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1.
Univ. salud ; 21(2): 176-187, mayo-ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1004856

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: La Evaluación de Desempeño (ED) permite el desarrollo personal-profesional y contribuye al mejoramiento de la Calidad de Vida Laboral (CVL) del trabajador. Posibilita la identificación de fortalezas, genera procesos de autoevaluación y mejoramiento en el desarrollo organizacional y su competitividad. Objetivo: Definir el concepto de evaluación de desempeño y evaluar sus efectos en la calidad de vida laboral del trabajador en algunos sectores durante los últimos 10 años. Materiales y métodos: Revisión sistemática de la literatura, como estudio integrativo, observacional y retrospectivo, en el cual se combinaron investigaciones que examinan la misma temática. Se revisaron 55 artículos publicados en las bases de datos Redalyc, SciELO, ScienceDirect y Dialnet. Resultados: Se presentan los criterios de selección, definición, relación entre CVL y ED abordados en los sectores de salud, educación y organizacional. Conclusiones: La ED reconoce el aporte del trabajador al logro de los objetivos organizacionales, teniendo en cuenta la productividad, el desarrollo y la CVL de los colaboradores.


Abstract Introduction: A Performance evaluations (PE) promotes personal-professional development and contributes to the improvement of the Quality of Work Life (QWL) of employees. A PE also enables the identification of strengths, generates self-evaluation processes and improves organizational development and competitiveness. Objective: To define the concept of performance evaluation and evaluate its effects on the quality of work life of employees from some sectors, during the last 10 years. Materials and methods: A systematic literature review using an integrative, observational and retrospective approach that included research studies sharing the same scope. We reviewed 55 articles published in databases such as Redalyc, SciELO, ScienceDirect and Dialnet. Results: We present and discuss the selection criteria, definition, and association between QWL and PE related to health, education and organizational sectors. Conclusions: The PE recognizes the contribution of the employee to the achievement of the organizational objectives and it takes into consideration the productivity, development and maintenance of the QWL of coworkers.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Desempenho Psicomotor , Avaliação Educacional , Descrição de Cargo
2.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 262: 43-46, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349261

RESUMO

The buzz words 'Data Science' and 'Data Scientist' are trending high in this age of information. The boundaries are still undefined, the exact skill sets are unclear, and the job description is still murky. This is an attempt to identify some mandatory or desired skills based on what data science demands from a data scientist. A very generic job description for a data scientist is 'A person who can perform advanced analytics on the institutional data', this gives a very unclear picture to the decision maker to identify the right resources within their data science activity. Practically the data scientist should be the one who can understand and moreover be involved with the data life cycle starting from inception > collection > operation > extraction > observation > preparation > description > prediction > prescription > Archival. Each of these aspects of data has a science behind it. An old team 'Jack of all trades' briefly defines this job description. A good data scientist essentially needs to be a good programmer, a good business/system/data analyst, a good statistician, one who can seamlessly visualize data, and is empowered with a vision to use and apply the necessary tools, techniques and methodologies in a scientific and applicable realistic way. Healthcare/Research environment is a complicated vertical when it comes to data, hence having domain knowledge is almost critical, complying with aspects of data governance such as patient privacy, consent, ethics etc.


Assuntos
Ciência de Dados , Tomada de Decisões , Descrição de Cargo , Compreensão , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos
3.
Gac. méd. boliv ; 42(1): 32-37, jun. 2019. tab.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIBOCS | ID: biblio-1007081

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: caracterizar socio demográficamente a las estudiantes de enfermería. Analizar los factores y la actitud asociados a la investigación de los internos de enfermería. MÉTODOS: cuantitativa, descriptivo, transversal. Se utilizó un cuestionario sociodemográfico, una escala de actitudes tipo Likert adaptada que se aplicó a 80 internos del Programa de Enfermería de la Universidad Señor de Sipán en Perú. RESULTADOS: 58,8% de los internos de enfermería muestran una actitud negativa por la investigación científica, mientras que el 41,3% de ellos muestran una actitud positiva por la investigación científica, siendo necesario mejorar la actitud hacia la investigación científica mediante un programa de competencias de investigación de lo contrario el ejercicio profesional podría tornarse puramente técnico. CONCLUSIONES: existe evidencia estadística para concluir que los factores: edad, sexo, asignatura de investigación, participación en actividades investigativas y número de trabajos de investigación realizados se encuentran asociadas a la actitud hacia la investigación de los internos de enfermería.


OBJECTIVE: to characterize nursing interns, to analyze the associated factors and attitude towards the research of nursing inmates. METHODS: It was quantitative, descriptive method, transversal. A sociodemographic questionnaire was used, a modified Likert attitudes scale that was applied to 80 inmates of the Nursing Program of the Lord of Sipan University in Peru. RESULTS: 58,8% of nursing interns, show a negative attitude towards scientific research, while 41,3% of them show a positive attitude towards scientific research, It is necessary to improve the positive attitude by means of a programme of research competences otherwise the professional exercise could become purely technical. CONCLUSIONS: there is statistical evidence to conclude that the factors: age, sex, research subject developed, participation in investigative activities and the number of research works carried out are associated with the attitude towards the investigation of nursing interns.


Assuntos
Humanos , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Descrição de Cargo
4.
Rev. Univ. Ind. Santander, Salud ; 51(2): 129-134, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003163

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: El perfil profesional consiste en la descripción de las habilidades, conocimiento y destrezas que un profesional debe tener o tiene para ejercer eficientemente en un puesto de trabajo; son actividades que los jefes directivos esperan que asuma el trabajador como parte del desarrollo de su profesión. Objetivo: Describir la percepción del perfil profesional del egresado de fisioterapia en una Institución Universitaria Pública desde la perspectiva de los jefes directos. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo transversal, con una muestra de 25 jefes directos de los egresados de una universidad pública, seleccionados aleatoriamente de la base de datos de egresados de la institución; quienes diligenciaron un cuestionario en físico de 33 preguntas, elaborado por los investigadores. Resultados: Los cuestionarios fueron analizados con Microsoft Excel. De acuerdo con la valoración dada por los jefes directos del fisioterapeuta, se caracterizó por un alto grado de compromiso profesional y ético, conocimientos teóricos y prácticos, además de la calidad en el trabajo y cumplimiento. Sin embargo, la competencia menor calificada, fue el conocimiento de idiomas. Conclusiones: La percepción del perfil profesional para el jefe directo, tiene que ver con las competencias específicas y con la práctica basada en la evidencia, siendo las que obtuvieron un valor de 80%, por debajo del resultado obtenido en las competencias genéricas en el perfil observado en el profesional de la institución superior.


Abstract Introduction: Professional profile involves the description of abilities, knowledge and skills that every professional has or should have for an efficient work performance. This entails activities that executive heads expect that workers are in charge as part of their professional development. Objective: To describe the perception of the professional profile of the physiotherapy graduate in a public university institution from the perspective of the direct heads. Methodology: Cross-sectional descriptive study with a sample of 25 direct heads of graduates of a public university, randomly selected from the database of graduates of the institution. The participants answered a 33-question printed questionnaire designed by the researchers. Results: Every questionnaire was analyzed with Microsoft Excel. In accordance to the given assessment of the direct heads, the physiotherapists were characterized by having high professional and ethical commitment, theoretical and practical insights, and high quality in work performance and compliance at work. Nevertheless, the competence with the lowest score was the knowledge on foreign languages. Conclusions: The perception of the professional profile from the direct heads has to do with the specific competences and the evidence-based practice. These obtained a value of 80%, below the result obtained in the generic competences in the profile observed in the professional of the higher institution.


Assuntos
Humanos , Descrição de Cargo , Educação Baseada em Competências , Fisioterapia
5.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(8): 2187-2192, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Return to work (RTW) after stroke is the ultimate goal of the working population to achieve economic independence and well-being. Previous studies have reported lower RTW rates of blue-collar workers versus white-collar workers. Thus, investigating predictive factors for RTW of blue-collar workers is meaningful to improve RTW after stroke. Here, we investigate the physical, cognitive, and social factors associated with the RTW of blue-collar workers after stroke. METHODS: Poststroke rehabilitation data for 71 patients aged 15-64 years who had been active blue-collar workers at stroke onset were analyzed from a single-center observational cohort database. Baseline characteristics, social background factors, and quantitative assessments of the upper limb, lower limb, and cognitive functions at discharge were analyzed to identify any association with RTW. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to determine the optimal cutoff value of continuous valuables with significant associations. RESULTS: Functional upper limb represented by an increasing Simple Test for Evaluating hand Function (STEF) score was independently associated with RTW of blue-collar workers by multivariable logistic regression analysis (odds ratio [OR], 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.14; p = .017). Correlation with self-employment status was also significant compared to that with employee status (OR, 185; 95% CI, 1.05-32400; p = .048). The cutoff value of the 100-point scale STEF to discriminate between RTW and non-RTW was 82. CONCLUSIONS: Functional upper limb and self-employment status were independent predictors for the RTW of blue-collar workers after stroke.


Assuntos
Ocupações , Retorno ao Trabalho , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Extremidade Superior/inervação , Adolescente , Adulto , Cognição , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Descrição de Cargo , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Avaliação da Capacidade de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Clin Pathol ; 72(6): 399-405, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910824

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Academic pathology is facing a crisis; an ongoing decline in academic pathology posts, a paucity of academic pathologist's in-training and unfilled posts at a time when cellular pathology departments are challenged to deliver increasing numbers of molecular tests. The National Cancer Research Institute initiative in Cellular & Molecular Pathology commissioned a survey to assess attitudes of cellular pathology consultants towards research in order to understand barriers and identify possible solutions to improve this situation. As cellular pathology is encompassing an increasing number of diagnostic molecular tests, we also surveyed the current approach to and extent of training in molecular pathology. METHODS: The survey was distributed to all UK-based consultant pathologists via the Pathological Society of Great Britain & Ireland and Royal College of Pathologist networks. Heads of Department were contacted separately to obtain figures for number of academic training and consultant posts. RESULTS: 302 cellular pathologists completed the survey which represents approximately 21% of the total cellular histopathology workforce. Most respondents (89%) had been involved in research at some point; currently, 22% were undertaking research formally, and 41% on an informal basis. Of those previously involved in research, 57% stopped early in their consultant career. The majority of substantive academic posts were Professors of which 60% had been in post for >20 years. Most respondents (84%) used molecular pathology in diagnostic work, independent of where they worked or the length of time in post. Notably, 53% of consultants had not received molecular pathology training, particularly more senior consultants and consultants in district general hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: The survey reveals that the academic workforce is skewed towards senior individuals, many of whom are approaching retirement, with a missing cohort of 'junior consultant' academic pathologists to replace them. Most pathologists stop formal research activity at the beginning of a consultant career. While molecular pathology is an increasing part of a pathologist's workload, the majority of consultant cellular pathologists have not received any formal molecular training.


Assuntos
Academias e Institutos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Pesquisa Biomédica , Consultores/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Patologistas/psicologia , Patologia Molecular , Academias e Institutos/tendências , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Competência Clínica , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Humanos , Descrição de Cargo , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Patologistas/provisão & distribução , Patologistas/tendências , Patologia Molecular/tendências , Aposentadoria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Carga de Trabalho
7.
Rev. psicol. trab. organ. (1999) ; 34(3): 181-193, dic. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-176737

RESUMO

Personality traits and work values are important characteristics in personnel selection. Studies on their associations show limited agreement. In order to clarify, this paper investigates their association on a personality facet level. Work values are differentiated in intrinsic and extrinsic factors. This paper adds the role of age to the association. Earlier studies on traits and values about the influence of age on their development and associations are reviewed. Then the moderating influence of age in the association between facets of the Five-Factor Model and work values of the Universal Values Model of 465 Dutch bankers is studied. The results elucidate the association between personality facets and work values and the role of age in their associations. Considering this in personnel selection might contribute to sustainable employability of both the young as well as the older worker. Therewith, the study contributes to the debate of ageing in recruitment and selection


Los rasgos de personalidad y los valores laborales son características importantes en la selección de personal. Los estudios sobre sus asociaciones muestran un acuerdo limitado. Para clarificarlo, este artículo investiga su asociación en el nivel de facetas de la personalidad. Los valores laborales se diferencian en factores intrínsecos y extrínsecos. Además este trabajo añade el papel de la edad en esta asociación. Se revisan estudios previos de rasgos y valores sobre la influencia de la edad en su desarrollo y asociación. También se estudia la influencia moderadora de la edad en la asociación entre las facetas del modelo de los cinco factores y los valores laborales del modelo de valores universal en una muestra de 465 empleados de banca holandeses. Los resultados elucidan la asociación entre aspectos de personalidad y valores laborales, y el papel de la edad en dicha asociación. La consideración de esta asociación en selección de personal podría contribuir a la empleabilidad sostenible de los empleados jóvenes y de los de más edad. Por lo tanto, el estudio contribuye al debate de la edad en el reclutamiento y la selección


Assuntos
Humanos , Relações Trabalhistas , Relações Interprofissionais , Cultura Organizacional , Personalidade , Seleção de Pessoal/organização & administração , Emprego/ética , Efeito Idade , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/políticas , Descrição de Cargo , Determinação da Personalidade , Conta Bancária/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Rev. psicol. trab. organ. (1999) ; 34(3): 203-212, dic. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-176739

RESUMO

The objective of this research was to develop and validate the Employment Interview Perceptions Scale (EIPS). This scale evaluates two dimensions: perception of comfort during the interview and perception of the suitability of the interview for applicant evaluation. Two samples were used. The first one was composed of 803 participants, who evaluated their perceptions in an experimental context. The second sample consisted of 199 interviewees, who evaluated their perceptions in a real evaluation context. All participants evaluated their perceptions for two interview types (Structured Conventional Interview and Structured Behavioral Interview). The analyses confirmed the hypothesized factorial structure. The final version of the EIPS includes 11 items, 6 of them make up the first factor, and 5 make up the second factor. Regarding the reliability of the two factors, high values were reported in the two samples


El objetivo de esta investigación era desarrollar y validar la escala de evaluación de la percepción de la entrevista de empleo. Esta escala fue creada para evaluar dos dimensiones: la percepción del confort en la entrevista y la percepción de la idoneidad de la entrevista para la evaluación de los candidatos. Para la validación de la escala se han empleado dos muestras. La primera estaba compuesta por 803 participantes, quienes evaluaron su percepción en un contexto experimental. La otra estaba compuesta por 199 entrevistados, que evaluaron su percepción en un contexto real de evaluación. Todos los participantes evaluaron su percepción de dos tipos de entrevista: la entrevista convencional estructurada y la entrevista conductual estructurada. Los análisis confirmaron la estructura factorial inicial. La versión final de la escala incluye 11 ítems, 6 de ellos componen el primer factor y 5 el segundo. Con respecto a la fiabilidad de ambos factores, se encontraron valores altos en las dos muestras empleadas


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Descrição de Cargo , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Seleção de Pessoal/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Psicometria/métodos
9.
Rev. psicol. trab. organ. (1999) ; 34(3): 213-216, dic. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-176740

RESUMO

This short research note reports on a study on the robustness of a quasi-ipsative forced-choice (FC) personality inventory for controlling the effects of faking. A sample of 126 active managers was randomly divided in three independent groups, with 42 individuals per group. We used an experimental three-group design in which the independent variable was the instructional set (faking, neutral, and honest), and the dependent variables were the scores in the Big Five personality dimensions. The results showed that the average effect sizes were .01, -.02, and 0 for the comparisons among faking-honest, faking-neutral, and neutral-honest groups. These findings showed that the quasi-ipsative FC format with algebraic non-dependence among the scales is a very robust way of controlling faking. We recommend practitioners to use this technology for making personnel selection decisions


Este breve nota de investigación se centra en un estudio sobre la fortaleza de un inventario de personalidad cuasi-ipsativo de elección forzosa para controlar los efectos del falseamiento. Se dividió aleatoriamente la muestra de 126 ejecutivos en activo en tres grupos independientes de 42 sujetos cada uno. Se utilizó un diseño experimental de tres grupos en el que la variable independiente era el conjunto de instrucciones (falseamiento, neutralidad u honestidad) y las variables independientes estaban constituidas por las puntuaciones de las dimensiones de personalidad de los cinco grandes. Los resultados mostraron que el tamaño medio del efecto era .01, -.02 y 0 para las comparaciones entre los grupos falseamiento-honestidad, falseamiento-neutralidad y neutralidad-honestidad. Estos resultados manifiestan que el formato cuasi-ipsativo de elección forzada sin dependencia algebraica entre las escalas es un modo muy sólido de controlar el falseamiento. Recomendamos a los profesionales que utilicen esta tecnología a la hora de tomar decisiones en selección de personal


Assuntos
Humanos , Personalidade/classificação , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pessoal/métodos , Descrição de Cargo , Determinação da Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Detecção de Mentiras
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(50): 12630-12637, 2018 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530667

RESUMO

Rapid research progress in science and technology (S&T) and continuously shifting workforce needs exert pressure on each other and on the educational and training systems that link them. Higher education institutions aim to equip new generations of students with skills and expertise relevant to workforce participation for decades to come, but their offerings sometimes misalign with commercial needs and new techniques forged at the frontiers of research. Here, we analyze and visualize the dynamic skill (mis-)alignment between academic push, industry pull, and educational offerings, paying special attention to the rapidly emerging areas of data science and data engineering (DS/DE). The visualizations and computational models presented here can help key decision makers understand the evolving structure of skills so that they can craft educational programs that serve workforce needs. Our study uses millions of publications, course syllabi, and job advertisements published between 2010 and 2016. We show how courses mediate between research and jobs. We also discover responsiveness in the academic, educational, and industrial system in how skill demands from industry are as likely to drive skill attention in research as the converse. Finally, we reveal the increasing importance of uniquely human skills, such as communication, negotiation, and persuasion. These skills are currently underexamined in research and undersupplied through education for the labor market. In an increasingly data-driven economy, the demand for "soft" social skills, like teamwork and communication, increase with greater demand for "hard" technical skills and tools.


Assuntos
Ciência de Dados/educação , Emprego , Pesquisa , Prova Pericial , Humanos , Descrição de Cargo , Habilidades Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Recursos Humanos
12.
Radiography (Lond) ; 24(3): 247-251, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29976338

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Over the last 2 decades the assistant radiographer practitioner (ARP) role has been introduced into NHS diagnostic imaging departments as a strategy to expand the workforce and create capacity. This skill mix initiative has not been implemented in a standardised way and there is limited knowledge of the current role scope within general radiography (X-Ray). METHOD: An electronic survey of ARPs working within UK diagnostic imaging departments was conducted. Both open and closed questions sought information regarding basic demographic data (age category; gender; geographic region), scope of practice (patient groups; anatomical regions; imaging outside of the diagnostic imaging department), limitations placed on practice, supervision and additional roles. RESULTS: A total of 108 responses, including 13 trainees, were received. Most sites employ three or less ARPs in general radiography (n = 43/66; 65.2%), although 11 sites have five (range 1-15). The majority undertake imaging of both adults and children (n = 85/108; 78.7%), although limitations on age were described. Their scope of practice covers a broad anatomical range and included some non-ambulant patients. The level of supervision varied with some sites empowering ARPs to check the referral prior to examination (n = 25) or images post acquisition (n = 32) (both n = 20/66; χ2 = 16.003; 1df; p = 0.000). CONCLUSION: ARPs are helping to maintain capacity in imaging departments but we suggest there is further scope for expansion. The practice described by the post holders suggests that many are working beyond the scope envisaged by the radiography professional body.


Assuntos
Pessoal Técnico de Saúde , Descrição de Cargo , Papel Profissional , Tecnologia Radiológica , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Escolaridade , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Recursos Humanos
13.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 14(2): 134-140, 2018 Apr-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29977470

RESUMO

Over the past few decades, an increasing number of studies have shown that intensivist-staffed intensive care units (ICUs) lead to overall economic benefits and improved patient outcomes, including shorter length of stay and lower rates of complications and mortality. This body of evidence has convinced advocacy groups to adopt this staffing model as a standard of care in the ICU so that more hospitals are offering around-the-clock intensivist coverage. Even so, opponents have pointed to high ICU staffing costs and a shortage of physicians trained in critical care as barriers to implementing this model. While these arguments may hold true in low-acuity, low-volume ICUs, evidence has shown that in high-acuity, high-volume centers such as teaching hospitals and tertiary care centers, the benefits outweigh the costs. This article explores the history of intensivists and critical care, the arguments for 24/7 ICU staffing, and outcomes in various ICU settings but is not intended to be a comprehensive review of all controversies surrounding continuous ICU staffing.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/provisão & distribução , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Redução de Custos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Cuidados Críticos/economia , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/economia , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Custos Hospitalares , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/economia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Descrição de Cargo , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/economia , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/organização & administração , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/economia , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/organização & administração , Fatores de Tempo , Fluxo de Trabalho , Recursos Humanos
14.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 107(13): 699-704, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29921179

RESUMO

Promising Future in General Internal Medicine for the Next Generation of Physicians Abstract. We are facing a lack of specialists in general internal medicine in general practitioners' practices as well as in hospitals, while at the same time the population ages and usually displays several chronic diseases (multimorbidity). Thanks to more university places, an improved job description for general internal medicine and new further education offers (curricula), interest in general internal medicine increased again, as surveys of students indicate. The young generation of family doctors and generalists in hospitals wishes flexible working conditions in order to reconcile work, family and spare time in the best possible way. Working atmosphere and colleagues have a high priority. These wishes must now be incorporated into attractive further training with flexible curricula and mentoring offers so that young talents can successfully be promoted.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Medicina Geral/tendências , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Medicina Interna/tendências , Currículo/tendências , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/tendências , Previsões , Humanos , Descrição de Cargo , Motivação , Dinâmica Populacional/tendências , Suíça , Recursos Humanos
15.
Toxicol Lett ; 298: 99-105, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29940302

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High styrene exposures are still experienced in various occupational settings, requesting regular exposure assessments. The aims of this study were to study occupational exposures in various industrial sectors and to determine factors influencing styrene urinary metabolites levels. METHODS: Biomonitoring was conducted in 141 workers from fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) manufacture, thermoplastic polymers production, vehicle repair shops and cured-in-place pipe lining (CIPP). Urinary styrene (StyU) as well as Mandelic (MA) / Phenyglyoxylic Acids (PGA) were quantified at the beginning and at the end of week, and multivariate linear regression models were used. RESULTS: StyU levels revealed very low, rarely exceeding 3 µg.L-1. Highest concentrations of MA + PGA were observed in FRP sector, with levels reaching up to 1100 mg.g-1 of creatinine. Factors influencing end-of-week MA + PGA concentrations were levels at the beginning of week, open molding processes, proximity to the emission source, respiratory protection, styrene content in raw materials. Elevated levels were also observed during CIPP process, whereas thermoplastic injection and vehicle repair shop workers exhibited much lower exposures. CONCLUSIONS: Intervention on process (decreasing styrene proportion, using closed molding), protective equipment (local exhaust ventilation, respiratory protection) and individual practices (stringent safety rules) are expected to decrease occupational exposures. Urinary MA + PGA remain the most appropriate biomarkers for occupational biomonitoring.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/urina , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Vidro , Exposição por Inalação , Exposição Ocupacional , Saúde do Trabalhador , Estireno/urina , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Biotransformação , Glioxilatos/urina , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Descrição de Cargo , Ácidos Mandélicos/urina , Indústria Manufatureira , Instalações Industriais e de Manufatura , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Eliminação Renal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Estireno/efeitos adversos
16.
Pflege ; 31(4): 181-189, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29944066

RESUMO

Status and development of the role as Parkinson Nurse in Germany - an online survey Abstract. BACKGROUND: In Germany there is a course for Parkinson Nurses (PN) since 2006. Content, structure and organization of their tasks have not yet been systematically described for Germany. AIM: How is the typical working day of PN organised in Germany? Which tasks do they have? Which conditions are promoting or inhibiting for their work? METHODS: Among the graduates of the course, an online survey was conducted from September to November 2016. 39 questionnaires were analysed descriptively (response rate 34 %). RESULTS: 52 % of PN work in specialist hospitals and 26 % work in hospitals of maximum medical care. Only 29 % work according to a concept and only 23 % have a job description. 21 % of respondents no longer work as PN. Counselling and education, information on medication management, educational advertising on Parkinson' disease as well as training of other professionals are at the centre of their work. The activities usually focus the work in the institution; a trans-sectoral support for people with Parkinson's disease is rare. CONCLUSIONS: In the future, concepts and job descriptions should be stored in the institutions, which are oriented towards a cross-institutional orientation framework. On the basis of a common understanding of roles it is possible to facilitate networking of the PN as well as the co-operation with other specialists. The curriculum at an academic level leads to the necessary competencies.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras Clínicas/educação , Doença de Parkinson/enfermagem , Adulto , Escolha da Profissão , Currículo , Programas de Graduação em Enfermagem , Feminino , Alemanha , Hospitais Especializados , Humanos , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Colaboração Intersetorial , Descrição de Cargo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem , Sociedades de Enfermagem , Suíça
17.
Toxicol Lett ; 298: 42-52, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29944903

RESUMO

Studies suggest that leukocyte telomere length is an index of systemic ageing. Here, we discuss telomere length as a marker of biological ageing in relation to residential landscape (greenness), residential air pollution and work-related exposures. Telomere lengths are memories of cumulative oxidative and inflammatory stress, and show to have inverse associations with the risk of non-communicable diseases. For this reason, telomeres are considered as markers of biological ageing. Studies at birth, in children, young adulthood, and elderly show that residential green space, lower traffic exposure and long-term lower exposure to particulate air pollution are associated with longer telomeres. Work-related exposures including exposure to toxic metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and particulate matter are associated with shorter telomeres for a given age. In contrast to chronic exposures, evidence is present of the observation that recent exposure is associated with longer telomeres. Our overview shows that the magnitude of residential and work-related environmental factors on telomere length are often as important as many classical lifestyle factors.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Descrição de Cargo , Características de Residência , Telômero/genética , Fatores Etários , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Estilo de Vida , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Medição de Risco , Homeostase do Telômero , Encurtamento do Telômero
18.
Toxicol Lett ; 298: 106-111, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800715

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In thermal paper, Bisphenol S (BPS) is one of the alternatives for bisphenol A (BPA). Due to its structural similarity to BPA, concern has been raised about the safety of BPS. Indeed, handling thermal paper receipts could be a source of occupational exposure to BPS among cashiers, as it was previously described for BPA. In this study, we investigated whether frequent contacts with thermal paper are associated with an increase in urinary BPS levels in cashiers. METHOD: Total (unconjugated and conjugated forms) and free (unconjugated) BPS were measured in urine samples from 17 cashiers and 15 controls, using LC-MS/MS. Spot urine samples, including pre-shift and post-sift samples and first morning void were collected from each volunteer. BPS concentration in thermal paper was determined and the number of receipts handled by cashiers was estimated as well. RESULTS: The median urinary total BPS concentration was 0.67 µg/L (0.52 µg/g creatinine) for controls and 2.53 µg/L (2.07 µg/g creatinine) for cashiers. Total BPS concentration was significantly higher in cashiers than in controls. Free BPS was detected in less than 20% of urine samples collected from controls and in less than 50% of urine samples collected from cashiers. CONCLUSION: The detectable levels of BPS in urine of controls suggest an exposure to BPS of the general population. In addition, frequent contact with thermal paper could be responsible for an increase in urinary concentration of total BPS in cashiers.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Exposição Ocupacional , Saúde do Trabalhador , Papel , Fenóis/urina , Sulfonas/urina , Adulto , Comércio , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Descrição de Cargo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Ocupações , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Absorção Cutânea , Sulfonas/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Med Educ ; 18(1): 115, 2018 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29801484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MD-PhDs have been hailed as significant to the advancement of medicine and health care. Yet when it comes to which positions MD-PhDs should be holding in the clinic and the academic world, there seems to be no real consensus. This article examines the ways in which a PhD-degree may contribute to medical doctors' professional practice in the clinic and discusses the positioning of MD-PhDs in the clinic. METHODS: The study is explorative and qualitative, based on interviews with MD-PhDs, their physician colleagues without a PhD-degree, and their leaders. Positioning theory was applied as the analytical framework for data analysis. RESULTS: We found two opposing positions cutting across the groups of informants with one side critiquing the MD-PhDs for not doing enough research and for using the PhD-degree to climb the career ladder, while the other side emphasized the ways in which MD-PhDs increase the clinical focus on evidence-based medicine and integrate it with clinical decision making, thereby enhancing patient care. CONCLUSIONS: A debate is needed to establish more clearly how we wish to position MD-PhDs in the clinic, which in turn will give us a better idea of how many to educate and how to make better use of their competencies.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Consenso , Escolaridade , Descrição de Cargo , Médicos , Prática Profissional/organização & administração , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa
20.
J Nurs Adm ; 48(6): 329-334, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29794597

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe differences in associate degree (ADN) and baccalaureate degree-prepared (BSN) nurses' perceptions of top-of-license (TOL) practice. BACKGROUND: To date, no empirical work has examined whether ADN and BSN nurses approach TOL practice nursing activities differently. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative pilot study with focus groups to explore the perceptions of a group of ADN- and BSN-prepared nurses concerning nursing activities and their relation to TOL practice. RESULTS: Subthemes emerged differentiating how ADN and BSN nurses perceived their responsibilities related to critical thinking, communication, and patient education. For professional nursing care, 5 subthemes further emerged: (a) approaches to assessment, (b) chart review, (c) psychosocial patient care, (d) documentation, and (e) handoff. CONCLUSIONS: The differences identified in approaches to TOL practice activities by educational preparation have implications for staffing patterns that can optimize the contribution of ADN- and BSN-prepared nurses. Further research is indicated.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Educação Técnica em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Licenciamento em Enfermagem/normas , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Cuidados de Enfermagem/normas , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Descrição de Cargo , Masculino , Pesquisa Metodológica em Enfermagem , Projetos Piloto , Pesquisa Qualitativa
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