Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 164
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546851

RESUMO

Adolescents' academic performance and the way it is related to their subjective wellbeing are issues of great interest across educational systems. The purpose of this study was to ascertain how satisfaction with high school subjects can predict school satisfaction and academic performance in Mexican students. The sample consisted of 457 high school students in the Baja California and Nuevo León states in Mexico (247 boys, 210 girls); their mean age being 14.10 (SD = 0.84). We used a questionnaire featuring a subject satisfaction scale, an intrinsic school satisfaction scale, and one related to academic grades. We used descriptive analyses, correlations, and structural regression models. In terms of results, the high satisfaction and academic performance levels in physical education, Spanish and English are worth highlighting. Geography and history are the most relevant predictors of academic grades, while Spanish predicts school satisfaction and physical education predicts boredom. In conclusion, satisfaction with mathematics, Spanish, and English are strong predictors of satisfaction (SATF), and the latter in turn predicts Mexican high school students' academic performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Currículo , Satisfação Pessoal , Estudantes/psicologia , Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
J Athl Train ; 54(10): 1021-1029, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532693

RESUMO

Data on the psychosocial implications of sport specialization in pediatric athletes are lacking. Sport specialization often requires increased training hours and may predispose young athletes to social isolation, poor academic performance, increased anxiety, greater stress, inadequate sleep, decreased family time, and burnout. Sport specialization frequently introduces multiple stressors that could be expected to adversely affect mental health and function in young athletes and may increase the risk for burnout. This may be confounded by altered sleep duration and quality, increased drive for elite status, and perfectionistic personality types. The signs and symptoms of burnout in young athletes can be difficult to detect. It is important to be aware of the possible diagnosis of burnout in young athletes who display vague symptoms and a decrease in academic performance. The purpose of this review was to survey the available literature on sport specialization in young athletes and its association with mental health, sleep, the drive for success in sport, and burnout.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Psicológico , Especialização , Esportes Juvenis/psicologia , Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Adolescente , Atletas/psicologia , Esgotamento Psicológico/etiologia , Esgotamento Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Criança , Impulso (Psicologia) , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Higiene do Sono
5.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 43(3): 414-422, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408387

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different metacognitive interventions on knowledge and regulation of cognition, as well as academic performance (i.e., exam and final grades) in three sections of an undergraduate human anatomy and physiology course. All targeted classes were randomly assigned to one of three groups (reflection practice, passive acquisition of knowledge, and collaborative learning), and the interventions were implemented after exam 1. A pre- and posttest survey was administered during the semester (during week 2 and after exam 2), and exam and final course grades were collected at the end of the semester. The final sample included 129 students. A significant interaction of group and time was observed for knowledge of cognition: it increased in the reflection practice group, did not change in the collaborative learning group, and it decreased in the passive acquisition of knowledge. The interventions did not produce any significant interactions or main effects on regulation of cognition, exam scores, or final grades. Along with more research on metacognition in physiology education contexts, it is recommended to further examine the ways in which such data can be collected, as self-report measures only tell part of the story.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Ocupações em Saúde/educação , Metacognição , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , Ensino/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metacognição/fisiologia
6.
J Behav Addict ; 8(2): 335-342, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study sought to examine the occurrence of the problematic use of smartphones in a university sample and associated physical and mental health correlates, including potential relationships with risky sexual practices. METHODS: A 156-item anonymous online survey was distributed via e-mail to a sample of 9,449 university students. In addition to problematic smartphone usage, current use of alcohol and drugs, psychological and physical status, and academic performance were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 31,425 participants were included in the analysis, of whom 20.1% reported problematic smartphone use. Problematic use of smartphones was associated with lower grade point averages and with alcohol use disorder symptoms. It was also significantly associated with impulsivity (Barratt scale and ADHD) and elevated occurrence of PTSD, anxiety, and depression. Finally, those with current problems with smartphone use were significantly more sexually active. CONCLUSIONS: Problematic use of smartphones is common and has public health importance due to these demonstrable associations with alcohol use, certain mental health diagnoses (especially ADHD, anxiety, depression, and PTSD), and worse scholastic performance. Clinicians should enquire about excessive smartphone use as it may be associated with a range of mental health issues. Research is needed to address longitudinal associations.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Smartphone/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
7.
S Afr Med J ; 109(7): 493-497, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical students are under immense academic stress. Campus unrest can contribute to stress and influence academic performance, social behaviour, emotional stability and financial expenses. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of #FeesMustFall2016 (#FMF2016) on the 2016 3rd-year (semester 6) clinical medical students at the University of the Free State (UFS), Bloemfontein, South Africa. METHODS: In phase 1 of the project, anonymous questionnaires were completed by the clinical students who experienced physical test disruption during #FMF2016. Opinions regarding academic performance, financial expenses, behaviour changes and stress levels were gathered. The students also completed a formal post-traumatic stress screening assessment. In phase 2 of the project, the academic performance of these students was compared with that of students not affected by #FMF2016. RESULTS: Of the target population of 138 students, 87.0% completed the questionnaires. Three-quarters of the respondents reported a negative effect on academic performance, and most did not believe that the delivering of lectures on Blackboard was a good way of training. Alcohol consumption increased in 31.9% of the students. Criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were met in 12.7% of students. Compared with previous and later cohorts of students there were no clear differences regarding marks, but there was a tendency towards poorer performance and more failures the next year. CONCLUSIONS: Semester 6 medical students at UFS reported that the #FMF2016 protests had a negative effect on academic, social, financial and stress aspects. PTSD was present in 12.7% of students compared with 7.8% in similar populations.


Assuntos
Dissidências e Disputas , Faculdades de Medicina/economia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295904

RESUMO

There are tentative indications that physical activity (PA) during school time can be beneficial for children's academic performance. So far, most studies have focused on the effects of moderate-to-vigorous PA, for example, in the form of energizers or extra physical education lessons. Little is known about the effects of physically active learning, in which PA is integrated with the academic content of the lessons, especially in preadolescent children. Moreover, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the enjoyment of physically active learning in this age group. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to assess the effects of integrating juggling with math practice in primary school children, on (1) multiplication memorization performance and (2) enjoyment during the math lessons. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial, in which 312 children (mean age 10.4 years) from nine Dutch primary schools participated. Fourteen classes were randomly assigned to either a group that learned juggling whilst practicing multiplication tables (intervention group), or to a group that practiced the same multiplication tables while sedentary (control group). Both interventions had a duration of 5 weeks and consisted of 20 short lessons (4 lessons per week, 5 to 8 min). We used mixed-model analyses to examine the effect of the intervention on multiplication memorization performance. Group (control or intervention) was used as the fixed factor, and class and school as random intercepts. Analyses were adjusted for pretest multiplication performance, age, gender, general motor skill level, physical activity behavior (PAQ-C), and academic math performance. No significant intervention effect on multiplication performance were observed. However, the math-juggling program significantly increased enjoyment of children during the math lessons. We can conclude that the intervention did not improve, but neither deteriorated children's math performance. The increased enjoyment in the math-juggling group can serve as an important starting point for structurally incorporating physical activities in the classroom setting.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Aprendizagem , Matemática/educação , Jogos e Brinquedos/psicologia , Ensino , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Instituições Acadêmicas
9.
Pediatrics ; 144(2)2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the associations of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and protective familial and community factors with school performance and attitudes in children ages 6 to 17. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health was performed. All data were demographically weighted and included 65 680 children ages 6 to 17. The survey identified up to 9 ACEs in each child. ACE scores were categorized as 0, 1, 2, 3, and ≥4 ACEs. Children's protective factors (PFs) included the following: safe neighborhood, supportive neighbors, 4 neighborhood amenities, well-kept neighborhood, no household smoking, ≥5 family meals per week, and a parent who can talk to the child. PFs were categorized into ≤3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 PFs. School outcomes included the following: child repeated ≥1 grade; never, rarely, or sometimes completes homework; and never, rarely, or sometimes cares about school. χ2 tests and logistic regressions assessed the relationships between ACEs and school outcomes, PFs and school outcomes, and both ACEs and PFs and school outcomes, adjusting for sex, age, race, ethnicity, and maternal education. RESULTS: Each negative school outcome is associated with higher ACE scores and lower PF scores. After adding PFs into the same model as ACEs, the negative outcomes are reduced. The strongest PF is a parent who can talk to the child about things that matter and share ideas. CONCLUSIONS: As children's ACE scores increase, their school performance and attitudes decline. Conversely, as children's PF scores increase, school outcomes improve. Pediatric providers should consider screening for both ACEs and PFs to identify risks and strengths to guide treatment, referral, and advocacy.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Desempenho Acadêmico/tendências , Experiências Adversas da Infância/tendências , Avaliação Educacional , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/tendências , Instituições Acadêmicas/tendências , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Proteção
10.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 43(3): 339-344, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305148

RESUMO

Physiology is one of the major foundational sciences for the medical curriculum. This discipline has proven challenging for students to master due to ineffective content acquisition and retention. Preliminary data obtained from a survey completed by "low-performance" students (those maintaining a grade average below the passing mark of 70%) at Morehouse School of Medicine reported that students lacked the ability to adequately recognize and extract important physiological concepts to successfully navigate multiple-choice assessments. It was hypothesized that a specially designed, small-group, active learning, physiology in-course enrichment program would minimize course assessment failure rates by enhancing the ability of low-performance students to effectively identify important course content, successfully perform on multiple-choice assessments, and, thereby, improve overall course performance. Using self-report surveys, study skills and test-taking deficiencies limiting successful comprehension of course material and examination performance were identified. Mini-quiz assessments and assignments in formulating multiple-choice examination questions were given to help students recognize and solidify core concepts and improve test-taking ability. Lastly, self-report surveys evaluated the effectiveness of the enrichment program on overall course performance. Results showed a marked improvement in student confidence levels with regards to approaching multiple-choice assessments, and a significant improvement in grades achieved in the physiology component of the first-year curriculum, as 100% of participants achieved a final passing grade average of ≥70%. It was concluded that students became more proficient in identifying, understanding, and applying core physiological concepts and more successful in mastering multiple-choice questions.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Fisiologia/educação , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Programas de Autoavaliação/métodos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 43(3): 324-331, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305154

RESUMO

Positive attitude and self-evaluation are necessary for medical students and doctors. To explore how best to integrate physiology teaching in our Thai medical curriculum, we investigated relationships between student's academic performance, their attitude, self-evaluated knowledge, and proportion of physiology taught in an organ-system integrated block. We organized 13 physiology laboratory classes, during which students self-rated attitude and knowledge. Academic performance was measured by formative and summative assessments. One hundred thirty-six participants were categorized into most proactive (Most PA), more proactive (More PA), less proactive (Less PA), and least proactive (Least PA) attitude groups by self-preparation questionnaire. Eighty participants were categorized into high (HighE), moderate (ModerateE), and low (LowE) self-evaluation rating groups. Mean formatives score in the Most PA group was significantly higher than in the other PA groups (P = 0.003, P = 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). Mean summative score in the Most PA group was significantly higher than the Less PA and the Least PA groups (P = 0.017 and P = 0.015 respectively). There was no significant difference in mean assessment scores among HighE, ModerateE, and LowE groups. Proportion of teaching time dedicated to physiology positively correlated with student attitude (r = 0.84, P = 0.001) and negatively correlated with self-evaluation rating (r = -0.73, P = 0.007). Thai medical students may benefit from a proactive attitude to studying physiology, contrasting with traditional didactic expectations of Thai education. Proportion of teaching time dedicated to physiology does not influence academic performance; therefore, future adjustments to curriculum integration may incorporate classes that facilitate self-directed learning. Future study should explore other influences on learning and assessment performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Atitude , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Fisiologia/educação , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Desempenho Acadêmico/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tailândia/epidemiologia
12.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 211, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical students struggle with a heavy workload during their comparatively long course of study in China. The future of medical science depends largely on whether or not medical students become qualified. This study aims to explore whether medical students' academic adaptability affects learning outcomes. This paper will not only provide scientific evidence for educators and administrators of medical schools but will also benefit students by improving their aptitude and adaptability through a thorough discussion on their educational environment. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey from September to December 2016. A total of 1977 respondents completed the questionnaire with a response rate of 79.08%. A cross-sectional survey was used in this study. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis, General Linear Model (GLM) analysis, standard multiple regression, and hierarchical multiple regression were performed for data analysis using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (SPSS Version 19.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). RESULTS: Out of the 1977 students, 1586 (80.2%) had mean academic adaptability levels over 3. Findings suggested that academic adaptability (Mean = 3.32), immersion in learning (Mean = 3.20), and academic performance (Mean = 3.39), were at the middle level while academic burnout (Mean = 2.17) was at a low level. Academic adaptability of medical students showed a significant negative relation to academic burnout (Beta = - 0.705, P<0.01), there was a significant positive relation between academic adaptability and immersion in learning (Beta = 0.655, P<0.01) and academic performance (Beta = 0.407, P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of academic adaptability are associated with lower levels of burnout and higher levels of immersion in learning and academic performance. It might be helpful for medical schools to consider academic adaptability and ways of enhancing such skills in order to enhance student performance and engagement while in school.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Esgotamento Psicológico , Aprendizagem , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adolescente , China , Estudos Transversais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(7): 1327-1341, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124037

RESUMO

Previous research repeatedly observed associations between academic achievement and substance use during adolescence. However, the simple frequency of substance use was not differentiated from the emergence of substance use related problems, such as abuse and dependence. This study presents autoregressive cross-lagged models describing inter-relations between academic achievement, frequency of substance use, and substance use related problems among a sample of 1034 seventh graders (46% female; 83% White North Americans; Mage = 12.64 years, SDage = 0.65) who participated in a four-year longitudinal study. The stability of measurement structure of frequency of substance use and substance use related problems was supported. Higher frequency of substance use and substance use related problems did not predict lower academic achievement. A higher academic achievement predicted a later increase in frequency of substance use and substance use related problems in boys, whereas a higher academic achievement predicted a lower frequency of substance use in girls. Although substance use related problems were mainly predicted by frequency of substance use, substance use can remain, nonetheless, non-problematic during adolescence.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Sucesso Acadêmico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Intoxicação Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia
14.
Pediatrics ; 143(5)2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036672

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A comprehensive understanding of how timing of exposure to disadvantage affects long-term developmental risk is needed for greater precision in child health policy. We investigated whether socioeconomic disadvantage in infancy (age 0-1 years) directly affects academic and self-regulation problems in late childhood (age 10-12 years), independent of disadvantage at school entry (age 4-6 years). METHODS: Analyses were replicated in 2 population-based cohorts: the Australian Temperament Project (ATP; N = 2443) and the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC; N = 5107). Generalized linear models were used to estimate the crude and adjusted effects. Marginal structural models were used to estimate the controlled direct effect of socioeconomic disadvantage in infancy on academic and self-regulation outcomes in late childhood, independent of disadvantage at school entry. RESULTS: In both cohorts, socioeconomic disadvantage in infancy and at school entry was associated with poorer academic and self-regulation outcomes. Socioeconomic disadvantage in infancy had a direct effect on academic outcomes not mediated by disadvantage at school entry (ATP: risk ratio [RR] = 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-1.86; LSAC: RR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.52-2.31). Little evidence was found for a direct effect of disadvantage in infancy on self-regulation (ATP: RR = 1.22; 95% CI: 0.89-1.65; LSAC: RR = 1.19; 95% CI: 0.95-1.49). CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic disadvantage in infancy had a direct effect on academic but not self-regulation outcomes in late childhood. More precise public policy responses are needed that consider both the timing of children's exposure to disadvantage and the specific developmental domain impacted.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Desempenho Acadêmico/tendências , Autocontrole/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
15.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(4-5): 264-272, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134834

RESUMO

Aim: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in parents can have severe consequences also for their children. Prevalence of PTSD is high among refugees. Refugee children have been reported to perform poorly in school. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of PTSD in refugee and native Swedish parents on children's school performance and to compare the impact of PTSD with that of other major psychiatric disorders. Methods: Register study where multiple regression models were used to analyse school performance in 15-16-year-olds in a national cohort (n = 703,813). PTSD and other major psychiatric disorders (bipolar, depression and/or psychotic disorders) were identified from out- and in-patient hospital care. Results: Maternal and paternal PTSD were associated with lower grades, with adjusted effects of 0.30-0.37 SD in refugee and 0.46-0.50 SD in native Swedish families. Impact of PTSD was greater than that of other psychiatric disorders and comorbidity to PTSD did not increase this impact. Although the impact of PTSD on grades was greater in children in native Swedish families, consequences with regard to eligibility to secondary education were greater for children in refugee families, where 35% of these children were ineligible. Conclusions: Parental PTSD has major consequences for children's school performance and contributes to the lower school performance in children in refugee families in Sweden. Identification and treatment of PTSD in refugee parents is important for offspring educational achievement. Psychiatric clinics and treatment centres need to have a strategy for support, including educational support, to the offspring of their patients with PTSD.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Refugiados/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Sistema de Registros , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia
16.
Nurse Educ Today ; 78: 44-49, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071584

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Simulation has been used extensively to train students and health professionals in the assessment and early intervention of patients with acutely deteriorating conditions. These simulations evoke psychophysiological stress in learners which may affect performance. We examined the relationship between stress variables, confidence, and performance during repeated scenarios in clinically-based emergency simulations. METHODS: Twenty-six registered nurses completed three simulation scenarios focussing on life-threatening clinical events in a single group pre-test/post-test study design. Trait anxiety was measured at baseline. Visual analogue ratings of anxiety and stress were measured before ('pre'), recalled 'during', and immediately following ('post') each simulation scenario, with a self-rating of confidence completed after each simulation scenario. Heart rate was measured continuously throughout the simulation program. Participants self-rated their clinical performance prior to and following the simulation program ('pre' and 'post'). RESULTS: Participants' trait anxiety was not elevated at baseline (mean: 39.6, SD 6.1). Across the three simulation scenarios, anxiety and stress was elevated 'during' simulation compared to 'pre' and 'post' time points. However, the magnitude of elevation of stress and anxiety during all time points ('pre', 'during' and 'post' simulation) decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with progressive simulations. Heart rate increased significantly during all simulations compared to 'pre'-levels but returned to similar levels following the simulation. The amount of increase in heart rate over progressive simulations was attenuated during simulation 3 compared with 1 and 2 (Sim 1: 103.6 bpm (SD 22.1), Sim 2: 101.9 bpm (SD 18.9), and Sim 3: 99.5 bpm (SD 23.4)). Confidence increased across the three simulations (p < 0.001), with most of the increase observed after the first two simulations. Performance scores increased by 19.0% 'pre-post' simulation program (p < 0.001) and were not confounded by previous ALS or simulation experience. DISCUSSION: We observed temporal-dependent changes in psychophysiological stress variables across the simulation scenarios, with decreased magnitudes of elevations of psychological (self-reported anxiety and stress) and physiological (heart rate) stress variables during successive simulation scenarios. This study has shown that simulation increased stress, especially before and during scenarios; however, the learning effect decreased the magnitude of the stress response with repeated simulation scenarios. Simulation educators need to create simulations that change stress in a purposeful manner to enhance learning.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/normas , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Simulação de Paciente , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Desempenho Acadêmico/normas , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Educação Continuada em Enfermagem/métodos , Educação Continuada em Enfermagem/normas , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Autoeficácia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
17.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 31(2): 142-148, mayo 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185219

RESUMO

Background: Socio-familial risk factors negatively affect the academic performance of students. The objective of this study consisted in analyzing which personal variables can reduce the negative relationship between socio-familial risk factors and academic performance. Method: A sample of 1268 Secondary students was selected, of which 443 had two or more risk factors. The examined variables were the following: Socio-familial, academic goals, causal attributions, academic self-concept, self-efficacy and academic performance. Results: The incidence of accumulation of risk factors in the performance was confirmed. We distinguished at-risk students with good and poor performance from the personal variables analyzed, and showed the protective effect of these variables on performance against risk accumulation. Conclusions: Based on the identification of risk factors that may hinder performance, the findings offer information to develop both educational intervention strategies that improve performance and personal variables that mediate positively in school outcomes


Antecedentes: los factores sociofamiliares de riesgo afectan negativamente al rendimiento académico de los estudiantes. Este estudio analizó qué variables personales pueden reducir la relación negativa entre factores sociofamiliares de riesgo y rendimiento académico. Método: se seleccionó una muestra de 1.268 estudiantes de Secundaria, de los cuales 443 tenían dos o más factores de riesgo. Se examinaron variables sociofamiliares, metas académicas, atribuciones casuales, autoconcepto académico, autoeficacia y rendimiento académico. Resultados: se confirmó la incidencia de la acumulación de factores de riesgo en el rendimiento. Se diferenció a los estudiantes en riesgo con buen y bajo rendimiento a partir de las variables personales analizadas, y se mostró el efecto protector de las mismas en el rendimiento frente a la acumulación de riesgos. Conclusiones: los hallazgos ofrecen información para desarrollar estrategias de intervención educativa que mejoren el rendimiento, a partir de la identificación de factores de riesgos que puedan obstaculizarlo, y el desarrollo de variables personales que medien positivamente en los resultados escolares


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Relações Familiares , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 77(3): 147-154, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970126

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the quality of life of children with poor school performance and its association with behavioral aspects and hearing abilities. METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study, developed in a town in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, investigated a random sample of public school children, aged 7-12 years old, who performed poorly in school and received specialized educational assistance. The study comprised two stages: 1) collection of data from parents on their children's health, educational, and socioeconomic profile, and from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; 2) administration of a quality of life evaluation scale to the schoolchildren. For the assessment of auditory function, transient otoacoustic emissions were used and auditory processing was tested. The following tests were used: verbal sequential memory, nonverbal sequential memory, sound localization, dichotic digits, duration pattern test (flute) and random gap detection. The collected data were analyzed using Excel and STATA 11.0 software. Quality of life was considered the response variable. The explanatory variables were grouped for univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis with the level of significance set at 5%. RESULTS: A statistically significant association was found between impaired quality of life, altered pro-social behavior, and the absence of parental complaints about the children's written language development. CONCLUSIONS: Quality of life is impaired in children with poor school performance. The lack of parental complaints about written language and changes in social behavior increased the likelihood of a child having a poor quality of life.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Audição/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Baixo Rendimento Escolar , Brasil , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva/psicologia , Testes Auditivos , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , /psicologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Comportamento Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Psicothema ; 31(2): 142-148, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socio-familial risk factors negatively affect the academic performance of students. The objective of this study consisted in analyzing which personal variables can reduce the negative relationship between socio-familial risk factors and academic performance. METHOD: A sample of 1268 Secondary students was selected, of which 443 had two or more risk factors. The examined variables were the following: Socio-familial, academic goals, causal attributions, academic self-concept, self-efficacy and academic performance. RESULTS: The incidence of accumulation of risk factors in the performance was confirmed. We distinguished at-risk students with good and poor performance from the personal variables analyzed, and showed the protective effect of these variables on performance against risk accumulation. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the identification of risk factors that may hinder performance, the findings offer information to develop both educational intervention strategies that improve performance and personal variables that mediate positively in school outcomes.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Relações Familiares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sociológicos
20.
J Genet Psychol ; 180(1): 62-74, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932740

RESUMO

Because shy children are at risk for poor academic achievement, it is important to examine factors that contribute to variability in the relation between individual differences in shyness and cognitive functioning before school entry. The authors examined whether on-task facilitative private speech-a proxy of self-regulation-moderated the association between individual differences in shyness and performance on an executive function (EF) task in 52 typically developing 4-year-olds. They found that private speech interacted with shyness to predict performance on the EF task in girls but not in boys. More specifically, shyness was inversely related to EF task performance when girls used low amounts of regulatory private speech, but was positively related to performance when girls used high amounts of regulatory private speech. These preliminary findings are discussed in the context of implications for shy children in educational settings.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Resolução de Problemas , Autocontrole/psicologia , Timidez , Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Adulto , Creches , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos Piloto , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA