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1.
Edumecentro ; 12(2): 76-91, abr.-jun. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090019

RESUMO

RESUMEN Fundamento: la elección de una carrera constituye una decisión compleja para los estudiantes preuniversitarios por no tener bien definido su pensamiento profesional para el futuro. Objetivo: caracterizar la motivación profesional hacia la carrera de Medicina en los estudiantes de onceno grado del preuniversitario "Capitán Roberto Rodríguez", de Santa Clara. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo con un diseño de dos etapas entre septiembre 2018-febrero 2019. Se utilizaron métodos teóricos para la fundamentación de la investigación, empíricos: encuesta, la composición y el completamiento de frases para la obtención de información en correspondencia con el objetivo propuesto, y matemático-estadísticos para los valores en cifras. Resultados: se constató que las razones que más influyen en los estudiantes para optar por la carrera de Medicina son el amor y respeto a la profesión, ayudar a la población y la influencia de familiares y/o amigos, las que responden a lo socialmente esperado; pero no están interiorizadas en la mayoría lo cual se confirmó al analizar los resultados de las técnicas de exploración aplicadas: hubo predominio de un bajo nivel de conocimientos sobre la futura profesión, poco vínculo afectivo hacia ella, e insuficiencias en la autovaloración y en la proyección futura de su personalidad. Conclusiones: se determinaron las razones para optar por la carrera de Medicina en los estudiantes del preuniversitario mencionado, y se corroboró la necesidad de realizar acciones de orientación profesional en este nivel de enseñanza para fortalecer la motivación por el futuro desempeño médico.


ABSTRACT Background: the choice of a degree constitutes a complex decision for pre-university students because their professional thinking is not well defined for the future. Objective: to characterize the professional motivation towards the medical degree in eleventh grade students of "Captain Roberto Rodríguez" pre-university of Santa Clara. Methods: a descriptive study was carried out with a two-stage design from September 2018 to February 2019. Theoretical methods were used for the foundation of the research, empirical ones: survey, essay and completeness of sentences to obtain information in correspondence with the proposed objective, and mathematical-statistic for the values in figures. Results: it was found that the reasons that most influence students to opt for the medical degree are love and respect for the profession, helping the population and the influence of family and/or friends, which respond to the socially expected ; but they are not internalized in the majority which was confirmed when analyzing the results of the applied exploration techniques: there was a predominance of a low level of knowledge about the future profession, little affective link to it, and inadequacies in self-assessment and future projection of its personality. Conclusions: the reasons for opting for the medical degree in the students of the aforementioned pre-university students were determined, and the need for professional guidance actions at this level of education to strengthen the motivation for future medical performance was confirmed.


Assuntos
Educação Profissionalizante , Orientação Vocacional , Descrição de Cargo , Aprendizagem
2.
Rev. bras. ciênc. mov ; 28(1): 24-32, maio 8, 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102290

RESUMO

O objetivo do estudo foi descrever o perfil dos proprietários de academias de gin ást icas da cidade de Pelotas-RS. Estudo descritivo parte do censo de academias de Pelotas-RSrealizado em 2 01 2. Para mapear as academias de ginástica da zona urbana da cidade, dividiu-se o município em 1 9 setores. Foram encontradas 170 academias e 183 proprietários. Os dados foram coletados através de en t revista estruturada, contendo questões econômicas (renda mensal em reais), sociodemográficas (sexo, cor da pele, idade, escolaridade), comportamentais (hábito de fumo, consumo de álcool, atividade física), labo rais (número de estabelecimentos em que é proprietário, carga horária semanal), e de conhecimento sobre legislação trabalhista (CLT) e conselho fiscalizador (CREF). Foi realizada uma análise descritiva com cálculo de médias e desvios-padrão para as variáveis numéricas e proporções para as variáveis categóricas. Ao todo, 161 proprietários participaram do estudo. Em sua maioria, os proprietários eram do sexo masculino (64,4%), de cor de pele branca (42,8%), pertencentes à faixa etária de 30 a 39 an os (4 2,8%), não fumavam (75,8%) e eram ativos fisicamente (82,0%). Quanto à formação, mais da metade (5 4,0%) era graduado em Educação Física e possuía algum curso de pós-graduação (52,2%). Com relação à experiência de trabalho em academias e conhecimento, 71,6% trabalhavam há mais de cinco ano s n as academias e 41,6% tinham pouco/nenhum conhecimento sobre leis trabalhistas. Concluiu-se que, apesar do tempo de atuação como gestores, é evidente a carência de formação adequada e conhecimento sobre legislação, indicando que os gestores ainda atuavam apenas com o conhecimento empírico adquirido ao longo dos anos...(AU)


The aim of thisstudy was to describe the profile of the gym clubs o wn ers in t he city of Pelotas-RS. This descriptive study is part of the Pelotas-RSgym club census held in 2 0 1 2 . To m ap t he gym clubs in the urban area of the city, the municipality was divided into 19 sectors. We found 1 7 0 gy m clubs and 183 owners. Data were collected through a structured interview, containing questions related t o economics (monthly income in reais), socio-demographic (sex, skin color, age, schoo lin g), beh avio ral (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity), labor (establishments in which it owns, weekly working hours), knowledge related to labor legislation (CLT) and supervisory board (CREF). A descriptive analysis was performed with calculation of means and standard deviations for numerical variables and proportions for categorical variables. Overall, 161 owners participated in t he st udy . The majority of the owners were male (64.4%), white skin color (42.8%), 30 to 39 years o ld (4 2.8%), n o n - smokers (75, 8%) and were physically active (82.0%). Regarding professional qualification, m ore th an half (54.0%) were graduated in Physical Education and has done some postgraduate course (52.2%). With regard to work experience in gym clubs and knowledge, 71.6% has worked in gym clubs fo r m o re t han five years and 41.6% had little or no knowledge of labor laws. It was concluded that, despite the tim e o f performance as managers, it is evident the lack of adequate training and knowledge abo ut legislat ion, indicating that the managers still only acted with the empirical knowledge acquired over the years...(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Conhecimento , Academias de Ginástica , Capacitação Profissional , Descrição de Cargo , Trabalho , Censos , Escolaridade
3.
Br J Nurs ; 29(3): 136-138, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053450

RESUMO

Sandra Lawton, Nurse Consultant, Dermatology, Rotherham NHS Foundation Trust, describes the wide variety of work undertaken by nurses specialising in dermatology.


Assuntos
Dermatologia , Enfermeiras Especialistas , Humanos , Descrição de Cargo
4.
Metas enferm ; 23(1): 7-16, feb. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-189184

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: determinar el nivel de satisfacción laboral del personal dependiente de la Dirección de Enfermería del Complejo Asistencial Universitario de Burgos (CAUB). MÉTODO: se diseñó un estudio descriptivo transversal. La muestra de estudio (n= 1.844) se conformó con los profesionales activos, dependientes de la Dirección de Enfermería del CAUB en la fecha de estudio, excluyendo a los liberados sindicales o a los que estaban de vacaciones. Se usó el cuestionario Font Roja validado en el ámbito hospitalario, incluyendo variables sociodemográficas y laborales, y una pregunta sobre satisfacción global (de 0 a 10). Se realizó análisis univariante y bivariante. La relación entre las distintas variables se evaluó mediante pruebas estadísticas. RESULTADOS: se recogieron 1.089 encuestas. La edad media fue de 46 años (DE: 10,677). El 96% (n= 904) de los encuestados era mujer. El 59% (n= 563) de las encuestas analizadas fue respondida por enfermeras. El 93% (n= 889) llevaba ejerciendo la profesión más de cinco años. Un 53% (n= 506) de la muestra del estudio llevaba más de cinco años trabajando en la misma unidad. La puntuación media de la satisfacción global autopercibida fue de 6,74 (DE: 1,925). Las variables edad, tiempo desde la finalización de los estudios, tiempo de ejercicio de profesión, categoría profesional y área de trabajo mostraron relaciones estadísticamente significativas (p< 0,05) con la percepción de satisfacción global. Por dimensiones, la satisfacción es baja para la mayoría de los profesionales en casi todas excepto en contenido de su trabajo relación interprofesional. CONCLUSIONES: los profesionales se declaran satisfechos en su situación laboral global autopercibida. Las dimensiones mejor valoradas son las que se refieren a la relación interprofesional con superiores y al contenido del trabajo. Por su parte, la presión de trabajo, monotonía laboral y promoción/expectativas fueron los aspectos con los que los profesionales se sienten menos satisfechos


OBJECTIVE: to determine the level of job satisfaction among the staff under the Nursing Management of the Complejo Asistencial Universitario de Burgos (CAUB). METHOD: a cross-sectional descriptive study was designed. The study sample (n= 1,844) was formed with those active professionals under the authority of the Nursing Management of the CAUB at the time of the study, excluding full-time union representatives or those on holidays. The Font Roja questionnaire validated in the hospital setting was used, including sociodemographical and occupational variables, and one question on overall satisfaction (on a scale from 0 to 10). Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted, and the relationship between different variables was evaluated through statistical tests. RESULTS: in total, 1,098 surveys were collected; the mean age was 46-year-old (SD: 10.677), and 96% (n= 904) of the survey participants were female. Of the surveys analyzed, 59% (n= 563) were answered by nurses; 93% (n= 889) of them had been in practice for over five years, and 53% (n= 506) of the study sample had been working in the same hospital unit for over five years. The mean score for self-perceived overall satisfaction was 6.74 (SD: 1.925). The following variables: age, time since completing their education, time of professional practice, professional job category and area of work, showed a statistically significant relationship (p< 0.05) with the perception of overall satisfaction. By dimensions, the level of satisfaction was low for the majority of professionals in almost all of them, except in job content and interprofessional relationship. CONCLUSIONS: professionals stated that they were satisfied in terms of their self-perceived overall working situation. The best valued dimensions were those regarding interprofessional relationship with superiors and job content; on the other hand, work pressure, monotony of tasks and promotion/expectations were the aspects with which professionals were less satisfied


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação no Emprego , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Descrição de Cargo , Epidemiologia Descritiva
6.
Appl Ergon ; 83: 103000, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751753

RESUMO

For parents working in the transportation industry, atypical schedules are often a daily puzzle. Schedule planning systems allowing workers to choose shifts may affect job strenuousness and work-family balance (WFB) for both female and male workers. How could ergonomic interventions related to the implementation of those systems better consider gender dynamics regarding WFB strategies, and minimize inequities among workers? This article presents a joint analysis of two independent case studies related to ergonomic interventions in transport companies in Canada and Switzerland. Direct observation and semi-structured interviews shed light on the characteristics of schedule planning systems and their interaction with men's and women's WFB strategies. Issues related to each step of the planning process (shift construction, schedule choice, day-to-day schedule management) are discussed to inform interventions aimed at facilitating WFB, and ultimately gender equity, in atypical schedule contexts.


Assuntos
Relações Familiares , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação da Capacidade de Trabalho , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado/psicologia , Adulto , Canadá , Ergonomia , Feminino , Humanos , Descrição de Cargo , Masculino , Ocupações , Suíça , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Enferm. actual Costa Rica (Online) ; (37): 245-262, Jul.-Dez. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1039766

RESUMO

Resumen El objetivo de esta investigación fue identificar el marco de competencias laborales en enfermería en áreas específicas o complejas del cuidado, mediante la técnica de mapeo. Es un estudio transversal realizado entre noviembre 2017 y diciembre 2018, desarrollado en diversas etapas. En primera instancia se localizó la literatura en bases de datos como Google Scholar, PubMed, Scielo y BVS, de los cuales se consideró la utilidad y la relevancia del tema y el cómo ha sido abordado en diversos ámbitos, así como su impacto en la cotidianidad de la enfermería. Luego, se trabajó en la construcción de una matriz, a partir de los principales enunciados propuestos por Mertens y cuatro componentes en enfermería: ser, saber conocer, saber hacer y saber convivir. En una tercera etapa, se trabajó con 118 profesionales de diferentes especialidades y áreas específicas del cuidado, para la recolección de información. Finalmente, se analizó el producto generado por los grupos de expertos en enfermería y el referente teórico. De esta manera se logró la construcción de un marco teórico institucional por medio del análisis minucioso de la práctica clínica. Se concluye que la identificación de competencias laborales por medio del mapeo enriquece la comprensión de la naturaleza de trabajo y la valoración del dominio del conocimiento en el ámbito del cuidado.


Abstract The objective of this research was to identify the framework of occupational competencies in Nursing in specific or complex areas of care, through the mapping technique. A cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2017 and December 2018, and was developed in several stages: The literature was first searched in databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Scielo, and BVS. It was necessary to consider the usefulness and relevance of the topic studied and the way in which it has been addressed in various areas, as well as the impact it has for Nursing in the daily work. Subsequently, we worked on the construction of a matrix, based on the main statements proposed by Mertens and considered four components in Nursing: being, knowing how to know, knowing how to do and knowing how to live together. In a third stage, we worked with 118 nursing professionals from different specialties and specific areas of care, based on the previous matrix as an instrument for data collection. Finally, in the fourth stage, the product generated by the groups of experts in Nursing and the theoretical reference was analyzed. In this manner, the construction of an institutional theoretical framework through a thorough analysis of clinical practice. It concluded that the identification of labor competencies through mapping enriches the understanding of the nature of work and the assessment of the domain of knowledge in the field of care.


Resumo O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar o arcabouço das competências ocupacionais em Enfermagem em áreas específicas ou complexas do cuidado, por meio da técnica de mapeamento. É um estudo transversal realizado entre novembro de 2017 e dezembro de 2018, o estudo foi desenvolvido em várias etapas; A literatura foi pesquisada em bases de dados como Google Acadêmico, PubMed, Scielo e BVS. Foi necessário considerar a utilidade e relevância do tema estudado e a forma como ele tem sido abordado em diversas áreas, bem como o impacto que ele tem para a enfermagem no cotidiano do trabalho. Posteriormente, trabalhamos na construção de uma matriz, baseada nos principais enunciados propostos por Mertens e consideramos quatro componentes na Enfermagem: ser, saber como saber, saber fazer e saber conviver. Em uma terceira etapa, trabalhamos com 118 profissionais de enfermagem de diferentes especialidades e áreas específicas de atendimento, com base na matriz anterior como instrumento de coleta de dados. Por fim, na quarta etapa analisou-se o produto gerado pelos grupos de especialistas em Enfermagem e o referencial teórico. Desta forma, a construção de um referencial teórico institucional através de uma análise aprofundada da prática clínica. Conclui-se que a identificação das competências laborais através do mapeamento enriquece a compreensão da natureza do trabalho e a avaliação do domínio do conhecimento no campo do cuidado.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Competência Profissional , Competência Clínica , Costa Rica , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Descrição de Cargo
8.
Nursing ; 49(12): 53-56, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764875

RESUMO

Health science librarianship may interest nurses inclined toward research, technology, and education. This article discusses the role of health science librarians as part of the clinical team.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Biblioteconomia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Papel Profissional , Escolha da Profissão , Humanos , Descrição de Cargo , Satisfação no Emprego , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Especialização
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771124

RESUMO

Job rotation is an organizational strategy based on the systematic exchange of workers between jobs in a planned manner according to specific criteria. This study presents the GS-Rot method, a method based on Game Theory, in order to design job rotation schedules by considering not only workers' job preferences, but also the competencies required for different jobs. With this approach, we promote workers' active participation in the design of the rotation plan. It also let us deal with restrictions in assigning workers to job positions according to their disabilities (temporal or permanent). The GS-Rot method has been implemented online and applied to a case in a work environment characterized by the presence of a high repetition of movements, which is a significant risk factor associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). A total of 17 workstations and 17 workers were involved in the rotation, four of them with physical/psychological limitations. Feasible job rotation schedules were obtained in a short time (average time 27.4 milliseconds). The results indicate that in the rotations driven by preference priorities, almost all the workers (94.11%) were assigned to one of their top five preferences. Likewise, 48.52% of job positions were assigned to workers in their top five of their competence lists. When jobs were assigned according to competence, 58.82% of workers got an assignment among their top five competence lists. Furthermore, 55.87% of the workers achieved jobs in their top five preferences. In both rotation scenarios, the workers varied performed jobs, and fatigue accumulation was balanced among them. The GS-Rot method achieved feasible and uniform solutions regarding the workers' exposure to job repetitiveness.


Assuntos
Ergonomia/métodos , Teoria do Jogo , Descrição de Cargo , Satisfação no Emprego , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/prevenção & controle , Desempenho Profissional , Adulto , Fadiga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional , Local de Trabalho
10.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 20(1): 542, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727033

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of wrist pain. METHODS: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: The MEDLINE and EMBASE via OVID, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus via EBSCO databases were searched from database inception to 9th March 2018. Specific criteria were used to define inclusion and exclusion. Data was extracted independently by a pair of reviewers. RESULTS: In total 32 cross sectional studies were identified for inclusion (1 with a longitudinal component). The median prevalence of wrist pain in the general population and non-manual workers within the short term (within last week) was 6 and 4.2% within the medium term (> 1 week and within a year). The median prevalence of wrist pain in physically demanding occupations and sports people was 10% within the short term and 24% within the medium term. Non-modifiable factors associated with wrist pain included increased age (1 study in adults and 3 studies in children/adolescents) and female sex (2 studies). Modifiable risk factors included high job physical strain (2 studies), high job psychological strain (1 study), abnormal physeal morphology in children/adolescents (2 studies), high frequency impact tool use (1 study) and effort reward imbalance (1 study). CONCLUSIONS: Wrist pain is highly prevalent in groups who partake in physically demanding activities from day to day such as manual labourers and sportspeople. It is less prevalent in the general population and non-manual workers, although there is a relative lack of research in the general population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The review protocol was registered with PROSPERO under the registration number CRD42018090834. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 1 (Prognostic study).


Assuntos
Artralgia/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Traumatismos do Punho/epidemiologia , Articulação do Punho/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artralgia/diagnóstico , Artralgia/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Descrição de Cargo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/fisiopatologia , Saúde do Trabalhador , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Carga de Trabalho , Traumatismos do Punho/diagnóstico , Traumatismos do Punho/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 20(1): 541, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal symptoms account for the majority of work-related illnesses resulting in a significant economic burden on society. Computer users are subject to unique repetitive strains that predispose them to musculoskeletal symptoms. In the digitalized field of radiology, radiologists spend long hours interpreting medical images on computers. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among radiologists in Saudi Arabia and their contributing factors. METHODS: An online survey was sent to radiologists in all hospitals (academic, public and private) in the major cities of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia covering demographic characteristics, workload (e.g. the time spent at a computer workstation), and workstation environments including the number of monitors as well as the adjustability of the height of the workstation and the viewing distance. This survey of 263 radiologists was conducted in April 2019. It included an evaluation of musculoskeletal symptoms using the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire. The study outcome was the presence of disabling musculoskeletal symptoms in any body region, which restricted the performance of normal activities in the last 12 months. Results were analyzed descriptively using a Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis to estimate the odd ratio of experiencing disabling musculoskeletal symptoms in the last 12 months. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 198 participants (111 men and 87 women) with a response rate of 75.3%. Most participants (71.2%) were aged below 40 years. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed being a female radiologist (OR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2-6.5), aged 30-39 years (OR = 4.1; 95% CI: 1.1-15.3), and predominantly reviewing computed tomography (CT) images (OR = 4.1; 95% CI: 1.4-12.3) or ultrasound scans (OR = 5.9; 95% CI: 1.4-25.3) were associated with higher prevalence of disabling musculoskeletal symptoms, compared to those aged below 30 years and those who reviewed various imaging modalities, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Musculoskeletal symptoms are common among radiologists with lower back and neck pain being the most frequent complaints. Being a female radiologist, aged 30-39 years, and reviewing CT or ultrasound scans were associated with higher rates of disabling musculoskeletal symptoms.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Saúde do Trabalhador , Radiologistas , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação da Deficiência , Ergonomia , Feminino , Humanos , Descrição de Cargo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/diagnóstico , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/fisiopatologia , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Carga de Trabalho
12.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 17(3): 402-407, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Job description of public health officials in Nepal has been prepared for assigning the definite role, responsibilities and authorities to exercise in different positions and circumstances. The purpose of this study was to analyse the job description of public health officials emphasizing the perspective of leadership and management. METHODS: Document analysis method was used following the sequential process of skimming, reading and interpretation, and the themes were extracted by content analysis. RESULTS: Job description of public health officials is mostly process and/or function oriented. Most of the officials are responsible for managing program and people rather than leading. Staff inspiration, motivation and encouragement, being one of the most important aspects of leadership, has been ignored in job description. District level officials are specifically assigned to manage programs and staff. As the position increases, the extent of practicing leadership increases and management decreases. Public health administrators have more leadership role as compared to public health officers; however, the proportion of management outweighs the leadership. Regional Directors have more leadership roles than other officials do. CONCLUSIONS: Role of public health officials vary from being a manager to a leader. Junior officials are predominantly the managers, mid-level officials are leadership-oriented managers, and top-level officials are leaders having managerial roles . In revising the job description (e.g., for the federal context), emphasis should be given to remove job duplication and role conflict, and should ensure role clarity, functions' precision and output.


Assuntos
Descrição de Cargo/normas , Administração em Saúde Pública , Humanos , Liderança , Nepal , Papel Profissional
13.
Span J Psychol ; 22: E38, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625502

RESUMO

In this work, two objectives were addressed. First, the visual aesthetics assessment of the workplace was explored for the first time as a potential antecedent of the proactive behaviors of job crafting. Second, the potential mediating role of the affective organizational commitment in this relationship was analyzed. To address these purposes, a field study was conducted with a sample of 428 workers. Following a set of hypotheses, the results of the measurement model, χ2 (df) = 494.288 (215); CFI = .920; TLI = .906; RMSEA = .066, showed that the visual aesthetics assessment of the workplace was significantly correlated with three of the four dimensions of job crafting (r = .19 with ISO-JR, r = .15 with IC-JD and; r = .17 with IST-JR; p < .001) and with affective organizational commitment (r = .27, p < .001). In addition, through a structural equation model, χ2(df) = 494.895 (219); CFI = .921; TLI = .909; RMSEA = .065, positive and significant indirect effects were found from the visual aesthetic assessment of the workplace to the same three dimensions of job crafting, all through the affective organizational commitment: .17 with ISO-JR, .25 with IC-JD and, .23 with IST-JR; 95% CI [.097, .276], [.161, .361] and [.161, .361], respectively. The results obtained provide useful evidence for researchers and managers about the value of providing an aesthetically satisfactory workplace, which would enhance the affective commitment of employees and, consequently, positively affect the proactive behaviors of job crafting.


Assuntos
Emprego/psicologia , Descrição de Cargo , Lealdade ao Trabalho , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Estética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
PLoS Med ; 16(9): e1002899, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unfavorable psychosocial working conditions have been associated with cognitive decline and chronic diseases, both of which may subsequently accelerate functional dependence. This study aimed to investigate the association between job demand-control-support combinations and trajectories of disability in later life and to further explore the role of cognitive decline and the co-occurrence of chronic diseases in mediating this association. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this cohort study, 2,937 community dwellers aged 60+ years (mean age 73 ± 10.6; 62.9% female) residing in the Kungsholmen District of Stockholm, Sweden, participated in the baseline survey (2001-2004) and were followed up to 12 years. Lifelong occupational history was obtained through a standardized interview; job demands, job control, and social support at work in the longest-held occupation were graded with a psychosocial job-exposure matrix. Job control, demands, and social support were dichotomized using the median values from the matrix, respectively, to further generate demand-control-support combinations. Disability was measured by summing the number of impaired basic and instrumental activities of daily living. Global cognitive function was assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination. Chronic conditions were ascertained by clinical examinations, medical history, and patient clinical records; the total number of chronic diseases was summed. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models and mediation analysis. Age, sex, education, alcohol consumption, smoking, leisure activity engagement, early-life socioeconomic status, occupational characteristic and physical demands, and baseline cognitive function and number of chronic diseases were adjusted for in the analyses. Compared with active jobs (high control/high demands; n = 1,807), high strain (low control/high demands; n = 328), low strain (high control/low demands; n = 495), and passive jobs (low control/low demands; n = 307) were all associated with a faster rate of disability progression (ß = 0.07, 95% CI 0.02-0.13, p = 0.01; ß = 0.10, 95% CI 0.06-0.15, p < 0.001; ß = 0.11, 95% CI 0.05-0.18, p < 0.001). The association between high strain and disability progression was only shown in people with low social support at work (ß = 0.13, 95% CI 0.07-0.19, p < 0.001), but not in those with high social support (ß = 0.004, 95% CI -0.09 to 0.10, p = 0.93). Moreover, we estimated that the association between demand-control status and disability trajectories was mediated 38.5% by cognitive decline and 18.4% by accumulation of chronic diseases during the follow-up period. The limitations of this study include unmeasured confounding, self-reported work experience, and the reliance on a psychosocial job-exposure matrix that does not consider variabilities in individuals' perception on working conditions or job characteristics within occupations. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that negative psychosocial working conditions during working life may accelerate disability progression in later life. Notably, social support at work may buffer the detrimental effect of high strain on disability progression. Cognitive decline and chronic-disease accumulation, and especially the former, partially mediate the association of psychosocial working conditions with trajectories of disability. Further studies are required to explore more mechanisms that underlie the association between psychosocial working conditions and disability trajectories.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Descrição de Cargo , Saúde do Trabalhador , Apoio Social , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Suécia , Fatores de Tempo , Avaliação da Capacidade de Trabalho
17.
Semin Vasc Surg ; 32(1-2): 21-22, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540651

RESUMO

The development of the 0+5 integrated vascular training program allows training to begin after medical school and is a "new" paradigm in specialty surgery training. Whether community and academic surgeons in practice will accept this training program remains an unanswered question. My perspectives as an integrated vascular resident trainee who recently entered clinical practice provide insight on the adequacy of my training and the lessons I have learned as a vascular surgery specialist.


Assuntos
Escolha da Profissão , Certificação , Cirurgiões/educação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/educação , Fatores Etários , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Competência Clínica , Currículo , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Descrição de Cargo , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Cirurgiões/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
18.
Australas J Ageing ; 38 Suppl 2: 83-89, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496058

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore how Australian residential dementia aged care providers respond to regulation via organisational culture, level, processes and interpretation. METHODS: Observation took place in three provider organisations. Qualitative, semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with aged care staff (n = 60) at three different levels of each organisation: senior management from three head offices (n = 17), facility management (n = 13) and personal care workers (n = 30) from eight residential care facilities. RESULTS: Orientations towards regulation included the following: "above and beyond;" "pushing back;" and "engineering out." Regulation was interpreted differently depending on the level of authority within an organisation where boundaries were managed according to strategic, operational and interactional priorities. DISCUSSION: Examining regulation within an organisational context and at different staff levels suggests ways to balance dementia care with regulatory control. Both generate stress, mitigated by culture and interdependent role differentiation.


Assuntos
Acreditação/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoal Administrativo/legislação & jurisprudência , Demência/terapia , Pessoal de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos/legislação & jurisprudência , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/legislação & jurisprudência , Casas de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Formulação de Políticas , Acreditação/organização & administração , Pessoal Administrativo/organização & administração , Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Austrália , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/psicologia , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos/organização & administração , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/organização & administração , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Descrição de Cargo , Casas de Saúde/organização & administração , Estresse Ocupacional/etiologia , Cultura Organizacional , Papel Profissional , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Local de Trabalho/legislação & jurisprudência
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