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2.
Sports Health ; 12(2): 189-199, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023171

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Cannabis use has increased, in large part due to decriminalization. Despite this increase in usage, it remains unclear what proportion of athletes use cannabis and what effect it has on athletic performance and recovery. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review cannabis use among athletes, including epidemiology, effect on performance and recovery, and regulations for use in sport. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases were queried from database inception through November 15, 2018. A hand search of policies, official documents, and media reports was performed for relevant information. STUDY SELECTION: All studies related to cannabis use in athletes, including impact on athletic performance or recovery, were included. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4. DATA EXTRACTION: Demographic and descriptive data of included studies relating to epidemiology of cannabis use in athletes were extracted and presented in weighted means or percentages where applicable. RESULTS: Overall, 37 studies were included, of which the majority were cross-sectional studies of elite and university athletes. Among 11 studies reporting use among athletes (n = 46,202), approximately 23.4% of respondents reported using cannabis in the past 12 months. Two studies found a negative impact on performance, while another 2 studies found no impact. There was no literature on the influence of cannabis on athletic recovery. Across athletic organizations and leagues, there is considerable variability in acceptable thresholds for urine tetrahydrocannabinol levels (>15 to 150 ng/mL) and penalties for athletes found to be above these accepted thresholds. CONCLUSION: Overall, these results suggest that approximately 1 in 4 athletes report using cannabis within the past year. Based on the available evidence, cannabis does not appear to positively affect performance, but the literature surrounding this is generally poor. Given the variability in regulation across different sport types and competition levels, as well as the growing number of states legalizing recreational cannabis use, there is a need to improve our understanding of the effects of cannabis use on the athlete and perhaps adopt a clearer and overarching policy for the use of cannabis by athletes in all sports and at all levels.


Assuntos
Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Esportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Dronabinol/urina , Humanos , Política Organizacional , Esportes/legislação & jurisprudência , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias
3.
J Sports Sci ; 38(5): 568-575, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019482

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the effect of playing surface (Natural [NT] and Artificial [AT] Turf) on the fatigue response to a soccer-specific exercise protocol (SSEP). Eighteen male soccer players completed the SSEP on NT and AT with pre-, post-, and 48 h post-assessments of eccentric knee flexor (eccKF) and concentric knee extensor peak torque (PT), peak countermovement (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) height, and Nordic hamstring break angle. No significant main effects for surface or any surface and time interactions were observed for any of the outcome measures, except for eccKF PT recorded at 3.14 rad·s-1, which was significantly lower 48 h post-trial in the AT condition (AT = 146.3 ± 20.4 Nm; NT = 158.8 ± 24.7 Nm). Main effects for time were observed between pre- and post-trial measures for eccKF PT at all angular velocities, Nordic break angle, CMJ and SJ height. Nordic break angle, and both CMJ and SJ height were significantly impaired 48 h post-trial when compared to pre-trial. The findings of the current study suggest surface dependent changes in eccKF PT which may have implications for recovery and subsequent performance after competition on AT.


Assuntos
Planejamento Ambiental , Exercício/fisiologia , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Músculos Isquiotibiais/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Futebol/lesões , Torque , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Sports Sci ; 38(6): 669-675, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013766

RESUMO

Initial research suggests that parental perfectionism is central to the development of athlete perfectionism. However, it is unclear whether perceived or actual parental perfectionism is most important. The present study aimed to address this issue in two ways. First, we re-examined the predictive ability of actual versus perceived parental perfectionism on athlete perfectionism. Second, for the first time, we tested whether perceived parental perfectionism mediated the relationship between actual parental perfectionism and athlete perfectionism. A sample of 150 junior athletes and their parents completed measures of perfectionism (perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns). Junior athletes completed two measures, one of their own perfectionism and one of perceptions of their parents' perfectionism. Parents completed one measure of their own perfectionism. Regression analyses showed that perceived parental perfectionism predicted athlete perfectionism over and above actual parental perfectionism. Mediation analyses provided support for our proposed model. Overall, the findings suggest that both actual and perceived parental perfectionism are important in the development of perfectionism in junior athletes.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Perfeccionismo , Adolescente , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Estresse Psicológico
5.
J Sports Sci ; 38(6): 676-681, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028853

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess if tactical and technical performance indicators (PIs) could be used in combination to model match outcomes in Australian Football (AF). A database of 101 technical PIs and 14 tactical PIs from every match in the 2009-2016 Australian Football League (AFL) seasons was merged. Two outcome measures Win-loss and Score margin were used as dependent variables. The top 45 ranked technical and tactical PIs from a feature selection process were used to model match outcome using decision tree and Generalised Linear Models (GLMs). Of the top 45 selected features, this included seven tactical PIs. The Win-loss-based Decision tree model achieved a classification accuracy of 89.0% and GLM 93.2%. A Score margin-based GLM achieved a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 6.9 points. A combined approach to the classification of match outcomes provided no improvement in model accuracy compared with previous literature. However, this study has established the relative importance of technical and tactical measures of performance in relation to successful team performance in AF.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Árvores de Decisões , Modelos Lineares , Futebol/fisiologia , Austrália , Humanos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
6.
J Sports Sci ; 38(6): 703-709, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050847

RESUMO

Recently, there has been much controversy over the International Association of Athletics Federation (IAAF) regulations regarding eligibility to compete and natural testosterone levels in female athletes. Much interest lies in the analysis of Caster Semenya's extraordinary performance. The objective of this work were, a) Complete an analysis of Caster Semenya's results during the 800m finals and b) search for existing similar performances by other female athletes. We analysed the results of the finals of all IAAF World Championships and Olympic Games from 1984-2016, including the 800m results of the Diamond Leagues 2016-2018. Exponential curves were fit to the data to characterise and predict performance for each event. Caster Semenya's finishing times before her ineligibility to compete and after the suspension of the IAAF hyperandrogenism regulation were found to be 1.24% and 1.49%, respectively, faster than the characteristic performance of the elite-standard in the women's 800m final. Other female athletes, with finishing times faster than the ones predicted by the characteristic curves were also discovered. The percentage difference in performance between Caster Semenya and the other participants did not reach 3% in the 800m event. No conclusions can be drawn regarding extraordinary results ever performed during the 100m, 200m or 400m finals.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Hiperandrogenismo , Esportes/legislação & jurisprudência , Atletismo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
7.
J Sports Sci ; 38(6): 710-716, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079484

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of a smartphone app to measure biomechanical barbell parameters during the snatch. Ten collegiate NCAA division I athletes performed two repetitions each at 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80% of their 1-repetition maximum snatch. Barbell motions were simultaneously recorded with a motion capture system and the smartphone app. The motion capture system recorded the 3-D position of a reflective marker attached to the end of the barbell while the smartphone app was used to record sagittal plane video and track the shape of the weight plate from which the barbell center was derived. Peak forward (PFD) and backward (PBD) displacements and peak vertical displacement (PVD) and velocity (PVV) were calculated from both sets of data. Significant, strong to very strong Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients between both systems were noted for all parameters (r = 0.729-0.902, all p < 0.001). Small significant biases between systems were observed for PVD (ES = 0.284, p < 0.001) and PFD (ES=0.340, p < 0.01), while trivial to small, non-significant biases were observed for PBD (ES = 0.143) and PVV (ES = -0.100). Collectively, the results suggest that the app can provide biomechanical data of barbell motions similar to a 3-D motion capture system.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Smartphone , Validação de Programas de Computador , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Adulto Jovem
8.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(2): 515-523, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897802

RESUMO

Adaptation to exercise training is a complex trait that may be influenced by genetic variants. We identified 36 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that had been previously associated with endurance or strength performance, exercise-related phenotypes or exercise intolerant disorders. A MassARRAY multiplex genotyping assay was designed to identify associations with these SNPs against collected endurance fitness phenotype parameters obtained from two exercise cohorts (Gene SMART study; n = 58 and Hawaiian Ironman Triathlon 2008; n = 115). These parameters included peak power output (PP), a time trial (TT), lactate threshold (LT), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) in recreationally active individuals and a triathlon time-to-completion (Hawaiian Ironman Triathlon cohort only). A nominal significance threshold of α < 0.05 was used to identify 17 variants (11 in the Gene SMART population and six in the Hawaiian Ironman Triathlon cohort) which were significantly associated with performance gains in highly trained individuals. The variant rs1474347 located in Interleukin 6 (IL6) was the only variant with a false discovery rate < 0.05 and was found to be associated with gains in VO2 max (additional 4.016 mL/(kg min) for each G allele inherited) after training in the Gene SMART cohort. In summary, this study found further evidence to suggest that genetic variance can influence training response in a moderately trained cohort and provides an example of the potential application of genomic research in the assessment of exercise trait response.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Resistência Física/genética , Adulto , Genoma Humano/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
10.
J Sports Sci ; 38(5): 552-558, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941416

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of the use of social networks in smartphones or playing video games on the passing decision-making performance in professional soccer athletes. Participants were 25 male professional soccer athletes (mean ± SD: age 23.4 ± 2.8 years). The participants performed three randomised conditions divided into three groups: control (CON), smartphone (SMA), and video game (VID). Before and after each experimental condition, the Stroop Task assessed the level of induced mental fatigue. Then, the athletes performed a simulated soccer match. A CANON® camera recorded the matches for further analysis on passing decision-making performance. A group effect was identified (p < .01) with impairment on passing decision-making performance for the SMA (p = .01, ES = 0.5) and VID (p = .01, ES = 0.5) conditions. We concluded that the use of social networks on smartphones and/or playing video games right before official soccer matches might impair the passing decision-making performance in professional soccer athletes.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Smartphone , Futebol/psicologia , Jogos de Vídeo , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Masculino , Redes Sociais Online , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Futebol/fisiologia , Teste de Stroop , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Sports Sci ; 38(5): 559-567, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992143

RESUMO

This study examined the relationships between daily cognitive appraisals of organizational events, affective responses, and coping. In addition, a 5-year longitudinal relationship between coping and performance outcomes at the senior professional level was assessed. Using an experience sampling method, professional academy rugby union players (N = 39, Mage = 17.23 years, SD = 0.87) completed daily diary measures of appraisals, affective responses, and coping over 5 weeks of training. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that daily cognitive appraisals were related to daily affective responses and coping functions enacted by behaviours, after accounting for a series of within (e.g., time, day, week) and between-person (e.g., personality, key decision-makers) differences. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression revealed that coping related to eliciting support was associated with minutes played at the senior professional level five years later. This study extends theoretical knowledge of the within- and between-person relationships that explain organizational stress experiences. The findings suggest that some coping functions enacted by behaviours may be early indicators of future performance outcomes in professional sport.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Desempenho Atlético , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Futebol Americano/psicologia , Cultura Organizacional , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Afeto , Previsões , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(3): 161-167, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902130

RESUMO

Aerobic performance is negatively impacted by tropical climate due to impairment of thermoregulatory mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that a torso application of a 4% menthol solution would have the same effect on a best performance 10-km run as an external use of cold water. Thirteen trained male athletes completed four outdoor 10-km runs (T=29.0±1.3°C, relative humidity 59.0±13.6%) wearing a tee-shirt soaked every 2-km either in a cold (~6°C) or warm/ambient (~28°C) solution, consisting in water or in a 4% menthol solution, (CTL, MENT-Amb, CLD and MENT-CLD). Run performances were improved from 4.8 to 6.1% in CLD (51.4±5.5 min), MENT-Amb (52.2±5.9 min) and MENT-CLD (51.4±5.1 min) conditions (vs. CTL, 55.4±8.4 min, P<0.05), without differences between these three conditions, whereas heart rate (177±13bpm), body temperature (38.7±0.6°C) and drink ingestion (356±170 g) were not modified. Thermal sensation after running was lower in MENT-CLD (vs. CTL, P<0.01) and thermal acceptability was higher in CLD and MENT-Amb (vs. CTL, P<0.05), but thermal comfort, feeling scale and rate of perceived exertion remained unchanged. The use of menthol on skin enhances aerobic performance in a tropical climate, and no differences in performance were observed between menthol and traditional percooling strategies. However, combining both menthol and traditional percooling brought no further improvements.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Umidade , Mentol/administração & dosagem , Corrida/fisiologia , Clima Tropical , Administração Cutânea , Adulto , Ingestão de Líquidos , Marcha/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Sports Sci ; 38(5): 511-517, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902294

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of a 4-week training with hand paddles (HPD) on front-crawl swimming performance (SP), clean swimming speed (SPEED), stroke rate (SR), stroke length (SL) and tethered force (TF). Twenty swimmers (10 men and 10 women) were paired according to performance and gender, and were randomly assigned to control (CON, 22.4 ± 2.3 years) or HPD (21.8 ± 1.9 years) groups. During 4 weeks both groups performed the same training, except for a sprint training set (3 times/week, 10 × 10 strokes all-out, 1-min rest) completed with (HPD = 320 cm2) and without (CON) paddles. Afterwards, both groups performed the same training over a 2-week taper period. SP, SPEED, SR, SL and TF were assessed before (PRE) and after the 4-week period (POST), after the first (T1) and second taper weeks (T2). Swimmers rated their perceived exertion for the sprint training set (RPETS) and the training session for determining internal training load (ITL). SP, SPEED, SR, SL and TF did not change from PRE to POST, T1 and T2. ITL and RPETS were not different between groups. Training 4 weeks with HPD does not affect swimming performance, so the use of HPD remains unsupported in such period.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Equipamentos Esportivos , Natação/fisiologia , Feminino , Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Sports Sci ; 38(5): 528-533, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918624

RESUMO

Although breast pain is problematic for many active women, no published research has investigated breast pain experienced by elite female athletes. This study aimed to examine the extent that mastalgia and exercise-induced breast pain affected the sporting performance of elite female athletes during training and competition. A custom-designed online survey with questions related to sport participation, as well as the frequency, severity and perceived performance effects of mastalgia and exercise-induced breast pain, was distributed to sporting organisations, coaches, medical staff and teams/clubs throughout Australia. Five hundred and forty female athletes competing nationally or internationally across 49 different sports participated in the survey. Sixty-three percent of respondents reported experiencing breast pain associated with their menstrual cycle and 33% reported that this pain worsened during activity. Forty-four percent of athletes reported experiencing exercise-induced breast pain during training or competition. Both types of breast pain were also reported to negatively affect sporting performance (20% and 32%, respectively). Mastalgia associated with the menstrual cycle and exercise-induced breast pain should be acknowledged as potential problems affecting the sporting performance of elite female athletes. Awareness around the impact of breast pain and the development and implementation of breast pain management strategies are essential for this population.


Assuntos
Atletas , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Dismenorreia/fisiopatologia , Mastodinia/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Dismenorreia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Mastodinia/epidemiologia , Mastodinia/etiologia , Ciclo Menstrual/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Sports Sci ; 38(2): 140-149, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680636

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the influence of a half-time (HT) re-warm up (RWU) strategy on measures of performance and the physical and perceptual response to soccer-specific activity. Ten male soccer players completed a control (CON) and RWU trial, in which participants completed 60 min (4 x 15-min periods with a 15-min HT interspersing the third and fourth periods) of a soccer-specific exercise protocol. The CON trial comprised a passive 15-min HT, whilst the RWU trial comprised a passive 12-min period, followed by a 3-min RWU. The RWU elicited an improvement in 20 m sprint times (d= 0.6; CON: 3.42 ± 0.20 s; RWU: 3.32 ± 0.12 s), and both squat (d= 0.6; CON: 26.96 ± 5.00 cm; RWU: 30.17 ± 5.13 cm) and countermovement jump height (d= 0.7; CON: 28.15 ± 4.72 cm; RWU: 31.53 ± 5.43 cm) following the RWU and during the initial stages of the second half. No significant changes were identified for 5 m or 10 m sprint performance, perceived muscle soreness, or PlayerLoadTM. Ratings of perceived exertion were however higher (~2 a.u) following the RWU. These data support the use of a HT RWU intervention to elicit acute changes in performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Exercício de Aquecimento/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mialgia/psicologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Projetos Piloto , Exercício Pliométrico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Sports Sci ; 38(2): 206-213, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722621

RESUMO

A novel 3D motion capture analysis assessed the efficacy of insoles in maintaining the foot position on the midsole platform inside the shoe during rapid change of direction manoeuvres used in team sports. An insole (TI) with increased static (35%) and dynamic (49%) coefficient of friction compared to a regular insole (SI) was tested. Change of direction performance was faster (p < .001) and perceived to be faster (p < .001) in TI compared to SI. Participants utilised greater coefficient of friction in TI compared to SI during a complete turn, but not during a 20 degree side-cut. In-shoe foot sliding reduced across the forefoot and midfoot during the braking phase of the turn and in the rearfoot during the side-cut in TI. Greater in-shoe foot sliding occurred in the turn than the side-cut across all foot regions. Results provide guidance for athletic footwear design to help limit in-shoe foot sliding and improve change of direction performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Sapatos , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Fricção , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Sports Sci ; 38(2): 192-205, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724487

RESUMO

Virtual reality (VR) is a widespread technology drawing an increasing interest for players and coaches, especially in team ball sports as it offers a simple tool to simulate, analyse and train situations that are often too complex to reproduce in the field. In this review we aimed at (1) providing an overview of methodologies and outcomes of research studies using VR in team ball sports; (2) better evaluating the potential interest of VR to analyse or train team ball sports situation and (3) identifying limitations, gaps in knowledge and remaining scientific challenges. The MEDLINE and Web of Science Core Collection databases were searched, using predefined combinations of keywords. Thirty articles were retained and analysed. VR can be an interesting tool to assess or train team ball sports skills/situations as it allows researchers to control and standardise situations and focus on specific skills/subskills. Studies that used VR in team ball sports still have some limitations, mainly due to technical issues or study design. This paper also describes the way VR should be used to enhance understanding of performance in team ball sports. Additional suggestions for future research and study design are proposed.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Esportes , Realidade Virtual , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Destreza Motora
18.
J Sports Sci ; 38(2): 214-230, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795815

RESUMO

Injuries and lack of motivation are common reasons for discontinuation of running. Real-time feedback from wearables can reduce discontinuation by reducing injury risk and improving performance and motivation. There are however several limitations and challenges with current real-time feedback approaches. We discuss these limitations and challenges and provide a framework to optimise real-time feedback for reducing injury risk and improving performance and motivation. We first discuss the reasons why individuals run and propose that feedback targeted to these reasons can improve motivation and compliance. Secondly, we review the association of running technique and running workload with injuries and performance and we elaborate how real-time feedback on running technique and workload can be applied to reduce injury risk and improve performance and motivation. We also review different feedback modalities and motor learning feedback strategies and their application to real-time feedback. Briefly, the most effective feedback modality and frequency differ between variables and individuals, but a combination of modalities and mixture of real-time and delayed feedback is most effective. Moreover, feedback promoting perceived competence, autonomy and an external focus can improve motivation, learning and performance. Although the focus is on wearables, the challenges and practical applications are also relevant for laboratory-based gait retraining.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Retroalimentação , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Motivação , Corrida/fisiologia , Corrida/psicologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Percepção , Corrida/lesões
19.
J Sports Sci ; 38(2): 159-176, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718526

RESUMO

Ericsson, Krampe, and Tesch- Römer published their research on "The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance" over 25 years ago. Since then, hundreds of new articles have been published with findings regarding the effects of practice on performance in sports. The original paper searched for conditions underpinning optimal acquisition of reproducibly superior (expert) performance in domains, where methods for producing such performance had been refined over centuries. At an elite music academy, superior music students were found to have engaged for longer periods in solitary practice guided by their music teachers - an explication of the conditions of this type of practice led to a definition of deliberate practice. When other researchers in sports started searching for optimal practice, they could not find any practice activities meeting all the criteria for "deliberate practice", yet referred to somewhat similar activities using that same term. This paper shows that the effects of these different types of practice activities on attained performance differ from those of deliberate practice and should be given different distinct names. The paper concludes with recommendations for how future research on purposeful and deliberate practice can inform, not just athletes and their coaches, but all adults about how their achievements can be improved with individualized forms of effective practice.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/psicologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Humanos , Tutoria , Destreza Motora , Música/psicologia
20.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 1-5, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575324

RESUMO

Previous research has shown enhanced performance and altered pacing behaviour in the presence of a virtual opponent during middle-distance cycling time trials with a duration of 2 min and longer. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these effects are also present in cycling time trials of shorter duration. Twelve physically active men completed three 1-km time trials. After a familiarisation trial (FAM), participants performed two experimental conditions: one without opponent (NO) and one with a virtual opponent (OP). Repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to assess differences in pacing and performance using power output and duration (p<0.05). No differences in mean finishing times (FAM: 91.5 ± 7.7 s; NO: 91.6 ± 6.4 s; OP: 90.9 ± 4.9 s; p=0.907) or power output (FAM: 382 ± 111 W; NO: 363 ± 80 W; OP: 367 ± 67; p=0.564) were found between experimental conditions. Furthermore, no differences in pacing profiles between experimental conditions were found (p=0.199). Similarly, rate of perceived exertion did not differ between experimental conditions at any moment (p=0.831). In conclusion, unlike events of a more prolonged duration (>2 min), the presence of an opponent did not affect participants' pacing behaviour in short duration 1-km time trials.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Ciclismo/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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