair shafts and sub-cutaneous tissue after staining with Grocott Methenamine Silver as special fungal staining technique. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the involvement of fungal infection in GSD pathogenesis. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: We recommend further characterization of the lesions using modern molecular techniques and culture to identify primary and secondary or opportunistic etiologies, and the order in which the pathogens occur in the lesions.


Assuntos
Girafas , Micoses/veterinária , Dermatopatias/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Prevalência , Dermatopatias/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias/microbiologia , Dermatopatias/patologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
4.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 54: 151807, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418768

RESUMO

Digital pathology has become an integral part of pathology education in recent years, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic, for its potential utility as a teaching tool that augments the traditional 1-to-1 sign-out experience. Herein, we evaluate the utility of whole slide imaging (WSI) in reducing diagnostic errors in pigmented cutaneous lesions by pathology fellows without subspecialty training in dermatopathology. Ten cases of 4 pigmented cutaneous lesions commonly encountered by general pathologists were selected. Corresponding whole slide images were distributed to our fellows, along with two sets of online surveys, each composed of 10 multiple-choice questions with 4 answers. Identical cases were used for both surveys to minimize variability in trainees' scores depending on the perceived level of difficulty, with the second set being distributed after random shuffling. Brief image-based teaching slides as self-assessment tool were provided to trainees between each survey. Pre- and post-self-assessment scores were analyzed. 61% (17/28) and 39% (11/28) of fellows completed the first and second surveys, respectively. The mean score in the first survey was 5.2/10. The mean score in the second survey following self-assessment increased to 7.2/10. 64% (7/11) of trainees showed an improvement in their scores, with 1 trainee improving his/her score by 8 points. No fellow scored less post-self-assessment than on the initial assessment. The difference in individual scores between two surveys was statistically significant (p = 0.003). Our study demonstrates the utility of WSI-based self-assessment learning as a source of improving diagnostic skills of pathology trainees in a short period of time.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Competência Clínica , Educação à Distância/métodos , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Patologia Clínica/educação , Dermatopatias/patologia , Erros de Diagnóstico/prevenção & controle , Bolsas de Estudo , Humanos , Patologia Clínica/métodos , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico , Estados Unidos
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445632

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma) is a chronic fibrotic disease involving TGF-ß1. Low serum vitamin D (vit D) correlates with the degree of fibrosis and expression of TGF-ß1. This study was designed to determine whether the noncalcemic vit D analog, 17,20S(OH)2pD, suppresses fibrosis and mediators of the TGF-ß1 pathway in the bleomycin (BLM) model of fibrosis. Fibrosis was induced into the skin of female C57BL/6 mice by repeated injections of BLM (50 µg/100 µL) subcutaneously. Mice received daily oral gavage with either vehicle (propylene glycol) or 17,20S(OH)2pD using 5, 15, or 30 µg/kg for 21 days. The injected skin was biopsied; analyzed histologically; examined for total collagen by Sircol; and examined for mRNA expression of MMP-13, BMP-7, MCP-1, Gli1, and Gli2 by TR-PCR. Spleen was analyzed for lymphocytes using flow cytometry. Serum was analyzed for cytokines using a multiplexed ELISA. Results showed that all three doses of 17,20S(OH)2pD suppressed net total collagen production, dermal thickness, and total collagen content in the BLM fibrosis model. 17,20S(OH)2pD also increased MMP-13 expression, decreased MCP-1 and Gli-2 expression in vivo, and suppressed serum levels of IL-13, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, and IL-12p70. In summary, 17,20S(OH)2pD modulates the mediators of fibrosis in vivo and suppresses total collagen production and dermal thickness. This antifibrotic property of 17,20S(OH)2pD offers new therapeutic approaches for fibrotic disorders.


Assuntos
Bleomicina/toxicidade , Colecalciferol/análogos & derivados , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrose/tratamento farmacológico , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibrose/etiologia , Fibrose/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Escleroderma Sistêmico/induzido quimicamente , Escleroderma Sistêmico/patologia , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Dermatopatias/patologia
6.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5756-5767, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34241899

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a significant health problem globally. The virus has spread widely and become a global pandemic. The pathophysiology for SARS-CoV-2 has not been explained clearly. It has been associated with several multiorgan symptoms, among which its dermatological manifestations are of great interest. Primarily, there has been no report of skin features among COVID-19 patients. Nevertheless, recently there have been several reports regarding COVID-19 patients who presented with cutaneous manifestations. In the current review, we focus on the various cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Dermatopatias/etiologia , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite Ocupacional/diagnóstico , Dermatite Ocupacional/etiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/patologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/terapia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Erupção por Droga/diagnóstico , Erupção por Droga/etiologia , Erupção por Droga/patologia , Erupção por Droga/terapia , Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/efeitos adversos , SARS-CoV-2 , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias/patologia , Dermatopatias/terapia
7.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208037

RESUMO

Neutrophils are the most abundant circulating innate immune cells and comprise the first immune defense line, as they are the most rapidly recruited cells at sites of infection or inflammation. Their main microbicidal mechanisms are degranulation, phagocytosis, cytokine secretion and the formation of extracellular traps. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are a microbicidal mechanism that involves neutrophil death. Since their discovery, in vitro and in vivo neutrophils have been challenged with a range of stimuli capable of inducing or inhibiting NET formation, with the objective to understand its function and regulation in health and disease. These networks composed of DNA and granular components are capable of immobilizing and killing pathogens. They comprise enzymes such as myeloperoxidase, elastase, cathepsin G, acid hydrolases and cationic peptides, all with antimicrobial and antifungal activity. Therefore, the excessive formation of NETs can also lead to tissue damage and promote local and systemic inflammation. Based on this concept, in this review, we focus on the role of NETs in different infectious and inflammatory diseases of the mucosal epithelia and skin.


Assuntos
Armadilhas Extracelulares/fisiologia , Membrana Mucosa/imunologia , Dermatopatias/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/fisiologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/fisiologia , Dermatopatias/patologia
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199947

RESUMO

Particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) increases oxidative stress through free radical generation and incomplete volatilization. In addition to affecting the respiratory system, PM2.5 causes aging- and inflammation-related damage to skin. Farnesol (Farn), a natural benzyl semiterpene, possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antibacterial properties. However, because of its poor water solubility and cytotoxicity at high concentrations, the biomedical applications of Farn have been limited. This study examined the deleterious effects of PM2.5 on the epidermis and dermis. In addition, Farn-encapsulated liposomes (Lipo-Farn) and gelatin/HA/xanthan gel containing Lipo-Farn were prepared and applied in vivo to repair and alleviate PM2.5-induced damage and inflammation in skin. The prepared Lipo-Farn was 342 ± 90 nm in diameter with an encapsulation rate of 69%; the encapsulation significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of Farn. Lipo-Farn exhibited a slow-release rate of 35% after 192 h of incubation. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of PM2.5 was approximately 850 µg/mL, and ≥400 µg/mL PM2.5 significantly increased IL-6 production in skin fibroblasts. Severe impairment in the epidermis and hair follicles and moderate impairment in the dermis were found in the groups treated with post-PM2.5 and continuous subcutaneous injection of PM2.5. Acute and chronic inflammation was observed in the skin in both experimental categories in vivo. Treatment with 4 mM Lipo-Farn largely repaired PM2.5-induced injury in the epidermis and dermis, restored injured hair follicles, and alleviated acute and chronic inflammation induced by PM2.5 in rat skin. In addition, treatment with 4 mM pure Farn and 2 mM Lipo-Farn exerted moderate reparative and anti-inflammatory effects on impaired skin. The findings of the current study indicate the therapeutic and protective effects of Lipo-Farn against various injuries caused by PM2.5 in the pilosebaceous units, epidermis, and dermis of skin.


Assuntos
Derme/efeitos dos fármacos , Epiderme/efeitos dos fármacos , Farneseno Álcool/farmacologia , Lipossomos/administração & dosagem , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antioxidantes , Derme/patologia , Epiderme/patologia , Feminino , Lipossomos/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Dermatopatias/induzido quimicamente , Dermatopatias/patologia
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200205

RESUMO

Skin is innervated by a multitude of sensory nerves that are important to the function of this barrier tissue in homeostasis and injury. The role of innervation and neuromediators has been previously reviewed so here we focus on the role of the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) in wound healing, with the intent of targeting it in treatment of non-healing wounds. TRPV1 structure and function as well as the outcomes of TRPV1-targeted therapies utilized in several diseases and tissues are summarized. In skin, keratinocytes, sebocytes, nociceptors, and several immune cells express TRPV1, making it an attractive focus area for treating wounds. Many intrinsic and extrinsic factors confound the function and targeting of TRPV1 and may lead to adverse or off-target effects. Therefore, a better understanding of what is known about the role of TRPV1 in skin and wound healing will inform future therapies to treat impaired and chronic wounds to improve healing.


Assuntos
Dermatopatias/patologia , Pele/patologia , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Cicatrização , Animais , Humanos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200222

RESUMO

Collagen hydrolysates have been suggested as a favorable antiaging modality in skin photoaged by persistent exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UV). The current study evaluated the beneficial effect of collagen hydrolysates (fsCH) extracted from Pangasius hypophthalmus fish skin on wrinkle formation and moisture preservation in dorsal skin of hairless mice challenged with UV-B. Inter-comparative experiments were conducted for anti-photoaging among fsCH, retinoic acid (RA), N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (NAG), and glycine-proline-hydroxyproline (GPH). Treating human HaCaT keratinocytes with 100-200 µg/mL fsCH reciprocally ameliorated the expression of aquaporin 3 (AQP3) and CD44 deranged by UV-B. The UV-B-induced deep furrows and skin thickening were improved in parched dorsal skin of mice supplemented with 206-412 mg/kg fsCH as well as RA and GPH. The UV-B irradiation enhanced collagen fiber loss in the dorsal dermis, which was attenuated by fsCH through enhancing procollagen conversion to collagen. The matrix metalloproteinase expression by UV-B in dorsal skin was diminished by fsCH, similar to RA and GPH, via blockade of collagen degradation. Supplementing fsCH to UV-B-irradiated mice decreased transepidermal water loss in dorsal skin with reduced AQP3 level and restored keratinocyte expression of filaggrin. The expression of hyaluronic acid synthase 2 and hyaluronidase 1 by UV-B was remarkably ameliorated with increased production of hyaluronic acid by treating fsCH to photoaged mice. Taken together, fsCH attenuated photoaging typical of deep wrinkles, epidermal thickening, and skin water loss, like NAG, RA, or GPH, through inhibiting collagen destruction and epidermal barrier impairment.


Assuntos
Colágeno/farmacologia , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Pelados , Pele/patologia , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Envelhecimento da Pele/patologia , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Dermatopatias/patologia
11.
Arch Iran Med ; 24(5): 419-426, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of the COVID19 pandemic, that has killed one million nine hundred people and infected more the 90 million until end of 2020, has been studied by many researchers. Here, we try to explain its biological behavior based on our recent autopsy information and review of literature. METHODS: In this study, patients with a positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) result were considered eligible for enrollment. Histopathological examinations were done on 13 people who were hospitalized in Afzalipour hospital, Kerman, Iran. Clinical and laboratory data were reviewed. Tissue examination was done by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. RESULTS: The most frequent co-morbidity in the patients was cardiovascular disease. The common initial symptoms of COVID-19 infection were dyspnea and cough. In all cases, the number of white blood cells was higher than the normal range. Common histopathological findings were variable degrees of vasculitis as degenerative to necrotic changes of endothelium and trafficking of inflammatory cells in the vessel wall with fibrinoid necrosis. Tissue damage included interstitial acute inflammatory cells reaction with degenerative to necrotic changes of the parenchymal cells. CD34 and Factor VIII immunohistochemistry staining showed endothelial cell degeneration to necrosis at the vessel wall and infiltration by inflammatory cells. Electron microscopic features confirmed the degenerative damages in the endothelial cells. CONCLUSION: Our histopathological studies suggest that the main focus of the viral damage is the endothelial cells (endotheliopathica) in involved organs. Also, our findings suggest that degeneration of leukocytes occurs at the site of inflammation and release of cytokines (leukocytoclastica) resulting in a cytokine storm.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/patologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Leucócitos/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pericardite/patologia , Pericardite/virologia , Dermatopatias/patologia , Dermatopatias/virologia
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4384, 2021 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282151

RESUMO

Skin and lung fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc) is driven by myofibroblasts, alpha-smooth muscle actin expressing cells. The number of myofibroblasts in SSc skin correlates with the modified Rodnan skin score, the most widely used clinical measure of skin disease severity. Murine fibrosis models indicate that myofibroblasts can arise from a variety of different cell types, but their origin in SSc skin has remained uncertain. Utilizing single cell RNA-sequencing, we define different dermal fibroblast populations and transcriptome changes, comparing SSc to healthy dermal fibroblasts. Here, we show that SSc dermal myofibroblasts arise in two steps from an SFRP2hi/DPP4-expressing progenitor fibroblast population. In the first step, SSc fibroblasts show globally upregulated expression of transcriptome markers, such as PRSS23 and THBS1. A subset of these cells shows markers indicating that they are proliferating. Only a fraction of SFRP2hi SSc fibroblasts differentiate into myofibroblasts, as shown by expression of additional markers, SFRP4 and FNDC1. Bioinformatics analysis of the SSc fibroblast transcriptomes implicated upstream transcription factors, including FOSL2, RUNX1, STAT1, FOXP1, IRF7 and CREB3L1, as well as SMAD3, driving SSc myofibroblast differentiation.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Escleroderma Sistêmico/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Transcriptoma , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4 , Fibrose , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead , Fator Regulador 7 de Interferon , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Proteínas Repressoras , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/patologia , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Dermatopatias/patologia , Proteína Smad3
13.
Biomolecules ; 11(6)2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200112

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has dramatically changed our lives and habits. In just a few months, the most advanced and efficient health systems in the world have been overwhelmed by an infectious disease that has caused 3.26 million deaths and more than 156 million cases worldwide. Although the lung is the most frequently affected organ, the skin has also resulted in being a target body district, so much so as to suggest it may be a real "sentinel" of COVID-19 disease. Here we present 17 cases of skin manifestations studied and analyzed in recent months in our Department; immunohistochemical investigations were carried out on samples for the S1 spike-protein of SARS-CoV-2, as well as electron microscopy investigations showing evidence of virions within the constituent cells of the eccrine sweat glands and the endothelium of small blood vessels. Finally, we conduct a brief review of the COVID-related skin manifestations, confirmed by immunohistochemistry and/or electron microscopy, described in the literature.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Dermatopatias/virologia , Pele/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virologia , Criança , Eritema/diagnóstico , Eritema/patologia , Eritema/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Pele/virologia , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias/patologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Bull Cancer ; 108(9): 877-885, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hematopoietic stem cell allograft is a treatment for patients with severe constitutional or acquired hematopoietic system diseases. This act is always linked to complications requiring multidisciplinary care. Our study describes the post-allograft cutaneous complications. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted at the Hematology department of "20 Août Hospital" in Casablanca during a period going from January 2018 to December 2020; including all patients who presented acute or chronic cutaneous complications post-allograft. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were included. All patients received induction chemotherapy (Busulfan/Fludarabine or Busulfan/Melphalan). A skin infection was found in 8 patients : four cases of Malassezia folliculitis, one case of perineal zona, one case of genital herpes, one case of varicella and one case of Candida sepsis. The acute graft versus host reaction was found in 3 patients, revealed by an erythematous rash all over the body. The chronic graft versus host reaction was found in five patients on a lichenoid form. Nine patients had a hyperpigmentation of the folds followed by detachment in the same areas, concluding to a Busulfan toxidermy. DISCUSSION: Hematopoietic stem cell allograft has many complications. The literature mainly specifies hematological and digestive complications, while skin complications are little described. Our series is special by reporting different types and mechanisms of skin complications that can occur; with a predominance of skin graft-on-host reactions and infections. It also reports an unusual Busulfan toxidermy.


Assuntos
Doenças Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Aloenxertos , Bussulfano/uso terapêutico , Candidíase/diagnóstico , Varicela/diagnóstico , Criança , Doença Crônica , Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/diagnóstico , Herpes Genital/diagnóstico , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução/métodos , Malassezia , Masculino , Melfalan/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos , Estudos Prospectivos , Dermatopatias/patologia , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/diagnóstico , Vidarabina/análogos & derivados , Vidarabina/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063352

RESUMO

PubMed searches reveal much literature regarding lipids in barrier function of skin and less literature on lipids in barrier function of the oral mucosa. In terrestrial mammals, birds, and reptiles, the skin's permeability barrier is provided by ceramides, fatty acids, and cholesterol in the outermost layers of the epidermis, the stratum corneum. This layer consists of about 10-20 layers of cornified cells embedded in a lipid matrix. It effectively prevents loss of water and electrolytes from the underlying tissue, and it limits the penetration of potentially harmful substances from the environment. In the oral cavity, the regions of the gingiva and hard palate are covered by keratinized epithelia that much resemble the epidermis. The oral stratum corneum contains a lipid mixture similar to that in the epidermal stratum corneum but in lower amounts and is accordingly more permeable. The superficial regions of the nonkeratinized oral epithelia also provide a permeability barrier. These epithelial regions do contain ceramides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids, which may underlie barrier function. The oral epithelial permeability barriers primarily protect the underlying tissue by preventing the penetration of potentially toxic substances, including microbial products. Transdermal drug delivery, buccal absorption, and lipid-related disease are discussed.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/fisiologia , Membrana Mucosa/fisiologia , Dermatopatias/patologia , Pele , Administração Cutânea , Humanos , Queratinas/química , Queratinas/metabolismo , Mucosa Bucal/fisiologia , Permeabilidade , Pele/química , Pele/citologia , Dermatopatias/etiologia
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3709, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140509

RESUMO

Fibrotic skin disease represents a major global healthcare burden, characterized by fibroblast hyperproliferation and excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix. Fibroblasts are found to be heterogeneous in multiple fibrotic diseases, but fibroblast heterogeneity in fibrotic skin diseases is not well characterized. In this study, we explore fibroblast heterogeneity in keloid, a paradigm of fibrotic skin diseases, by using single-cell RNA-seq. Our results indicate that keloid fibroblasts can be divided into 4 subpopulations: secretory-papillary, secretory-reticular, mesenchymal and pro-inflammatory. Interestingly, the percentage of mesenchymal fibroblast subpopulation is significantly increased in keloid compared to normal scar. Functional studies indicate that mesenchymal fibroblasts are crucial for collagen overexpression in keloid. Increased mesenchymal fibroblast subpopulation is also found in another fibrotic skin disease, scleroderma, suggesting this is a broad mechanism for skin fibrosis. These findings will help us better understand skin fibrotic pathogenesis, and provide potential targets for fibrotic disease therapies.


Assuntos
Colágeno/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Queloide/metabolismo , Mesoderma/citologia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Colágeno/genética , Matriz Extracelular/genética , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Fibroblastos/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Ontologia Genética , Humanos , Queloide/genética , Queloide/patologia , Ligantes , Mesoderma/metabolismo , Mesoderma/patologia , RNA-Seq , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/metabolismo , Escleroderma Sistêmico/patologia , Análise de Célula Única , Dermatopatias/genética , Dermatopatias/metabolismo , Dermatopatias/patologia
17.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 33(2): 252-256, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dermatological diagnosis are mainly clinical; however, skin biopsies are frequently done to support clinical diagnosis when in doubt. Aim of this study is to relate the clinical diagnosis of various dermatological conditions with histopathological diagnosis. METHODS: In this descriptive prospective study, 223 patients were enrolled from dermatology OPD at Benazir Bhutto Hospital through non-probability consecutive sampling. Patients were diagnosed clinically and skin biopsies of all patients were taken after informed consent and clinical data was sent to a histopathologist. RESULTS: Patients between ages of 2-85 years were evaluated. Mean age was 39.65±19.43 years. Out of total 223 patients 112 were males and 111 were females. Clinical diagnosis was same as histopathological diagnosis in 180 (80.7%). Out of 80.7% cases, most common disorder was Eczema, 18 cases (10%). The diseases lying in the inflammatory dermatosis group have highest sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV, i.e., 91.2%, 90.8%, 84.1% and 86.8% respectively. The discordance between clinical and histological diagnosis was highest in infectious disease group. The concordance between clinical and histological diagnosis in infectious diseases was just 28%. CONCLUSIONS: Documenting a histological diagnosis is essential in dermatology as most of the dermatosis have mimicking clinical presentation. The inflammatory lesions have superior clinical and histopathological correlation as compared to infectious diseases and therefore dermatologists should try to biopsy infective dermatosis more often rather than relying on clinical judgment solely.


Assuntos
Dermatopatias/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Dermatopatias/patologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Adv Skin Wound Care ; 34(7): 348-354, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125725

RESUMO

GENERAL PURPOSE: To familiarize wound care practitioners with the differential diagnoses of chilblains-like lesions that could be associated with the complications of COVID-19. TARGET AUDIENCE: This continuing education activity is intended for physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. LEARNING OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES: After participating in this educational activity, the participant will:1. Identify the population most often affected by COVID toes.2. Select the assessments that help differentiate the various conditions that cause chilblains-like lesions.3. Choose appropriate treatment options for the various conditions that cause chilblains-like lesions.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Pérnio/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico , COVID-19/complicações , Pérnio/patologia , Pérnio/virologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Dedos/patologia , Humanos , Dermatopatias/patologia , Dermatopatias/virologia , Avaliação de Sintomas , Dedos do Pé/patologia
20.
Med Clin North Am ; 105(4): 699-721, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059246

RESUMO

Chronic pruritus (itch lasting ≥6 weeks) is a bothersome chief complaint that may present in a broad variety of diseases. Most itch-causing diagnoses fit into 1 of 5 categories (inflammatory, secondary to systemic disease, neuropathic, chronic pruritus of undetermined origin, and psychogenic itch) and this broad differential can be narrowed using key findings in the history and physical. In this article, we discuss which key findings are most pertinent for narrowing this differential and guiding further workup and treatment, as well as how to treat many itchy conditions.


Assuntos
Inflamação/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/complicações , Prurido/diagnóstico , Prurido/etiologia , Dermatopatias/patologia , Administração Tópica , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Algoritmos , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Antidepressivos/administração & dosagem , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Calcineurina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Calcineurina/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica , Aconselhamento/métodos , Detergentes/administração & dosagem , Detergentes/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Emolientes/administração & dosagem , Emolientes/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Neurotransmissores/administração & dosagem , Neurotransmissores/uso terapêutico , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Relaxamento/métodos
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