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2.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 283-294, mayo 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192065

RESUMO

Identificar factores instruccionales específicos relacionados con progresos en comprensión lectora es esencial para optimizar el aprendizaje y orientar la intervención, especialmente en contextos de desventaja socio-cultural o dificultades de aprendizaje. Este estudio pretende identificar patrones instruccionales de mediación eficaces en la explicación del progreso en comprensión. Se grabaron, transcribieron y analizaron sistemáticamente 82 sesiones-clase, y se registraron pautas de mediación relativas a diferentes procesos lectores. Los patrones de mediación fueron analizados mediante codificación y categorización del contenido con el programa Maxqdea-7. Fueron consideradas 19 categorías, que aglutinaron 178 unidades de información significativas (pautas/conductas de mediación). La muestra estuvo compuesta por 21 docentes y 821 estudiantes de tercero a octavo grado de Educación Básica de escuelas públicas de Chile ubicadas en contextos de-privados socialmente. El progreso lector se midió con la prueba estandarizada CL-PT, aplicada al principio y al final del curso escolar. Los resultados permitieron identificar pautas específicas de mediación significativas en la explicación del progreso, especialmente el patrón M_17 (Mediación del uso de estrategias para la activación e integración de conocimientos previos) explicaba el 26% de la varianza (r = .55, p < .01; R2ajustado = .26, F (1, 19) = 8.19, p = .01). Se discuten las implicaciones educativas de estos resultados


Identifying specific instructional factors related to progress in reading comprehension is essential to optimize learning and guide intervention, especially in contexts of sociocultural disadvantage or learning difficulties. This study aims to identify effective mediational instructional patterns in the explanation of progress in reading comprehension. Teaching guidelines were systematically recorded in relation to different reading processes. Eighty-two sessions were recorded, transcribed and analyzed by coding and categorizing the content of the sessions through the Maxqdea-7 program. Nineteen categories were considered, which comprised 178 significant units of information (mediation guidelines). The sample consisted of 21 teachers and 821 students from third to the eighth grade of public schools of Chile located in deprived contexts. Reading progress was measured with the standardized CL-PT test, which was applied at the beginning and end of the school year. The results have allowed identifying mediation patterns with a significant relevance in the explanation of reading progress, especially the pattern M_P17 (Mediation of the use of strategies for the activation and integration of previous knowledge) managed to explain 26% of the variance in the progress (r = .55, p < .01; R2adjusted = .26, F(1, 19) = 8.19, p = .01). The educational implications of these results are discussed


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Compreensão , Populações Vulneráveis , Leitura , Aprendizagem , Docentes/normas , Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Metacognição/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , 25783 , Recursos Audiovisuais/normas , Ajustamento Social , Análise de Regressão , Desempenho Acadêmico/normas
3.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 313-319, mayo 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192068

RESUMO

The quality of learning in Higher Education is particularly dependent on students' skills in regulating their cognition. This regulation requires cognitive and metacognitive skills as well as motivational dimensions. Due to its relevance in explaining students' academic achievement and developing lifelong learning skills, it´s important to increase research in the area. This study aims to adapt and validate a short version of the Regulation of Cognition of Metacognitive Awareness Inventory to first-year Portuguese university students. A sample of 360 students was considered and was identified a three-dimensional structure (Planning, 4 items; Strategies, 7 items; and Monitoring and evaluation, 7 items) with a second-order factor (Regulation of Cognition). The internal consistency values of the reduced scale are within the acceptable parameters for a self-report scale and the correlations with academic achievement at the end of the first year of the university guarantee the predictive validity of the scale. This short version of regulation of cognition measure allows its use in research with other instruments in larger studies and can function as a diagnostic / screening tool to help students in higher education learning challenges


La calidad del aprendizaje en la Educación Superior depende, especialmente, de las habilidades de los estudiantes para regular su cognición. Esta regulación requiere habilidades cognitivas y metacognitivas, así como dimensiones motivacionales. Dada su relevancia en el rendimiento académico y el desarrollo de habilidades para el aprendizaje a lo largo de la vida, es importante aumentar la investigación en el campo. Este estudio pretende adaptar y validar una versión abreviada de la dimensión Regulación de la Cognición del Metacognitive Awareness Inventory para estudiantes universitarios portugueses de primer año. Se empleó una muestra de 360 estudiantes y se identificó una estructura tridimensional (Planificación, 4 ítems; Estrategias, 7 ítems; y Monitoreo y evaluación, 7 ítems) con un factor de segundo orden (Regulación de la cognición). Los valores de consistencia interna de la escala reducida son aceptables para una escala de auto-informe y las correlaciones con el logro académico al final del primer año de la universidad garantizan su validez predictiva. Esta versión abreviada para medir la regulación de la cognición puede usarse en investigación junto con otros instrumentos en estudios más amplios y puede funcionar como una herramienta de diagnóstico para ayudar a los estudiantes en los desafíos del aprendizaje en la enseñanza superior


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Cognição , Estudantes/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica Breve , Autocontrole/psicologia , Logro , Desempenho Acadêmico , Autorrelato , Portugal , Análise Fatorial , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 24(3): 682-690, jul.-set. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1125025

RESUMO

RESUMEN La mala calidad del sueño es un problema común de la sociedad moderna. En el presente trabajo se exponen los trastornos del sueño más comunes, con énfasis en los que afectan a los estudiantes de Medicina. Entre los factores más estudiados y vinculados a las fuentes de trastornos se encuentran: las capacidades de los estudiantes de Medicina, sus paradigmas, la cultura asociada a la dinámica del sueño y las demandas académicas. Este sector, dada su juventud, desconoce las necesidades del sueño a su edad. Es necesario aumentar la educación sobre esta temática, lo cual constituye una intervención beneficiosa para reducir la incidencia del problema. De igual forma, se impone identificar a los estudiantes en riesgo y orientarlos con programas para mejorar la calidad del sueño; esto sería una alternativa de alto valor para las universidades médicas. Palabras clave: trastorno del sueño, estudiantes de medicina, rendimiento académico.


ABSTRACT Poor sleep quality is a common problem in modern society. In this paper the most common sleep disorders are exposed, with emphasis on those that affect medical students. Medical students' abilities, their paradigms, culture associated with sleep dynamics and academic demands are among the most studied factors linked to the sources of disorders. This sector, given its youth, dismisses sleep needs at their age. It is necessary to increase education on this subject, which constitutes a beneficial intervention in order to reduce the incidence of the problem. Similarly, it is imperative to identify students at risk and guide them with programs to improve sleep quality; this would be a high value alternative for medical universities.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Estudantes de Medicina , Desempenho Acadêmico
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237908, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877427

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The effects of electronic media use on health has received much attention but less is known about links with academic performance. This study prospectively examines the effect of media use on academic performance in late childhood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 1239 8- to 9-year-olds and their parents were recruited to take part in a prospective, longitudinal study. Academic performance was measured on a national achievement test at baseline and 10-11 years of age. Parents reported on their child's duration of electronic media use. RESULTS: After control for baseline reading, watching more than two hours of television per day at 8-9 years of age predicted a 12-point lower performance in reading at 10-11 years, equivalent to the loss of a third of a year in learning. Using a computer for more than one hour a day predicted a similar 12-point lower numeracy performance. Regarding cross-sectional associations (presumed to capture short-term effects) of media use on numeracy, after controlling for prior media exposure, watching more than two hours of television per day at 10-11 years was concurrently associated with a 12-point lower numeracy score and using a computer for more than one hour per day with a 13-point lower numeracy performance. There was little evidence for concurrent effects on reading. There was no evidence of short- or long-term associations between videogame use and academic performance. DISCUSSION: Cumulative television use is associated with poor reading and cumulative computer use with poorer numeracy. Beyond any links between heavy media use and health risks such as obesity, physical activity and mental health, these findings raise a possibility of additional risks of both television and computer use for learning in mid-childhood. These findings carry implications for parents, teachers and clinicians to consider the type and timing of media exposure in developing media plans for children.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Eletrônica , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
6.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) have improved language outcomes when enrolled in early intervention (EI) before the age of 6 months. Little is understood about the long-term impact of EI on outcomes of kindergarten readiness (K-readiness). The study objective was to evaluate the impact of EI before the age of 6 months (early) versus after 6 months (later) on K-readiness in children who are D/HH. METHODS: In this study, we leveraged data from the Ohio Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Data Linkage Project, which linked records of 1746 infants identified with permanent hearing loss born from 2008 to 2014 across 3 Ohio state agencies; 417 had kindergarten records. The Kindergarten Readiness Assessment was used to identify children as ready for kindergarten; 385 had Kindergarten Readiness Assessment scores available. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the relationship between K-readiness and early EI entry while controlling for confounders (eg, hearing loss severity and disability status). RESULTS: Children who were D/HH and entered EI early (n = 222; 57.7% of the cohort) were more likely to demonstrate K-readiness compared with children who entered EI later (33.8% vs 20.9%; P = .005). Children who entered early had similar levels of K-readiness as all Ohio students (39.9%). After controlling for confounders, children who entered EI early were more likely to be ready for kindergarten compared with children who entered later (odds ratio: 2.02; 95% confidence interval 1.18-3.45). CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the sustained effects of early EI services on early educational outcomes among children who are D/HH. EI entry before the age of 6 months may establish healthy trajectories of early childhood development, reducing the risk for later academic struggles.


Assuntos
Correção de Deficiência Auditiva , Intervenção Médica Precoce/métodos , Transtornos da Audição , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Desempenho Acadêmico , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surdez/reabilitação , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Ohio
7.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 19(3): es10, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870082

RESUMO

To promote undergraduate education reform, teaching professional development (TPD) efforts aim to encourage instructors to adopt evidence-based practices. However, many instructors do not attend TPD. There may be many reasons for this, including low intrinsic motivation to participate in TPD. Psychologists have dealt with motivational barriers in educational contexts using psychosocial interventions, brief activities that draw on a rich history of psychological research to subtly alter key, self-reinforcing psychological processes to yield long-term intrinsic motivation and behavioral changes. Psychosocial interventions, for example, have been used to alter students' noncognitive attitudes and beliefs, such as attributions and mindset, which positively influence students' motivation and academic performance. Here, we propose that insights from research on psychosocial interventions may be leveraged to design interventions that will increase instructors' motivation to participate in TPD, thus enhancing existing pedagogical reform efforts. We discuss psychological principles and "best practices" underlying effective psychosocial interventions that could guide the development of interventions to increase instructors' motivation to attend TPD. We encourage new interdisciplinary research collaborations to explore the potential of these interventions, which could be a new approach to mitigating at least one barrier to undergraduate education reform.


Assuntos
Educação Profissionalizante , Motivação , Ensino/psicologia , Desempenho Acadêmico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Atitude , Humanos , Reforço Psicológico , Estudantes/psicologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867113

RESUMO

The purpose of the current study is to analyze the relationships between physical fitness, selective attention, and academic performance in pre-teens. The sample here consists of 135 participants between the ages of 10 and 12 (M = 11.05; SD = 0.61), with 39.26% female (n = 53) and 60.74% male (n = 82) participants. Horizontal and vertical jump distances, speed, and cardio-respiratory fitness were evaluated to assess physical fitness. The d2 Test of Attention was used to evaluate selective attention. In addition, data were obtained regarding participant academic performance by analyzing the academic performance. The results show significant relationships between the measures analyzed, highlighting positive associations between physical fitness, cognitive functioning, and academic performance. Thus, participants who were fitter scored better on tests of attention (Z133 = -4.07; p < 0.00007, Cohen's d = 0.75, 95% CI (0.39, 1.11)) and concentration (t133 = -3.84; p < 0.0007, Cohen's d = 0.69, 95% CI (0.33, 1.05)), as well as having higher academic performance (Z133 = -2.84; p < 0.0035, Cohen's d = 0.39, 95% CI (0.04, 0.75)). Cardiorespiratory fitness was the measure of physical fitness that best explained these relationships. The results suggest that maintaining and improving the physical fitness of children and adolescents may help their brain function develop better.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Atenção , Aptidão Física , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Criança , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236131, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756560

RESUMO

A student's ability to learn effectively in a classroom setting is subject to many factors. While some factors are difficult to regulate, this study explores two factors that a student, or instructor, has full control over, namely 1) seating position, and 2) computer usage. Both factors have been studied considerably with regard to their effects on student performance, and the results indicate that sitting further from the instructor, or using a computer in the classroom, are related to a decline in grade performance. However, it is unclear if the choice of where to sit and whether or not to use a computer in class are mediated by the same cognitive process. If they are the same, then we would expect to see an interaction between the factors, such that, for example, computer usage would most negatively impact the grades of students who sit near the back of a class. This study aims to answer this question by looking at the individual and combined effects of seating position and computer usage on classroom performance. We sampled 1364 students, collecting nearly 3000 total responses across 5 different introductory psychology courses with 4 different instructors on 3 separate occasions. In agreement with previous research, we found that sitting further from the instructor negatively impacted students' grades (0.75 percentage points/row), and using a computer in class negatively impacted grades (by 3.88 percentage points). Our novel finding is that these deleterious effects combined in an additive manner, such that using a computer had the same harmful effect on grade performance regardless of whether the student sat at the front or back of the classroom.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Ensino , Computadores , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Estudantes , Universidades
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238307, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853281

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Auricular stimulation (AS) is a promising method in the treatment of situational anxiety. Expressive writing (EW) is an established psychological method, which reduces test anxiety and improves exam results. The aim of this crossover trial was to compare AS with EW, and with the no intervention (NI) condition, for treatment of exam anxiety. METHODS: Healthy medical students underwent 3 comparable anatomy exams with an interval of one month, either performing EW, receiving AS or NI prior to the exam; the order of interventions was randomized. AS was applied using indwelling fixed needles bilaterally at the areas innervated mostly by the auricular branch of the vagal nerve on the day before the exam. Anxiety level, measured using State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory (STAI) before and after the interventions and immediately before exam, was the primary outcome. Quality of night sleep, blood pressure, heart rate and activity of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) were analyzed across 3 conditions. RESULTS: All 37 included participants completed the study. Anxiety level (STAI) decreased immediately after AS in comparison with baseline (P = 0.02) and remained lower in comparison with that after EW and NI (P<0.01) on the day of exam. After EW and NI anxiety increased on the day of exam in comparison with baseline (P<0.01). Quality of sleep improved after AS in comparison with both control conditions (P<0.01). The activity of sAA decreased after EW and after AS (P<0.05) but not after NI condition. CONCLUSION: Auricular stimulation, but not expressive writing, reduced exam anxiety and improved quality of sleep in medical students. These changes might be due to reduced activity of the sympathetic nervous system.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Transtornos de Ansiedade/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Redação , Adulto Jovem , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237968, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822380

RESUMO

The main goal of the present study was to explore the latent structure of extended psychosis phenotypes in a representative sample of adolescents. Moreover, associations with socio-emotional adjustment, academic achievement, and neurocognition performance across the latent profiles were compared. Participants were 1506 students, 667 males (44.3%), derived from random cluster sampling. Various tools were used to measure psychosis risk, subjective well-being, academic performance, and neurocognition. Based on three psychometric indicators of psychosis risk (schizotypal traits, psychotic-like experiences, and bipolar-like experiences), four latent classes were found: non-risk, low-risk, high reality distortion experiences, and high psychosis liability. The high-risk latent groups scored significantly higher on mental health difficulties, and negative affect, and lower on positive affect and well-being, compared to the two non-risk groups. Moreover, these high-risk groups had a significantly higher number of failed academic subjects compared to the non-risk groups. In addition, no statistically significant differences in efficiency performance were found in the neurocognitive domains across the four latent profiles. This study allows us to improve the early identification of adolescents at risk of serious mental disorder in school settings in order to prevent the incidence and burden associated with these kinds of mental health problems.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Ajustamento Emocional , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/patologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Bem-Estar da Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Psicometria , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/diagnóstico , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752122

RESUMO

This study examined associations between academic stress and overweight and obesity, and moderation effects of gender, grade, and types of college on such associations. Data on academic stress, negative learning events, weight, and height were self-reported by 27,343 college students in China in 2018. About 23% and 91% of students perceived high academic stress and suffered from at least one negative learning event during the past six months, respectively, especially for females, undergraduates, and students major in humanities and social science subject groups. Perceived academic stress was associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity among all students (OR = 1.05, 95%CI: 1.00-1.10), male (OR = 1.09, 95%CI: 1.03-1.15), undergraduate (OR = 1.06, 95%CI: 1.00-1.11), and students from subordinate universities (OR = 1.13, 95%CI: 1.01-1.26). Negative learning events were associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity among all students (OR = 1.05, 95%CI: 1.01-1.09), undergraduates (OR = 1.05, 95%CI: 1.01-1.09), and students from local universities (OR = 1.07, 95%CI: 1.00-1.14). Interventions are needed to reduce the high academic stress of college students, considering the modifying effects of gender, grade, and college type. Such interventions may further contribute to the prevention of overweight and obesity among college students.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Obesidade , Sobrepeso , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Risco , Estudantes , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707722

RESUMO

The word scouting refers to the Scout movement, born more than a hundred years ago, which educates millions of young people between the ages of six and twenty-one in their leisure time. We aimed to study the effects of scouting on the academic results, social skills, and self-esteem of high school youths compared to a non-scout sample. The selected sample consisted of 430 secondary students aged between thirteen and seventeen. Self-esteem and social skills were measured, and the average mark of the total sample was analysed. After the study, it was shown that belonging to the scout movement significantly influences the improvement of academic results in formal education and conflict resolution; however, there are no statistically significant differences in self-esteem and other social skills.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Autoimagem , Habilidades Sociais , Adolescente , Humanos , Organizações sem Fins Lucrativos , Psicologia do Adolescente , Estudantes
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236737, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716973

RESUMO

Behavior diffusion through social networks is a key social process. It may be guided by various factors such as network topology, type of propagated behavior, and the strength of network connections. In this paper, we claim that the type of social interactions is also an important ingredient of behavioral diffusion. We examine the spread of academic achievements of first-year undergraduate students through friendship and study assistance networks, applying stochastic actor-oriented modeling. We show that informal social connections transmit performance while instrumental connections do not. The results highlight the importance of friendship in educational environments and contribute to debates on the behavior spread in social networks.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Sucesso Acadêmico , Relações Interpessoais , Rede Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Feminino , Amigos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Apoio Social
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(23): e20643, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Hearing impaired students still face stigmatization and marginalization especially in inclusive classrooms in developing regions. This negatively impacts their school engagement. The present study aimed at ascertaining the effect of video-guided educational intervention on school engagement of hearing impaired students. METHOD: Randomized controlled trial design was adopted for the present study. A total of 46 junior secondary school students with hearing impairment and low school engagement symptoms participated in this study. The students were randomly assigned to groups - intervention group and care-as-usual control group. A video-guided educational intervention package which consists of 13-minutes captioned video clips with school engagement themes served as the treatment intervention. Data were collected at 3 different times (pre-test, post-test and follow up) using School Engagement Scale created by Fredericks, Blumenfeld, Friedel and Paris (2005). Data were analyzed using independent sample t-test, paired sample t-test, Cohen d and Chi-square. RESULTS: Results showed that the video-guided educational intervention significantly improved school engagement level among hearing impaired adolescent students in the intervention group in comparison with the students in the care-as-usual control group as measured by the Student Engagement Scale [Behavioral: t(24) = -9.305, P < .001; Emotional: t(24) = -7.772, P < .001; Cognitive: t(24) = -7.330 P < .001) as well as total student engagement (t(24) = 12.022, P < .001, Δ = 5.362). Also, the students who took part in the video-guided educational intervention maintained improved school engagement at follow-up. CONCLUSION: Video-guided educational intervention is an effective intervention for improving school engagement of hearing impaired adolescent students. Since acquiring relevant education is essential for leading a quality life especially among the special needs population, it was recommended that students with hearing impairment should be helped to acquire life skills through education by fostering their school engagement.


Assuntos
Educação de Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/métodos , Gravação em Vídeo , Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Instituições Acadêmicas/classificação , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Participação Social/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234685, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584838

RESUMO

In spite of efforts to increase gender diversity across many science fields, women continue to encounter beliefs that they lack ability and talent. Undergraduate education is a critical time when peer influence may alter choice of majors and careers for women interested in science. Even in life science courses, in which women outnumber men, gender biases that emerge in peer-to-peer interactions during coursework may detract from women's interest and progress. This is the first study of which we are aware to document that women are outperforming men in both physical and life science undergraduate courses at the same institution, while simultaneously continuing to be perceived as less-able students. This is problematic because undergraduate women may not be able to escape gender-ability stereotypes even when they are outperforming men, which has important implications for 1) the recognition of women's achievements among their peers in undergraduate education and 2) retention of women in STEM disciplines and careers.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Engenharia/educação , Matemática/educação , Ciência/educação , Estudantes , Tecnologia/educação , Logro , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/educação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233977, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530954

RESUMO

For decades, self-report measures based on questionnaires have been widely used in educational research to study implicit and complex constructs such as motivation, emotion, cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies. However, the existence of potential biases in such self-report instruments might cast doubts on the validity of the measured constructs. The emergence of trace data from digital learning environments has sparked a controversial debate on how we measure learning. On the one hand, trace data might be perceived as "objective" measures that are independent of any biases. On the other hand, there is mixed evidence of how trace data are compatible with existing learning constructs, which have traditionally been measured with self-reports. This study investigates the strengths and weaknesses of different types of data when designing predictive models of academic performance based on computer-generated trace data and survey data. We investigate two types of bias in self-report surveys: response styles (i.e., a tendency to use the rating scale in a certain systematic way that is unrelated to the content of the items) and overconfidence (i.e., the differences in predicted performance based on surveys' responses and a prior knowledge test). We found that the response style bias accounts for a modest to a substantial amount of variation in the outcomes of the several self-report instruments, as well as in the course performance data. It is only the trace data, notably that of process type, that stand out in being independent of these response style patterns. The effect of overconfidence bias is limited. Given that empirical models in education typically aim to explain the outcomes of learning processes or the relationships between antecedents of these learning outcomes, our analyses suggest that the bias present in surveys adds predictive power in the explanation of performance data and other questionnaire data.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Aprendizagem , Modelos Teóricos , Autorrelato , Atitude , Viés , Estudos de Coortes , Análise de Dados , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Metacognição , Motivação , Estudantes
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