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Law Hum Behav ; 47(1): 100-118, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36931852


OBJECTIVE: Recently, experimental work on racial bias in legal settings has diverged from real-world field data demonstrating racial disparities, instead often producing null or potential overcorrection effects favoring Black individuals over White individuals. We explored the role of social desirability in these counterintuitive effects and tested whether allowing participants to establish nonracist moral credentials increased their willingness to convict a Black defendant. HYPOTHESES: We predicted that establishing nonracist moral credentials would increase convictions of Black defendants-especially for participants likely to harbor racial bias and external motivation to control it. METHOD: In two experiments, we randomly assigned White mock jurors (Study 1: N = 1,018; Study 2: N = 1,253) to establish nonracist moral credentials by acquitting a Black defendant in an initial case, acquit a White defendant in the same case, or see no prior case. Next, they judged an ambiguous case against a Black (Studies 1 and 2) or White (Study 2) defendant. After choosing verdicts, they provided open-ended guesses of what the study was about. Participants completed measures of explicit prejudice, motivations to control prejudice, and political orientation. RESULTS: Most participants who were asked to judge at least one Black defendant guessed that the study was about racial bias and convicted Black defendants less often than did those who guessed the study was about something else. White participants who established nonracist credentials were significantly more likely to convict Black defendants compared with White participants who did not establish nonracist credentials. Subsequent analyses revealed that conservatives showed this predicted credentialing pattern, whereas liberals did not. Credentialed liberals' convictions of Black defendants remained low; instead, they convicted White defendants more than did noncredentialed liberals. CONCLUSIONS: Social desirability plays a clear role in whether White people acquit Black defendants in experiments, which does not align with persistent racial bias in the legal system. Research participants' concern about looking prejudiced might undermine the validity of experiments investigating racial bias in legal settings by artificially inflating pro-Black judgments. The opportunity to credential oneself as nonracist, however, might make conservatives more comfortable making anti-Black legal judgments-whereas credentialed liberals continue to judge Black individuals more favorably than White individuals in legal settings. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).

Racismo , Desejabilidade Social , Humanos , Julgamento , Negro ou Afro-Americano , Credenciamento , Tomada de Decisões
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 415, 2023 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36859251


BACKGROUND: Social desirability bias is one of the oldest forms of response bias studied in social sciences. While individuals may feel the need to fake good or bad answers in response to sensitive or intrusive questions, it remains unclear how rampant such a bias is in epidemiological research pertaining to self-reported lifestyle indicators in a multicultural Asian context. The main purpose of the current study is, therefore, to examine the sociodemographic correlates and impact of social desirability responding on self-reported physical activity and dietary habits at an epidemiological scale in a non-western multi-cultural Asian setting. METHODS: Prior to the main analyses, confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were conducted to determine the factorial validity of a western derived concept of social desirability. Multiple regression analyses were conducted on cross-sectional data (n = 2995) extracted from a nationwide survey conducted between 2019 and 2020. RESULTS: A unique factor structure of social desirability was found and was therefore used for subsequent analyses. Multiple regression analyses revealed older age groups, the Indian ethnic group, those with past or present marriages, and having no income, had a significantly greater tendency to act on the bias. CONCLUSION: The construct of social desirability bias was fundamentally different in a multicultural context than previously understood. Only a small proportion of variance of self-report lifestyle scores was explained by social desirability, thus providing support for data integrity.

Exercício Físico , Desejabilidade Social , Humanos , Idoso , Autorrelato , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar
Rev Saude Publica ; 56: 101, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36515303


The objective of this essay is to discuss the social desirability bias in qualitative health research. The social desirability bias consists of a systematic research error, in which the participant presents answers that are more socially acceptable than their true opinions or behaviors. Qualitative studies are very susceptible to this type of bias, which can lead to distorted conclusions about the studied phenomenon. Initially, I present the theoretical-conceptual aspects of the social desirability bias. I discuss how its occurrence can be intentional or unintentional, with a distinction between the concepts of self-deception and impression management. Then, I discuss the determining factors of this bias from four dimensions: study design; study context; interviewee's characteristic; interviewer's posture. Finally, I present a systematization of six strategies to be used by qualitative researchers for identifying and controlling social desirability bias.

Desejabilidade Social , Humanos , Brasil , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Viés
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 13(n.esp1): 1-6, set. 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1396865


Objetivo: Relatar a experiência de certificação da primeira Santa Casa do Brasil a receber o Selo de qualidade do Programa Nacional de Qualidade do Conselho Federal de Enfermagem. Métodos: Relato da experiência de um hospital filantrópico de alta complexidade, realizado entre dezembro de 2018 a dezembro de 2019. O processo foi conduzido por equipe composta por enfermeiros gestores, coordenadores e enfermeiros residentes em saúde. Descrição da experiência: O processo teve início com o conhecimento da proposta de certificação e realização de diagnóstico situacional pelo Núcleo de Segurança do Paciente, a fim de identificar as potencialidades, fragilidades e necessidades de melhorias institucionais. A primeira visita da comissão foi desafiadora e orientou quanto às adequações necessárias. Na segunda avaliação in loco foi alcançado o selo de qualidade, porém novas adequações continuam sendo realizadas para melhoria dos serviços. Considerações finais: A participação de profissionais nesse processo impulsionou a enfermagem na apropriação das suas competências e empoderamento para vencer os desafios institucionais, favorecendo o alcance de visibilidade, qualificação profissional e melhores condições de trabalho para categoria. Esse processo ajudou a recuperar a autoestima dos profissionais e contribuiu com a aproximação destes com o conselho da classe. (AU)

Objective: To report the experience of the first Santa Casa do Brasil to receive certification the Quality Seal, of the National Quality Program, of the Federal Nursing Council. Methods: Report on the experience of a highly complex philanthropic hospital. The process was conducted by team composed of nurse managers, coordinators and nurses residing in health, between December 2018 and December 2019. Description of the experience: The process started with the knowledge of the proposal for certification and the realization of a situational diagnosis by the Patient Safety Center, in order to identify the potentialities, weaknesses and needs for institutional improvements. The commission's first visit was challenging and provided guidance on the necessary adjustments. In the second on-site assessment, the quality seal was achieved, but new adjustments continue to be made to improve services. Final considerations: The participation of nursing professionals in this process motivated nursing in the appropriation of their skills and empowerment to overcome institutional challenges, favoring the achievement of visibility, professional qualification and better working conditions for the category. This process helped to regain the professionals' self-esteem and contributed to bringing them closer to the class council. (AU)

Objetivo: Informar la experiencia de certificación de la primera Santa Casa do Brasil en recibir el Sello de Calidad del Programa Nacional de Calidad del Consejo Federal de Enfermería. Metodos: Informe de experiencia de un hospital filantrópico de alta complejidad. El proceso fue realizado por un equipo integrado por enfermeras gestoras, coordinadoras y enfermeras residentes en salud, en el periodo diciembre de 2018 - diciembre de 2019. Descripción de la experiencia: El proceso se inició con el conocimiento de la propuesta de certificación y la realización de un diagnóstico situacional por parte del Centro de Seguridad del Paciente, con el fin de identificar las potencialidades, debilidades y necesidades de mejoras institucionales. La primera visita de la comisión fue desafiante y brindó orientación sobre los ajustes necesarios. En la segunda evaluación in situ se logró el sello de calidad, pero continúan realizándo se nuevos ajustes para mejorar los servicios. Consideraciones finales: La participación de profesionales de enfermeria en este proceso impulsó a la enfermería en la apropiación de sus habilidades y empoderamiento para superar los desafíos institucionales, favoreciendo el logro de visibilidad, calificación profesional y mejores condiciones laborales para la categoría. Este proceso ayudó a recuperar la autoestima de los profesionales y contribuyó a acercarlos a la clase consejo. (AU)

Enfermagem , Desejabilidade Social , Gestão da Qualidade Total
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(4): 288-288, Agosto 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1373115
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35328900


The training undergraduate nursing students receive, both in terms of theoretical input and clinical practice, may help to instil a less stigmatising perception of mental health. To analyse the perceived evolution of attitudes and expected behaviours, a longitudinal repeated measures study was conducted in a population of student nurses during their undergraduate mental health education. The Mental Illness: Clinicians' Attitudes Scale, a Scale for measuring attitudes to the mentally ill among future Health workers, and the Reported and Intended Behaviour Scale were completed. A mixed linear model was used to assess the effect of each factor in the questionnaires before and after the various stages of the students' training in mental health. The overall effect of each factor was assessed by testing the interaction between factor and group, both with and without adjustment with the Social Desirability Scale. The results showed that the clinical practice stage, due to the proximity to care for people with mental health problems, improves attitudes and behaviours towards mental health in students who have not had mental health problems, and also in younger students. In conclusion, integrated, holistic training during the period of clinical practice was associated with positive changes in the attitudes and intended behaviour.

Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Transtornos Mentais , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Desejabilidade Social , Estigma Social , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263128, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35196316


Despite rising cases of COVID-19 in the United States of America, several states are easing restrictions (e.g., relaxing physical distancing requirements, reopening businesses) that were imposed to limit community transmission of the virus. Individuals hold differing opinions regarding whether restrictions should continue to be imposed or lifted, evidenced, for example, by debate and protests regarding reopening of businesses and venues. Health and social psychological research suggest that perceptions of COVID-19related risk, experiences of the virus, and individual difference factors can help explain individuals' attitudes towards health initiatives and their tendency to be persuaded towards a specific course of action. The purpose of this study was to investigate what factors influence support or opposition to easing COVID-19-related restrictions. A sample of 350 United States citizens, responding to an anonymous survey, were asked about the extent to which they support/oppose easing of COVID-19-related restrictions, both generally and in relation to specific restrictions. Respondents completed measures of their experiences of COVID-19, individual difference factors, and demographic variables, including political affiliation and degree of social and economic conservatism. In a series of regression analyses, significant demographic predictors of support or opposition for easing restrictions were gender, age, ethnicity, and education, with political affiliation and degree of social and economic conservatism also predicting attitudes. Experiences related to COVID-19 that predicted attitudes were concerns for self and family, perceptions of threat posed by the virus, perceived ability to adhere to restrictions, willingness to take government direction, and belief in COVID-19-related conspiracy theories. At an individual differences level, uncertainty avoidance, collectivism, long-term orientation, masculinity, empathic concern, personal distress, reactance, and general conspiracy theory beliefs all significantly precited attitudes to easing restrictions. Understanding the factors that help explain attitudes towards COVID-19 restrictions can inform how best to position health messaging and initiatives going forward, particularly as states or countries open borders.

Atitude , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Política , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Demografia , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Desejabilidade Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
Arch Sex Behav ; 51(3): 1503-1508, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35132481


Previous studies have found that a large proportion of college students do not consider oral-genital contact as having "had sex." In all studies, the questions posed were hypothetical. In the present study, university students were asked about their own personal sexual experiences. From a large pool of participants, two subgroups were identified: those who responded "No" to having "had sex" but responded "Yes" to having had oral-genital contact (No-Yes), and those who responded "Yes" to having had both sex and oral-genital contact (Yes-Yes). None of the participants in these two subgroups self-reported vaginal or anal intercourse. The No-Yes group was significantly higher in social desirability (p < .0005) as measured by the Marlowe-Crowne scale and was also significantly higher in religiosity (p < .01) as measured on a 7-point Likert scale. There was a modest correlation between level of religiosity and social desirability (r = .25, p < .01). It was concluded that many students who have had oral-genital contact but deny having had sex do so because of impression management, i.e., a desire to present themselves more positively. These results provide further evidence that social desirability responding is a serious problem for sex researchers, one that affects even the most basic questions about having had sex.

Comportamento Sexual , Desejabilidade Social , Feminino , Genitália , Humanos , Autorrelato , Estudantes
Health Soc Care Community ; 30(5): e3041-e3052, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35142406


Health professionals are in a strategic position to help people with substance use disorders (SUDs) who seek health services for support or treatment. However, it is known that professionals' attitudes towards people who use alcohol and other drugs are marked by stigmatizing attitudes that create barriers to access quality treatment and make it difficult for the user to adhere to it. From this, the present study aimed to investigate the attitudes of 264 health professionals from specialised services and primary health care (PHC) in the Southeast region of Brazil, through Opening Minds Scale for Healthcare Providers (OMS-HC), taking into account the hypothesis of contact with the subject as a predictor of more positive attitudes. For this, a Multiple Hierarchical Regression was carried out to ascertain the contribution of the variables used in the explanatory model of attitudes. In addition, the measure of social desirability (SD), assessed by Brazilian Portuguese adaptation of Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, was used as a control variable in the regression model to obtain a more robust and accurate model regarding the presence of biased responses, pervasive in studies on attitudes. In general, our findings showed that contact/familiarity with substance use, either through direct contact with users or through the respondent's own use, predicted more positive attitudes, with specialised service professionals expressing more positive attitudes than those working in PHC. Blaming the user for his/her condition presented itself as a predictor of more negative attitudes. Studies like this are of paramount importance for understanding the relationship established between professionals and service users and, therefore, for tailoring interventions and programs that aim to reduce stigmatizing attitudes and provide better access to health for people with SUDs. The importance of using the SD measure as a control variable in Regression is also emphasised, as an effective way to overcome to a common limitation in studies of attitudes.

Desejabilidade Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Brasil , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia
Arch Sex Behav ; 51(3): 1495-1501, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35142972


Research in fields for which self-reported behaviors can be compared with factual data reveals that misreporting is pervasive and often extreme. The degree of misreporting is correlated with the level of social desirability, i.e., the need to respond in a culturally appropriate manner. People who are influenced by social desirability tend to over-report culturally desired behaviors and under-report undesired behaviors. This paper reviews socially desirable responding in sexual behavior research. Given the very private nature of the sexual activity, sex researchers generally lack a gold standard by which to compare self-reported sexual behaviors and have relied on the anonymity of participants as the methodology to assure honest answers on sexual behavior surveys. However, indirect evidence indicates that under-reporting (e.g., of a number of sexual partners, receptive anal intercourse, condom use) is common. Among the general population, several studies have now reported that even with anonymous responding, there are significant correlations between a variety of self-reported sexual behaviors (e.g., use of condoms, sexual fantasies, exposure to pornography, penis size) and social desirability, with evidence that extreme under- or over-reporting is as common as is found in other fields. When asking highly sensitive questions, sex researchers should always include a measure of social desirability and take that into account when analyzing their results.

Comportamento Sexual , Desejabilidade Social , Preservativos , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Parceiros Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35206605


The evolution of digital media has changed the patterns and motives for its use among adolescents and has impacted their communication choices within their family and social networks. The objectives of this study are to understand whether peers communicate through a social network (SN) or by voice and their view of the relative social desirability of these alternatives. After the informant's consent signature, adolescents completed a series of self-report questionnaires on the use of SN, communication preferences, and social desirability online. Most of the adolescents belonged to the 17-19 age group (83.6%) and were female (68.9%). Adolescents spent more than 3 h/day on Whatsapp and more than 2 h/day on Instagram, while the use of Facebook was on average only 35 min/day. Females used digital media longer than males. Adolescents aged 17-19 years choose more Facebook and voice modes compared to adolescents aged 14 and 16 years. Alternative modes of Whatsapp and voice were chosen more than social networks in their communication strategies, especially for negative topics. Motives for use were, in addition to boredom, related to maintaining one's social sphere with peers. Some educative considerations were made based on these results.

Desejabilidade Social , Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Adulto , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Rede Social , Adulto Jovem
J Interpers Violence ; 37(23-24): NP22092-NP22113, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35042375


Ethically constructed laboratory paradigms can provide behaviorally based opportunities to study sexual violence as an addition to questionnaires. One such paradigm invites male participants to watch and show sexual materials to a female confederate as an analog of sexual perpetration. However, there has been inconsistency in the confederate's presentation, such that she either expresses a dislike of sexual material or her preferences are omitted. Some researchers have also questioned whether an expressed dislike is analogous to an expressed nonconsent. As such, the primary goal of the current study was to determine whether confederate expressions of dislike, nonconsent, or the omission of a preference, differentially affect male participants' behavior within a well-established paradigm. That is, we attempted to clarify the appropriate methodology for future researchers (i.e., the validity of the paradigm) and determine the impact of such a situational manipulation on laboratory-based sexual violence. Participants were 276 adult men, who were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) dislike, (2) nonconsent, or (3) said nothing (the omission of a preference) and then asked to show a brief video clip to the female confederate who expressed these preferences. Overall, exposure to experimental condition predicted sexual video-showing over and above that of social desirability, hostile sexism (HS), and sexual violence history, suggesting that situational variables can play a significant role in laboratory-based sexual violence. Greater HS was associated with greater likelihood of sexual video-showing in the nonconsent condition relative to the dislike condition. Sexual video-showing was most frequent in the said nothing condition. In sum, researchers should be mindful of the confederate expression (or lack thereof) of preferences for sexual materials when using the sexual imposition paradigm.

Delitos Sexuais , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Comportamento Sexual , Hostilidade , Desejabilidade Social , Sexismo
Sportis (A Coruña) ; 8(1): 107-135, Ene. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-207464


Cambios físicos, psicológicos y sociales se experimenta en la etapa adolescente, algunos de estos cambios se muestran en la búsqueda de la identidad personal y la autonomía, mayor intimidad con los pares, alejamiento del vínculo parental-familiar, y desarrollo tanto de la sexualidad como el desarrollo cognitivo. A todo lo anterior, hay que considerar que, el adolescente se encuentra en una etapa psicoevolutiva donde urge propiciar espacios para la Integración Social. Con el fin de dar respuesta a estos cambios, se crea la Sesión Dialógica de Educación Física (SDEF) que es una metodología didáctica que tiene como objetivo modificar comportamientos y actitudes en adolescentes en riesgo de exclusión social. Esta sesión se divide en cinco partes: (1.) Planteamiento de los objetivos de la sesión; (2.) Activación; (3.) Confrontación; (4.) Reflexión y Debate; (5.) Transferencia a otros ámbitos de la vida y la sociedad. Existe muy poca evidencia científica que aborde el tema de la Integración Social y la Educación Física, menos aún, si realizamos una búsqueda de la utilización de Sesiones Dialógica de Educación Física para la inclusión de menores en riesgo. Por tanto, se coloca este ámbito como un elemento de investigación de referencia, para facilitar la formación de la integración social en sectores vulnerables como son los adolescentes. (AU)

Physical, psychological and social changes are experienced in the adolescent stage, some of these changes are shown in the search for personal identity and autonomy, greater intimacy with peers, distance from the parental-family bond, and development of both sexuality and cognitive development. To all the above, it must be considered that the adolescent is in a psych evolutional stage where it is urgent to promote spaces for Social Integration. In order to respond to these changes, the Dialogic Session of Physical Education (SDEF) is created, which is a didactic methodology that aims to modify behaviors and attitudes in adolescents at risk of social exclusion. This session is divided into five parts: (1.) Approach to the objectives of the session; (2.) Activation; (3.) Confrontation; (4.) Reflection and Debate; (5.) Transfer to other areas of life and society. There is very little scientific evidence that addresses the issue of Social Integration and Physical Education, even less, if we carry out a search for the use of Dialogic Sessions of Physical Education for the inclusion of minors at risk. Therefore, this area is placed as a reference research element, to facilitate the formation of social integration in vulnerable sectors such as adolescents. (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Esportes , Adolescente , Atitude , Comportamento , Educação Física e Treinamento , Desejabilidade Social , Socialização , Marginalização Social
J Pers ; 90(2): 203-221, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265863


Social desirability (SD) scales have been used for decades in psychology and beyond. These scales are sought to measure individuals' tendencies to present themselves overly positive in self-reports, thus allowing to control for SD biases. However, research increasingly questions the validity of SD scales, proposing that SD scales measure substantive trait characteristics rather than response bias. To provide a large-scale empirical test of the validity of SD scales, we conducted a meta-analysis (k = 41; N = 8980) on the relation between SD scale scores and prosocial behavior in economic games (where acting in a prosocial manner is highly socially desirable). If SD scales measure what they are supposed to (namely, SD bias), they should be negatively linked to prosocial behavior; if SD scales measure socially desirable traits, they should be positively linked to prosocial behavior. Unlike both possibilities, the meta-analytic correlation between SD scores and prosocial behavior was close to zero, suggesting that SD scales neither clearly measure bias nor substantive traits. This conclusion was also supported by moderation analyses considering differences in the implementation of games and the SD scales used. The results further question the validity of SD scales with the implication that scholars and practitioners should refrain from using them.

Altruísmo , Desejabilidade Social , Humanos , Autorrelato
Perspect Psychiatr Care ; 58(4): 1680-1690, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34873707


PURPOSE: This study analyses the evolution of attitudes of nursing students towards mental health, paying particular attention to the influence of social desirability. DESIGN AND METHODS: Prospective longitudinal repeated-measures study in a sample of nursing students who completed the Community Attitudes toward Mental Illness scale and The Social Desirability Scale. FINDINGS: After their training, and after adjusting for social desirability, students of female gender recognized attitudes that foster humanistic values than their male counterparts. However, attitudes of restrictiveness and authoritarianism continued to be manifested significantly when the students themselves had mental health problems (MHPs), had had previous training, or were older. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: University courses should continue to foster attitudes of acceptance and destigmatization of people with MHPs, through responses that value authenticity.

Transtornos Mentais , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Universidades , Desejabilidade Social , Otimismo , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics ; 17(3): 382-400, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612754


Given the sensitive nature of ethics research, the presence of social desirability bias (SDB) threatens the validity of research findings. As ethics studies often overlook this bias, we aimed to provide evidence that SDB varies across individual and situational factors. We thus investigated the influence of socio-demographic factors and survey modes on SDB. A total of 348 working adults were randomly chosen to participate in either an on-line or off-line survey containing eight versions of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability (MCSD) scale. The reliabilities for the eight versions ranged from 0.35 to 0.81. Statistical tests revealed that different socio-demographic factors influence different versions of the MCSD scale. The results also showed that using on-line surveys minimizes SDB. This study provides practical implications and suggestions for future research.

Etnicidade , Desejabilidade Social , Adulto , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
Saúde Soc ; 31(2): e210356pt, 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1377347


Resumo O acesso à saúde e os elementos do processo saúde-doença da população trans são analisados neste artigo a partir das categorias de análise Reconhecimento e Aparecimento Público de Judith Butler. Partimos da análise de entrevistas com nove mulheres transexuais e sete trabalhadoras(es) de um mesmo serviço de referência para o Processo Transexualizador do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Argumentamos que processos de discriminação e desrespeito ao nome social nos serviços de saúde são efeitos de políticas que regulam o reconhecimento e diferenciam pessoas e indivíduos como vidas vivíveis, a serem protegidas, e vidas que poderão ser perdidas sem a proteção dos serviços de saúde. Tais políticas permeiam os processos saúde-doença na medida em que modulam modos de existência baseados em normas hegemônicas de viver e existir nos gêneros e sexualidades, que podem produzir sofrimento e adoecimento. Normas alicerçadas numa referência cisheteropatriarcal e racista, que patologizam experiências e vivências não centradas na branquitude, na heteronormatividade e na cisnormatividade.

Abstract Access to health and the elements of the trans population's health-disease process are analyzed in this article based on Judith Butler's Public Appearance and Recognition analysis categories. We started from the analysis of interviews with nine transsexual women and seven workers from the same Brazilian transgender health care from the Unified Health System (SUS). We argue that processes of discrimination and disrespect for the social name in health services are effects of policies that regulate the recognition and differentiate people and individuals as liveable lives, to be protected, and lives that may be lost without the protection of health services. These policies permeate the health-disease processes insofar as they modulate modes of existence based on hegemonic norms of living and existing in genders and sexualities, which can produce suffering and illness. Norms based on the cis heteropatriarchal and racist reference, which pathologize experiences not centered on whiteness as a norm, on heteronormativity, and on cisnormativity.

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Desejabilidade Social , Transexualidade , Sistema Único de Saúde , Processo Saúde-Doença , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 42: e229977, 2022.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1356595


Neste estudo, apresentamos um relato de pesquisa acerca de uma psicologia da diferença nas relações raciais, a fim de cartografar processos de subjetivação das relações raciais na formação da(o) psicóloga(o) e sua interface com a atuação profissional. Como métodos de pesquisa, utilizamos a cartografia, a participação observante, um círculo de cultura e duas rodas de conversa para produzir narrativas, relato e escrita de si em diário cartográfico. Para discussão e análise, realizamos um exercício ético-estético-poético e político, operando com ferramentas-conceitos da esquizoanálise e da epistemologia da decolonização. Como política dessa invenção, considera-se que: a) o pesquisador devém analisador/testemunha do lugar de fala das mulheres negras que compõem a cartografia a partir de sua representatividade; b) a presença de um número reduzido de negras(os) nos cursos da área da saúde é efeito da colonização da academia; c) a implicação ético-política da(o) psicóloga(o) emerge como dispositivo de enfrentamento ao racismo institucional; e que d) um movimento estudantil menor, ao devir comum minoritário, rompe com o instituído e instaura, de modo criativo, discussões que suscitam o debate em torno da psicologia nas relações raciais e de situações-problema que emergem do dispositivo interseccionalidade.(AU)

This study presents a research report about a psychology of the difference in race relations, aiming to map the subjectivation processes of race relations in the psychologist's training and their interface with the professional performance. We used cartography, observant participation, a culture circle, and two conversation circles for narrative production, self-reporting and writing in a cartographic diary as a research method. For the discussion and analysis, we conducted an ethical-aesthetic-poetic and political exercise, operating tools-concepts of schizoanalysis and the epistemology of decolonization. As a policy of this invention: a) the researcher becomes an analyzer/witness of the place of speech of black women who make up cartography from their representativeness; b) the presence of a small number of black women in health courses is an effect of the academy colonization; c) the ethical-political implication of the psychologist emerges as a device to confront institutional racism; and d) a smaller student movement becoming the common minority breaks with the instituted, creatively instituting discussions that open the debate about psychology in race relations and problem situations that emerge from the intersectionality device.(AU)

En este estudio, presentamos un informe de investigación sobre la psicología de la diferencia en las relaciones raciales, con el objetivo de mapear los procesos de subjetivación de las relaciones raciales en la formación del/la psicólogo/a y su interfaz con la práctica profesional. Como método de investigación, utilizamos la cartografía, la participación observadora, el círculo cultural y círculos de conversación para producir narrativa, relatos y escritura de sí en un diario cartográfico. Para la discusión y análisis, realizamos un ejercicio ético-estético-poético y político, operando herramientas y conceptos del esquizoanálisis y la epistemología de la decolonización. Como política de esta invención se considera que: a) el investigador se convierte en un analizador/testigo del lugar de habla de las mujeres negras que componen la cartografía desde su representatividad; b) la presencia de un pequeño número de negras/os en cursos de salud es resultado de la colonización de la academia; c) la implicación ético-política del/la psicólogo/a surge como un dispositivo para enfrentar el racismo institucional; y que d) un movimiento estudiantil más pequeño con el devenir común de la minoría rompe con lo establecido, instituyendo creativamente discusiones sobre la psicología en las relaciones raciales y las situaciones problemáticas que surgen del dispositivo de interseccionalidad.(AU)

Humanos , Feminino , Psicologia , Desejabilidade Social , Fala , Mapeamento Geográfico , Racismo , Saúde das Minorias Étnicas , Prática Profissional , Relações Raciais , Ensino , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Saúde , Políticas , Movimento
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 42: e238418, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1406401


Este estudo teve por objetivo testar um modelo no qual o bem-estar no trabalho (BET) é explicado pela percepção de suporte organizacional e capital psicológico. Trata-se de estudo quantitativo, corte transversal e correlacional, no qual a amostra foi composta por 227 trabalhadores, sendo a maioria do sexo feminino (57,7%), na faixa etária de 29 anos e com prevalência de curso superior incompleto e completo representando 65,2% dos participantes. A maioria atua na iniciativa privada (68,3%) e não ocupa cargo de chefia. Foram utilizados instrumentos fidedignos e com índicio de validade relativos aos construtos investigados. Para análise de dados, utilizaram-se estatística descritiva, testes de comparação de médias (Teste t e ANOVA) e análise de regressão múltipla (método padrão). Entre os resultados, identificou-se que otimismo, autoeficácia/esperança (capital psicológico) e a percepção de suporte organizacional são variáveis explicativas das vivências de BET. Portanto o modelo não foi confirmado na íntegra, pois resiliência não apresentou relações significativas com bem-estar. Além disso, somente otimismo revelou poder explicativo sobre afetos positivos, afetos negativos e realização (dimensões de BET). Destaca-se que capital psicológico demonstrou maior peso na predição de BET que percepção de suporte organizacional, exceto no caso de afeto negativo. Os resultados indicam que tanto variáveis individuais quanto variáveis contextuais são importantes para explicar a prevalência de BET.(AU)

This study aimed to test a model in which well-being at work (WBW) is explained by the perception of organizational support and psychological capital. This is a quantitative, cross-sectional and correlational study, in which the sample consisted of 227 workers, most whom were female (57.7%), mean age of 29 years, and with prevalence of incomplete and complete higher education representing 65.2% of the participants. Most work in the private sector (68.3%) and do not occupy a leadership position. Reliable and valid instruments were used for the investigated constructs. For data analysis, descriptive statistics, means comparison tests (t test and ANOVA), and multiple regression analysis (standard method) were used. Among the results, optimism, self-efficacy/hope (psychological capital), and the perception of organizational support were identified as explanatory variables of the experiences of WBW. Therefore, the model has not been fully confirmed, as resilience did not show significant relationships with well-being. In addition, only optimism showed explanatory power about positive affects, negative affects and achievement (dimensions of WBW). Note that psychological capital had a greater weight in the prediction of WBW than the perception of organizational support, except in the case of negative affect. These results indicate that both individual and contextual variables are important to explain the prevalence of WBW.(AU)

Este estudio tuvo como objetivo probar un modelo en el que el bienestar en el trabajo (BT) se explica por la percepción de apoyo organizacional y capital psicológico. Se trata de un estudio cuantitativo, transversal y correlacional en que la muestra estuvo conformada por 227 trabajadores, en su mayoría mujeres (57,7%), con edad media de 29 años, y predominio de estudios superiores incompletos y completos en el 65,2% de los participantes. La mayoría trabaja en el sector privado (68,3%) y no ocupa una posición de liderazgo. Se utilizaron instrumentos fiables y válidos para los constructos investigados. Para el análisis de datos se utilizó la estadística descriptiva, pruebas de comparación de medias (prueba t y ANOVA) y análisis de regresión múltiple (método estándar). Los resultados apuntan que el optimismo, la autoeficacia/esperanza (capital psicológico) y la percepción de apoyo organizacional se constituyeron como variables explicativas de BT. Por lo tanto, el modelo no se confirmó por completo, ya que la resiliencia no mostró ninguna relación significativa con el bienestar. Además, solo el optimismo mostró poder explicativo sobre los afectos positivos, los afectos negativos y el logro (dimensiones de BT). Es de destacar que el capital psicológico tuvo un mayor peso en la predicción de BT que la percepción de apoyo organizacional, excepto en el caso del afecto negativo. Estos resultados indican que tanto las variables individuales como las contextuales son importantes para explicar la prevalencia de BT.(AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Inovação Organizacional , Poder Psicológico , Promoção da Saúde , Psicologia , Salários e Benefícios , Enquadramento Psicológico , Desejabilidade Social , Trabalho , Organizações , Saúde Mental , Setor Privado , Eficiência Organizacional , Comunicação , Autoeficácia , Criatividade , Capitalismo , Absenteísmo , Planos para Motivação de Pessoal , Emprego , Resiliência Psicológica , Retroalimentação , Engajamento no Trabalho , Estresse Financeiro , Felicidade , Ergonomia , Satisfação no Emprego , Categorias de Trabalhadores , Doenças Profissionais