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1.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248590, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788870

RESUMO

The present paper investigates factors contributing to the home advantage, by using the exceptional opportunity to study professional football matches played in the absence of spectators due to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. More than 40,000 matches before and during the pandemic, including more than 1,000 professional matches without spectators across the main European football leagues, have been analyzed. Results support the notion of a crowd-induced referee bias as the increased sanctioning of away teams disappears in the absence of spectators with regard to fouls (p < .001), yellow cards (p < .001), and red cards (p < .05). Moreover, the match dominance of home teams decreases significantly as indicated by shots (p < .001) and shots on target (p < .01). In terms of the home advantage itself, surprisingly, only a non-significant decrease is found. While the present paper supports prior research with regard to a crowd-induced referee bias, spectators thus do not seem to be the main driving factor of the home advantage. Results from amateur football, being naturally played in absence of a crowd, provide further evidence that the home advantage is predominantly caused by factors not directly or indirectly attributable to a noteworthy number of spectators.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Aglomeração , Pandemias , Futebol , Desempenho Atlético/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomada de Decisões , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
2.
J Med Life ; 14(1): 105-110, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767794

RESUMO

According to the definition adopted by the international biological program, physical performance is characterized by maximum oxygen consumption (MOC). Profession, lifestyle, and sport affect the value of the MOC. For anatomy and physiology, oxygen delivery to muscle tissue depends on the state of the respiratory and cardiovascular system, the amount and composition of blood. In this case, the leading role belongs to the cardiac activity, namely to the magnitude of the shock and minute volumes of blood in working conditions. High values of MOC and, consequently, a large work capacity are characteristic of athletes specializing in cyclic sports with moderate and high power. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the adaptive response of the cardiovascular system of girls involved in cyclic and acyclic sports as well as those not involved in sports. The study was conducted in 2018. During the research, we used pulse oximetry and determination of blood pressure according to N.S. Korotkov, as well as an assessment of the adaptation of the cardiovascular system according to the Ruffier Index. Studies have shown differences in the level of performance of girls involved in cyclic sports (athletics) and acyclic sports (karate and taekwondo), as well as non-sports. During the experiments, heart rate and blood pressure indicators were recorded at rest and after exercise, and the Ruffier Index, which reflects the level of performance of the participants, was calculated.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Esportes , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(4)2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672459

RESUMO

The aim of this study was the validation of player and ball position measurements of Kinexon's local positioning system (LPS) in handball and football. Eight athletes conducted a sport-specific course (SSC) and small sided football games (SSG), simultaneously tracked by the LPS and an infrared camera-based motion capture system as reference system. Furthermore, football shots and handball throws were performed to evaluate ball tracking. The position root mean square error (RMSE) for player tracking was 9 cm for SSCs, the instantaneous peak speed showed a percentage deviation from the reference system of 0.7-1.7% for different exercises. The RMSE for SSGs was 8 cm. Covered distance was overestimated by 0.6% in SSCs and 1.0% in SSGs. The 2D RMSE of ball tracking was 15 cm in SSGs, 3D position errors of shot and throw impact locations were 17 cm and 21 cm. The methodology for the validation of a system's accuracy in sports tracking requires extensive attention, especially in settings covering both, player and ball measurements. Most tracking errors for player tracking were smaller or in line with errors found for comparable systems in the literature. Ball tracking showed a larger error than player tracking. Here, the influence of the positioning of the sensor must be further reviewed. In total, the accuracy of Kinexon's LPS has proven to represent the current state of the art for player and ball position detection in team sports.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Futebol , Gravação em Vídeo/instrumentação , Atletas , Humanos
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(4)2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672802

RESUMO

This study investigated the whole-body coordination patterning in successful and faulty spikes using self-organising map-based cluster analysis. Ten young, elite volleyball players (aged 15.5 ± 0.7 years) performed 60 volleyball spikes in a real-game environment. Adopting the cluster analysis, based on a self-organising map, whole-body coordination patterning was explored between successful and faulty spikes of individual players. The self-organising maps (SOMs) portrayed whole body, lower and upper limb coordination dissimilarities during the jump phase and the ball impact phases between the successful and faulty spikes. The cluster analysis illustrated that the whole body, upper limb and lower limb coordination patterning of each individual's successful spikes were similar to their faulty spikes. Range of motion patterning also demonstrated no differences in kinematics between spike outcomes. Further, the upper limb angular velocity patterning of the players' successful/faulty spikes were similar. The SPM analysis portrayed significant differences between the normalized upper limb angular velocities from 35% to 45% and from 76% to 100% of the spike movement. Although the lower limb angular velocities are vital for achieving higher jumps in volleyball spikes, the results of this study portrayed that the upper limb angular velocities distinguish the differences between successful and faulty spikes among the attackers. This confirms the fact that volleyball coaches should shift their focus toward the upper limb velocity and coordination training for higher success rates in spiking for volleyball attackers.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Voleibol , Adolescente , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Movimento , Amplitude de Movimento Articular
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525322

RESUMO

This study aimed to analyze and compare the match running performance during official matches across four seasons (2015/2016-2018/2019) in the top two professional leagues of Spanish football. Match running performance data were collected from all matches in the First Spanish Division (Santander; n = 1520) and Second Spanish Division (Smartbank; n = 1848), using the Mediacoach® System. Total distance and distances of 14-21 km·h-1, 21-24 km·h-1, and more than 24 km·h-1, and the number of sprints between 21 and 24 km·h-1 and more than 24 km·h-1 were analyzed. The results showed higher total distances in the First Spanish Division than in the Second Spanish Division (p < 0.001) in all the variables analyzed. Regarding the evolution of both leagues, physical demands decreased more in the First Spanish Division than in the Second Spanish Division. The results showed a decrease in total distance and an increase in the high-intensity distances and number of sprints performed, although a clearer trend is perceived in the First Spanish Division (p < 0.001; p < 0.01, respectively). Knowledge about the evolution of match running performance allows practitioners to manage the training load according to the competition demands to improve players' performances and reduce the injury rate.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Futebol Americano , Corrida , Futebol , Estações do Ano
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525670

RESUMO

This work aimed to identify the influence of selected endogenous (internal load) and exogenous (possession duration, game quarter, and defensive pressure) factors in natural game conditions on the efficiency of dribbling and passing skills. Dribbling and passing skills were assessed during four games of U19 female basketball players and five games of senior (2nd division) female basketball players. In total, 551 dribbling and 914 passing executions were evaluated. Binary logistic regression identified defensive pressure of the opponent as a predictor of dribbling and passing skills effectivity. When the defensive pressure of the opponent was medium, the chances for the ineffective pass were 1.997 times more likely (95% CI; 1.179-3.383), as it is at the minimum defensive pressure. When the defensive pressure of the opponent was high, the chances for ineffective dribbling were 7.45 times more likely (95% CI; 3.672-15.113) and for ineffective pass were 8.419 times more likely (95% CI; 4.6-15.409), as it is at minimum defensive pressure. The game quarter and the internal load were not identified as the predictors influencing the dribbling and passing effectivity. Possession duration was also an insignificant predictor of dribbling and passing skills effectivity. However, the passing skill effectivity decreases when the shot clock is winding down. These findings confirm the importance of transferring game situations into the training process. Coaches should take into account these factors when they want to stimulate determinants of player performance in a balanced and systematic way.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Basquetebol , Feminino , Humanos , Propriedade , Probabilidade
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530475

RESUMO

In basketball, the end of the ball possession has been described as one of the most important determinants of successful offensive play by a team. The present study aimed to: (i) investigate outcomes according to the play types of ends of the ball possession; (ii) find the most efficient ball possessions during the game; (iii) predict most efficient ends of the ball possession by time in an elite basketball competition. The sample was composed of 38,640 situations of ends of the ball possession from 240 games of the 2017-2018 regular season of the men's Euroleague that were quantitatively analyzed. According to the results, the predictive model can be used in modern basketball. The most efficient ends of the ball possession are the 2-point field goals on the fast break (78.2%), cuts (64.8%), pick and roll (P&R) screener (61.5%), and transition and offensive rebound (57.4%) situations. This information allows a better collective understanding of basketball, and it could be a great tool to use for coaches to prove which tactical solutions are to be considered when improving offense and defense strategies. It also contributes to the design of precise practice tasks of the coach that improve the game.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Basquetebol , Logro , Humanos , Masculino , Propriedade
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572738

RESUMO

The main aim of the present study was to compare the effects of flywheel strength training and traditional strength training on fitness attributes. Thirty-six well trained junior basketball players (n = 36; 17.58 ± 0.50 years) were recruited and randomly allocated into: Flywheel group (FST; n = 12), traditional strength training group (TST; n = 12) and control group (CON; n = 12). All groups attended 5 basketball practices and one official match a week during the study period. Experimental groups additionally participated in the eight-week, 1-2 d/w equivolume intervention conducted using a flywheel device (inertia = 0.075 kg·m-2) for FST or free weights (80%1 RM) for TST. Pre-to post changes in lower limb isometric strength (ISOMET), 5 and 20 m sprint time (SPR5m and SPR20m), countermovement jump height (CMJ) and change of direction ability (t-test) were assessed with analyses of variance (3 × 2 ANOVA). Significant group-by-time interaction was found for ISOMET (F = 6.40; p = 0.000), CMJ (F = 7.45; p = 0.001), SPR5m (F = 7.45; p = 0.010) and T test (F = 10.46; p = 0.000). The results showed a significantly higher improvement in CMJ (p = 0.006; 11.7% vs. 6.8%), SPR5m (p = 0.001; 10.3% vs. 5.9%) and t-test (p = 0.045; 2.4% vs. 1.5%) for FST compared to the TST group. Simultaneously, th FST group had higher improvement in ISOMET (p = 0.014; 18.7% vs. 2.9%), CMJ (p = 0.000; 11.7% vs. 0.3%), SPR5m (p = 0.000; 10.3% vs. 3.4%) and t-test (p = 0.000; 2.4% vs. 0.6%) compared to the CON group. Players from the TST group showed better results in CMJ (p = 0.006; 6.8% vs. 0.3%) and t-test (p = 0.018; 1.5% vs. 0.6%) compared to players from the CON group. No significant group-by-time interaction was found for sprint 20 m (F = 2.52; p = 0.088). Eight weeks of flywheel training (1-2 sessions per week) performed at maximum concentric intensity induces superior improvements in CMJ, 5 m sprint time and change of direction ability than equivolumed traditional weight training in well trained junior basketball players. Accordingly, coaches and trainers could be advised to use flywheel training for developing power related performance attributes in young basketball players.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Basquetebol , Treinamento de Resistência , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Força Muscular
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine junior-elite football players' perception of their talent development environment by comparing clubs ranked as the top-five and bottom-five in the 2017 Norwegian academy classification. METHODS: In total, 92 male junior-elite football players recruited from under-19 teams from five professional football club academies took part in the study. The Talent Development Environment Questionnaire (TDEQ-5; Martindale et al. 2010) was used to measure the players' perceptions of their team environment. RESULTS: The subscale long-term development focus and support network had the highest score and indicated that they perceived that the environment was high quality with respect to those factors. Players from the top-five-ranked clubs perceived their development environments to be significantly more positive with respect to holistic quality preparation, alignment of expectations, communication and, compared to players from the bottom-five-ranked clubs. CONCLUSIONS: The players' perceptions of the talent development environment seem to be in alignment of the academy classification undertaken by the Norwegian top football association.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Futebol Americano , Futebol , Aptidão , Masculino , Noruega
10.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 54(4): e10346, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624730

RESUMO

The main movements of artistic swimming demand various physical capacities such as flexibility, strength, power, and muscular endurance. The use of ergogenic resources to potentialize performance in this sport, however, is underexplored and deserves investigation. In the present study, we tested whether caffeine ingestion would improve the execution of movements that are essential in a typical figure competition or routines in artistic swimming (i.e., amplitude in the Ariana, height in the Boost and Barracuda, and time maintained in the Stationary Scull techniques). Sixteen experienced female athlete artistic swimmers (17.4±3.2 years of age, 5.6±2.8 years of artistic swimming practice) performed several movements of artistic swimming after having ingested a capsule containing caffeine (5 mg/kg body mass) or cellulose (placebo). Compared to the placebo, caffeine improved latero-lateral amplitude during the Ariana (P=0.035), the height of the Boost and Barracuda (P=0.028 and 0.009), and maintained duration in Stationary Sculling (P=0.012). Bayes factor analysis, however, indicated substantial evidence of a positive effect of caffeine only on the Barracuda and Stationary Scull techniques. These findings indicated that caffeine improved performance during specific artistic swimming movements. Coaches and athletes should consider caffeine ingestion in their supplementation plans.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Cafeína , Teorema de Bayes , Cafeína/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Natação
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406658

RESUMO

Rugby is a demanding contact sport. In light of research, poor balance, reduced jumping ability, muscle strength, and incorrect landing patterns might contribute to the increased risk of injury in athletes. Investigating the relationship between tests assessing these abilities might not only allow for the skillful programming of preventive training but also helps in assessing the risk of injury to athletes. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between dynamic balance, vertical and horizontal jumps, and jump-landings movement patterns. Thirty-one healthy amateur adolescent rugby players (age: 14.3 ± 1.6 years, height 171.4 ± 9.7 cm, body mass 80 ± 26 kg) participated in the study. Data were collected by the Y-balance Test (YBT), Counter Movement Jump (CMJ), Single Leg Hop for Distance (SLHD), and Landing Error Score System (LESS). Significant positive correlations were found between SLHD both legs (SLHDb) and YBT Composite both legs (COMb) (r = 0.51, p = 0.0037) and between SLHDb and CMJ (r = 0.72, p < 0.0001). A relationship was also observed between the CMJ and YBT COMb test (r = 0.51, p = 0.006). Moderate positive correlations were found between the dominant legs in SLHD and the posterolateral (r = 0.40, p = 0.027), posteromedial (r = 0.43, p = 0.014), and composite (r = 0.48, p = 0.006) directions of the YBT. These results indicate that variables that are dependent on each other can support in the assessment of injury-risk and in enhancing sports performance of young athletes.


Assuntos
Atletas , Desempenho Atlético , Futebol Americano , Força Muscular , Equilíbrio Postural , Adolescente , Traumatismos em Atletas , Criança , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Perna (Membro)
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(3)2021 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498820

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe the physical demands of American football players using novel performance analysis techniques. Heart rate (HR) and accelerometer-based activity levels were observed across two pre-season scrimmages in 23 Division I collegiate football players (age: 19 ± 1 y, height: 1.90 ± 0.06 m, weight: 116.2 ± 19.4 kg). Data were analyzed using a MATLAB program and inter-rater reproducibility assessed using inter-class correlations (ICC). Players were analyzed by side (offense/defense) and position (skill/non-skill). Performance variables assessed in bursts of activity included burst duration, HRmean and HRmax (bpm), and mean activity (vector magnitude units [vmu]). Exercise intensity was categorized as time spent in % HRmax in 5% increments. The burst duration (8.1±3.9 min, ICC = 0.72), HRmean (157 ± 12 bpm, ICC = 0.96) and mean activity (0.30 ± 0.05 vmu, ICC = 0.86) were reproducible. HRmean (p = 0.05) and HRmax (p = 0.001) were greater on defense. Offense spent more time at 65-70% HRmax (p = 0.01), 70-75% HRmax (p = 0.02) while defense spent more time 90-95% HRmax and ≥95% HRmax (p = 0.03). HRmean (p = 0.70) and HRpeak (p = 0.80) were not different between positions across both sides. Skilled players demonstrated greater mean activity (p = 0.02). The sport-specific analysis described HR and activity level in a reproducible manner. Automated methods of assessing HR may be useful in training and game time performance but ultimately provides support to coaching decision making.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Futebol Americano , Adolescente , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(3)2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513728

RESUMO

Improving ski-turn skills is of interest to both competitive and recreational skiers, but it is not easy to improve on one's own. Although studies have reported various methods of ski-turn skill evaluation, a simple method that can be used by oneself has not yet been established. In this study, we have proposed a comfortable method to assess ski-turn skills; this method enables skiers to easily understand the relationship between body control and ski motion. One expert skier and four intermediate skiers participated in this study. Small inertial measurement units (IMUs) and mobile plantar pressure distribution sensors were used to capture data while skiing, and three ski-turn features-ski motion, waist rotation, and how load is applied to the skis-as well as their symmetry, were assessed. The results showed that the motions of skiing and the waist in the expert skier were significantly larger than those in intermediate skiers. Additionally, we found that the expert skier only slightly used the heel to apply a load to the skis (heel load ratio: approximately 60%) and made more symmetrical turns than the intermediate skiers did. This study will provide a method for recreational skiers, in particular, to conveniently and quantitatively evaluate their ski-turn skills by themselves.


Assuntos
Esqui , Desempenho Atlético , Humanos , Movimento (Física)
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(3)2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513973

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study aims to analyze the physical demands of elite beach handball players during an official competition. Nine elite female (mean age: 24.6 ± 4.0 years; body weight: 62.4 ± 4.6 kg; body height: 1.68 ± 0.059 m; training experience: 5 years; training: 6 h/week) beach handball players of the Spanish National Team were recruited for this study. A Global Positioning System was incorporated on each player's back to analyze their movement patterns. Speed and distance were recorded at a sampling frequency of 15 Hz, whereas acceleration was recorded at 100 Hz by means of a built-in triaxial accelerometer. The main finding of the study is that 53% of the distance travelled is done at speeds between 1.5 and 5 km/h and 30% of the distance is between 9 and 13 km/h (83% of the total distance covered), which shows the intermittent efforts that beach handball involves at high intensity, as reflected in the analysis of the internal load with 62.82 ± 14.73% of the game time above 80% of the maximum heart rate. These data help to orientate training objectives to the physical demands required by the competition in order to optimize the players' performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Aceleração , Adulto , Estatura , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Esportes , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477330

RESUMO

Weightlifting is a discipline where technique and anthropometric characteristics are essential to achieve the best results in competitions. This study aims to analyse the relationships between body composition, limb length and barbell kinematics in the performance of weightlifters. It consists of an observational and descriptive study of 19 athletes (12 men [28.50 ± 6.37 years old; 84.58 ± 14.11 kg; 176.18 ± 6.85 cm] and 7 women [27.71 ± 6.34 years old; 64.41 ± 7.63 kg; 166.94 ± 4.11 cm]) who met the inclusion criteria. A level I anthropometrist took anthropometric measures according to the methodology of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK), and the measurement of the barbell velocity was made with the software Kinovea. In terms of body composition, both genders are within the percentage range of fat mass recommended for this sport. In female weightlifters, there is a positive correlation between foot length, maximal velocity in the Snatch (ρ = 0.775, p = 0.041), and performance indicator in the Snatch and the Clean & Jerk (ρ = 0.964, p < 0.001; ρ = 0.883, p = 0.008, respectively). In male weightlifters, a positive correlation between tibial length and average velocity of the barbell in the Snatch is observed (ρ = 0.848, p < 0.001). Muscle mass percentage correlates positively with performance indicator in both techniques (ρ = 0.634, p = 0.027; ρ = 0.720, p = 0.008). Also, the relative length of the upper limb is negatively correlated with the performance indicator (ρ = -0.602, p = 0.038). Anthropometry and body composition may facilitate skill acquisition among this sport population, contributing to increase the limited body of scientific knowledge related to weightlifting.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Composição Corporal , Pé/anatomia & histologia , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418867

RESUMO

This study aimed to analyze the number of successful finishers and the performance of the athletes in 100-km ultra-marathons worldwide. A total of 2067 100-km ultra-marathon races with 369,969 men and 69,668 women competing between 1960 and 2019 were analyzed, including the number of successful finishers, age, sex, and running speed. The results showed a strong increase in the number of running events as well as a strong increase in the number of participants in the 100-km ultra-marathons worldwide. The performance gap disappeared in athletes older than 60 years. Nevertheless, the running speed of athletes over 70 years has improved every decade. In contrast, the performance gap among the top three athletes remains persistent over all decades (F = 83.4, p < 0.001; pη2 = 0.039). The performance gap between the sexes is not significant in the youngest age groups (20-29 years) and the oldest age groups (>90 years) among recreational athletes and among top-three athletes over 70 years. In summary, especially for older athletes, a 100-km ultra-marathon competition shows an increasing number of opponents and a stronger performance challenge. This will certainly be of interest for coaches and athletes in the future, both from a scientific and sporting point of view.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resistência Física , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419178

RESUMO

The main purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare the effects of strength training (ST) and plyometric training (PT) on vertical jump, linear sprint and change of direction (COD) performance in female soccer players. A systematic search of the PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar and SportDiscus databases revealed 12 studies satisfying the inclusion criteria. The inverse-variance random-effects model for meta-analyses was used. Effect sizes (ES) were represented by the standardized mean difference and presented alongside 95% confidence intervals (CI). The magnitude of the main effect was small to moderate (vertical jump (ES 0.53 (95% CI-0.11, 0.95), Z = 2.47 (p = 0.01); linear sprint (ES -0.66 (95% CI-2.03, -0.21), Z = 2.20 (p = 0.03); COD (ES -0.36 (95% CI-0.68, -0.03), Z = 2.17 (p = 0.03)). Subgroup analyses were performed (i.e., ST and PT duration, frequency, session duration and total number of sessions), revealing no significant subgroup differences (p = 0.12-0.88). In conclusion, PT provides better benefits than ST to improve vertical jump, linear sprint and COD performance in female soccer players. However, significant limitations in the current literature prevent assured PT and ST prescription recommendations being made.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Exercício Pliométrico , Treinamento de Resistência , Futebol , Feminino , Humanos , PubMed
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33451144

RESUMO

Team sports are in continuous evolution, and physical performance is acquiring greater importance in the game. The assessment of physical fitness is the most reliable method for knowing if the athlete's physical fitness is appropriate. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to identify profiles of physical-physiological demands with different specific tests of physical fitness related to the maximum strength of the lower body and speed. Moreover, some differences based on the sex and age of the players were identified. One hundred and forty-nine basketball players were analyzed (men n = 103 vs. women n = 46, weight: 74.74 ± 11.65 kg vs. 56.89 ± 3.71 kg, height: 184.66 ± 11.67 vs. 164 ± 4 and BMI: 21.7 ± 0.83 vs. 21.6 ± 0.90). The players performed an Abalakov test, a multi-jump test, and a repeat sprint ability test. Each player was equipped with a WIMU PRO device, and photoelectric cells were used. A MANOVA was performed to discover the differences between ages, and a t-test was used regarding sex. The results showed significant differences based on age and sex in variables related to time and Player Load/min (p < 0.001). The variables related to steps (contact, step, flight) also showed significant differences as a function of age (p < 0.001) and sex (p < 0.05). The multi-jump test showed differences based on age (p < 0.05 except in between jumps), but not on sex. These results confirm the importance of working together on lower body strength and speed skills. In addition, the planning of the work on these abilities must be individualized and according to the characteristics of the athlete.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Basquetebol , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aptidão Física , Caracteres Sexuais
20.
Sports Health ; 13(1): 65-70, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639180

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Malnutrition is well-studied in various aspects of the orthopaedic literature, most commonly in relation to arthroplasty, spine surgery, and trauma. However, the management of nutritional deficiencies is commonly overlooked among orthopaedic sports medicine providers. The purpose of this article is to analyze the available sports medicine literature to review the associations between malnutrition and the management of orthopaedic sports medicine patients from a treatment and performance standpoint. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: PubMed was searched for relevant articles published from 1979 to 2019. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical review. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4. RESULTS: Few studies exist on the implications of macronutrient deficiencies specific to orthopaedic sports medicine procedures. Interestingly, micronutrient disorders-namely, hypovitaminosis D and iron deficiency-have been well studied and may lead to worse postoperative outcomes, injury rates, and athletic performance. Nutritional supplementation to correct such deficiencies has been shown to mitigate these effects, though further study is required. CONCLUSION: Nutritional deficiencies are highly prevalent in orthopaedic sports medicine patients, and practitioners should be aware of their potential effects on treatment and performance outcomes. Management of such deficiencies and their effect on surgical patients remain an area of potential future research. Future studies are warranted in order to explore the potential therapeutic role of nutritional supplementation to prevent complications after common orthopaedic sports medicine procedures, improve athletic performance, and reduce injury rates.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/cirurgia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Desnutrição/complicações , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Anemia Ferropriva/complicações , Anemia Ferropriva/terapia , Traumatismos em Atletas/complicações , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Desnutrição/terapia , Nutrientes/deficiência , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/terapia
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