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1.
Chem Biol Interact ; 318: 108980, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044340

RESUMO

In this study, we assessed the efficacy of the Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL®) Kit against parathion and aldicarb pesticide dermal exposure in a guinea pig model. The pesticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) leading to signs and symptoms of hyperactivity of organs due to accumulation of acetylcholine. The RSDL Kit has been shown to physically remove and chemically degrade chemical warfare agents. Degradation occurs from a nucleophilic substitution reaction between an active ingredient in the RSDL lotion, potassium 2,3-butanedione monoximate (KBDO), with susceptible sites in these compounds. In the present study, guinea pigs dermally exposed to parathion and aldicarb were decontaminated with RSDL to mitigate the toxic effects of the pesticides. It is observed that animals exposed to 749 mg/kg of parathion (n = 3) died within 24 h without RSDL decontamination; however, RSDL-treated animals (n = 3) showed only mild signs of neurotoxicity. The RSDL-treated animals had an AChE inhibition of 0-58% while the untreated animals had up to 86% inhibition. Similarly, RSDL has been demostrated to prevent aldicarb neurotoxicity effects. The percent inhibition of AChE activity during the 24 h post challenge of 9 mg aldicarb/kg of animal weight ranged from 25% to 61% with severe signs of intoxication while only up to 5% with mild or no signs of intoxication in the case of RSDL-decontaminated animals. Generally, it has been shown that the toxic effects of the organophosphate and carbamate pesticides can be prevented via decontamination using the RSDL Kit.


Assuntos
Aldicarb/toxicidade , Descontaminação/métodos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Paration/toxicidade , Aldicarb/química , Animais , Cobaias , Inseticidas/química , Paration/química , Higiene da Pele/métodos , Creme para a Pele
2.
mSphere ; 5(1)2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996421

RESUMO

To date, approximately 500 iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease cases have been reported worldwide, most of them resulting from cadaveric dura mater graft and from the administration of prion-contaminated human growth hormone. The unusual resistance of prions to decontamination processes, their large tissue distribution, and the uncertainty about the prevalence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the general population lead to specific recommendations regarding identification of tissue at risk and reprocessing of reusable medical devices, including the use of dedicated treatment for prion inactivation. We previously described an in vitro assay, called Surf-PMCA, which allowed us to classify prion decontamination treatments according to their efficacy on vCJD prions by monitoring residual seeding activity (RSA). Here, we used a transgenic mouse line permissive to vCJD prions to study the correlation between the RSA measured in vitro and the in vivo infectivity. Implantation in mouse brains of prion-contaminated steel wires subjected to different decontamination procedures allows us to demonstrate a good concordance between RSA measured by Surf-PMCA (in vitro) and residual infectivity (in vivo). These experiments emphasize the strength of the Surf-PMCA method as a rapid and sensitive assay for the evaluation of prion decontamination procedures and also confirm the lack of efficacy of several marketed reagents on vCJD prion decontamination.IMPORTANCE Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases are neurodegenerative disorders for which transmission linked to medical procedures have been reported in hundreds of patients. As prion diseases, they are characterized by an unusual resistance to conventional decontamination processes. Moreover, their large tissue distribution and the ability of prions to attach to many surfaces raised the risk of transmission in health care facilities. It is therefore of major importance that decontamination procedures applied to medical devices before their reprocessing are thoroughly validated for prion inactivation. We previously described an in vitro assay, which allowed us to classify accurately prion decontamination treatments according to their efficacy on variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The significance of this study is in demonstrating the concordance between previous in vitro results and infectivity studies in transgenic mice. Furthermore, commercial reagents currently used in hospitals were tested by both protocols, and we observed that most of them were ineffective on human prions.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Creutzfeldt-Jakob/patologia , Descontaminação/métodos , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Proteínas Priônicas/química , Animais , Síndrome de Creutzfeldt-Jakob/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Doença Iatrogênica , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Deficiências na Proteostase/patologia
3.
Toxicol Lett ; 320: 52-57, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805341

RESUMO

Sulfur mustard (SM) is a vesicant chemical warfare agent which affects ocular, respiratory, and cutaneous system. In this study, we aimed to share recent experiences on medical management of chemical casualties that were exposed to SM in Middle East. We reported medical management of 17 contaminated patients. After the evacuation from the hot zone, all chemical casualties should be transferred to the designated intensive care units. After detailed medical decontamination and stabilization, biological samples should be collected from all chemical casualties as soon as possible for the verification of the exposure. Medical history and existing symptoms reveal the clinical diagnosis of SM exposure. Medical management of SM casualties should focus on "good nursing care" including treatment of pain and itching, fluid and electrolyte replacement therapy, respiration and nutrition support. Despite of improved clinical skills, treatment of SM lesions is still non-specific which aims to relieve symptoms and to prevent infections. Existing diagnostic capabilities and treatment approaches could be improved by sharing recent clinical experiences on medical management of SM casualties where there are still important major gaps.


Assuntos
Terrorismo Químico , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/envenenamento , Descontaminação/métodos , Intoxicação por Gás/terapia , Gás de Mostarda/envenenamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Intoxicação por Gás/complicações , Intoxicação por Gás/diagnóstico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio , Prognóstico , Triagem , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 177: 112846, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522097

RESUMO

The ß-lactam core is a key structure responsible for inducing both IgE-mediated acute-onset hypersensitivity and T-cell-mediated delayed-onset hypersensitivity with penicillins in humans. There is essentially no clinically significant immunologic cross-reactivity noted between the ß-lactam cores of penicillins and cephalosporins based on challenge studies in humans. The side-chains appear to be more important in inducing IgE-mediated acute-onset hypersensitivity and T-cell delayed-onset hypersensitivity with cephalosporins in humans. Despite these clinical findings, the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) still requires the level of ß-lactam-related antibiotic residues to be controlled at very low levels in manufacturing facilities. Ceftolozane is Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA's (MSD's) 5th generation broad spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic against gram-negative bacteria. In searching for the optimal decontamination method of ceftolozane, most methods were found to be very slow in opening the ß-lactam ring in ceftolozane. Moreover, most of the previously reported decontamination methods applied analytical methods that only monitored the disappearance of the parent molecule as the endpoint of degradation. In this way, many of the ß-lactam-containing degradation products could be overlooked. In order to develop an efficient decontamination solution for ceftolozane, a sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS/MS) method was first developed to ensure the detection of the ß-lactam ring in all degradation products. Through online UHPLC-UV-HRMS monitoring, 2.5 N KOH in 50% aqueous MeOH or 50% aqueous EtOH was identified as the best condition to fully degrade the ß-lactam ring in ceftolozane. This decontamination could be done within 15 min, even at 100 mg/mL concentration, and thus enable a quick turnaround time for equipment cleaning in the ß-lactam manufacturing facility. This method was also successfully applied to 12 other commercially available ß-lactam antibiotics.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Cefalosporinas/análise , Descontaminação/métodos , Composição de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Cefalosporinas/química , Cefalosporinas/toxicidade , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Composição de Medicamentos/normas , Etanol/química , Hidróxidos/química , Metanol/química , Compostos de Potássio/química , Solventes/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
5.
J Appl Microbiol ; 128(1): 116-123, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559683

RESUMO

AIMS: This study investigated the efficacy of hydrogen peroxide vapour (HPV) at inactivating hazard group 3 bacteria that have been presented dried from their growth medium to present a realistic challenge. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hydrogen peroxide vapour technology (Bioquell) was used to decontaminate a class III microbiological safety cabinet containing biological indicators (BIs) made by drying standard working suspensions of the following agents: Bacillus anthracis (Ames) spores, Brucella abortus (strain S99), Burkholderia pseudomallei (NCTC 12939), Escherichia coli O157 ST11 (NCTC 12079), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (strain H37Rv) and Yersinia pestis (strain CO92) on stainless steel coupons. Extended cycles were used to expose the agents for 90 min. The HPV cycle completely inactivated B. anthracis spores, B. abortus, B. pseudomallei, E. coli O157 and Y. pestis when BIs were processed using quantitative and qualitative methods. Whilst M. tuberculosis was not completely inactivated, it was reduced by 4 log10 from a starting concentration of 106 colony-forming units. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that HPV is able to inactivate a range of HG3 agents at high concentrations with associated organic matter, but M. tuberculosis showed increased resistance to the process. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This publication demonstrates that HPV can inactivate HG3 agents that have an organic load associated with them. It also shows that M. tuberculosis has higher resistance to HPV than other agents. This shows that an appropriate BI to represent the agent of interest should be chosen to demonstrate a decontamination is successful.


Assuntos
Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/métodos , Descontaminação/métodos , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Gases/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/instrumentação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Aço Inoxidável
6.
J Appl Microbiol ; 128(1): 124-137, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573710

RESUMO

AIMS: To add a spore germination step in order to reduce decontamination temperature and time requirements compared to the current hot, humid air decontamination parameters, which are 75-80°C, ≥72 h, 70-90% RH, down to ≤60°C and ≤24 h total decontamination time. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bacillus anthracis spore germination with l-alanine+inosine+calcium dipicolinate (CaDPA) was quantified at 0-40°C, several time points and spore concentrations of 5-9 log10 per ml. Germination efficiency at 0-40°C was >99% at <8 log10 spores per ml. The temperature optimum was 20°C. Germination efficiency was significantly higher but slower at 0°C compared to ≥30°C at ≥8 log10 spores per ml. A single germinant application followed by 60°C, 1-h treatment consistently inactivated >2 log10 (>99%) of spores. However, a repeat application of germinant was needed to achieve the objective of ≥6 log10 spore inactivation out of a 7 log10 challenge (≥99·9999%) for ≤24 h total decontamination time for nylon and aircraft performance coating. CONCLUSIONS: l-alanine+inosine+CaDPA stimulated germination across wide temperature and spore concentration ranges. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Germination expands the scope of spore decontamination to include materials from any industry sector that can be sprayed with an aqueous germinant solution.


Assuntos
Bacillus anthracis/fisiologia , Descontaminação/métodos , Esporos Bacterianos/fisiologia , Alanina/farmacologia , Bacillus anthracis/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus anthracis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura Alta , Inosina/farmacologia , Ácidos Picolínicos/farmacologia , Esporos Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Esporos Bacterianos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670058

RESUMO

Human studies investigating the efficacy of emergency decontamination protocols for chemical incidents require the use of non-hazardous chemical simulants. Methyl salicylate (MeS) has almost exclusively been used for this purpose. Whilst MeS is a simulant of the chemical warfare agent (CWA) sulphur mustard, it is not an ideal simulant for many other chemical threats with greater persistence and lower volatility. Benzyl salicylate (BeS) has been investigated here as a low toxicity simulant for lower volatility, persistent chemical threat agents and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). To evaluate the suitability of BeS as a simulant for human decontamination studies a gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method was designed, optimised and validated, for the analysis of human skin and hair. Quantification was achieved using isotope-dilution, EI and collision-induced dissociation and multiple reaction monitoring for both qualifier and quantifier ion transitions. The mass transitions were m/z 285 → 91 and m/z 210 → 181, respectively for the quantifier and qualifier ions of BeS, and m/z 289 → 91 and m/z 214 → 185 for the quantifier and qualifier ions for the BeS-d4 internal standard, respectively. The method exhibited excellent coefficients of determination (R2 = 0.9992-0.9999) with LOD and LOQ values at 0.023 ng/ml and 0.23 ng/ml. Across three Quality Controls (QCs), 11.5 ng/ml, 115 ng/ml and 1150 ng/ml) average accuracy (intra-day 95.6-100.3%, inter-day 98.5-104.91%) and precision (intra-day RSD (%) 2-13.7%, inter-day RSD (%) 3.3-8.8%) were determined. The validated method was applied in a proof of principle volunteer study for the determination of total BeS recovered from skin and hair. The average total BeS recovery after 70 min was 37.9% from skin and there was a significant increase between baseline and post-intervention levels for hair. These data demonstrate that BeS is an appropriate simulant for persistent chemicals and that the analytical method employed here is suitable for BeS analysis in human studies.


Assuntos
Substâncias para a Guerra Química/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Salicilatos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Adulto , Descontaminação/métodos , Feminino , Cabelo , Humanos , Marcação por Isótopo/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pele
8.
Am J Disaster Med ; 14(2): 137-149, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637694

RESUMO

Chemical and biological (CB) warfare have long been practiced, and although these types of warfare are not acceptable in modern times, this does not prevent them from occurring. This makes it important for societies to be able to appropriately respond to these events, including the best way to decontaminate victims to keep them and emergency responders safe. Decontamination methods such as chemical, physical, wet, and dry methods are discussed, as well as their downsides. Secondary contamination, which played a significant role in the Tokyo sarin attacks, has long been noted by anecdotal evidence, although it has been little studied. Biological agents cause more problems after infection has taken place, and thus preventing the spread of infection is the largest concern. There are many differences between military and civilian populations, and the response to mass casualty attacks differs accordingly. There are several emerging technologies that can make this process easier on all parties, such as bioscavengers, antitoxins, and color changing bleach for visualization. A reliable way to quantify decontamination is also needed, which would allow for better care of victims both in normal hospital situations, as well as during aeromedical transport. In addition, several gaps were identified, such as the lack of scientific basis for 90 percent reduction during decontamination, a way to quantify decontamination, and the lack of studies on toxic industrial chemicals and secondary contamination.


Assuntos
Guerra Biológica , Guerra Química , Descontaminação/métodos , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa , Militares , Guerra Nuclear , Humanos
9.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 309: 108328, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518953

RESUMO

Ultrasound (US) has a high capacity to increase food safety. Although high and/or moderate temperature in combination with US has been studied, the knowledge about cooling/low temperatures as well as its combined effect with chemical preservation methods is scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the inactivation of Staphylococcus spp. (SA) present in the natural microbiota of sliced Brazilian dry-cured loin (Socol, BDL) using US (40 kHz and 5.40 W/g) at 1.6-17.9 kJ/g, temperature (T) between 6.4 and 73.6 °C and peracetic acid (PA) between 5.5 and 274.5 mg/L employing the Central Composite Rotatable Design. The model fully describes how the combination of US, T, and PA affects SA inactivation. In BDL, an increase in US acoustic energy density (kJ/g) allows the reduction of T necessary to inactivate SA because of the occurrence of synergistic effect. However, US applied at low T was inefficient. On the other hand, PA was more efficient at low T, since high T degraded this compound at different rates according to the holding T. Therefore, the data indicates a relation between the technologies used in the combined decontamination of sliced BDL improving dry-cured meat safety.


Assuntos
Descontaminação/métodos , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Carne/microbiologia , Ácido Peracético/farmacologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Brasil , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura Ambiente
10.
Analyst ; 144(20): 6128-6135, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535118

RESUMO

Bone is one of the main sample types used for building chronologies in archaeology. It is also used in other research areas such as palaeodiet and palaeoenvironmental studies. However, for results to be accurate, samples must be free of exogenous carbon. Contamination can originate from a wide range of sources in the post-depositional environment but may also occur during excavation and post excavation activities (i.e. with the application of conservation materials) or during laboratory handling. Efficient procedures to remove contamination are therefore crucial prior to radiocarbon or stable isotope measurements. This work describes the development of an innovative sample pretreatment for bones, based on using supercritical CO2, which shows unique solvation properties. The effectiveness of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to remove conservation materials was compared with that obtained when applying a routine extraction based on the use of organic solvents (methanol, acetone and chloroform). The chemical composition of the bone samples before and after the two pre-treatments was then investigated using analytical pyrolysis-based techniques: EGA-MS (Evolved Gas Analysis-Mass Spectrometry) and Py-GC/MS (Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry). Collagen samples extracted from the same bones, prepared with the two cleaning protocols, were also radiocarbon dated by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The results of this study show that SFE is an efficient alternative method because it was as effective as the established treatment protocol. It removes contaminants such as conservation materials from bone samples with a minimum of handling and can be used routinely in radiocarbon dating laboratories. This work also demonstrates that analytical pyrolysis is not only a very efficient method to identify contaminants in bones but also to assess the effectiveness of the pretreatment prior to the radiocarbon measurement of the samples.


Assuntos
Arqueologia , Osso e Ossos/química , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Radioisótopos de Carbono/análise , Colágeno/isolamento & purificação , Descontaminação/métodos , Nitrogênio/análise , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Datação Radiométrica
11.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(5): 1315-1326, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379024

RESUMO

AIMS: (i) To develop an analytical method for recovery and quantification of bacteriophage MS2-as a surrogate for foot-and-mouth disease virus-from complex porous surfaces, with and without the presence of laboratory-developed agricultural grime; (ii) to evaluate, with a 4-log dynamic range, the virucidal activity of common biocides for their ability to decontaminate surfaces and hence remediate facilities, following a foreign animal disease contamination incident. METHODS AND RESULTS: An analytical method was developed and optimized for MS2 recovery from simulated agricultural surfaces. The addition of Dey-Engley neutralizing broth to an extraction buffer improved MS2 viability in liquid extracts, with optimal analytical holding times determined as <8 to ≤24 h, depending on matrix. The recovery of MS2 from surface materials decreased in the order: nonporous reference material >grimed porous materials >nongrimed porous materials. In disinfectant testing, two spray applications of pAB were effective against MS2 (≥4-log reduction) on all operational-scale materials. Two per cent citric acid had limited effectiveness, with a ≥4-log reduction observed on a selected subset of grimed concrete samples. CONCLUSIONS: Decontamination efficacy test results can be affected by surface characteristics, extraction buffer composition, analytical holding time and surface-specific organism survivability. Efficacy should be evaluated using a test method that reflects the environmental characteristics of the intended application. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The results of this study demonstrate the importance of analytical method verification tests for disinfectant testing prior to application in complex environments.


Assuntos
Descontaminação/métodos , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Levivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Agricultura , Desinfetantes/administração & dosagem , Levivirus/fisiologia , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Porosidade , Solo
12.
Food Chem ; 301: 125281, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382109

RESUMO

The need for safe and quality food, free from the presence of hazardous contaminants such as mycotoxins is an on-going and complex challenge. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) has the potential to contribute to achieving this goal. Decontamination efficacy of CAPP against six of the most common mycotoxins found in foods and feedstuffs was assessed herein. Concentration reduction of up to 66% was achieved in maize for both aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1. Degradation products were detected only in the case of aflatoxin B1 and zearalenone and were tested on human hepatocarcinoma cells with no increase in cytotoxicity observed. Analysis of treated maize revealed substantial changes to small molecular mass components of the matrix. While CAPP shows promise in terms of mycotoxin detoxification important questions concerning potential changes to the nutritional and safety status of the food matrix require further investigations.


Assuntos
Descontaminação/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Micotoxinas/química , Gases em Plasma/química , Aflatoxina B1/análise , Aflatoxina B1/química , Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Fumonisinas/análise , Fumonisinas/química , Fumonisinas/toxicidade , Células Hep G2 , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Micotoxinas/análise , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Zea mays/química , Zearalenona/análise , Zearalenona/química , Zearalenona/toxicidade
13.
Drug Test Anal ; 11(10): 1542-1555, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407511

RESUMO

The effectiveness of decontamination procedures used for the removal of external drug contamination in forensic hair analysis is an ongoing debate. This investigation evaluated wash methods complying with Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) guidelines and their capacity to remove cocaine (COC) and methamphetamine (MA) from artificially contaminated hair. The most effective decontamination method was determined using a systematic approach, involving (1) an initial washing solvent screen, (2) optimization of wash duration, (3) comparison of sequential wash methods, and (4) reanalysis of clinical hair samples. For analysis, hair was subjected to micro-pulverized methanolic extraction prior to quantitation by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Methanol (MeOH) and 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 6) were the most effective organic and aqueous solvents, respectively, removing 28%-38% of COC and 16%-31% of MA. Wash durations longer than 30-60 minutes did not remove additional amounts, and a more efficient sequential wash method was subsequently developed. Despite this, the interpretation of reportable results relative to the SoHT cut-off levels was unchanged for most clinical hair samples reanalyzed after washing by agitation for 30 minutes with MeOH. These findings highlight the inability of decontamination solvents to completely remove external COC and MA contamination from hair, including wash methods adhering to SoHT guidelines.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/isolamento & purificação , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/isolamento & purificação , Cocaína/isolamento & purificação , Cabelo/química , Metanfetamina/isolamento & purificação , Anestésicos Locais/análise , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cocaína/análise , Descontaminação/métodos , Toxicologia Forense/métodos , Humanos , Metanfetamina/análise , Solventes/química , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
14.
Food Microbiol ; 84: 103226, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421764

RESUMO

Atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) is an effective method for microbiological decontamination. This study evaluated an alternative water-based decontamination approach for inactivation of bacterial population from fresh produce and in the wash water generated from fresh produce washing. The study characterised ACP inactivation of attached Listeria innocua and Pseudomonas fluorescens inoculated on lettuce in comparison to chlorine treatment. P. fluorescens was sensitive to ACP treatment and was reduced below detection limit within 3 min of treatment. L. innocua population was reduced by ∼2.4 Log10 CFU/g after 5 min of treatment; showing similar inactivation efficacy to chlorine treatment. The microbial load in wash water was continuously decreased and was below detection limits after 10 min of ACP treatment. Micro-bubbling along with agitation assisted the bacterial detachment and distribution of reactive species, thus increasing bacterial inactivation efficacy from fresh produce and wash water. A shift in pH of plasma functionalised water was observed along with high concentration of nitrate and ozone with a relative amount of nitrites which increased with plasma exposure time. Further, L. innocua treated at different independent pH conditions showed minimal or no effect of pH on ACP bacterial inactivation efficacy. Aqueous ACP treatment poses a promising alternative for decontamination of fresh produce and the associated wash-waters which could be applied in the food industry to replace continuous chlorine dosing of process waters.


Assuntos
Cloro/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Alface/microbiologia , Gases em Plasma , Aderência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Descontaminação/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Alface/efeitos dos fármacos , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas fluorescens/efeitos dos fármacos , Água/análise
15.
Food Microbiol ; 84: 103245, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421782

RESUMO

Staphylococcal biofilms are recognized as a significant problem in the food industry because of their high resistance to antibiotics, and the use of bacteriophages or endolysins has been regarded as a promising alternative to antibiotics. In this study, LysCSA13, an endolysin from S. aureus virulent bacteriophage CSA13, was cloned and characterized. LysCSA13 consists of an enzymatic active domain and a cell wall binding domain. LysCSA13 showed strong antimicrobial activity against staphylococcal strains at pH 7.0-9.0, 4.0-37.0 °C and in the presence of Ca2+ and Mn2+. In addition, a high efficacy of LysCSA13 in removing staphylococcal biofilms was observed on various surfaces, including polystyrene, glass and stainless steel, displaying an approximately 80-90% decrease in biofilm mass. Furthermore, 300 nM of LysCSA13 effectively removed staphylococcal sessile cells formed on stainless steel and glass by 1-3 log units compared with the untreated control. Scanning electron microscopy analysis visualized the effective deformation and removal of cells embedded in the biofilm matrix. The results indicate that LysCSA13 can effectively control staphylococcal planktonic cells and biofilms regardless of the contact surface matrix and suggest the possible use of LysCSA13 as a promising biocontrol agent in various food processing environments.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Descontaminação/métodos , Endopeptidases/farmacologia , Aço Inoxidável , Fagos de Staphylococcus/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Propriedades de Superfície
16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(15): 6814-6821, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maize is one of the most important cereals. It is used for different purposes and in different industries worldwide. This cereal is prone to contamination with mycotoxins, such as zearalenone (ZEN), which is produced mainly by Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum and F. equiseti. Toxin production under highly moist conditions (aw > 0.95) is exacerbated if there are alternations between low temperatures (12-14 °C) and high temperatures (25-28 °C). Even if good production practices are adopted, mycotoxins can be found in several stages of the production chain. For this reason, an alternative to reducing this contamination is ozonation. This study evaluated the reduction of ZEN in naturally contaminated whole maize flour (WMF) treated with 51.5 mg L-1 of ozone for up to 60 min. Pasting properties, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition were also evaluated. RESULTS: Zearalenone degradation in ozonated WMF was described by a fractional first-order kinetic, with a maximum reduction of 62.3% and kinetic parameter of 0.201 min-1 in the conditions that were evaluated. The ozonation process in WMF showed a decrease in the apparent viscosity, a decrease in the proportion of linoleic, oleic, and α-linolenic fatty acids, an increase in the proportion of palmitic acid, and an increase in the peroxide value. CONCLUSION: Ozonation was effective in reducing ZEN contamination in WMF. However, it also modified the pasting properties, fatty acid profile, and peroxide value, affecting functional and technological aspects of WMF. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Descontaminação/métodos , Ozônio/farmacologia , Zea mays/química , Zearalenona/química , Descontaminação/instrumentação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fusarium/metabolismo , Cinética , Ozônio/química , Controle de Qualidade , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/microbiologia , Zearalenona/metabolismo
17.
Food Sci Technol Int ; 25(8): 680-691, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272222

RESUMO

Pulsed ultraviolet light is a potential postprocessing decontamination method which is able to reduce pathogens on solid food surfaces. Cheese surfaces may become easily contaminated with pathogens due to improper handling or contact with unhygienic surfaces during or after processing. In this study, the effects of pulsed ultraviolet light on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on fresh kashar cheese were investigated. Pulsed ultraviolet light was applied to kashar cheese for different times (5, 15, 30, 45, 60 s) at 5, 8, and 13 cm from the quartz window in a pulsed ultraviolet light system. Based on the inactivation level, time, and visual evaluation, the most favorable treatment was determined as the 45 s-13 cm treatment (∼44 J/cm2). This treatment yielded about 1.62 and 3.02 log10 reductions (cfu/cm2) for S. aureus and E. coli O157:H7, respectively, while did not alter (p>0.05) the pH, lipid oxidation, and moisture content of kashar cheese, except the color parameters. When 0.5 cm thick kashar cheese was treated with pulsed ultraviolet light at a distance of 5 cm from the quartz window, the highest energy transmittance was found to be about 9.16%. These findings demonstrate that pulsed ultraviolet light has the potential for postprocessing decontamination of semi-hard cheese surfaces.


Assuntos
Queijo/microbiologia , Descontaminação/métodos , Escherichia coli O157/efeitos da radiação , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Queijo/análise , Queijo/efeitos da radiação , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Cor , Análise de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Viabilidade Microbiana , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Tempo
18.
J Pharm Pract ; 32(3): 339-346, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291840

RESUMO

Such as any field of medicine, it is imperative to stay current with the latest advances and treatment modalities in toxicology. With the absence of rigorous randomized controlled trials, many updated guidelines are created by expert consensus and/or case reports and clinical experience. Over the past 10 years, there have been several changes in the management of drug overdoses in light of new data available. Although this is not a comprehensive review of all available antidotes, this article will focus on several important interventions including the use of gastrointestinal decontamination, hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic therapy, methylene blue, intravenous lipid emulsion, hemodialysis, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.


Assuntos
Descontaminação/métodos , Antídotos/farmacologia , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Gastroenteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Azul de Metileno/uso terapêutico , Diálise Renal
19.
J Food Sci ; 84(8): 2190-2198, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313308

RESUMO

A new microbial decontamination system combining washing with a natural antimicrobial solution and coating with a carnauba wax (CW)-based antimicrobial coating was developed and its effects on mandarin storability were investigated. Mandarins were washed with an antimicrobial solution and/or coated with grapefruit seed extract-CW (GSE/CW). Values for the disease incidence of Penicillium digitatum in untreated mandarins; mandarins coated with GSE/CW without washing; and mandarins coated with GSE/CW after washing with a fumaric acid (FA) solution of slightly acidic electrolyzed water, a highly activated calcium oxide (CaO) aqueous solution, or CaO solution followed by FA solution were 96.0, 70.0, 78.8, 50.0, and 72.2%, respectively. GSE/CW coating after CaO washing was most effective in inhibiting P. digitatum growth during storage at 25 °C. Compared to untreated samples, GSE/CW coating alone or after CaO washing retained CO2 generation, firmness, and total polyphenol content of mandarins at 25 °C. Such treatments also effectively maintained mandarin pH, ascorbic acid concentration, and antioxidant capacity at both 4 and 25 °C. Moreover, GSE/CW coating after CaO washing more effectively inhibited P. digitatum growth at 25 °C and maintained ascorbic acid concentration and antioxidant capacity at 4 and 25 °C than GSE/CW coating alone. The microbial decontamination system integrating CaO washing and GSE/CW coating demonstrates potential for improving mandarin storability by inhibiting P. digitatum growth and improving the preservation of quality properties and sensory characteristics. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This is the first study to develop a microbial decontamination system involving both washing with a natural antimicrobial solution and carnauba wax coating containing grapefruit seed extract to improve the storability of fruits. This system demonstrated a primary effect of inhibiting fungi that cause mandarin surface decay at 25 °C via the highly activated calcium oxide wash and secondary effects of delaying quality degradation and inhibiting fungal growth by the action of the antimicrobial coating. These effects led to improvements in mandarin storability, along with enhanced visual appeal while not affecting taste, flavor, or texture.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Compostos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Citrus/microbiologia , Descontaminação/métodos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/microbiologia , Óxidos/farmacologia , Citrus/química , Frutas/química , Penicillium/efeitos dos fármacos , Penicillium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água/análise , Ceras/análise
20.
J Hosp Infect ; 103(2): 217-222, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Appropriate decontamination of breast pump milk collection kits (BPKs) is critical to obtain safe milk for infants and to avoid discarding donor human milk (DHM). AIM: To evaluate two strategies for BPK decontamination by assessing microbial cultures and the proportion of discarded DHM, according to the criteria of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence for pre-pasteurization cultures. METHODS: Prospective comparative study, allocation ratio 1:1, microbiologist-blind. PARTICIPANTS: 47 new donors in a human milk bank in Madrid. INTERVENTIONS: Study group (N=21): BPKs washed with water and detergent after each use and further steam decontamination within a microwavable bag. Control group (N=26): washing, rinsing and drying only. Five samples: first sample by hand expression and four samples (one per week) collected using the same pump and method. OUTCOMES: Primary: proportion of DHM discarded due to contamination. Secondary: comparison of the microbiota between samples obtained by hand expression and breast pump in both groups. FINDINGS: In total, 217 milk samples were collected: 47 by hand expression and 170 by pump expression (78 from study group). Steam decontamination of BPKs using a microwavable bag after washing resulted in a lower proportion of discarded DHM samples (1.3% vs 18.5%, P<0.001) and samples contaminated with Enterobacteriaceae (1.3% vs 22.8%, P<0.001) and Candida spp. (1.3% vs 14.1%, P<0.05) compared with samples collected with BPKs that were washed but not steam decontaminated. There were no differences in bacterial contamination between samples obtained using steam decontaminated BPKs and those obtained by hand expression. CONCLUSIONS: Steam decontamination of BPKs using a microwavable bag after washing decreases the amount of discarded DHM and the number of samples with potentially pathogenic bacteria.


Assuntos
Descontaminação/métodos , Desinfecção/métodos , Equipamentos Médicos Duráveis , Bancos de Leite , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Adulto , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
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