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1.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 15(1): 78-86, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465412

RESUMO

Globally, disasters appear to be growing in frequency, intensity and cost. While national governments provide varying levels of assistance to affected populations and regions, are local agencies doing what they can to prepare for the next disaster? This article discusses what can be done, sometimes at minimal cost, to be better prepared to recover economically from the next disaster.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Folclore , Ouro
2.
J Bus Contin Emer Plan ; 15(1): 87-104, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465413

RESUMO

Small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs) are vulnerable to disasters because of their limited ability to duplicate, separate and diversify their risk. SMEs must therefore rely on local personnel and resources to plan for, respond to, and recover from disasters. Unfortunately, community-level planning does not readily incorporate SMEs effectively. SMEs are thus forced to plan in isolation as current hazard risk analysis (HRA) models do not adequately account for the capacity of local personnel to respond to emergent hazards. Accordingly, this study posits an easy-to-use SME disaster impact model for HRA that combines probability theory and statistical analysis to integrate local personnel capacity. The model is designed specifically for SME usage; although, it can be applied to any organisation regardless of size. This study proposes a standardised HRA probability and consequence sequence based on the analysis of over 400 locations and risks that determined the model's reliability in practice. The posited SME disaster impact model for HRA effectively integrates vulnerability and local personnel capacity with services, personnel and equipment to optimise SME disaster response and recovery capacity.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Modelos Teóricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444313

RESUMO

Studies have yielded inconclusive findings regarding the relationship between disaster experience and materialism. Whereas some have found a positive relationship, others have reported a negative relationship. To clarify the mechanisms underlying these mixed findings, we proposed and examined two mechanisms, namely mortality salience and gratitude. A total of 214 participants (Mage = 42.05 years, SD = 16.49 years) were randomly assigned into either an experimental condition to experience a disaster or a control condition. Participants in the experimental condition reported a lower level of materialism than the scores of their counterparts in the control condition. Such effects were mediated by both mortality salience and gratitude. Participants in the experimental condition reported higher levels of both mortality salience and gratitude simultaneously. Mortality salience strengthened materialism, but gratitude weakened materialism. These findings highlighted the duel-existing mechanisms underlying the relationship between disaster experience and materialism.


Assuntos
Desastres , Adulto , Humanos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444080

RESUMO

The evidence supporting the idea that natural disaster-related prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) influences the child's development has been accumulating for several years. We conducted a meta-analytical review to quantify this effect on different spheres of child development: birth outcomes, cognitive, motor, physical, socio-emotional, and behavioral development. We systematically searched the literature for articles on this topic (2756 articles retrieved and 37 articles included in the systematic review), extracted the relevant data to calculate the effect sizes, and then performed a meta-analysis for each category of outcomes (30 articles included across the meta-analyses) and meta-regressions to determine the effect of some factors of interest on the association between PNMS and child development: type of PNMS (objective, psychological, cognitive, diet), type of natural disaster (ice storm, flood/cyclone), type of report (maternal, third-party observer, medical), timing of exposure (preconception exposure included or not) and child age at assessment (under 10 or 10 years and older). We found that PNMS significantly influences all spheres of child development. Higher PNMS levels were associated with longer gestational age, larger newborns, and higher BMI and adiposity levels, as well as worse cognitive, motor, socio-emotional, and behavioral outcomes.


Assuntos
Desastres , Desastres Naturais , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The nuclear or radiation disaster risk within the French Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes state is low (but not absent) due to its proximity to four Nuclear Power Generation Centers and two regional cancer control centers. This study aims to compare subjective stress ratings for emergency health care workers regarding nuclear and radiation disasters between two locations: at work versus at home. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We distributed an anonymous online questionnaire via RedCap® to all emergency health care workers who could be involved in patient care after a nuclear or radiation disaster. It comprised 18 questions divided into three parts-theoretical knowledge and practical assessment, stress assessment, and sociodemographic criteria. RESULTS: We analyzed 107 responses. There was a significant 11-point increase in stress levels between work and home regarding nuclear or radiation disaster risks (p = 0.01). Less than 25% of emergency health care workers surveyed benefited from annual training. CONCLUSION: The stress levels of emergency health care workers regarding nuclear or radiation disaster were higher at work than at home and increased without annual training. It is important to increase knowledge about these protocols and to mandate yearly training for all workers potentially involved in these disasters.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that living close to "blue spaces" (water features), particularly coastlines, has salutary effects on human health. METHODS: We analyzed five years of annual, self-reported general health and unhealthy days data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for 165 urban areas across the contiguous U.S. We compared health self-reports for people living in coastal vs. non-coastal urban areas and for residents of the disaster-prone Gulf of Mexico region vs. other locations. Coastal urban areas were defined as those having ≥50% of their population living within 20 km of a coast. RESULTS: We found no overall health advantage of residing in a coastal urban location when all urban areas were considered. However, residents from non-Gulf of Mexico coastal urban areas reported modestly better health than residents from non-coastal areas. In contrast, self-reported health of Gulf coastal urban residents was significantly poorer than that of residents from other urban areas. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of disasters and history of health and socioeconomic disparities in the Gulf region may be responsible, at least in part, for the apparent lack of health promoting effects of coastal location there.


Assuntos
Desastres , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Golfo do México , Humanos , Autorrelato
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444358

RESUMO

Prior research has found that Black and Latinx communities in the U.S. face significant disparities that impact both preparedness for severe weather events and the support received after a disaster has occurred. In the current study, we examined key risk and protective factors that impacted mental health among 221 Black and Latinx adult respondents exposed to the 2-3 March 2020 nocturnal tornado outbreak in the U.S. state of Tennessee. Key factors that adversely affected mental health among participants were encountering barriers for receiving tornado warning alerts and tornado-related exposure. Key factors that served a protective mechanism against adverse mental health included having access to physical resources, supportive relationships, and adaptive coping skills. These findings may assist National Weather Service (NWS) personnel, emergency managers, and mental health providers with the development of policies and practices to address barriers and promote protective strategies for future nocturnal tornado events.


Assuntos
Desastres , Tornados , Adulto , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Fatores de Proteção , Tempo (Meteorologia)
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444381

RESUMO

Disasters pose a real threat to the lives and property of citizens; therefore, it is necessary to reduce their impact to the minimum possible. In order to achieve this goal, a framework for enhancing the current disaster management system was proposed, called the smart disaster management system. The smart aspect of this system is due to the application of the principles of information and communication technology, especially the Internet of Things. All participants and activities of the proposed system were clarified by preparing a conceptual design by using The Unified Modeling Language diagrams. This effort was made to overcome the lack of citizens' readiness towards the use of information and communication technology as well as increase their readiness towards disasters. This study aims to develop conceptual design that can facilitate in development of smart management system for flooding disaster. This will assist in the design process of the Internet of Things systems in this regard.


Assuntos
Desastres , Comunicação , Inundações , Humanos
9.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 22(9): 1831-1839.e1, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390677

RESUMO

A coordinated emergency management response to disaster management in nursing homes is desperately needed globally. During the most recent COVID-19 pandemic, aside from a few exemplary countries, most countries have struggled to protect their nursing home populations. Timely and appropriate allocation of resources to nursing homes during disaster response is a challenging yet crucial task to prevent morbidity and mortality of residents. The responsibility for the management of nursing homes during the pandemic was multifaceted, and responsibilities lay at the national, jurisdictional, and regional levels. Success in managing COVID-19 in nursing homes required all these levels to be aligned and supportive, ideally through management by an emergency response leadership team. However, globally there is a paucity of effective management strategies. This article uses the example of the COVID-19 pandemic to propose a risk stratification system to ensure timely and appropriate allocation of resources to nursing homes during disaster preparation and management. Nursing homes should be risk-stratified according to 4 domains: risk of intrusion, capability for outbreak containment, failure in organizational capability, and failure in the availability of community and health care supports. Risk stratification should also consider factors such as current levels of community transmission, if applicable, and geographic location of nursing homes and services. Early identification of nursing homes at risk for infectious disease, or disasters, and targeted allocation of resources might help reduce the number of outbreaks, lower the mortality, and preserve community supports such as acute hospital services. The next step is to debate this concept to validate the selected variables and then develop and pilot test a risk stratification tool for use.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Desastres , Humanos , Casas de Saúde , Pandemias , Alocação de Recursos , Medição de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Nurs Educ ; 60(8): 445-448, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disaster simulation exercises provide a unique opportunity for nursing students to experience interprofessional collaboration. The limited study of interprofessional education using disaster simulation has focused on two to three health disciplines. In reality, teams comprise members from multiple disciplines in health care and emergency management. METHOD: A simulated disaster was held at a community college in Toronto, Canada. A total of 121 nursing students participated in the event, alongside students and providers from six health care and emergency management professions. A survey was used to evaluate nursing students' experiences. RESULTS: Nursing students (n = 78) reported a high level of satisfaction, and 90% reported the simulation demonstrated the importance of inter-professional practice. Two themes arose from participants' comments: communicating with patients and collaborating with health care and emergency management providers. CONCLUSION: There is a need for follow-up to evaluate the impact of this event on nursing students' future practice. [J Nurs Educ. 2021;60(8):445-448.].


Assuntos
Desastres , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Canadá , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360292

RESUMO

As communities recover from disasters, it is crucial to understand the extent to which states are prepared to support the recovery of health systems and services. This need has been emphasized by the United States' experience with COVID-19. This study sought to assess public health activities in state disaster recovery implementation plans. In this exploratory, descriptive study, state-wide disaster recovery implementation plans were collected from emergency management agency websites and verified (n = 33). We reviewed and coded the recovery plans to identify health-related activities. While 70% and 64% of reviewed plans included activities to address short-term healthcare and behavioral health needs, respectively, one-third or less of the plans included activities to address long-term healthcare and behavioral health needs. Further, plans have limited descriptions of health-related data collection, analysis, or data-driven processes. Additional evidence-informed public health requirements and activities are needed in disaster recovery implementation plans. State disaster recovery plans would benefit from additional description of public health roles, responsibilities, and activities, as well as additional plans for collecting and analyzing public health data to drive recovery decision making and activities. Plans should include approaches for ongoing evaluation of recovery activities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Humanos , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 682558, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368055

RESUMO

The 2016 Alberta wildfire, the largest insured natural disaster in Canada, led to a mass evacuation of residents of Fort McMurray, a small city in northern Alberta. The wildfire resulted in significant damages to housing and community infrastructure. The entire community was displaced for several weeks. Post-disaster, community members experienced individual and collective trauma, and other negative mental health impacts in response to the significant losses and grief they endured. Spirituality has been found to be a major protective factor in facilitating resiliency and recovery following the experience of disaster. Nonetheless, little focus has been directed toward how spirituality can strengthen and empower community capacity and growth during post-disaster recovery. Our study explored various meanings and concerns, along with tools and strategies that helped to nurture spiritual resilience and well-being among residents of Fort McMurray following the Alberta wildfire. Data were collected through interviews and focus group discussions with community influencers working to support long-term recovery efforts in the city. Participants identified a number of spiritual resources such as a strong sense of belonging, a shared positive outlook, faith and hope, compassion, and sense of gratitude, which contributed to increased resilience and positive health and well-being and helped them to support families and communities in the post disaster recovery period. Our findings indicate that spiritual values and beliefs can play a significant role in building resilience and promoting individual and communal healing and recovery post-disaster. These findings have important implications for post-disaster recovery strategies, as they highlight the need to ensure supports for interventions and initiatives that strengthen a collective sense of identity and social cohesion, informed by communal norms and beliefs, including programs and resources which support opportunities for reflexivity to foster shared healing and ongoing recovery processes.


Assuntos
Desastres , Incêndios Florestais , Alberta , Pesar , Humanos , Saúde Mental
13.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444948

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to estimate total energy expenditure (TEE) of fire-fighters using tri axial-accelerometers in conjunction with an activity log survey on a large number of subjects undergoing training mimicking a large-scale disaster. Subjects were 240 fire-fighters participating in a two-day fire-fighting training dedicated to large-scale natural disasters. Data was analyzed by job type of activity group and the job rank, and by comparing the average. The average TEE of the total survey training period is about 3619 (±499) kcal, which is the same value of expenditure for professional athletes during the soccer game season. From the activity group, the rescue and other teams consumed significantly more energy than the fire and Emergency Medical Team (EMS) teams. From the job rank, Fire Captain (conducting position) consumed significantly lower energy than the Fire Lieutenant and Fire Sergeant. Furthermore, it was found that a middle position rank consumed the most energy. This research supports a need to reconsider the current rescue food (and protocols) to supplement the energy expenditure of fire-fighters. In addition, since there was a significant difference between the job type and the job rank, it is necessary to examine the energy amount and shape suitable for each.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/métodos , Metabolismo Energético , Bombeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho de Resgate , Trabalho/fisiologia , Acelerometria/instrumentação , Adulto , Desastres , Bombeiros/educação , Humanos , Masculino , Necessidades Nutricionais , Treinamento por Simulação , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Am J Disaster Med ; 16(2): 105-121, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392523

RESUMO

A large and growing segment of the United States population resides in nursing homes. Many nursing home residents have multiple comorbidities, are unable to perform activities of daily living, and need assistance for their daily functioning. They are some of the most fragile and vulnerable members of the population. Disasters are increasing in frequency and severity. This makes it likely that disasters will strike nursing homes and affect their residents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of disasters in the United States that resulted in nursing home evacuations. There were 51 reported nursing home evacuations due to a disaster over 22.5 years between 1995 and 2017. Natural disasters were responsible for the majority of evacuations (58.8 percent) followed by man-made unintentional disasters (37.3 percent) and man-made intentional (arson) (3.9 percent). The single most common reason for evacuation was hurricanes (23.5 percent, N = 12) and internal fires (23.5 percent, N = 12). Water-related disasters accounted for nearly three-fourths of the natural disasters (hurricanes 40 percent, N = 12; floods, 33.3 percent, N = 10; total 73.3 percent, N = 22), then snow/ice storms (13.3 percent, N = 4). Of man-made disasters, over two-thirds (66.7 percent) were due to internal fires (internal fires, n = 12, 57.1 percent and arson n = 2, 9.5 percent; total N = 14, 66.7 percent). The highest number of evacuations occurred in Texas, Louisiana, Missouri, New York, and Pennsylvania. This knowledge should enable nursing home administrators, disaster planners, public health officials, and others to improve preparedness for disasters that lead to nursing home evacuations.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Atividades Cotidianas , Humanos , Casas de Saúde , Estados Unidos
16.
Front Public Health ; 9: 682634, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34395363

RESUMO

Children and youth are among the most vulnerable to the devastating effects of disaster due to the physical, cognitive, and social factors related to their developmental life stage. Yet children and youth also have the capacity to be resilient and act as powerful catalysts for change in their own lives and wider communities following disaster. Specific factors that contribute to resilience in children and youth, however, remain relatively unexplored. This article examines factors associated with high levels of resilience in 100 children and youth aged 5- to 18-years old who experienced the 2016 Fort McMurray, Alberta wildfire. A mixed-methods design was employed combining quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data was obtained from the Children and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM-28) which measured individual, caregiver, and context factors influencing resilience processes among the participants. Qualitative data was collected through semi-structured interviews to gain further insight into the disaster experiences of children and youth. Quantitative findings reveal higher than average levels of resilience among the participants compared to normative scores. Qualitative findings suggest high levels of resilience were associated with both caregiver factors (specifically physical caregiving), and individual factors (primarily peer support). We discuss how physical caregiving and peer support during and after the wildfire helped mitigate the negative effects of disaster, thus bolstering children and youth's resilience. Implications for understanding the specific social-ecological factors that facilitate and support resiliency processes and overall recovery of children and youth following disaster are also discussed.


Assuntos
Desastres , Incêndios Florestais , Adolescente , Idoso , Alberta , Cuidadores , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Aconselhamento , Humanos
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(32): e26830, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397887

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: For five years after the 2011 triple disaster (earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear disaster) in Japan, the proportion of patients with undiagnosed symptomatic breast cancer remained elevated in the coastal area of Fukushima. These individuals experienced a prolonged interval from first symptom recognition to initial medical consultation (hereafter referred to as the patient interval). We aimed to investigate how this prolonged patient interval affected disease staging.Using patient records, we retrospectively extracted females with newly and pathologically diagnosed breast cancer who initially presented to Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital from March 2011 to March 2016. We estimated the proportion with advanced-stage disease (III, IV) according to the patient interval duration (<3 months, 3-12 months, and 12 months plus). A cut-off patient interval value was determined based on the previous evidence with regards to impacts on survival prospects. Logistic regression approaches were used to fulfill the study outcome.The proportion of patients with advanced-stage disease was 10.3% for < 3 months (7/68), 18.2% for 3-12 months (2/11), and 66.7% for more than 12 months (12/18). We found a similar trend using the multivariate logistic regression analyses.Prolongation of the patient interval was associated with advanced-stage disease among female patients with breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Desastres , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450914

RESUMO

Drones are frequently used for the delivery of materials or other goods, and to facilitate the capture and transmission of data. Moreover, drone networks have gained significant interest in a number of scenarios, such as in quarantined or isolated areas, following technical damage due to a disaster, or in non-urbanized areas without communication infrastructure. In this context, we propose a network of drones that are able to fly on a map covered by regular polygons, with a well-established mobility schedule, to carry and transfer data. Two means exist to equidistantly cover an area with points, namely, grouping the points into equilateral triangles or squares. In this study, a network of drones that fly in an aerial area divided into squares was proposed and investigated. This network was compared with the case in which the area is divided into equilateral triangles. The cost of the square drone network was lower than that of the triangular network with the same cell length, but the efficiency factors were better for the latter. Two situations related to increasing the drone autonomy using drone charging or battery changing stations were analyzed. This study proposed a Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) to optimize the transmission of data. Multiple simulation studies based on experimental flight tests were performed using the proposed algorithm versus five traditional DTN methods. A light Wi-Fi Arduino development board was used for the data transfer between drones and stations using delivery protocols. The efficiency of data transmission using single-copy and multiple-copy algorithms was analyzed. Simulation results showed a better performance of the proposed Time-Dependent Drone (TD-Drone) Dijkstra algorithm compared with the Epidemic, Spray and Wait, PRoPHET, MaxProp, and MaxDelivery routing protocols.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Desastres
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203508

RESUMO

The influence of earthquake disasters on human social life is positively related to the magnitude and intensity of the earthquake, and effectively avoiding casualties and property losses can be attributed to the accurate prediction of earthquakes. In this study, an electromagnetic sensor is investigated to assess earthquakes in advance by collecting earthquake signals. At present, the mainstream earthquake magnitude prediction comprises two methods. On the one hand, most geophysicists or data analysis experts extract a series of basic features from earthquake precursor signals for seismic classification. On the other hand, the obtained data related to earth activities by seismograph or space satellite are directly used in classification networks. This article proposes a CNN and designs a 3D feature-map which can be used to solve the problem of earthquake magnitude classification by combining the advantages of shallow features and high-dimensional information. In addition, noise simulation technology and SMOTE oversampling technology are applied to overcome the problem of seismic data imbalance. The signals collected by electromagnetic sensors are used to evaluate the method proposed in this article. The results show that the method proposed in this paper can classify earthquake magnitudes well.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Desastres , Terremotos , Simulação por Computador , Fenômenos Eletromagnéticos , Humanos
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282784

RESUMO

The information propagation of emergencies in social networks is often accompanied by the dissemination of the topic and emotion. As a virtual sensor of public emergencies, social networks have been widely used in data mining, knowledge discovery, and machine learning. From the perspective of network, this study aims to explore the topic and emotion propagation mechanism, as well as the interaction and communication relations of the public in social networks under four types of emergencies, including public health events, accidents and disasters, social security events, and natural disasters. Event topics were identified by Word2vec and K-means clustering. The biLSTM model was used to identify emotion in posts. The propagation maps of topic and emotion were presented visually on the network, and the synergistic relationship between topic and emotion propagation as well as the communication characteristics of multiple subjects were analyzed. The results show that there were similarities and differences in the propagation mechanism of topic and emotion in different types of emergencies. There was a positive correlation between topic and emotion of different types of users in social networks in emergencies. Users with a high level of topic influence were often accompanied by a high level of emotion appeal.


Assuntos
Desastres , Mídias Sociais , Comunicação , Emergências , Emoções , Humanos , Rede Social
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