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1.
J Hosp Infect ; 109: 82-87, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has highlighted the urgent need for safe and effective surface decontamination methods, particularly in healthcare settings. AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of peracetic acid (PAA) dry fogging in decontaminating healthcare facility surfaces experimentally contaminated with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Nine materials (stainless steel, latex painted wood, unsealed hardwood, melamine countertop, vinyl flooring, clear plastic, faux leather, computer keyboard button, and smartphone touch screen) were surface contaminated with >106 median tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) of SARS-CoV-2, and allowed to dry before exposing to PAA dry fogging. FINDINGS: When fumigated with PAA dry fog for 1 h, no infectious SARS-CoV-2 virus was recovered from any of the experimentally inoculated surface types. By contrast, high titres of infectious virus were recovered from corresponding untreated drying controls of the same materials. CONCLUSION: Standard surface decontamination processes, including sprays and wipes, are laborious and frequently cannot completely decontaminate sensitive electronic equipment. The ease of use, low cost, and overall effectiveness of a PAA dry fogging suggest that it should be considered for decontaminating healthcare settings, particularly intensive care units where severely ill SARS-CoV-2 patients are cared for.


Assuntos
Descontaminação/métodos , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Fumigação , Instalações de Saúde , Ácido Peracético/farmacologia , /efeitos dos fármacos , Descontaminação/instrumentação , Reutilização de Equipamento , Propriedades de Superfície/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 339: 109024, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348312

RESUMO

In-house treatment strategy for fresh produce decontamination has not been emphasized as much as industrial washing. The most common treatment for fresh produce decontamination and cleaning at home and other point-of-use places such as cafeteria is rinsing and/or soaking in a sink. In this study, an appliance utilizing UV and agitated water to decontaminate fresh produce was developed and its effectiveness was investigated in an aim to identify optimum processing parameters. Grape tomato and spinach representing two different surface smoothness were dip-inoculated in a four-strain Salmonella cocktail to reach a final population of 5-8 log CFU/g and air-dried. The produce samples were then washed in 1 gallon tap water under varying conditions, water agitation speed (0-190 RPM), sample size (50-400 g), UV intensity (0-30 mW/cm2) and treatment time (2, 5 and 10 min). In general, increasing the agitation speed and UV intensity enhanced Salmonella inactivation for both grape tomato and spinach. Sample size significantly affected the UV inactivation of Salmonella on grape tomato, but not on spinach. The effect of extending treatment time from 2 to 10 min was insignificant for almost all the UV treatments and the controls. The effect of UV intensity and treatment time on inactivation of Salmonella on spot-inoculated grape tomato and spinach was also determined. The most severe treatment used in this study, 30 mW/cm2 UV for 10 min, resulted in >4 log reductions of Salmonella dip- or spot-inoculated on grape tomato (200 g sample size and 190 RPM agitation speed) and 3.5 log reductions of Salmonella dip- or spot-inoculated on spinach (100 g sample size and 110 RPM agitation speed). We foresee that the UV appliance developed and evaluated in this study could be further fine-tuned and optimized to eventually construct a point-of-use UV appliance that can be used at home, cafeteria, restaurants, and hospitals for fresh produce decontamination and cleaning. The UV appliance could be an inexpensive and effective tool to improve fresh produce safety.


Assuntos
Descontaminação/instrumentação , Descontaminação/métodos , Escherichia coli O157/efeitos da radiação , Microbiologia de Alimentos/instrumentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Raios Ultravioleta , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Descontaminação/normas , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Salmonella/efeitos da radiação , Spinacia oleracea/microbiologia , Água
3.
Appl Opt ; 59(25): 7585-7595, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902458

RESUMO

We present evidence-based design principles for three different UV-C based decontamination systems for N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) within the context of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak of 2019-2020. The approaches used here were created with consideration for the needs of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and other under-resourced facilities. As such, a particular emphasis is placed on providing cost-effective solutions that can be implemented in short order using generally available components and subsystems. We discuss three optical designs for decontamination chambers, describe experiments verifying design parameters, validate the efficacy of the decontamination for two commonly used N95 FFRs (3M, #1860 and Gerson #1730), and run mechanical and filtration tests that support FFR reuse for at least five decontamination cycles.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar , Descontaminação/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Máscaras , Raios Ultravioleta , Filtros de Ar/microbiologia , Filtros de Ar/virologia , Reutilização de Equipamento , Umidade , Ozônio/síntese química , Ozônio/toxicidade , Temperatura , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0230767, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730254

RESUMO

The injection of laboratory animals with pathogenic microorganisms poses a significant safety risk because of the potential for injury by accidental needlestick. This is especially true for researchers using invertebrate models of disease due to the required precision and accuracy of the injection. The restraint of the greater wax moth larvae (Galleria mellonella) is often achieved by grasping a larva firmly between finger and thumb. Needle resistant gloves or forceps can be used to reduce the risk of a needlestick but can result in animal injury, a loss of throughput, and inconsistencies in experimental data. Restraint devices are commonly used for the manipulation of small mammals, and in this manuscript, we describe the construction of two devices that can be used to entrap and restrain G. mellonella larvae prior to injection with pathogenic microbes. These devices reduce the manual handling of larvae and provide an engineering control to protect against accidental needlestick injury while maintaining a high rate of injection.


Assuntos
Injeções/instrumentação , Microbiologia/instrumentação , Mariposas/microbiologia , Prevenção de Acidentes , Animais , Descontaminação/instrumentação , Reutilização de Equipamento , Larva/microbiologia
5.
mBio ; 11(3)2020 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32587063

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has caused a severe, international shortage of N95 respirators, which are essential to protect health care providers from infection. Given the contemporary limitations of the supply chain, it is imperative to identify effective means of decontaminating, reusing, and thereby conserving N95 respirator stockpiles. To be effective, decontamination must result in sterilization of the N95 respirator without impairment of respirator filtration or user fit. Although numerous methods of N95 decontamination exist, none are universally accessible. In this work, we describe a microwave-generated steam decontamination protocol for N95 respirators for use in health care systems of all sizes, geographies, and means. Using widely available glass containers, mesh from commercial produce bags, a rubber band, and a 1,100-W commercially available microwave, we constructed an effective, standardized, and reproducible means of decontaminating N95 respirators. Employing this methodology against MS2 phage, a highly conservative surrogate for SARS-CoV-2 contamination, we report an average 6-log10 plaque-forming unit (PFU) (99.9999%) and a minimum 5-log10 PFU (99.999%) reduction after a single 3-min microwave treatment. Notably, quantified respirator fit and function were preserved, even after 20 sequential cycles of microwave steam decontamination. This method provides a valuable means of effective decontamination and reuse of N95 respirators by frontline providers facing urgent need.IMPORTANCE Due to the rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there is an increasing shortage of protective gear necessary to keep health care providers safe from infection. As of 9 April 2020, the CDC reported 9,282 cumulative cases of COVID-19 among U.S. health care workers (CDC COVID-19 Response Team, MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 69:477-481, 2020, https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6915e6). N95 respirators are recommended by the CDC as the ideal method of protection from COVID-19. Although N95 respirators are traditionally single use, the shortages have necessitated the need for reuse. Effective methods of N95 decontamination that do not affect the fit or filtration ability of N95 respirators are essential. Numerous methods of N95 decontamination exist; however, none are universally accessible. In this study, we describe an effective, standardized, and reproducible means of decontaminating N95 respirators using widely available materials. The N95 decontamination method described in this work will provide a valuable resource for hospitals, health care centers, and outpatient practices that are experiencing increasing shortages of N95 respirators due to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos da radiação , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Descontaminação/instrumentação , Descontaminação/métodos , Máscaras , Vapor , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Descontaminação/normas , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção/instrumentação , Desinfecção/métodos , Reutilização de Equipamento/normas , Filtração , Humanos , Micro-Ondas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Esterilização , Estados Unidos
6.
J Appl Microbiol ; 128(4): 920-933, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758752

RESUMO

AIMS: In case of biological hazards and pandemics, personal protective equipment of rescue forces is currently manually decontaminated with harmful disinfectants, primarily peracetic acid. To overcome current drawbacks regarding supply, handling and disposal of chemicals, the use of plasma processed air (PPA) represents a promising alternative for surface decontamination on site. In this study, the sporicidal efficiency of a portable plasma system, designed for field applications, was evaluated. METHODS AND RESULTS: The developed plasma device is based on a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and operated with ambient air as process gas. PPA from the plasma nozzle was flushed into a treatment chamber (volume: 300 l) and bacterial endospores (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus atrophaeus) dried on different surfaces were treated under variable conditions. Reductions in spores by more than 4 log10 were found within 3 min of PPA exposure. However, the presence of endospores in agglomerates or in an organic matrix as well as the complexity of the respective surface microstructure negatively affected the inactivation efficiency. When endospores were embedded in a dried protein matrix, mechanical wiping with swabs during exposure to PPA increased the inactivation effect significantly. Gaseous ozone alone did not provide a sporicidal effect. Significant spore inactivation was only obtained when water vapour was injected into the PPA stream. CONCLUSION: The results show that endospores dried on surfaces can be reduced by several orders of magnitude within few minutes in a treatment chamber which is flushed with PPA from of a DBD plasma nozzle. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Plasma processed air generated on site by DBD plasma nozzles could be a suitable alternative for the disinfection of various surfaces in closed rooms.


Assuntos
Descontaminação/métodos , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Gases em Plasma/farmacologia , Esporos Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus/fisiologia , Descontaminação/instrumentação , Umidade , Propriedades de Superfície
8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(15): 6814-6821, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maize is one of the most important cereals. It is used for different purposes and in different industries worldwide. This cereal is prone to contamination with mycotoxins, such as zearalenone (ZEN), which is produced mainly by Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum and F. equiseti. Toxin production under highly moist conditions (aw > 0.95) is exacerbated if there are alternations between low temperatures (12-14 °C) and high temperatures (25-28 °C). Even if good production practices are adopted, mycotoxins can be found in several stages of the production chain. For this reason, an alternative to reducing this contamination is ozonation. This study evaluated the reduction of ZEN in naturally contaminated whole maize flour (WMF) treated with 51.5 mg L-1 of ozone for up to 60 min. Pasting properties, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition were also evaluated. RESULTS: Zearalenone degradation in ozonated WMF was described by a fractional first-order kinetic, with a maximum reduction of 62.3% and kinetic parameter of 0.201 min-1 in the conditions that were evaluated. The ozonation process in WMF showed a decrease in the apparent viscosity, a decrease in the proportion of linoleic, oleic, and α-linolenic fatty acids, an increase in the proportion of palmitic acid, and an increase in the peroxide value. CONCLUSION: Ozonation was effective in reducing ZEN contamination in WMF. However, it also modified the pasting properties, fatty acid profile, and peroxide value, affecting functional and technological aspects of WMF. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Descontaminação/métodos , Ozônio/farmacologia , Zea mays/química , Zearalenona/química , Descontaminação/instrumentação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fusarium/metabolismo , Cinética , Ozônio/química , Controle de Qualidade , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/microbiologia , Zearalenona/metabolismo
9.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 27: 345-353, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279916

RESUMO

Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is an alternative to surface decontamination that is based on the interaction between a non-toxic photosensitizer (PS) and a light source to allow for the formation of reactive oxygen species. The objective of this study was to test a new patented device - the "Ultrasonic Photodynamic Inactivation Device" (UPID) under the patent deposit MU-BR 20.2018.00.9356-3 - for the photodynamic inactivation on contaminated acrylic plates and titanium disk. This new low cost device contains light emitting diodes (LEDs) and was built in a stainless-steel container for better light distribution. In addition, 28 waterproof red LEDs plates, with a wavelength of 660 nm were used, containing three irradiators in each plate, for which the irradiation distribution and the spectral irradiance on all 6 internal faces of this device were calculated. The effect of red LED irradiation (660 nm) methylene blue (MB) (100 µmol/L) diluted in water or 70% alcohol on three types of microorganisms: Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. In order to estimate the effects of PDI, acrylic plates and Titanium disks were contaminated by bacterial suspensions (3 × 108 CFU/mL), then treated with a solution of MB for 30 min, followed by irradiation for 30 min (0.45 J/cm2). Microbial inhibition was evaluated by counting the number of colony forming units (CFU), compared to the control group. The results showed that the UPID promoted significant reduction (p < 0.001) of the microorganism when compared with the positive control. The new device promoted an effective microbial inhibition on the surfaces tested and, thus, makes possible new studies. The perspective is that this new device may be a low-cost and non-toxic alternative to the disinfection of biomedical devices, non-critical instruments and also for use in the food industry.


Assuntos
Descontaminação/métodos , Azul de Metileno/farmacologia , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Ultrassom/métodos , Resinas Acrílicas , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Descontaminação/instrumentação , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco , Titânio , Ultrassom/instrumentação
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 5734-5739, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acidovorax citrulli is a plant pathogen causing bacterial fruit blotch in Cucurbitaceae family. Applying high concentration of disinfectants to seeds containing plant pathogen may substantially decrease the germination rate of seeds. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a hurdle technology which can inactivate plant pathogens without decreasing seed viability. This study was conducted to develop a decontamination method to inactivate the plant pathogen Acidovorax citrulli on Cucurbitaceae seeds by sequential treatments with aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ), drying, and dry heat. RESULTS: The maximum ClO2 concentration that did not lower germination rates of cucumber, honeydew melon, and watermelon seeds was ca. 100 µg mL-1 of ClO2 for 5 min. Optimal incubation conditions for drying seeds that had been treated with aqueous ClO2 were determined as 25 °C and 43% relative humidity (RH) for 48 h. The maximum dry-heat temperature that did not reduce germination rates of seeds, which had been treated with ClO2 and dried at 25 °C, was 60 °C at 43% RH for 24 h. When seeds containing A. citrulli (6.4-7.0 log CFU g-1 ) were treated with aqueous ClO2 (50 µg mL-1 , 5 min), dried (25 °C, 43% RH, 24 h), and dry heated (60 °C, 43% RH, 24 h), the pathogen was inactivated to below the detection limit from all three seed types (<-0.5 log CFU g-1 ). CONCLUSION: The decontamination conditions to inactivate A. citrullii from Cucurbitaceae seeds without decreasing the seed viability were determined (sequential treatment with ClO2 [50 µg mL-1 , 5 min], dried [25 °C, 43% RH, 24 h], and dry heated [60 °C, 43% RH, 24 h]). The results of this study may also be applicable to other plant pathogens on other types of seeds. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Comamonadaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Cucurbitaceae/microbiologia , Descontaminação/métodos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos Clorados/farmacologia , Comamonadaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cucurbitaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Descontaminação/instrumentação , Dessecação , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Germinação , Óxidos/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Sementes/microbiologia
11.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 85(12)2019 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952663

RESUMO

In this study, we developed a washing system capable of decontaminating fresh produce by combining the Spindle apparatus, which detaches microorganisms on sample surfaces, and a 222-nm krypton-chlorine excimer lamp (KrCl excilamp) (Sp-Ex) and investigated their decontamination effect against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes on apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) surfaces. Initial levels of the three pathogens were approximately 108 CFU/sample. Both E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium were reduced to below the detection limit (2.0 log CFU/sample) after 5 and 7 min of treatment on apple and bell pepper surfaces, respectively. The amounts of L. monocytogenes on apple and bell pepper surfaces were reduced by 4.26 and 5.48 logs, respectively, after 7 min of treatment. The decontamination effect of the Sp-Ex was influenced by the hydrophobicity of the sample surface as well as the microbial cell surface, and the decontamination effect decreased as the two hydrophobicity values increased. To improve the decontamination effect of the Sp-Ex, Tween 20, a surfactant that weakens the hydrophobic interaction between the sample surface and pathogenic bacteria, was incorporated into Sp-Ex processing. It was found that its decontamination effect was significantly (P < 0.05) increased by the addition of 0.1% Tween 20. Sp-Ex did not cause significant quality changes in apple or bell pepper surfaces during 7 days storage following treatment (P > 0.05). Our results suggest that Sp-Ex could be applied as a system to control pathogens in place of chemical sanitizer washing by the fresh-produce industry.IMPORTANCE Although most fresh-produce processing currently controls pathogens by means of washing with sanitizers, there are still problems such as the generation of harmful substances and changes in product quality. A combination system composed of the Spindle and a 222-nm KrCl excilamp (Sp-Ex) developed in this study reduced pathogens on apple and bell pepper surfaces using sanitizer-free water without altering produce color and texture. This study demonstrates the potential of the Sp-Ex to replace conventional washing with sanitizers, and it can be used as baseline data for practical application by industry. In addition, implementation of the Sp-Ex developed in this study is expected not only to meet consumer preference for fresh, minimally processed produce but also to reduce human exposure to harmful chemicals while being beneficial to the environment.


Assuntos
Capsicum/microbiologia , Cloro/farmacologia , Descontaminação/métodos , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Criptônio/farmacologia , Lasers de Excimer , Malus/microbiologia , Descontaminação/instrumentação , Escherichia coli O157/efeitos da radiação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos da radiação , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos da radiação
12.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 100(5): 1278-1284, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860009

RESUMO

Handwashing with soap reduces the transmission of diarrheal pathogens, but access to hand-washing facilities, water, and soap in humanitarian emergencies is limited. The SuperTowel® (ST) is a fabric treated with permanent antimicrobial bonding and has been designed as a soap alternative in emergency situations. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of the ST as a hand-cleaning product. Two sets of laboratory tests, with 16 volunteers in each, were conducted to test the efficacy of different prototypes of the ST. Volunteers pre-contaminated their hands with nonpathogenic Escherichia coli. Comparisons were made between hand cleaning with the ST and handwashing with the reference soap, using a crossover design. Participants also completed a questionnaire about product perceptions. Three of the prototypes of the ST were more efficacious at removing E. coli from pre-contaminated hands than handwashing with soap (mean log10 reduction of 4.11 ± 0.47 for ST1, 3.84 ± 0.61 for ST2, and 3.71 ± 0.67 for ST3 versus 3.01 ± 0.63 for soap [P < 0.001, P = 0.002, and P = 0.005, respectively]). The ST prototypes used less water than handwashing with soap, were well accepted, and were considered preferable in communal settings. The ST has the potential to be a suitable complementary hand-cleaning product for humanitarian emergencies.


Assuntos
Descontaminação/instrumentação , Sabões , Têxteis/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Emergências , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Mãos/microbiologia , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Água , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30675341

RESUMO

Background: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) pose a considerable threat to modern medicine. New treatment options and methods to limit spread need to be investigated. Blue light (BL) is intrinsically antimicrobial, and we have previously demonstrated significant antimicrobial effects on biofilms of a panel of isolates, including two CPEs.This study was performed to assess the antibacterial activity of 405 nm BL against a panel of CPE isolates (four encoding bla NDM, three bla KPC, two bla OXA-48, and three encoding both NDM and OXA-48 carbapenemases). Methods: In vitro experiments were conducted on 72 h old biofilms of CPEs which were exposed to 60 mW/cm2 of BL. Changes to biofilm seeding were assessed by measuring the optical density of treated and untreated biofilms. Results: Twelve bacterial clinical isolates (comprising eight Klebsiella pnemoniae, one K. oxytoca, and three Escherichia coli) were tested. BL was delivered for 5, 15 and 30 min, achieving doses of 162, 54, and 108 J/cm2, respectively.All of the CPEs were susceptible to BL treatment, with increasing reductions in seeding with increasing durations of exposure. At 30 min, reductions in biofilm seeding of ≥80% were observed for 11 of the 12 isolates, compared to five of 12 after 15 min. CPE_8180 was less susceptible than the rest, with a maximum reduction in seeding of 66% at 30 min. Conclusions: BL is effective at reducing the seeding of mature CPE biofilms in vitro, and offers great promise as a topical decontamination/treatment agent for both clinical and environmental applications.


Assuntos
Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/efeitos da radiação , Descontaminação/métodos , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biofilmes/efeitos da radiação , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriáceas Resistentes a Carbapenêmicos/fisiologia , Descontaminação/instrumentação , Humanos , Luz , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , beta-Lactamases/genética , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
14.
J Investig Clin Dent ; 10(1): e12378, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474243

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy on the healing of mechanical decontamination of infected implant surfaces performed with a titanium brush. METHODS: Mandibular premolars and first molars were extracted bilaterally in six dogs. After 3 months, two unsubmerged implants were installed on both sides of the mandible. Three months later, peri-implantitis was induced with ligatures for 3 months and then removed. After 1 month, surgical mechanical decontamination of the surfaces was performed either with a rotatory titanium brush or gauzes soaked in saline. Five month later, biopsies were retrieved. Evaluations on X-rays taken of the mesiodistal plane and on histological slides prepared in a buccal-lingual plane were performed. RESULTS: After the induction of peri-implantitis, a mean marginal bone loss of 2.6 ± 0.6 mm and 1.9 ± 1.0 mm was observed in the brush and gauze groups by X-ray, respectively. Five months after treatment, a mean gain of marginal bone of 0.6 mm was obtained in both groups. The mean closures of the vertical and horizontal defects were 0.6 mm and 0.6 mm for the brush group, and 0.8 mm and 0.5 mm for the gauze group, respectively. Histologically, a loss of attachment at the buccal aspect of 2.2 ± 0.9 mm in the brush group and of 2.3 ± 0.5 mm in the gauze group was found. No statistically-significant differences were found after the treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Mechanical implant surface decontamination performed with a rotatory titanium brush resulted in a marginal bone level gain, yielding a low content of inflammatory infiltrate close to the marginal bone.


Assuntos
Descontaminação/métodos , Peri-Implantite/diagnóstico por imagem , Peri-Implantite/patologia , Peri-Implantite/terapia , Perda do Osso Alveolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Perda do Osso Alveolar/patologia , Perda do Osso Alveolar/terapia , Animais , Dente Pré-Molar/patologia , Descontaminação/instrumentação , Implantação Dentária Endo-Óssea/efeitos adversos , Implantes Dentários/efeitos adversos , Placa Dentária , Planejamento de Prótese Dentária , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Implantes Experimentais/efeitos adversos , Mandíbula/patologia , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Peri-Implantite/cirurgia , Radiografia Dentária/métodos , Propriedades de Superfície , Titânio
15.
J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater ; 107(5): 1706-1710, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388312

RESUMO

Reusable medical devices (RMDs) must be reprocessed between uses to render them safe for each use and each patient. Cleaning used devices removes organic and inorganic soil making them either safe for reuse or ready for disinfection/sterilization depending on the device. Although cleaning is an important step in a RMD's life cycle, it is not always a priority during device design. In addition, when performing cleaning validation, it is recommended that the manufacturer takes into consideration, what the most appropriate or worst case conditions are in terms of type of soil or the presence of bacteria. This study compared the ability of three different cleaning/disinfecting agents (water, alcohol, and bleach) to remove bacteria and fecal test soil from two different polymers: polypropylene and ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) with two different roughness. There were some differences in the effects of the cleaning/disinfecting agents, the materials, and the roughness depending on the particular circumstances. However, the most consistent effect on the removal of bacteria was the presence of soil, which protected the bacteria from being removed. Conversely, the presence of bacteria played little role in the removal of soil. Although the interactions between material type and roughness, soil type, and bacteria are complicated, they should be taken into account during device design and reprocessing validation to create a device that is easy and safe to use. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 107B: 1706-1710, 2019.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/química , Desinfetantes/metabolismo , Incontinência Fecal/prevenção & controle , Polipropilenos/química , Clareadores/química , Clareadores/metabolismo , Descontaminação/instrumentação , Descontaminação/métodos , Desinfecção , Desenho de Equipamento/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Reutilização de Equipamento , Segurança de Equipamentos , Etanol/química , Etanol/metabolismo , Humanos , Esterilização
16.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 102(15): 6459-6467, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29804135

RESUMO

We evaluated the ability of a novel lithium niobate (LN) thickness-mode device to atomize disinfectants and reduce microbial burden on model surface materials. A small-scale plastic model housed the LN thickness-mode device and circular coupon surface materials including polycarbonate, polyethylene terephthalate, stainless steel, borosilicate glass, and natural rubber. Coupon surfaces were coated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Acinetobacter baumannii), atomized with disinfectant solutions of varying viscosity (including 10% bleach, 70% ethanol (EtOH), or 25% triethylene glycol (TEG)) using the LN thickness-mode device, and assessed for surviving bacteria. The LN thickness-mode device effectively atomized disinfectants ranging from low viscosity 10% bleach solution or 70% EtOH to highly viscous 25% TEG. Coupons harboring MDR bacteria and atomized with 10% bleach solution or 70% EtOH were effectively decontaminated with ~ 100% bacterial elimination. Atomized 25% TEG effectively eliminated 100% of K. pneumoniae (CRE) from contaminated coupon surfaces but not MRSA. The enclosed small-scale plastic model established proof-of-principle that the LN thickness-mode device could atomize disinfectants of varying viscosities and decontaminate coupon surface materials harboring MDR organisms. Future studies evaluating scaled devices for patient rooms are warranted to determine their utility in hospital environmental decontamination.


Assuntos
Descontaminação/instrumentação , Desinfetantes/química , Desinfecção/métodos , Microbiologia Ambiental , Nióbio/química , Óxidos/química , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Propriedades de Superfície
17.
Food Microbiol ; 73: 129-136, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29526198

RESUMO

Enterobacteriaceae family can contaminate fresh produce at any stage of production either at pre-harvest or post-harvest stages. The objectives of the current study were to i) identify Enterobacteriaceae species on iceberg lettuce, ii) compare the decontamination efficiency of water, sodium hypochlorite (free chlorine 200 ppm), peroxyacetic acid (PA 80 ppm; Kenocid 2100®) or their combinations and ionizing radiation against Enterobacteriaceae on shredded iceberg lettuce and iii) determine the survival of Enterobacteriaceae post-treatment storage of shredded iceberg lettuce at 4, 10 and 25 °C, for up to 7 days. Klebsiella pneumonia spp. pneumonia, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pantoea spp., Leclercia adecarboxylata and Kluyvera ascorbate were identified on iceberg lettuce. No significant difference (P≥ 0.05) among Enterobacteriaceae survival after washing with water or sanitizing with sodium hypochlorite or Kenocid 2100® (reduction ≤ 0.6 log CFU/g) were found. Combined sanitizer treatments were more effective against Enterobacteriaceae than single washing/sanitizing treatments. Sanitization of iceberg lettuce with combined washing/sanitizing treatments reduced Enterobacteriaceae by 0.85-2.24 CFU/g. Post-treatment growth of Enterobacteriaceae during storage on samples sanitized with sodium hypochlorite and Kenocid 2100® was more than on samples washed with water. The D10-value of Enterobacteriaceae on shredded iceberg lettuce was 0.21 KGy. The reduction of Enterobacteriaceae populations on iceberg after gamma radiation (0.6 KGy) was 3 log CFU/g, however, Enterobacteriaceae counts increased post-irradiation storage by 4-5 log CFU/g. Therefore, washing shredded iceberg lettuce with combined sanitizing treatment (sodium hypochlorite/sodium hypochlorite, sodium hypochlorite/Kenocid 2100®, or Kenocid 2100®/Kenocid 2100®) for total time of 6 min or exposing it to gamma irradiation (0.6 KGy) can decrease the risk of Enterobacteriaceae (reduction ≥ 2 log). Post-washing storage of sliced iceberg lettuce (4, 10, 25 °C) could increase the risk of Enterobacteriaceae as their counts increased during storage even at low temperatures.


Assuntos
Descontaminação/métodos , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Alface/microbiologia , Descontaminação/instrumentação , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Enterobacteriaceae/classificação , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Conservação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Peracético/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29541446

RESUMO

Background: Environmental cleaning is a fundamental principle of infection control in health care settings. We determined whether implementing separated environmental cleaning management measures in MICU reduced the density of HAI. Methods: We performed a 4-month prospective cohort intervention study between August and December 2013, at the MICU of Cathay General hospital. We arranged a training program for all the cleaning staff regarding separated environmental cleaning management measures by using disposable wipes of four colors to clean the patients' bedside areas, areas at a high risk of contamination, paperwork areas, and public areas. Fifteen high-touch surfaces were selected for cleanliness evaluation by using the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence test. Then data regarding HAI densities in the MICU were collected during the baseline, intervention, and late periods. Results: A total of 120 ATP readings were obtained. The total number of clean high-touch surfaces increased from 13% to 53%, whereas that of unclean high-touch surface decreased from 47% to 20%. The densities of HAI were 14.32‰ and 14.90‰ during the baseline and intervention periods, respectively. The HAI density did not decrease after the intervention period, but it decreased to 9.07‰ during the late period. Conclusion: Implementing separated environmental cleaning management measures by using disposable wipes of four colors effectively improves cleanliness in MICU environments. However, no decrease in HAI density was observed within the study period. Considering that achieving high levels of hand-hygiene adherence is difficult, improving environmental cleaning is a crucial adjunctive measure for reducing the incidence of HAIs.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção/métodos , Serviço Hospitalar de Limpeza/métodos , Controle de Infecções/instrumentação , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Bioensaio , Descontaminação/instrumentação , Descontaminação/métodos , Desinfetantes , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Taiwan , Centros de Atenção Terciária
19.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 95: 1-7, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29510165

RESUMO

Assuring healthcare workers security on Hazardous Drugs (HD) compounding is critical in healthcare settings. Our study aims to demonstrate that the use of a Close System drug Transfer Device (CSTD) PhaSeal™ added to a decontamination process reduces antiblastic surface contamination levels in the Compounding Area (CA) of our Pharmacy Department (PD). We selected cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil and iphosphamide to be evaluated. Testing was carried out with a wipe kit and quantified by an independent laboratory. We defined four sampling times: baseline; just after a decontamination procedure, which was repeated weekly during the study; four months after introduction of CSTD PhaSeal™ for cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil compounding; and after eight months using CSTD PhaSeal™ for cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil and one month for iphosphamide compounding. There was a decrease at the number of positive samples at the beginning/end of the study for all the drugs tested: 28/15 for cyclophosphide, 29/23 for iphosphamide and 7/1 for 5-fluorouracile. Comparing to the baseline, median cyclophosphamide levels significantly decreased (p-value <0.001) at 4 and 8 months sampling time (baseline: 1.01 ng/cm2 to 0.06 ng/cm2 and 0.01 ng/cm2), and median iphosphamide levels significantly decreased (p < 0.001) at 8 months sampling time (baseline: 3.02 ng/cm2 to 0.06 ng/cm2). 5-Fluorouracil did not show significant differences between the sampling times (baseline: 0.09 ng/cm2 to 0.09 ng/cm2). We saw a significant increase at iphosphamide levels at 4 months sampling point, contrary to cyclophosphamide, which levels had decreased. The use of CSTD PhaSeal™ for iphosphamide compounding the last month was implemented for ethical reasons after this intermediate results review. Our study suggests that the use of CSTD PhaSeal™, adding to decontaminating procedures, significantly reduces antiblastic drug surface levels at the CA of our PD.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/análise , Descontaminação/métodos , Imunossupressores/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar , Ciclofosfamida/análise , Descontaminação/instrumentação , Composição de Medicamentos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluoruracila/análise , Humanos , Ifosfamida/análise
20.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 114: 246-259, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29476792

RESUMO

Contamination of animal feed with mycotoxins still occurs very often, despite great efforts in preventing it. Animal feeds are contaminated, at low levels, with several mycotoxins, particularly with those produced by Aspergillus and Fusarium genera (Aflatoxin B1, Ochratoxin A, Zearalenone, Deoxynivalenol and Fumonisina B1). In animal feed, to date, only Aflatoxin B1 is limited through EU regulation. Consequently, mycotoxins cause serious disorders and diseases in farm animals. In 2009, the European Union (386/2009/EC) approved the use of mycotoxin-detoxifying agents, as feed additives, to prevent mycotoxicoses in farm animals. The present review gives an overview of the problem of multi-mycotoxin contamination of feed, and aims to classify mycotoxin adsorbing agents (minerals, organic, and synthetic) for feed decontamination, focusing on adsorbents with the ability to bind to multiple mycotoxins, which should have a more effective application in farms but they are still little studied in scientific literature.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Descontaminação/métodos , Micotoxinas/química , Adsorção , Animais , Descontaminação/instrumentação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Micotoxinas/isolamento & purificação
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