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1.
Acta Odontol Latinoam ; 33(1): 45-49, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621599

RESUMO

The gutta-percha cones used in endodontic treatment are produced in aseptic conditions and their composition includes zinc oxide, which is responsible for antibacterial activity. However, there is the possibility of microbial contamination by manipulation, aerosol or during storage. Although several chemical agents have been tested for their decontamination, there is no consensus on the best disinfection protocol to be used. The aim of this study was to evaluate the decontamination of gutta-percha cones contaminated with the bacteria Enterococcus faecalis, by using chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) at different concentrations for short exposure times. For this purpose, gutta-percha cones (size 40) were selected at random from a sealed box and immersed for 1 min in a microbial suspension. Then they were immersed in specific Petri dishes for different groups containing: CHX 2%, NaClO 1% or NaClO 2.5% for 30 s or 1 min, and subsequently placed in tubes containing BHI broth. After incubating the tubes for 48 h, it was observed that 1% and 2.5% NaClO and 2% CHX were effective for decontaminating the cones at those exposure time intervals. Microbial growth was detected in one of the replicates of the group with CHX applied for 30 s. To prevent the possibility of failures at this stage, the exposure time of gutta-percha cones to the decontaminating agent should not be reduced.


Assuntos
Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Descontaminação/métodos , Desinfetantes de Equipamento Odontológico/farmacologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Guta-Percha , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Esterilização/métodos , Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Desinfetantes de Equipamento Odontológico/administração & dosagem , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/administração & dosagem , Hipoclorito de Sódio/administração & dosagem
2.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 33(7): 895-899, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited assessments with handheld ultrasound have found meaningful clinical use in the care of acutely ill patients. However, there are limited data on incorporating handheld-based limited echocardiography into the echocardiography laboratory. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of limited handheld tablet echocardiography as an alternative to traditional echocardiography during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic as a means to limit exposure while providing essential clinical information. METHODS: Ninety consecutive inpatients with known or suspected COVID-19 were scanned according to laboratory COVID-19 guidelines using a limited 11- to 20-clip protocol on a tablet sonograph. The primary assessment was length of study time. Comparison data were drawn from comprehensive echocardiographic examinations ordered on intensive care patients not under COVID-19 precautions. RESULTS: Over a 36-day time period, a total of 91 requests were deemed to be appropriate for echocardiography on patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 (average age, 67 years; 64% men; mean body mass index, 32 kg/m2). Of these, 90 (99%) examinations were performed using a handheld device, and all were deemed diagnostic and provided sufficient information for the clinical care team. Sonographer scan time decreased from an average of 24 ± 6.8 min on a traditional platform to 5.4 ± 1.9 min on a tablet. CONCLUSIONS: Limited handheld echocardiography can be successfully implemented in the echocardiography laboratory for screening of COVID-19-related cardiac conditions. The protocol performed with handheld tablet ultrasound provides adequate diagnostic information of major cardiac complications of COVID-19 while decreasing sonographer contact and simplifying decontamination.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Computadores de Mão , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Descontaminação/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Ecocardiografia/instrumentação , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Connecticut/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Seguimentos , Cardiopatias/complicações , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
3.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234851, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609741

RESUMO

A lack of N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirators (FFRs) during the COVID-19 crisis has placed healthcare workers at risk. It is important for any N95 reuse strategy to determine the effects that proposed protocols would have on the physical functioning of the mask, as well as the practical aspects of implementation. Here we propose and implement a method of heating N95 respirators with moisture (85°C, 60-85% humidity). We test both mask filtration efficiency and fit to validate this process. Our tests focus on the 3M 1860, 3M 1870, and 3M 8210 Plus N95 models. After five cycles of the heating procedure, all three respirators pass both quantitative fit testing (score of >100) and show no degradation of mask filtration efficiency. We also test the Chen Heng V9501 KN95 and HKYQ N95 finding no degradation of mask filtration efficiency, however even for unheated masks these scored <50 for every fit test. The heating method presented here is scalable from individual masks to over a thousand a day with a single industrial convection oven, making this method practical for local application inside health-care facilities.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Descontaminação/métodos , Reutilização de Equipamento , Calefação/métodos , Umidade , Máscaras/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Filtração/instrumentação , Humanos , Teste de Materiais/métodos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
4.
A A Pract ; 14(8): e01263, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643908

RESUMO

Some patients infected with the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) require endotracheal intubation, an aerosol-generating procedure that is believed to result in viral transmission to personnel performing the procedure. Additionally, donning and doffing personal protective equipment can be time consuming. In particular, doffing requires strict protocol adherence to avoid exposure. We describe the Emory Healthcare intubation team approach during the COVID-19 pandemic. This structure resulted in only 1 team member testing positive for COVID-19 despite 253 patient intubations over a 6-week period with 153 anesthesia providers on service.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Lista de Checagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Descontaminação , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/instrumentação , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
6.
J Spec Oper Med ; 20(2): 127-131, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573749

RESUMO

Working canines are frequently exposed to hazardous environments with a high potential for contamination. Environmental contamination may occur in many ways. Contamination may be chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear. Examples may include a pipeline rupture following an earthquake, microbiological contamination of floodwaters, or exposure to toxic industrial chemical such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, or toluene. Evidence to support effective methods for decontamination of equipment commonly used by working canines is lacking. Recent work has identified decontamination protocols for working canines, but little data are available to guide the decontamination of equipment used during tactical operations. The objective of our work was to investigate the effects of cleanser, cleaning method, and material type on contaminant reduction for tactical canine equipment materials using an oil-based contaminant as a surrogate for toxic industrial chemical exposure. A contaminant was applied, and effectiveness was represented as either success (= 50% contaminant reduction) or failure (< 50% contaminant reduction). A two-phase study was used to investigate cleanser, method of cleaning, and material types for effective contaminant reduction. In phase 1, Simple Green® cleanser had a higher frequency (P = .0075) of failure, but method and material did not affect contamination reduction (P > .05). In phase 2, Dawn® (P = .0004) and Johnson's® (P = .0414) successfully reduced contamination. High-pressure cleaning (HPC) resulted in successful decontamination (P < .0001). These novel data demonstrate potential techniques for reduction of contaminants on tactical canine equipment.


Assuntos
Descontaminação/métodos , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Animais , Cães , Militares
7.
J Esthet Restor Dent ; 32(5): 521-529, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598095

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of human saliva decontamination protocols on bond strength of resin cement to zirconia (Y-PSZ), wettability, and microbial decontamination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Zirconia plates were sandblasted and divided into (a) not contaminated, (b) contaminated with human saliva and: (c) not cleaned, (d) cleaned with air-water spray, (e) cleaned with 70% ethanol, (f) cleaned with Ivoclean, or (g) cleaned with nonthermal atmospheric plasma (NTAP). The wettability and microbial decontamination of the surfaces were determined after saliva contamination or cleaning. Monobond Plus (Ivoclar Vivadent) was applied after cleaning, followed by Variolink LC (Ivoclar Vivadent). The samples were stored 1 week before shear bond strength (SBS) testing, and data (SBS and wettability) were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (α = .05). RESULTS: Saliva contamination reduced SBS to zirconia compared to not contaminated. Both Ivoclean and NTAP produced higher SBS compared to not cleaned and were not significantly different from the not contaminated. Ivoclean produced the highest contact angle, and NTAP the lowest. With the exception of using just water-spray, all cleaning protocols decontaminated the specimens. CONCLUSIONS: Both Ivoclean and NTAP overcame the effects of saliva contamination, producing an SBS to zirconia comparable to the positive control. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Dental ceramics should be cleaned prior to resin cementation to eliminate the effects of human saliva contamination, and Ivoclean and NTAP are considered suitable materials for this purpose.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Cerâmica , Descontaminação , Análise do Estresse Dentário , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Cimentos de Resina , Propriedades de Superfície , Molhabilidade , Zircônio
8.
Infez Med ; 28(suppl 1): 57-63, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532940

RESUMO

Masks are widely discussed during the course of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Most hospitals have implemented universal masking for their healthcare workers, and the Center for Disease Control currently advises even the general public to wear cloth masks when outdoors. The pertinent need for masks arises from plausible dissemination of the SARS-CoV-2 through close contacts, as well as the possibility of virus transmission from asymptomatic, pre-symptomatic, and mildly symptomatic individuals. Given current global shortages in personal protective equipment, the efficacy of various types of masks: N95 respirators, surgical masks, and cloth masks are researched. To accommodate limited supplies, techniques for extended use, reuse, and sterilization of masks are strategized. However, masks alone may not greatly slow down the COVID-19 pandemic unless they are coupled with adequate social distancing, diligent hand hygiene, and other proven preventive measures.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Aerossóis , Microbiologia do Ar , Doenças Assintomáticas , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Descontaminação , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Higiene , Máscaras/classificação , Máscaras/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas , Quarentena , Termometria , Precauções Universais , Carga Viral
9.
mBio ; 11(3)2020 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32587063

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has caused a severe, international shortage of N95 respirators, which are essential to protect health care providers from infection. Given the contemporary limitations of the supply chain, it is imperative to identify effective means of decontaminating, reusing, and thereby conserving N95 respirator stockpiles. To be effective, decontamination must result in sterilization of the N95 respirator without impairment of respirator filtration or user fit. Although numerous methods of N95 decontamination exist, none are universally accessible. In this work, we describe a microwave-generated steam decontamination protocol for N95 respirators for use in health care systems of all sizes, geographies, and means. Using widely available glass containers, mesh from commercial produce bags, a rubber band, and a 1,100-W commercially available microwave, we constructed an effective, standardized, and reproducible means of decontaminating N95 respirators. Employing this methodology against MS2 phage, a highly conservative surrogate for SARS-CoV-2 contamination, we report an average 6-log10 plaque-forming unit (PFU) (99.9999%) and a minimum 5-log10 PFU (99.999%) reduction after a single 3-min microwave treatment. Notably, quantified respirator fit and function were preserved, even after 20 sequential cycles of microwave steam decontamination. This method provides a valuable means of effective decontamination and reuse of N95 respirators by frontline providers facing urgent need.IMPORTANCE Due to the rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there is an increasing shortage of protective gear necessary to keep health care providers safe from infection. As of 9 April 2020, the CDC reported 9,282 cumulative cases of COVID-19 among U.S. health care workers (CDC COVID-19 Response Team, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 69:477-481, 2020, https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6915e6). N95 respirators are recommended by the CDC as the ideal method of protection from COVID-19. Although N95 respirators are traditionally single use, the shortages have necessitated the need for reuse. Effective methods of N95 decontamination that do not affect the fit or filtration ability of N95 respirators are essential. Numerous methods of N95 decontamination exist; however, none are universally accessible. In this study, we describe an effective, standardized, and reproducible means of decontaminating N95 respirators using widely available materials. The N95 decontamination method described in this work will provide a valuable resource for hospitals, health care centers, and outpatient practices that are experiencing increasing shortages of N95 respirators due to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos da radiação , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Descontaminação/instrumentação , Descontaminação/métodos , Máscaras , Vapor , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Descontaminação/normas , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção/instrumentação , Desinfecção/métodos , Reutilização de Equipamento/normas , Filtração , Humanos , Micro-Ondas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Esterilização , Estados Unidos
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 411, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of healthcare-acquired infections (HAI) and rising levels of antimicrobial resistance places significant economic and public health burdens on modern healthcare systems. A group of highly drug resistant pathogens known as the ESKAPE pathogens, along with C. difficile, are the leading causes of HAIs. Interactions between patients, healthcare workers, and environmental conditions impact disease transmission. Studying pathogen transfer under varying contact scenarios in a controlled manner is critical for understanding transmission and disinfectant strategies. In lieu of human subject research, this method has the potential to contribute to modeling the routes of pathogen transmission in healthcare settings. METHODS: To overcome these challenges, we have developed a method that utilizes a synthetic skin surrogate to model both direct (skin-to-skin) and indirect (skin-to fomite-to skin) pathogen transfer between infected patients and healthy healthcare workers. This surrogate material includes a background microbiome community simulating typical human skin flora to more accurately mimic the effects of natural flora during transmission events. RESULTS: We demonstrate the ability to modulate individual bacterial concentrations within this microbial community to mimic bacterial concentrations previously reported on the hands of human subjects. We also explore the effect of various decontamination approaches on pathogen transfer between human subjects, such as the use of handwashing or surface disinfectants. Using this method, we identify a potential outlier, S. aureus, that may persist and retain viability in specific transfer conditions better than the overall microbial community during decontamination events. CONCLUSIONS: Our work describes the development of an in vitro method that uses a synthetic skin surrogate with a defined background microbiota to simulate skin-to-skin and skin-to fomite-to skin contact scenarios. These results illustrate the value of simulating a holistic microbial community for transfer studies by elucidating differences in different pathogen transmission rates and resistance to common decontamination practices. We believe this method will contribute to improvements in pathogen transmission modeling in healthcare settings and increase our ability to assess the risk associated with HAIs, although additional research is required to establish the degree of correlation of pathogen transmission by skin or synthetic alternatives.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Modelos Biológicos , Clostridium difficile , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Descontaminação/métodos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Fômites/microbiologia , Humanos , Viabilidade Microbiana , Microbiota , Pele/microbiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559037

RESUMO

Peri-implantitis is a biologic complication that can affect the survival of a dental implant. Most surgical and nonsurgical treatments have been relatively ineffective even when using targeted antimicrobial approaches. A growing number of reports are documenting the presence of titanium granules and/or cement in the soft tissues surrounding peri-implantitis-affected dental implants. Two case reports are presented demonstrating how the Nd:YAG or a carbon dioxide (CO2) laser used following regenerative surgeries changed failures into successes as measured by radiographic bone fill and improved clinical parameters. These cases suggest that successful peri-implantitis treatment may need to incorporate decontamination of the soft tissues in addition to the implant's surface. Further studies are warranted to determine if each of these lasers would be successful over a larger patient cohort.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Lasers de Gás , Peri-Implantite , Descontaminação , Humanos , Titânio
12.
Chem Biol Interact ; 325: 109135, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428449

RESUMO

Early initiated decontamination is demonstrated to be crucial to avoid systemic effects of highly toxic and low volatile agents exposed on the skin. Skin decontamination can be performed by simple procedures, such as washing with soap and water, or by using advanced decontamination products containing absorption and agent degradation properties. Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) has demonstrated high efficacy to remove nerve agents from the skin. However, contrary to the current operational recommendations, experimental studies have shown that prolonged skin contact time of RSDL is important for efficient decontamination of VX. In the present study, several RSDL-protocols were evaluated for the efficacy to remove neat VX from human skin in vitro. The decontamination efficacies of the RSDL-procedures were compared with the efficacy of the simple procedure of washing off the skin with soapy water. The RSDL-protocols containing repeated swabbing with the sponge and a 10 min skin contact time of RSDL-lotion demonstrated the greatest decontamination efficacy of all procedures evaluated. Repeating the protocol 2 h after the initial decontamination step resulted in a transient increased skin penetration of remaining intact agent on skin and was followed by rapidly declined agent penetration rate. Decontamination performed with soapy water significantly increased agent amounts penetrating skin, most likely caused by skin hydration and agent dilution. In conclusion, a slightly extended procedure for RSDL-decontamination showed improved efficacy and is therefore recommended for removal of nerve agents from the skin. In addition, it is of highest importance that skin decontamination of nerve agents should consist of procedures using low water content.


Assuntos
Descontaminação/métodos , Agentes Neurotóxicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Organotiofosforados/isolamento & purificação , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Agentes Neurotóxicos/metabolismo , Compostos Organotiofosforados/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Sabões/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(23): 28679-28694, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447734

RESUMO

Industries continuously emit xenobiotics into the environment, which increases risks of exposing humans and other biota to xenobiotics. Though various conventional and modern environmental remediation technologies are being employed, some of them are ineffective in removing xenobiotics, while others are costly and not feasible for large-scale utilization. Maize stover (MS) and rice husks (RH) are produced in abundance globally, which make them ideal and cost-effective feedstocks for large-scale biochar production for environmental remediation. Since either type of pristine MS and RH biochar may not be effective in removing some xenobiotics, the incorporation of modifiers into MS/RH biochars can help to form composite MS/RH biochar which in turn can better decontaminate water and soil. Thus, this review paper provides a comprehensive overview of the preparation, characterization, and environmental remediation using pristine and composite MS/RH biochar. Possible areas for composite MS/RH biochar applications and future perspectives of the technology in reducing xenobiotics are also proposed in this paper.


Assuntos
Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Carvão Vegetal , Descontaminação , Solo , Água , Xenobióticos , Zea mays
14.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 245(11): 933-939, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32397762

RESUMO

IMPACT STATEMENT: There is a critical shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE) around the globe. This article describes the safe collection, storage, and decontamination of N95 respirators using hydrogen peroxide vapor (HPV). This article is unique because it describes the HPV process in an operating room, and is therefore, a deployable method for many healthcare settings. Results presented here offer creative solutions to the current PPE shortage.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Descontaminação/métodos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Máscaras/virologia , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
15.
Muscle Nerve ; 62(2): 176-181, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462675

RESUMO

As the world accommodates to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, routine in-person medical services are resuming. The resumption of non urgent electrodiagnostic (EDX) testing faces unique challenges due to the long duration of the procedure and direct close contact with patients, including studies with risk of exposure to oropharyngeal secretions. We provide consensus guidance for resumption of EDX testing, addressing scheduling, patient arrival and registration, use of personal protective equipment, COVID-19 screening and testing, the performance of EDX testing in outpatient and inpatient settings, cleaning and maintenance of the EDX equipment and laboratory, balancing trainee safety and training requirements, and patient care issues. These are broad recommendations that need to be adapted to local COVID-19 risks, institutional guidelines and policies, and changing federal, state, and local regulations, and to changes in the pandemic over time.


Assuntos
Agendamento de Consultas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Eletrodiagnóstico/métodos , Higiene das Mãos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Assistência Ambulatorial , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Descontaminação , Eletromiografia , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Máscaras , Programas de Rastreamento , Condução Nervosa , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 35: 101704, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mobile phones have become an integral part of modern society. As possible breeding grounds for microbial organisms, these constitute a potential global public health risk for microbial transmission. OBJECTIVE: Scoping review of literature examining microbial's presence on mobile phones in both health care (HC) and community settings. METHODS: A search (PubMed&GoogleScholar) was conducted from January 2005-December 2019 to identify English language studies. Studies were included if samples from mobile phones were tested for bacteria, fungi, and/or viruses; and if the sampling was carried out in any HC setting, and/or within the general community. Any other studies exploring mobile phones that did not identify specific microorganisms were excluded. RESULTS: A total of 56 studies were included (from 24 countries). Most studies identified the presence of bacteria (54/56), while 16 studies reported the presence of fungi. One study focused solely on RNA viruses. Staphylococcus aureus, and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci were the most numerous identified organisms present on mobile phones. These two species and Escherichia coli were present in over a third of studies both in HC and community samples. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Acinetobacter sp., and Bacillus sp. were present in over a third of the studies in HC settings. CONCLUSIONS: While this scoping review of literature regarding microbial identification on mobile phones in HC and community settings did not directly address the issue of SARS-CoV-2 responsible for COVID-19, this work exposes the possible role of mobile phones as a 'Trojan horse' contributing to the transmission of microbial infections in epidemics and pandemics.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Descontaminação , Desinfecção , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Características de Residência
18.
Chemosphere ; 253: 126673, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302900

RESUMO

In this study, computational and statistical models were applied to optimize the inherent parameters of an electrochemical decontamination of synozol red. The effect of various experimental variables such as current density, initial pH and concentration of electrolyte on degradation were assessed at Ti/RuO0·3TiO0·7O2 anode. Response surface methodology (RSM) based central composite design was applied to investigate interdependency of studied variables and train an artificial neural network (ANN) to envisage the experimental training data. The presence of fifteen neurons proved to have optimum performance based on maximum R2, mean absolute error, absolute average deviation and minimum mean square error. In comparison to RSM and empirical kinetics models, better prediction and interpretation of the experimental results were observed by ANN model. The sensitive analysis revealed the comparative significance of experimental variables are pH = 61.03%>current density = 17.29%>molar concentration of NaCl = 12.7%>time = 8.98%. The optimized process parameters obtained from genetic algorithm showed 98.6% discolorization of dye at pH 2.95, current density = 5.95 mA cm-2, NaCl of 0.075 M in 29.83 min of electrolysis. The obtained results revealed that the use of statistical and computational modeling is an adequate approach to optimize the process variables of electrochemical treatment.


Assuntos
Compostos Azo/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Descontaminação , Eletrodos , Eletrólise , Cinética , Modelos Estatísticos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Titânio , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água
19.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 323: 108592, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315871

RESUMO

Microbial surface contamination of equipment or of food contact material is a recurring problem in the food industry. Spore-forming bacteria are far more resistant to a wide variety of treatments than their vegetative forms. Understanding the mechanisms underlying decontamination processes is needed to improve surface decontamination strategies against endospores potentially at the source of foodborne diseases or food-spoilage. Pulsed light (PL) with xenon lamps delivers high-energy short-time pulses of light with wavelengths in the range 200 nm-1100 nm and a high UV-C fraction. Bacillus subtilis spores were exposed to either PL or to continuous UV-C. Gel electrophoresis and western blotting revealed elimination of various proteins of the spore coat, an essential outer structure that protects spores from a wide variety of environmental conditions and inactivation treatments. Proteomic analysis confirmed the elimination of some spore coat proteins after PL treatment. Transmission electron microscopy of PL treated spores revealed a gap between the lamellar inner spore coat and the outer spore coat. Overall, spores of mutant strains with defects in genes coding for spore coat proteins were more sensitive to PL than to continuous UV-C. This study demonstrates that radiations delivered by PL contribute to specific damage to the spore coat, and overall to spore inactivation.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Bacillus subtilis/efeitos da radiação , Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Proteínas do Capsídeo/efeitos da radiação , Descontaminação/métodos , Luz , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Parede Celular/efeitos da radiação , Descontaminação/normas , Proteômica , Esporos Bacterianos/fisiologia , Esporos Bacterianos/efeitos da radiação
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(16): 20149-20159, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239402

RESUMO

Waste foundry sand (WFS) from the brass and bronze casting and molding process include various potentially toxic elements (PTEs), such as copper, zinc, tin, and lead. Hence, the utilization of WFS in construction and geotechnical applications evokes environmental concerns due to the rain-induced leaching of PTEs into the groundwater system. The present study investigated the extractive decontamination of WFS using mineral acids, e.g., HCl, H2SO4, or HNO3. Favorable extraction efficiency was achieved with HCl as compared to the other mineral acids, which was further enhanced at high temperatures and increased acid concentrations. The thermodynamic analysis indicated that ≥ 4 mol L-1 of HCl and ≤ 100 °C temperature ensured maximum extraction of PTEs due to the endothermic interactions between the HCl and PTEs. The HCl-treated WFS needed to be rinsed with water to restrict the after treatment elution of PTEs. The hazardous environmental impact of acid-treated WFS was evaluated following the standard leaching test and comparison with legislative recommendations for PTEs, which showed the water-assisted leaching rate of all the PTEs are within the regulatory limits.


Assuntos
Cobre , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Descontaminação , Areia , Dióxido de Silício , Termodinâmica , Zinco
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