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2.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 625-635, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046914

RESUMO

Livestock production systems and the societies in which they are embedded face a set of risks presented by infectious diseases and natural and human-made disasters which compromise animal health. Within this set, threats are posed by natural, deliberate and accidental actions that can cause sudden changes in animal health status, requiring the allocation of additional resources to manage animal health. Determining the benefit of preparing for such emergencies is a challenge when the total set of risks includes the unknown. Any method for analysing the economic costs and benefits of animal health emergencies must not only accommodate this uncertainty, but make it a central feature of the analysis. Cost-benefit analysis is a key approach to economically evaluating animal health interventions. However, the value of this approach in dealing with uncertainty is often called into question. This paper makes the case that, by restricting the outcomes of an emergency event to specified states of nature, boundaries can be placed on the uncertainty space, allowing cost-benefit analysis to be performed. This method, which merges state-contingent analysis with cost-benefit analysis, is presented here. Further discussion on the economic characteristics of emergency events, and the nature of the threats posed to animal health systems, is also provided.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Desastres , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Análise Custo-Benefício , Emergências/veterinária , Humanos , Gado
3.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 615-623, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046915

RESUMO

National Veterinary Services (NVS) are increasingly called upon to respond to a wide range of disasters. The health, safety and wellness of Veterinary Services personnel are essential to maintaining a capable workforce and sustaining operational and organisational effectiveness. Disasters can generate hazards with potential impacts on health, including physical trauma, environmental exposure and psychological stress. Maintaining health, safety and wellness in the workforce requires leadership and training. Individuals and teams must be well equipped and well practised to address hazards and their mitigation, to prevent injury. Of particular concern for veterinarians are the behavioural health aspects of disasters. This issue has not received the attention required considering the scale and scope of the problem which, according to a recent survey, affects up to 50% of veterinary disaster responders. The symptoms cited in this survey range from anxiety to suicidal thoughts. Accordingly, more and better resources, including protective equipment, guidelines and training, must be developed to strengthen the capabilities of NVS to respond to disasters.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Médicos Veterinários , Animais , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 599-613, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046916

RESUMO

Statistics show that disasters have expanded in scope and scale, with impacts on both humans and animals. As animals are valued not only for their economic value, but also for their companionship, people sometimes risk their lives to protect them, and emergency responders are expected to safeguard their welfare during emergencies. This paper discusses experiences from different regions of the world in animal disaster risk reduction and management in terms of legislation, funding streams, planning, capacity development, and communications. It is widely recognised that human, animal and environmental well-being are interconnected; therefore, as this is the case, and as veterinarians are at the forefront in ensuring animal welfare, they should be involved throughout the disaster management cycle. While animals and their welfare should always be considered in national disaster management plans, sub-regional authorities must be empowered to integrate animal welfare principles when responding to emergencies and implementing risk reduction programmes. Capacity development is key for Veterinary Services personnel who work in the fields of disaster management and risk reduction. Training tools and curricula developed by different organisations are available to foster skills such as incident coordination, risk communication, or response planning using tools such as the Livestock Emergency Guidelines and Standards (LEGS). Intergovernmental organisations also play a significant role in setting the standards and frameworks within which professionals operate.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Médicos Veterinários , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Emergências/veterinária , Humanos
5.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 579-590, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046918

RESUMO

All-hazards preparedness and response planning requires ongoing individual, organisational and multi-jurisdictional learning. Disaster after-action reviews are an established emergency management practice to acquire knowledge through a process of analysing what happened and why, to improve the emergency response before the next crisis. After-action reviews help individuals and organisations learn, and are an essential step in the preparedness cycle. Human and animal health authorities have begun to employ after-action reviews for disaster preparedness and response among public health and Veterinary Services. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) encourages Members to establish after-action reviews and share best practice. The adoption of afteraction review is an essential step for all provincial, national and multinational emergency management authorities to mitigate the impact of disasters on human and animal health. Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases with pandemic potential pose unique preparedness challenges, requiring high-level policy attention to close long-standing gaps. A review of after-action reports from the 2001 anthrax bioterror attacks and of naturally occurring infectious disease crises, from the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) to the 2014 Ebola epidemic, reveal a similar pattern of repeated weakness and failures. These phenomena are described as 'lessons observed but not lessons learned'. Most infectious disease outbreaks with pandemic potential are zoonotic and require a One Health approach to prevent, prepare for and respond to global health security crises. After-action reviews in a One Health security context are essential to improve the pandemic preparedness of public health and Veterinary Services. After-action reviews can also provide the evidence-based 'feedback loop' needed to galvanise public policy and political will to translate lessons observed into sustained and applied lessons learned.


Assuntos
Desastres , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Saúde Global , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/veterinária , Humanos , Saúde Pública
6.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 551-559, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046920

RESUMO

Disaster and disaster risk management are described differently by various agencies, but the underlying principles remain the same. Disaster risk management is a continuous and integrated multidisciplinary and multisectoral process of planning and implementing measures that establish a culture of risk avoidance by building resilient communities. Such communities can only be created through a systematic process of education, training and development, involving all stakeholders. A researched comprehensive disaster management plan should be developed, but will only be successful if it sets clear priorities; is practised, tested, adapted and/or amended where necessary; and is practical, feasible and well understood by all those who are involved. Everyone who plays a role in implementing this plan must recognise that role and be well trained in its execution. Capacity building for disaster management is also a multisectoral, multidisciplinary, integrative process, achieved through a system of integrated education, training and public awareness programmes.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Animais
7.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 491-501, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046926

RESUMO

Disasters and disease outbreaks have long been a catalyst for innovative applications of emerging technologies. The urgent need to respond to an emergency leads to resourceful uses of the technologies at hand. However, the best and most cost-effective use of new technologies is to prevent disease and improve resilience. In this paper, the authors present a range of approaches through which both opportunities can be grasped. Global connectedness enables more data to be collected and processed in emergencies, especially with the rise of open-source data, including social media. In general, the poorest and most remote populations are most vulnerable to disaster. However, with smaller, faster, smarter, cheaper and more connected technology, reliable, efficient, and targeted response and recovery can be provided. Initially, crowdsourcing was used to find people, map affected areas, and determine resource allocation. This led to the generation of an overwhelming amount of data, and the need to extract valuable information from that data in a timely manner. As technology evolved, organisations started outsourcing many tasks, first to other people, then to machines. Since the volume of data generated outpaces human capacity, data analysis is being automated using artificial intelligence and machine learning, which furthers our abilities in predictive analytics. As we move towards prevention rather than remediation, information collection and processing must become faster and more efficient while maintaining accuracy. Moreover, these new strategies and technologies can help us to move forwards, by integrating layers of human, veterinary, public, and environmental health data for a One Health approach.


Assuntos
Desastres , Mídias Sociais , Animais , Inteligência Artificial , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Emergências/veterinária , Humanos
8.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 461-470, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046929

RESUMO

In recent times, there has been an increased focus on animal health and zoonotic diseases that have the potential to trigger epidemics or pandemics that disproportionately affect the poor and most vulnerable. The recent Ebola, Zika and COVID-19 outbreaks demonstrate the devastating human, social and economic impacts of such diseases if they are not prevented or controlled, ideally at source. The risk drivers for zoonoses, which are complex and often interdependent, include climate change and related disasters, antimicrobial resistance, and anthropogenic drivers such as land-use changes and animal production practices. Understanding these drivers requires a better understanding of the ecology of zoonotic diseases at the human-animal-environment interface. Biosecurity and biosafety are critical for reducing the risk of accidental or deliberate release and should be included in risk management strategies. International frameworks for sustainable development, climate change, and disaster risk reduction have all integrated health as one of the core areas of work, calling for better preparedness and response to biological hazards and increased health system resilience. To improve their ability to prevent, prepare for, and respond to emerging and re-emerging threats, countries should address these risk drivers, taking a multidisciplinary One Health approach that involves the animal and human health and environment sectors. Cross-border cooperation is also vital, as diseases know no boundaries.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Desastres , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Mudança Climática , Emergências/veterinária , Humanos , Gestão de Riscos , Infecção por Zika virus/veterinária , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
9.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 445-450, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046931

RESUMO

Technological disasters present a unique set of requirements for national Veterinary Services, encompassing complex issues of risk to human health, animal health and the environment. Cooperation among agencies and Ministries that do not routinely coordinate with one another during transboundary animal disease incidents or natural disaster responses may be required in technological disasters. Effective preparedness and response requires additional planning, training, exercises, and equipping to safely and efficiently provide the necessary services in a technological disaster.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Animais , Humanos
10.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 435-443, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046932

RESUMO

Complex emergencies, also known as major humanitarian emergencies, differ from emergencies related to natural disasters or major disease outbreaks, in that they are essentially political in nature and will, in most cases, erode the cultural, civil, political and economic stability of societies. They can be exacerbated by natural disasters and eventually require external interventions. National Veterinary Services are usually weakened or partially or totally disrupted. Interventions to support livestock-dependent communities should build on local capacity. Multisector, integrated disaster management plans should be in place and should include not only preparedness and response, but also mitigation, prevention and recovery strategies. National Veterinary Services and their partners should work in close collaboration and are encouraged to look beyond animal-health-related interventions, also addressing access to feed and water, and keeping marketing chains for livestock open. This paper also touches on the specific needs of displaced people, host communities, and pastoralists, as well as addressing disease eradication programmes in the context of complex emergencies.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Emergências/veterinária
11.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 417-425, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Espanhol, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046933

RESUMO

This case study outlines the actions of Cuba's Veterinary Service, as part of the country's disaster risk reduction and management system, in response to Hurricane Irma. The phenomenon affected ten of Cuba's 15 provinces and caused significant damage in 53 of its municipalities (29.6%). During the response effort, the pre-established measures for the various phases (warning, alert and emergency) were deployed according to the disaster reduction plans for each level. In all provinces, animals were protected by moving them to safer locations, allowing for pre-established sanitary measures and technical assistance. Nonetheless, damage was incurred, mainly to the roofs of some animal housing. The following deaths were recorded: 210,150 poultry, 2,752 cattle (of which 73.8% were calves) and 866 pigs (of which 68% were young animals). In addition, 7% of the inventory of hives was damaged and 3.3% of hives were lost. Damage to infrastructure included: 466 poultry houses, 1,422 cattle houses, 431 pig houses, 1,200 wind pumps and 13 of the country's 17 feed concentrate plants. As no major damage was reported to the Veterinary Service's facilities (laboratories and offices), its viability was guaranteed at all times. Rapid damage assessment enabled priorities for rehabilitation and recovery actions to be set, with the result that, just three months after the hurricane had struck, 67% of the poultry houses and 33% of the pig houses had been restored. This article focuses on preparedness, response and lessons learned.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Animais , Bovinos , Cuba , Abrigo para Animais , Suínos
12.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 393-398, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046936

RESUMO

This paper outlines the role of laboratories in animal-health-related disasters and emergencies, with a particular focus on biological threats - intentional, accidental and natural. Whilst multisectoral coordination is increasingly recognised as necessary for effective preparedness and response to all kinds of disasters, the role of the laboratory is often overlooked. The laboratories' involvement, not just in the response, but across all phases of disaster management - mitigation, planning, response and recovery - is essential, not only for improved animal health but for preservation of livelihoods and for food security, social cohesion and economic stability.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Animais , Emergências/veterinária , Laboratórios
13.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(9): 582-592, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041284

RESUMO

Objectives To build a healthy and safe community, it is important to provide direct services, such as health, medical, and social welfare services. However, it is also crucial to enhance the community's social capital by promoting self-help and mutual aid within the community. The development and utilization of resources/networks as well as community empowerment are possible methods to enhance social capital, but there is no conclusive method to facilitate effective coordination within the community. The purpose of this study is to clarify the community building process. This is achieved through qualitative research on community social coordinators (CSCs) who worked in an area that was significantly damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake.Methods A qualitative approach was employed to assess 10 individuals who worked as CSCs in a city within Miyagi Prefecture. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, which were between 40-90 minutes in length. A modified grounded theory approach (M-GTA) was used to analyze the data obtained from the interviews.Results The CSCs "built a relationship with the community," "assessed the community," and "intervened in the community." While assessing the community, they considered both its strengths and weaknesses, not limiting the fields it covered. To "solve the issues in the community," the CSCs "intervened in the community by themselves," "supported the autonomy of the residents," and "connected the residents to resources." This intervention was facilitated through "cooperation with the community" or "cooperation with other supporters."Conclusion Three stages were observed in the community building process. First, the CSCs built a relationship with the community. They then assessed the community, and intervened as required. It was found that the intervention-which was based on the CSCs' assessment of the community's strengths and weaknesses-was facilitated by the cooperation of the community or that of other supporters. Additionally, the CSCs aimed to promote the autonomy of the residents.


Assuntos
Desastres , Capital Social , Planejamento Social , Seguridade Social , Serviço Social , Assistentes Sociais , Adulto , Terremotos , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Autonomia Relacional
14.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 2): 4225-4230, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027359

RESUMO

There is credible evidence that the 1984-Bhopal-methyl isocyanate (MIC)-gas-exposed long-term survivors and their offspring born post-exposure are susceptible to infectious/communicable and non-communicable diseases. Bhopal's COVID-19 fatality rate suggests that the MIC-gas tragedy survivors are at higher risk, owing to a weakened immune system and co-morbidities. This situation emboldened us to ponder over what we know, what we don't, and what we should know about their susceptibility to COVID-19. This article aims at answering these three questions that emerge in the minds of public health officials concerning prevention strategies against COVID-19 and health promotion in the Bhopal MIC-affected population (BMAP). Our views and opinions presented in this article will draw attention to prevent and reduce the consequences of COVID-19 in BMAP. From the perspective of COVID-19 prophylaxis, the high-risk individuals from BMAP with co-morbidities need to be identified through a door-to-door visit to the severely gas-affected regions and advised to maintain good respiratory hygiene, regular intake of immune-boosting diet, and follow healthy lifestyle practices.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Isocianatos/toxicidade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Sobreviventes , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Desastres , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Índia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Autocuidado , Populações Vulneráveis
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(9)2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943446

RESUMO

The global threat posed by the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need to accurately identify the immediate and long-term postdisaster impacts on disaster-relief workers. We examined the case of a local government employee suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and bipolar II disorder following the Great East Japan Earthquake. The complex and harsh experience provoked a hypomanic response such as elated feelings with increased energy, decreased need for sleep and an increase in goal-directed activity, which allowed him to continue working, even though he was adversely affected by the disaster. However, 3.5 years later, when he suffered further psychological damage, his PTSD symptoms became evident. In addition to treating mood disorders, trauma-focused psychotherapy was required for his recovery. Thereafter, we considered the characteristics of mental health problems that emerge in disaster-relief workers, a long time after the disaster, and the conditions and treatments necessary for recovery.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Terremotos , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Socorro em Desastres , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Tsunamis , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Transtorno Bipolar/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Desastres , Humanos , Terapia Implosiva , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937946

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic poses unprecedented challenges for governments and societies around the world and represents a global crisis of hitherto unexperienced proportions. Our research seeks to analyse disaster management systems from a national perspective by examining the Korean management of the COVID-19 crisis according to a four-phase epidemiological disaster management system. Utilising a meta-study, official documents, reports and interviews, we explore the role of the control tower mechanism related to the life-cycle of disaster management, and Korea's sustainable containment strategy. This study begins with a discussion of the crisis and disaster management literature and provides specific information related to the Korean government's response to COVID-19. It continues by detailing specific strategies such as wide-spread testing, tracking, treatment and quarantine that have enabled Korea to prevent wide-spread community transmission. The study concludes emphasising the relevance of systematic national disaster management, providing insight into methods for containment in Korea - a system commended by the WHO. Implications include the extension and the efficient application of disaster management theory by empirical application and integration of concepts.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Desastres , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Governo Federal , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , República da Coreia
18.
Science ; 369(6509)2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913071

RESUMO

Robock claims that our analysis fails to acknowledge that pan-tropical surface cooling caused by large volcanic eruptions may mask El Niño warming at our central Pacific site, potentially obscuring a volcano-El Niño connection suggested in previous studies. Although observational support for a dynamical response linking volcanic cooling to El Niño remains ambiguous, Robock raises some important questions about our study that we address here.


Assuntos
Desastres , El Niño Oscilação Sul
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 744: 140973, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947761

RESUMO

This work turns the social resilience concept into a practical and tangible set of dimensions and indicators for social resilience assessment. It further provides an analysis of the social resilience concept in the context of flood risk governance. Floods are a worldwide recurring phenomenon that causes severe social, economic and environmental losses. In the context of global change, it is very difficult to accurately predict extreme events that may increase disaster frequency; hence the implementation of social resilience is essential to lessen the losses. Indeed, the right balance between natural and social factors and indicators is yet to be found. Social resilience has been debated extensively for decades, both in scientific and political contexts. It has been a concern in disaster risk reduction and risk governance fields, both of which have strived to implement it. The enlarged conceptual discussion regarding this topic has resulted in some indicator-based assessments that hardly reflect the conceptual discussion developed so far. These indicator-based approaches still lack accurate inclusion of social dynamics and the capacity to learn from experience. In order to contribute to a comprehensive approach (concept and methods) for assessing social resilience to floods, the evolutionary resilience concept (Davoudi, Simin; Shaw, Keith; Haider, L. Jamila; Quilnlan, Allyson E; Petterson, Garry D.; Wilkinson, Cathy; Fünfgeld, Hartmut; McEvoy, Darryn; Porter, 2012) was considered as a reference in this work, as it can include dimensions that are difficult to evaluate (non-static time and learning-capacity in multi-dimensional systems). This work addresses the challenge of a conceptual overview of social resilience to include key factors and indicators. Our methodology uses text mining, experts' surveys and bibliography reviews to generate an indicators database. The contribution of this article to the scientific debate on social resilience assessment is twofold. First, the key-concepts, words and expressions in this field are identified, which provides the basis to build a comprehensive and coherent analytical framework. Secondly, an original indicators database is proposed in line with that framework. The results of a text mining-based methodology and an online survey, involving experts from different countries, show that four of the six dimensions of the indicators database refer to social aspects of risks (Individuals, Society, Governance, and Built Environment), while the remaining two refer to the Environment and Disaster. The results obtained so far suggest the need for a next step aiming to validate the dimensions and the indicators of this database through its application to real case studies.


Assuntos
Desastres , Inundações , Mineração de Dados , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Tijdschr Gerontol Geriatr ; 51(3)2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951401

RESUMO

Long-term care for older adults is highly affect by the COVID-19 outbreak. The objective of this rapid review is to understand what we can learn from previous crises or disasters worldwide to optimize the care for older adults in long term care facilities during the outbreak of COVID-19. We searched five electronic databases to identify potentially relevant articles. In total, 23 articles were included in this study.Based on the articles, it appeared that nursing homes benefit from preparing for the situation as best as they can. For instance, by having proper protocols and clear division of tasks and collaboration within the organization. In addition, it is helpful for nursing homes to collaborate closely with other healthcare organizations, general practitioners, informal caregivers and local authorities. It is recommended that nursing homes pay attention to capacity and employability of staff and that they support or relieve staff where possible. With regard to care for the older adults, it is important that staff tries to find a new daily routine in the care for residents as soon as possible. Some practical tips were found on how to communicate with people who have dementia. Furthermore, behavior of people with dementia may change during a crisis. We found tips for staff how to respond and act upon behavior change. After the COVID-19 outbreak, aftercare for staff, residents, and informal caregivers is essential to timely detect psychosocial problems.The consideration between, on the one hand, acute safety and risk reduction (e.g. by closing residential care facilities and isolating residents), and on the other hand, the psychosocial consequences for residents and staff, were discussed in case of other disasters. Furthermore, the search of how to provide good (palliative) care and to maintain quality of life for older adults who suffer from COVID-19 is also of concern to nursing home organizations. In the included articles, the perspective of older adults, informal caregivers and staff is often lacking. Especially the experiences of older adults, informal caregivers, and nursing home staff with the care for older adults in the current situation, are important in formulating lessons about how to act before, during and after the coronacrisis. This may further enhance person-centered care, even in times of crisis. Therefore, we recommend to study these experiences in future research.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/organização & administração , Casas de Saúde/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Comunicação , Demência , Desastres , Humanos , Pandemias , Qualidade de Vida
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