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1.
Sports Health ; 12(1): 43-50, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Student-athletes are subject to significant demands due to their concurrent sporting and academic commitments, which may affect their sleep. This study aimed to compare the self-reported sleep quality, quantity, and intraindividual variability (IIV) of students and student-athletes through an online survey. HYPOTHESIS: Student-athletes will have a poorer sleep quality and quantity and experience more IIV. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4. METHODS: Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), while sleep quantity and IIV were assessed using the Consensus Sleep Diary. Initially, the PSQI and additional questions regarding sport participation habits were completed by 138 participants (65 students, 73 student-athletes). From within this sample, 44 participants were recruited to complete the sleep diary for a period of 14 days. RESULTS: The mean PSQI score was 6.89 ± 3.03, with 65% of the sample identified as poor sleepers, but no difference was observed between students and student-athletes. Analysis of sleep patterns showed only possibly to likely small differences in sleep schedule, sleep onset latency, and subjective sleep quality between groups. IIV analysis showed likely moderate to possibly small differences between groups, suggesting more variable sleep patterns among student-athletes. CONCLUSION: This study highlights that sleep issues are prevalent within the university student population and that student-athletes may be at greater risk due to more variable sleep patterns. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: University coaches should consider these results to optimize sleep habits of their student-athletes.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Sono , Estudantes/psicologia , Desempenho Acadêmico , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Autorrelato , Latência do Sono , Estresse Psicológico , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 20192803. 59 p. ilus, tab.
Tese em Português | Coleciona SUS | ID: biblio-1016793

RESUMO

Introdução: As avaliações usando tecnologia estão presentes nas escolas em vários países, e seu uso se popularizou nas últimas duas décadas, sendo utilizadas no exame para licença médica nos Estados Unidos desde 1999. O potencial que as avaliações aprimoradas por tecnologia trazem para o mundo acadêmico foi o que motivou a realização deste estudo, e o conhecimento advindo de uma conferência específica sobre essas tecnologias trouxe o incentivo para persistir nessa linha de pesquisa. Método: Este estudo tem por objetivo comparar o estresse, a satisfação e o desempenho dos acadêmicos durante o primeiro semestre de 2018, ao realizarem provas escritas convencionais e provas no computador na disciplina de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia do curso de Medicina da Universidade José do Rosário Vellano, campus Alfenas. Foram avaliadas as turmas do décimo segundo período e sétimo período, totalizando uma amostra de 135 alunos. Tratou-se de um estudo experimental randomizado em que os alunos foram divididos em dois grupos para as avaliações e foram-lhes aplicados questionários pré-definidos e presenciais. Antes da prova, foram entregues aos alunos perguntas específicas para avaliar o estresse envolvido em sua realização. Ao término da prova, foram aplicadas as questões que avaliaram a satisfação com o tipo de prova realizada. Foram ainda registradas as notas obtidas nos dois tipos de avaliação. Cada aluno fez uma avaliação escrita convencional e uma avaliação via computador. Resultados: Os acadêmicos avaliados demonstraram maior estresse e menor satisfação com a prova no computador, comparando-a com a prova escrita convencional. O tipo de prova não esteve associado ao desempenho acadêmico. Conclusão: A falta de familiaridade e treinamento com a metodologia, antes da aplicação das avaliações, causou aumento no estresse nos acadêmicos envolvidos no presente estudo, o que interferiu na satisfação, ao fazer a prova usando tecnologia, embora não tenha havido diferença nos escores de desempenho. As informações coletadas serão utilizadas para reestruturação do formato dos testes oferecidos no departamento de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia da UNIFENAS, campus Alfenas, com o intuito de aprimorar a avaliação teórica que se realiza na Universidade.


Introduction: Evaluations using technology are present in schools in several countries and have become popular in the last two decades and have been used in the United States medical license examination since 1999. The potential that improved technology assessments bring to the academic world motivated the carrying out of this study, and the knowledge from a specific conference on these technologies brought the incentive to persist in this research line. Method: This study aims to compare the stress, satisfaction and performance of academics during the first semester of 2018, when conducting conventional written tests and computer tests in the course of Gynecology and Obstetrics of the medical program of the University of José do Rosário Vellano, Alfenas campus, a total sample of 135 students. It was a randomized experimental study in which the students were divided for the evaluations and pre-defined and class-based questionnaires were applied. Prior to the test, specific questions were given to students to assess the stress involved in their achievement. At the end of the test, the questions were answered to evaluate the satisfaction with the type of the test they took. Each student did a conventional written assessment and a computer assessment. Results: The evaluated students showed greater stress and less satisfaction with the computer-based test compared to the conventional written test, although there was no statistical difference in performance when comparing both. Conclusion: Lack of familiarity and training with the methodology prior to test application resulted an increase in students' stress in the present study, which interfered in the satisfaction with the test using technology, even though there was no difference in the performance scores. The collected information will be used to restructure the format of the tests offered in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of UNIFENAS, Campus Alfenas, in order to improve the theoretical evaluation performed at the University.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Educação Médica , Estudantes de Medicina , Computadores , Avaliação Educacional , Desempenho Acadêmico
4.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 76(4): 204-2010, 2019 11 19.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833742

RESUMO

Introduction: The process of auditory closure is defined as the ability to complete distorted or missing parts of the acoustic signal and recognize the message in its entirety, is executed daily and should be intact in adolescents. Objectives: To determine the possible alteration of auditory closure according to central auditory processing tests and the psycholinguistic skills in adolescents and; to analyze the relation between the academic performance with central auditory processing tests and psycholinguistic abilities. Methods: A descriptive and transversal study was carried out. 235 adolescents were assessed with normal hearing and without added pathologies. Central auditory processing (CAP) tests from Neustadt et al. and the Illinois Psycholinguistic Aptitude Test (IPAT) to assess psycholinguistic skills (HP). Results: No association was found (p> 0.05) between the specific tests that evaluate the auditory closure (monosyllables with noise and filtered speech of CAP and auditory integration of HP). Regarding academic performance, a statistically significant association was observed (p> 0.05) with three of four psycholinguistic abilities: auditory association, sequential memory and grammatical integration. In turn, there was a significant association between academic performance and one of the four CAP tests: SSW. Conclusion: This research presents an approach on the interrelation between audiological and linguistic tests to detect early alterations in auditory closure in order to arrive at an integral look that contributes to the therapeutics of the problem in adolescents.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Estimulação Acústica , Adolescente , Audiometria , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Diagn. tratamento ; 24(4): [158-160], out - dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049387
6.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 39(2,n.esp): 125-140, ago.-nov. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1025894

RESUMO

Nesse artigo objetivamos analisar o debate sobre direito(s) e questões jurídicas em territórios acadêmicos, profissionais e formativos, a partir do questionamento se seria a Psicologia Jurídica o novo lobo mau da Psicologia. Em territórios acadêmicos, na perspectiva teórica da Psicologia Social há estudos importantes que enfrentam a interface com o campo dos direitos e do judiciário, em especial, o debate sobre a judicialização da vida. Nos territórios de atuação profissional, o cenário de judicialização da vida tem provocado aumento das demandas sociais ao Judiciário que responde criando cargos para psicólogos ou acionando profissionais que já se encontram na rede pública, porém laborando em outras políticas públicas, tais como saúde e assistência social. O crescimento de processos éticos contra profissionais no Sistema Conselhos reflete o despreparo para lidar com demandas de elaboração de documentos que são remetidos ao Sistema de Justiça. Entretanto, nos territórios de formação, geralmente, a Psicologia Jurídica não aparece como disciplina obrigatória. O aspecto facultativo da inclusão desse conteúdo na formação discente possui impactos diretos na atuação do psicólogo e na construção de políticas científicas na área. Aproveitando o momento de discussão da formação de psicólogo no Brasil, buscamos problematizar as transformações no campo da Psicologia, em especial, a ampliação da judicialização das vidas. Nesse sentido, é necessário posicionar a Psicologia Social Jurídica como um importante referencial crítico a ser colocado nesse debate, como estratégia de posicionamento engajado na garantia dos direitos humanos, considerando as questões éticas, políticas, sociais e históricas que envolvem a(s) subjetividade(s) nesse contexto....(AU)


this article, we aim to analyze the debate on legal right (s) and juridical issues in academic, professional and formative assessments, and to evaluate if Juridical Psychology fits the Big Bad Wolf stereotype. In academic assessments, there are important studies in the theoretical perspective of Social Psychology that illustrate the interface with the field of rights and the judiciary, in particular, the debate on the judicialization of life. In the territories of professional activity, the judicialization of life has provoked an increase in social demands to the judiciary, which responds by creating positions for psychologists or by activating professionals already in the public network, but working in other public policies such as health and social assistance. The growth of ethical processes against professionals in the Councils System reflects the unprepared ness to deal with the demands of elaboration of documents that are sent to the Justice System. However, in the formative territories, generally, Juridical Psychology does not appear as a compulsory subject matter. The optional aspect of the inclusion of this content in the student formation has direct impacts on the psychologist's performance and the construction of scientific policies in the area. Taking advantage of the moment of discussion of the formation of psychologists in Brazil, we seek to problematize the transformations in the field of Psychology, in particular, the extension of the judicialization of lives. In this sense, it is necessary to position Social Juridical Psychology as an important critical reference to be placed in this debate, as a positioning strategy engaged in guaranteeing human rights, considering the ethical, political, social and historical issues that involve subjectivity (s) in this context....(AU)


En este artículo pretendemos analizar el debate sobre derecho(s) y cuestiones jurídicas en territorios académicos, profesionales y formativos, a partir del cuestionamiento si sería la Psicología Jurídica el nuevo lobo malo de la Psicología. En los territorios académicos, en la perspectiva teórica de la Psicología Social hay estudios importantes que enfrentan la interfaz con el campo de los derechos y el poder judicial, en especial, el debate sobre la judicialización de la vida. En los territorios de la práctica profesional, el escenario de judicialización de la vida ha provocado aumento de las demandas sociales al Poder Judicial que responde creando cargos para psicólogos o accionando profesionales que ya se encuentran en la red pública, pero trabajando en otras políticas públicas, tales como salud y asistencia social. El crecimiento de procesos éticos contra profesionales en el Sistema Consejos refleja la falta de preparación para hacer frente a las demandas de elaboración de documentos que son remitidos al Sistema de Justicia. Sin embargo, en los territorios de formación, generalmente, la Psicología Jurídica no aparece como disciplina obligatoria. El aspecto facultativo de la inclusión de ese contenido en la formación discente tiene impactos directos en la actuación del psicólogo y en la construcción de políticas científicas en el área. Aprovechando el momento de discusión de la formación de psicólogo en Brasil, buscamos problematizar las transformaciones en el campo de la Psicología, en especial, la ampliación de la judicialización de las vidas. En este sentido, es necesario posicionar a la Psicología Social Jurídica como un importante referencial crítico a ser colocado en ese debate, como estrategia de posicionamiento comprometido en la garantía de los derechos humanos, considerando las cuestiones éticas, políticas, sociales e históricas que involucran la(s) subjetividad(s) en este contexto....(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicologia Social , Sistema de Justiça , Capacitação Profissional , Desempenho Acadêmico , Psicologia , Normas Jurídicas
7.
Metas enferm ; 22(8): 59-67, oct. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184998

RESUMO

Objetivo: identificar los conocimientos, percepciones y riesgos asociados al consumo de las bebidas energéticas (BE) en adolescentes. Método: para esta revisión narrativa se consultaron las bases de datos: Pubmed, Cinahl, Cuiden Plus y Scopus. Se utilizó lenguaje libre y controlado (MeSH). Se aplicaron límites de idioma (inglés y español), los últimos cinco años de publicación (2014-2019), y adolescentes (10-19 años). Resultados: se seleccionaron 26 artículos de un total de 702. Un 82,6% tenía un enfoque cuantitativo, mayoritariamente estudios descriptivos transversales (57,6%). Los hallazgos se categorizaron en: conocimientos y percepciones de los consumidores, influencia en el descanso y estado anímico, y abuso de sustancias. El consumo de BE se percibía como un hábito propio de hombres, poco saludable y de prácticas deportivas en general; además se asociaba a la actividad física, adopción de conductas violentas, un peor rendimiento y fracaso escolar, problemas afectivos, problemas en el patrón del sueño, hiperactividad, conducción temeraria, abuso de sustancias y dependencia alcohólica. Conclusiones: la desinformación y agresivas campañas de marketing favorecen el abuso de BE, lo que conduce a un mayor riesgo de abuso de sustancias. La elaboración de programas preventivos, la actualización de los vigentes, el consejo nutricional y la educación para la salud podrían ser cruciales para resolver el problema


Objective: to identify the knowledge, perceptions and risks associated with the use of energy drinks (EDs) in adolescents. Method: the following databases were consulted for this narrative review: Pubmed, Cinahl, Cuiden Plus and Scopus. Free and controlled language was used (MeSH). There were limitations in terms of language (English and Spanish), the last five years of publication (2014-2019), and adolescents (10-to-19-year old). Results: twenty-six (26) articles were selected out of 702; 82.6% of these had a quantitative approach, the majority were descriptive cross-sectional studies (57.6%). Findings were classified into: knowledge and perceptions by users, influence in rest and mood, and substance abuse. The use of EDs was perceived as a typically male behaviour, not healthy, and for sports activities in general; besides, it was associated with physical activity, violent behaviours, worse performance and academic failure, emotional problems, sleep pattern problems, hyperactivity, reckless driving, substance abuse, and alcohol dependency. Conclusions: lack of information and aggressive marketing campaigns encourage the abuse of energy drinks, which leads to a higher risk of substance abuse. Preparing preventive programs and updating the current ones, as well as nutritional advice and education for health, could be essential in order to solve this problem


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento do Adolescente , Exercício , Bebidas Energéticas/efeitos adversos , Transtornos do Humor , Baixo Rendimento Escolar , Desempenho Atlético , Desempenho Acadêmico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546851

RESUMO

Adolescents' academic performance and the way it is related to their subjective wellbeing are issues of great interest across educational systems. The purpose of this study was to ascertain how satisfaction with high school subjects can predict school satisfaction and academic performance in Mexican students. The sample consisted of 457 high school students in the Baja California and Nuevo León states in Mexico (247 boys, 210 girls); their mean age being 14.10 (SD = 0.84). We used a questionnaire featuring a subject satisfaction scale, an intrinsic school satisfaction scale, and one related to academic grades. We used descriptive analyses, correlations, and structural regression models. In terms of results, the high satisfaction and academic performance levels in physical education, Spanish and English are worth highlighting. Geography and history are the most relevant predictors of academic grades, while Spanish predicts school satisfaction and physical education predicts boredom. In conclusion, satisfaction with mathematics, Spanish, and English are strong predictors of satisfaction (SATF), and the latter in turn predicts Mexican high school students' academic performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Currículo , Satisfação Pessoal , Estudantes/psicologia , Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Pediatrics ; 144(4)2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548334

RESUMO

Pediatricians and other pediatric primary care providers may be consulted when families have concerns that their child is not making expected progress in school. Pediatricians care not only for an increasingly diverse population of children who may have behavioral, psychological, and learning difficulties but also for increasing numbers of children with complex and chronic medical problems that can affect the development of the central nervous system and can present with learning and academic concerns. In many instances, pediatric providers require additional information about the nature of cognitive, psychosocial, and educational difficulties that affect their school-aged patients. Our purpose for this report is to describe the current state of the science regarding educational achievement to inform pediatricians' decisions regarding further evaluation of a child's challenges. In this report, we review commonly available options for psychological evaluation and/or treatment, medical referrals, and/or recommendations for referral for eligibility determinations at school and review strategies for collaborating with families, schools, and specialists to best serve children and families.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Pediatras , Papel do Médico , Criança , Defesa da Criança e do Adolescente , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Diagnóstico Precoce , Educação Especial/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , /prevenção & controle , Anamnese , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/terapia , Privacidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Fatores de Tempo
10.
J Athl Train ; 54(10): 1021-1029, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532693

RESUMO

Data on the psychosocial implications of sport specialization in pediatric athletes are lacking. Sport specialization often requires increased training hours and may predispose young athletes to social isolation, poor academic performance, increased anxiety, greater stress, inadequate sleep, decreased family time, and burnout. Sport specialization frequently introduces multiple stressors that could be expected to adversely affect mental health and function in young athletes and may increase the risk for burnout. This may be confounded by altered sleep duration and quality, increased drive for elite status, and perfectionistic personality types. The signs and symptoms of burnout in young athletes can be difficult to detect. It is important to be aware of the possible diagnosis of burnout in young athletes who display vague symptoms and a decrease in academic performance. The purpose of this review was to survey the available literature on sport specialization in young athletes and its association with mental health, sleep, the drive for success in sport, and burnout.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Psicológico , Especialização , Esportes Juvenis/psicologia , Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Adolescente , Atletas/psicologia , Esgotamento Psicológico/etiologia , Esgotamento Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Criança , Impulso (Psicologia) , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Higiene do Sono
11.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(10): 2038-2050, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482515

RESUMO

Teaching mathematics involves helping students develop mathematical skills and empowering students to see themselves as capable of participating in and being knowers and doers of mathematics. Extant research has postulated that mathematics identity is a critical contributor to adolescents' mathematics achievement and subsequent academic success. Guided by motivation and instructional quality theories, this classroom-based study examined a mediating mechanism through which teacher practices associated with mathematics identity through motivational beliefs (i.e., expectancies, task values, and cost value). Participants included 525 sixth-grade students (48.6% male; 64% European American, 34% African American, 2% other race; 58.6% free-or-reduced lunch) in the United States. The findings suggest that competence beliefs and task values, except for cost value, mediated the association between teacher practices and mathematics identity. These mediation pathways also differed by race. The mediating role of mathematics expectancies was stronger for European American adolescents, while the mediating role of mathematics task values was stronger for African American adolescents, though effect sizes were relatively modest. Teachers seeking to develop students' mathematics identity-especially in their minority or stereotyped students-might consider enhancing their sensitivity to students' psychological needs, quality of feedback, and instructional learning supports in their daily interaction with students.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/etnologia , Sucesso Acadêmico , Logro , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Matemática/educação , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Estereotipagem , Estados Unidos
12.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(3): 569-577, jul.-set. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1016996

RESUMO

O uso de aplicativos vem crescendo na área da saúde, tornando-se rotina diária na prática dos profissionais e estudantes. Portanto, conhecer benefícios e riscos de seu uso faz-se necessário. O objetivo do estudo aqui apresentado é verificar opiniões e atitudes relatadas por estudantes de medicina a respeito do uso de aplicativos no cotidiano ambulatorial de um hospital-escola. Trata-se de um estudo transversal desenvolvido, em 2017, em Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil, no qual se utilizaram questionários autoaplicáveis presencialmente em uma população de 73 estudantes concluintes do curso de medicina. Os resultados revelaram que a maioria (95,9%) dos estudantes referiram possuir smartphone e 98,6% afirmaram utilizar dispositivos móveis com intuito acadêmico. A finalidade mais comum do uso de aplicativos foi a de consulta de fármacos existentes (93,2%) e quase a totalidade dos estudantes (98,6%) confia nos aplicativos utilizados. Porém, foi questionado se o uso na rotina interfere na relação profissional-paciente. Concluímos que o uso de aplicativos é uma realidade crescente, mas que ainda há discordâncias sobre seus benefícios e malefícios.


The use of applications has been growing in the field of health, becoming a daily routine in the practice of professionals and students. Therefore, knowing the benefits and risks of its use is necessary. The study presented here aims to verify the opinions and attitudes reported by medical students about the use of applications in the outpatient routine in a teaching hospital. It is a cross-sectional study and it was developed in 2017 in Recife, in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, using a self-administered questionnaire asked by 73 students of the last year of medicine undergraduate degree. The results reveal that the majority (95.9%) of the students reported having a smartphone and 98.6% specified that they use mobile devices for academic purposes. The most common purpose of using applications was to consult existing drugs (93.2%) and almost all students (98.6%) believe that the applications used are reliables. However, there are doubts if routine use interferes with the professional-patient relationship. We concluded that the use of applications is growing, but there are still disagreements about its benefits and harms.


El uso de aplicaciones viene creciendo en el área de la salud y se ha convertido en rutina diaria en la práctica de los profesionales y estudiantes. Por lo tanto, conocer los beneficios y riesgos de su uso se hace necesario. El objetivo del estudio presentado aquí es verificar opiniones y actitudes relatadas por estudiantes de medicina acerca del uso de aplicaciones en el cotidiano del ambulatorio de un hospital escuela. Un estudio transversal ha sido desarrollado en 2017 en Recife, en el estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, utilizando un cuestionario autoaplicable presencialmente en 73 estudiantes del último año de la graduación del grado en medicina. Los resultados mostran que la mayoría (95,9%) de los estudiantes mencionó poseer teléfono inteligente y 98,6% afirmaron utilizar dispositivos movibles con intención académica. La finalidad más común del uso de aplicaciones fue la de consulta de fármacos existentes (93,2%) y casi la totalidad de los estudiantes (98,6%) confía en las aplicaciones utilizadas. Sin embargo, ha sido cuestionado si el uso en la rutina interfiere en la relación profesional-paciente. Nosotros concluimos que el uso de aplicaciones es creciente, pero todavía hay desacuerdos sobre sus beneficios y maleficios.


Assuntos
Humanos , Estudantes de Medicina , Educação Médica , Aplicativos Móveis , Estudo Observacional , Smartphone , Desempenho Acadêmico , Relações Médico-Paciente , Prática Profissional , Pessoal de Saúde , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Computadores de Mão , Mídias Sociais
13.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 19(3): 513-520, Jul.-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041086

RESUMO

Abstract Objectives: to compare the cognitive performance of schoolchildren born prematurely according to the presence of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) during the neonatal period. Methods: a cross-sectional cohort study of schoolchildren between the ages of 6-8 years old, born prematurely with or without a history of neonatal ICH. Between January and December 2015, some children were followed up at the outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital and underwent a cognitive evaluation by using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Edition (WISC-III) and they were divided into two groups: those with no history of ICH (control group) and those with ICH (case group), confirmed by a transfontanelar ultrasound in the prenatal period. Results: 39 schoolchildren were included, 21 cases and 18 controls. There was no difference in gestational age or chronological age at evaluation between the groups. Also there was no significant difference in subtest scores between the groups. Conclusions: WISC-III evaluated the cognitive performance in children, born preterm, aged 6-8 years old, and had neonatal ICH did not differ from those of their peers without a history of ICH. These findings suggest that, in preterm infants, a neonatal diagnosis of ICH may not be associated with cognitive performance at school age and this should be investigated through a longitudinal study.


Resumo Objetivos: comparar o desempenho cognitivo de escolares, nascidos prematuramente, segundo a presença de hemorragia intracraniana (HIC) no período neonatal. Métodos: corte transversal de uma coorte de escolares com idade entre seis e oito anos que nasceram prematuramente e apresentaram ou não HIC, realizado entre janeiro e dezembro de 2015, acompanhados em ambulatório de seguimento de hospital terciário e submetidos à avaliação cognitiva, através da Escala de Inteligência Wechsler para Crianças-3ª edição (WISC-III), que foram divididos em dois grupos: sem HIC (grupo controle - GC) e com HIC (grupo de casos - GH) comprovada através de exame ultrassonográfico transfontanelar no período perinatal. Resultados: foram incluídos 39 escolares, 18 no GC e 21 no GH. Não se observou dife-rença entre os grupos quanto à idade gestacional e idade cronológica na qual eles foram avaliados. Não foi encontrada diferença estatística entre os grupos estudados nos valores dos subtestes. Conclusões: o desempenho cognitivo de crianças nascidas pré-termo que tiveram HIC não difere daquele que não a apresentaram quando avaliadas pelo WISC-III na faixa etária de seis a oito anos. Sugere-se que o diagnóstico neonatal de HIC pode não estar associado ao desempenho cognitivo de prematuros, na idade escolar, o que deverá ser investigado através de estudo longitudinal.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Escalas de Wechsler , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Cognição , Hemorragias Intracranianas , Desempenho Acadêmico , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Saúde da Criança , Estudos Transversais
14.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 39(3): 86-93, sept. 2019. graf., tab.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048273

RESUMO

Introducción: en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje existen múltiples conflictos al momento de seleccionar el tipo de evaluación que debería aplicarse a estudiantes de Medicina. Nuestro objetivo es comparar diferencias en la media de notas de tres modalidades de examen (oral, escrito para desarrollar y preguntas de opción múltiple) para así determinar cómo estas podrían afectar el desempeño de los estudiantes de Medicina en el campo de la Farmacología. Material y métodos: estudio cuasi experimental con una intervención no aleatorizada en una muestra por conveniencia de estudiantes de Medicina. A fin de evaluar diferencias en la media de notas se hizo un análisis ANOVA para muestras pareadas y luego los correspondientes tests de T para muestras pareadas. Resultados: enrolamos inicialmente a 36 estudiantes; 7 fueron excluidos (4 por ausencia y 3 por abandono), y se obtuvieron 29 participantes. La media de notas del examen oral y la de preguntas de opción múltiple fueron ambas significativamente superiores a la del examen escrito para desarrollar (oral vs. escrito: diferencia 1,8 puntos; IC 95% 0,8 a 2,7; p < 0,01; opción múltiple vs. escrito: diferencia 2,1 puntos; IC 95% 1,4 a 2,9; p < 0,01). No hubo diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las notas medias del examen oral y del examen de preguntas de opción múltiple (p = 0,37). Conclusión: los estudiantes de Medicina obtienen peores notas en el examen escrito para desarrollar en Farmacología, en relación con los exámenes oral y de preguntas de opción múltiple. Esto posiblemente se asocie al hecho de que aquella modalidad es menos frecuentemente empleada en la carrera de Medicina. (AU)


Introduction: in the teaching-learning process, there are many problems in the selection of the most suitable type of exam for evaluating medical students. Our target was to compare differences in the average grade of medical students upon taking three different types of exam (oral, written, and multiple-choice questions) to determine how these different types of exam may affect the performance of medical students in the area of Pharmacology. Material and methods: we conducted a quasi experimental study by applying a non-randomized intervention to a convenience sample of medical students. To evaluate differences in the average grades among three groups, an ANOVA analysis was applied followed by paired T-tests. Results: we initially enrolled 36 students; 7 were excluded (4 were absent and 3 abandoned the intervention), arriving at a total sum of 29 participants. The average grades of the oral exam and multiple-choice questions were both significantly higher than the written exam (oral vs. written: difference 1.8 points; 95%CI 0.8 to 2.7, p < 0.01; multiple-choice vs. written: difference 2.1 points, 95%CI 1.4 to 2.9, p < 0.01). There were no significant differences between the average grades on the oral exam and the multiple-choice exam (p = 0.37). Conclusion: medical students have worse grades on written exams in Pharmacology, as compared to oral and multiple-choice exams. This could possibly be associated with the fact that this type of exam is less frequently applied in Medical School. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Farmacologia/educação , Avaliação Educacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Habilidades para Realização de Testes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensino/educação , Questão de Prova , Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Aprendizagem
15.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 301, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research examining the effects of academic interest on students learning achievement across various disciplines, especially a comparison of the effects of academic interest between medical sciences and other disciplines, is still scarce. This study addressed this gap by answering 'does academic interest play a more important role in medical sciences than in other disciplines?'. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study, based on a large project of the National Undergraduate Student Development Survey (NUSDS) conducted by the Ministry of Education of China and Peking University in 2014, was designed to explore the role of academic interest in medical sciences and other disciplines. The participants were resampled to better represent the national distribution of undergraduate students in terms of their demographic characteristics. Specifically, survey data from 54,398 undergraduate students from 87 Chinese universities and colleges were used to address our research questions. We then used the propensity score matching (PSM) model to estimate the effect of academic interest on academic achievement and to compare the effects across different disciplines. RESULTS: Academic interest had a significant positive impact on academic performance, with an effect size of 2.545 (p = 0.000). Specifically, the effect sizes for the disciplines of medical sciences, humanities, social sciences, natural sciences and engineering were 2.310 (p = 0.000), 2.231 (p = 0.000), 2.016 (p = 0.000), 3.840 (p = 0.000) and 2.698 (p = 0.000), respectively. The results show that no particular academic interest in medical sciences is needed to achieve academic success when compared with natural sciences and engineering programmes, but success in medical sciences requires more academic interest than success in humanities or social sciences. CONCLUSIONS: This study clarifies the effect of academic interest on undergraduates' academic achievement while controlling for their demographic characteristics and family factors. The results provide insights into the role of academic interest in academic performance across various disciplines and can inform the college admissions practices of both institutions and high school students in China.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Motivação , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394722

RESUMO

Included among the basic objectives of Physical Education (PE) classes is the consolidation of habits of a healthy lifestyle among adolescents. However, the main studies in this field have focused on cognitive aspects related to students during these classes, yet they ignore the role that emotions can play in the adoption of future habits. OBJECTIVES: To analyze how emotions (emotional intelligence and emotional state) can influence the resilience and motivation of adolescents, as well as academic performance and adoption of healthy lifestyle habits. METHODOLOGY: 615 secondary school students between the ages of 14 and 19 participated (M = 16.02; SD = 1.57) in the study. A structural equations model was developed using the main variables and by applying some of the principles of Self-Determination Theory. The results show that emotional intelligence is positively related to positive emotions and negatively related to negative emotions. Positive emotions positively predict both self-motivation towards physical education classes and resilience. Resilience positively predicts self-motivation. Finally, self-motivation acts as a predictor of both academic performance and regular participation in physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: This study successfully shows the importance of focusing on emotions in PE classes inasmuch as emotion increases the tendency to get good grades and maintain active lifestyle habits. In this sense, focusing on the emotions of students in PE could prove quite beneficial.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Inteligência Emocional , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Motivação , Educação Física e Treinamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Resiliência Psicológica , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Espanha
17.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(8): 1109-1114, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417054

RESUMO

Background: The dental graduation program is stressful and challenging as it is essential to master various skills. The emotional intelligence (EI) is reported to help in perceiving, moderating emotions and also play a significant role in academic excellence. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the sociodemographic factors influencing EI and to determine the association of EI in academic performance of clinical and preclinical courses. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included the 113 dental clinical internship students from five different dental schools at Pakistan. The self-administered questionnaire data included sociodemographic factors, academic performance in preclinical, clinical courses, and San Diego City College MESA Program-based EI responses. The results were analyzed with multiple linear regression and ordinal regression to identify the independent predictor for EI and academic performance. Results: The female participants had marginally higher mean EI score (109.67) in comparison to male counterparts (108.10). The independent predictors among sociodemographic factors for EI were having siblings (P = 0.016), loss of parents (P = 0.002), parents' education (P = 0.022), and relation with parents (P = 0.03). The students enjoy studying dentistry were also associated with higher EI scores (P = 0.002). The mean EI score was an independent predictor of academic performance predominantly in clinical courses [ß = -0.041 (95% confidence interval - 0.063 to - 0.020); P = 0.000]. Conclusion: The finding of the study indicates the influence of family and social factors in the development of EI. The dental students' EI is vital for higher academic performance in clinical courses.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Educação em Odontologia , Inteligência Emocional , Emoções , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes de Odontologia/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão , Faculdades de Odontologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
18.
J Grad Med Educ ; 11(4): 475-478, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440345

RESUMO

Background: The Medical School Performance Evaluation (MSPE) is an important factor for application to residency programs. Many medical schools are incorporating recent recommendations from the Association of American Medical Colleges MSPE Task Force into their letters. To date, there has been no feedback from the graduate medical education community on the impact of this effort. Objective: We surveyed individuals involved in residency candidate selection for internal medicine programs to understand their perceptions on the new MSPE format. Methods: A survey was distributed in March and April 2018 using the Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine listserv, which comprises 4220 individuals from 439 residency programs. Responses were analyzed, and themes were extracted from open-ended questions. Results: A total of 140 individuals, predominantly program directors and associate program directors, from across the United States completed the survey. Most were aware of the existence of the MSPE Task Force. Respondents read a median of 200 to 299 letters each recruitment season. The majority reported observing evidence of adoption of the new format in more than one quarter of all medical schools. Among respondents, nearly half reported the new format made the MSPE more important in decision-making about a candidate. Within the MSPE, respondents recognized the following areas as most influential: academic progress, summary paragraph, graphic representation of class performance, academic history, and overall adjective of performance indicator (rank). Conclusions: The internal medicine graduate medical education community finds value in many components of the new MSPE format, while recognizing there are further opportunities for improvement.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/normas , Competência Clínica/normas , Medicina Interna/educação , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Faculdades de Medicina/normas , Educação Médica , Humanos , Diretores Médicos/organização & administração , Estudantes de Medicina , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Biochem Mol Biol Educ ; 47(6): 615-619, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454138

RESUMO

The development of social media applications has made it an important part of students' personal lives. In this article, we aim to determine whether social media usage is beneficial or harmful to college students through academic performance. Through a survey of biological undergraduates, we found that boys use social media applications more frequently than girls, and that GPA is inversely related to the number of social media applications that students subscribe to. In addition, we found that using more social media applications is positively related to the amount of time spent on social media per day. Our research shows that social media may have a negative impact on undergraduates' study habits and academic performance. © 2019 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 47(6):615-619, 2019.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Biologia/educação , Mídias Sociais , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
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