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1.
J Bioeth Inq ; 16(3): 443-453, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444642

RESUMO

The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) sets out a detailed description of what its own conception of the "spirit of sport" as employed in the World Anti-Doping Code (WADC) entails. However, controversies as to the significance and meaning to be ascribed to the term abound in the literature. In order to unravel the core of the debates and to move discussions forward, the authors aimed at reviewing understandings of the spirit of sport in the conceptual literature. The main databases were searched using relevant keywords. After the inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, eighteen publications were included in the review. The most striking result to emerge from the data is the multivalence of the concept of spirit of sport. Our thematic analysis generated the contestability of the spirit of sport as the predominant theme in the conceptual literature. There is a need for empirical research to generate data about perspectives on the spirit of sport from other stakeholders especially those of the athletes themselves.


Assuntos
Códigos de Ética , Compreensão , Doping nos Esportes/ética , Doping nos Esportes/legislação & jurisprudência , Valores Sociais , Desempenho Atlético/ética , Desempenho Atlético/legislação & jurisprudência , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Guias como Assunto , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem
2.
J Med Ethics ; 45(6): 395-403, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217230

RESUMO

The inclusion of elite transwomen athletes in sport is controversial. The recent International Olympic Committee (IOC) (2015) guidelines allow transwomen to compete in the women's division if (amongst other things) their testosterone is held below 10 nmol/L. This is significantly higher than that of cis-women. Science demonstrates that high testosterone and other male physiology provides a performance advantage in sport suggesting that transwomen retain some of that advantage. To determine whether the advantage is unfair necessitates an ethical analysis of the principles of inclusion and fairness. Particularly important is whether the advantage held by transwomen is a tolerable or intolerable unfairness. We conclude that the advantage to transwomen afforded by the IOC guidelines is an intolerable unfairness. This does not mean transwomen should be excluded from elite sport but that the existing male/female categories in sport should be abandoned in favour of a more nuanced approach satisfying both inclusion and fairness.


Assuntos
Esportes/ética , Pessoas Transgênero , Atletas , Desempenho Atlético/ética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esportes/normas , Testosterona/sangue
4.
Bioethics ; 33(1): 122-131, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157289

RESUMO

Non-invasive brain stimulation is used to modulate brain excitation and inhibition and to improve cognitive functioning. The effectiveness of the enhancement due to transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is still controversial, but the technique seems to have large potential for improvement and more specific applications. In particular, it has recently been used by athletes, both beginners and professionals. This paper analyses the ethical issues related to tDCS enhancement, which depend on its specific features: ease of use, immediate effect, non-detectability and great variability of effects. If tDCS were to become widespread, there could be some potential side effects, especially the rise of inequality in many selective competitive contexts. I discuss two possible scenarios to counter this effect: that of prohibition and that of compensation, each supported by reasons and arguments that seem plausible and worthy of consideration. In conclusion, I show why I think the scenario of compensation is the preferable one.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/ética , Melhoramento Biomédico/ética , Encéfalo , Cognição , Justiça Social , Esportes/ética , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/ética , Atletas , Compensação e Reparação , Comportamento Competitivo/ética , Humanos , Controle Social Formal , Fatores Socioeconômicos
5.
Apunts, Med. esport (Internet) ; 53(198): 55-61, abr.-jun. 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-172818

RESUMO

Introducción: El objetivo de la intervención farmacológica es el resultado terapéutico: máxima eficacia con mínimos efectos adversos. Esto resulta difícil a la hora de tratar el trastorno bipolar, debido a las comorbilidades y/o fármacos complementarios necesarios para abordar los efectos adversos. La polifarmacia racional óptima puede maximizar el resultado terapéutico, aunque podría crear cuestiones éticas en los deportes competitivos. El Código Mundial Antidopaje (WADC) y la Lista de Sustancias Prohibidas de la Agencia Mundial Antidopaje, publicada anualmente, tienen como objetivo disuadir y sancionar a los atletas que utilicen agentes para mejorar el rendimiento, y promover un marco de igualdad para todos los competidores. Este documento presenta tres ejemplos hipotéticos (TDAH/temblor secundario al litio/dolor) en los que la contravención no deliberada de la Lista de Sustancias Prohibidas derivaría en descalificación por violación de la norma antidopaje sin aprobación de las Exenciones por Uso Terapéutico (TUEs). Método: Análisis de caso hipotético con revisión de la literatura. Resultados: TDAH Comórbido: la Lista de Sustancias Prohibidas excluye los psicoestimulantes (metilfenidato/anfetaminas) en la competición (S6) pero permite guanfacina/atomoxetina. En los casos en que los psicoestimulantes constituyeran un tratamiento eficaz para el TDAH en los atletas con trastorno bipolar, a diferencia de guanfacina/atomoxetina, estos pacientes-atletas deberán presentar TUEs, junto con la certificación y documentación de respaldo del clínico. Temblor secundario al Litio: a menudo se prescriben beta-bloqueantes para controlar el temblor secundario al litio, pero que no están autorizados para deportes específicos (P2). En caso de que los fármacos alternativos (primidona) resulten ineficaces, serán necesarias las TUEs. Dolor: el manejo del dolor crónico es difícil en atletas, ya que los analgésicos narcóticos (S7) y cannabinoides (S8) están prohibidos en la competición. Cuando el dolor comórbido no se controla con fármacos autorizados, son necesarias las TUEs. Conclusión: Los pacientes-atletas con trastorno bipolar y comorbilidades precisan enfoques holísticos, con reconocimiento tanto del WADC como de la Lista de Sustancias Prohibidas. Los atletas deberían realizar un listado de todos los fármacos incluyendo diagnósticos/obtener TUEs/verificar el estado de la medicación propuesta (prohibido/restringido/permitido) con las Federaciones Internacionales adecuadas y/u Organizaciones Olímpicas. Los clínicos deberán ser conocedores de estas cuestiones a la hora de tratar a los pacientes-atletas


Introduction: The goal of pharmacologic intervention is therapeutic outcome: maximal efficacy with minimal adverse effects. In treating bipolar disorder, this may be complicated by comorbidities and/or adjunctive medications required to address adverse effects. Optimal rational polypharmacy may maximize therapeutic outcome yet could create ethical issues in competitive sports. The World Anti-Doping Code (WADC) and yearly published World Anti-Doping Agency Prohibited List are intended to deter and sanction athletes using performance-enhancing agents while promoting an even playing field for all competitors. This paper presents three hypothetical examples (ADHD/lithium-tremor/pain) wherein unintended Prohibited List contravention would result in doping violation disqualifications without approved Therapeutic Use Exemptions (TUEs). Method: Hypothetical case analyses with literature review. Results: Comorbid ADHD: the Prohibited List precludes psychostimulants (methylphenidate/amphetamines) in competition (S6) but permits guanfacine/atomoxetine. When psychostimulants effectively treat ADHD in athletes with bipolar disorder but guanfacine/atomoxetine do not, these patient-athletes, with clinician’s certification and supportive documentation, should file TUEs. Lithium-tremor: beta-blockers are frequently prescribed to control lithium-tremor but are not permitted for specific sports (P2). If alternatives (primidone) are ineffective, TUEs are indicated. Pain: chronic pain management is difficult in athletes as narcotic analgesics (S7) and cannabinoids (S8) are prohibited in competition. When comorbid pain is not controlled with approved medications, TUEs are required. Conclusion: Patient-athletes with bipolar disorder and comorbidities require holistic approaches with appreciation of both the WADC and Prohibited List. Athletes should list all medications with diagnoses/obtain TUEs/verify proposed medication status (banned/restricted/permitted) with appropriate International Federations and/or Olympic organizations. Clinicians should be cognizant of these issues when treating patient-athletes


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Doping nos Esportes/ética , Esportes/ética , Lítio/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta , Comorbidade , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Atlético/ética , Psicotrópicos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico
8.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 58(7-8): 1135-1145, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28738670

RESUMO

Using performance-enhancing drugs concerns not only elite Olympic and Paralympic Games' athletes but also amateur athletes, who are making increasing use of substances and/or methods. Furthermore, a new frontier reached by the doping is the use of genes. World Anti-Doping Agency expressly prohibited the participation in competitive sports by the athlete in case of taking banned substances to treat disease in the event that the above assumption implies an excessive improvement of performance. This study aims to analyze and show the doping control as an essential part of the antidoping program to promote and protect the integrity of sport and athlete's health. Testing is carried out in accordance with the World Anti-Doping Code (WADC) and several international standards (ISs). The ISs were developed for laboratories, testing, the prohibited list, and for therapeutic use exemptions. It seems that the 2009 version of the WADC obliges all the healthcare professionals not to assist athletes engaged in doping behaviours; they can be removed from working with athletes. Many people do not know doping's dangerous effects on health. It is necessary, therefore, to implement the knowledge on this issue through public and sports institutions information and awareness campaigns. For this reason, local institutions and the National Olympic Committee shall give tools, in particular economic, to carry out the work of education, training, and control.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/ética , Doping nos Esportes/ética , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Atletas , Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Humanos
9.
Sports Med ; 48(3): 507-512, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29198023

RESUMO

The use of stimulants as a treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among elite athletes is a controversial area with some arguing that stimulant use should not be permitted because it offers an advantage to athletes (fair play perspective). Guided by an integrated model of athletic performance, we address common concerns raised about stimulant use in sports from our perspective, which we coined the "performance and health perspective," highlighting relevant research and pointing to gaps in empirical research that should be addressed before bans on use of stimulants for athletes with ADHD are considered. The current article posits that a stimulant ban for athletes with ADHD does not necessarily facilitate fair play, ensure safety, or align with existing policies of large governing bodies. Instead, we recommend that stimulant medication be allowed in high-level sport, following proper diagnosis by a trained professional and a cardiac assessment to confirm no underlying heart conditions. Athletes with ADHD approved to use stimulant medication should be monitored by a health care professional, physically reevaluated and reassessed for ADHD as clinically appropriate and as indicated by relevant sports governing bodies. This performance and health perspective is consistent with that of multiple sport governing bodies who offer therapeutic use.


Assuntos
Atletas , Desempenho Atlético , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/uso terapêutico , Esportes/ética , Desempenho Atlético/ética , Humanos
11.
Clin Sports Med ; 35(2): 293-301, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26832978

RESUMO

The International Association for Athletics Federations (IAAF) has been granted 2 years to submit further evidence showing a correlation between higher levels of testosterone and a competitive advantage. This article first presents the case of Caster Semenya, which triggered the drafting by IAAF of the regulations on eligibility of female athletes to compete in the female category in 2011. Then the IAAF regulations are critically analyzed from a scientific and ethical point of view. Finally, the Court of Arbitration for Sport decision to suspend the regulations pending further evidence provided by IAAF, and what this means for the future of sports, is discussed.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/ética , Comportamento Competitivo/ética , Hiperandrogenismo , Medicina Esportiva/ética , Feminino , Humanos , Esportes/legislação & jurisprudência , Medicina Esportiva/legislação & jurisprudência
12.
Physiol Genomics ; 48(3): 191-5, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26757798

RESUMO

In this paper we discuss the ethics of genetics-based talent identification programs in sports. We discuss the validity and reliability of the tests and the claims made by direct to consumer companies, before presenting a range of ethical issues concerning child-parent/guardian relations raised by these tests, which we frame in terms of parental/guardian duties, children's rights, and best interests. We argue that greater ethical emphasis needs to be put on the parental decision on the wellbeing on the child going forward, not on ex post justifications on the basis of good and bad consequences. Best interests decisions made by a third party seem to comprise both subjective and objective elements, but only a holistic approach can do justice to these questions by addressing the wellbeing of the child in a temporal manner and taking into account the child's perspective on its wellbeing. Such decisions must address wider questions of what a good (sports)parent ought do to help the child flourish and how to balance the future-adult focus necessary to nurture talent with the wellbeing of the child in the present. We conclude that current genetic tests for "talent" do not predict aptitude or success to any significant degree and are therefore only marginally pertinent for talent identification. Claims that go beyond current science are culpable and attempt to exploit widespread but naïve perceptions of the efficacy of genetics information to predict athletic futures. Sports physicians and health care professionals involved in sport medicine should therefore discourage the use of these tests.


Assuntos
Aptidão , Desempenho Atlético/ética , Testes Genéticos/ética , Criança , Humanos , Pais
13.
Sports Med ; 46(5): 611-7, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26712509

RESUMO

Medication treatment of adult athletes with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is controversial. Some articles and guidelines support the use of stimulant medications in this population, while others advise against it. We believe that the important issues regarding the use of stimulant medications in athletes include the likelihood of performance enhancement, poor inter-rater reliability of ADHD diagnosis in relation to therapeutic use, policies of sport-governing bodies, psychiatric treatment of mental illness, and dangerous consequences of use. We review the literature on these five issues and conclude by discussing the ethical principle of fairness, and suggest some proposals regarding the use of stimulants by athletes that balance these five issues and fairness. Our ultimate recommendation is that stimulants should not be used by high-level adult athletes.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/uso terapêutico , Esportes/ética , Desempenho Atlético/ética , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/efeitos adversos , Política Pública , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 100(3): 828-30, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25587809

RESUMO

The recent implementation by some major sports-governing bodies of policies governing eligibility of females with hyperandrogenism to compete in women's sports has raised a lot of attention and is still a controversial issue. This short article addresses two main subjects of controversy: the existing scientific basis supporting performance enhancing of high blood T levels in elite female athletes, and the ethical rationale and considerations about these policies. Given the recently published data about both innate and acquired hyperandrogenic conditions and their prevalence in elite female sports, we claim that the high level of androgens are per se performance enhancing. Regulating women with clinical and biological hyperandrogenism is an invitation to criticism because biological parameters of sex are not neatly divided into only two categories in the real world. It is, however, the responsibility of the sports-governing bodies to do their best to guarantee a level playing field to all athletes. In order not cloud the discussions about the policies on hyperandrogenism in sports, issues of sports eligibility and therapeutic options should always be considered and explained separately, even if they may overlap. Finally, some proposals for refining the existing policies are made in the present article.


Assuntos
Atletas , Doping nos Esportes/ética , Doping nos Esportes/legislação & jurisprudência , Hiperandrogenismo/epidemiologia , Esportes , Desempenho Atlético/ética , Desempenho Atlético/legislação & jurisprudência , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperandrogenismo/complicações
16.
Am J Bioeth ; 13(10): 4-12, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24024796

RESUMO

Physicians working in the world of competitive sports face unique ethical challenges, many of which center around conflicts of interest. Team-employed physicians have obligations to act in the club's best interest while caring for the individual athlete. As such, they must balance issues like protecting versus sharing health information, as well as issues regarding autonomous informed consent versus paternalistic decision making in determining whether an athlete may compete safely. Moreover, the physician has to deal with an athlete's decisions about performance enhancement and return to play, pursuit of which may not be in the athlete's long-term best interests but may benefit the athlete and team in the short term. These difficult tasks are complicated by the lack of evidence-based standards in a field influenced by the lure of financial gains for multiple parties involved. In this article, we review ethical issues in sports medicine with specific attention paid to American professional football.


Assuntos
Atletas , Confidencialidade/ética , Conflito de Interesses , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Autonomia Pessoal , Médicos/ética , Medicina Esportiva/ética , Atletas/psicologia , Desempenho Atlético/ética , Ética Médica , Futebol Americano/ética , Testes Genéticos/ética , Humanos , Marketing de Serviços de Saúde/ética , Paternalismo/ética , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem , Esportes/ética , Estados Unidos
17.
J Sports Sci ; 30(11): 1117-29, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22681541

RESUMO

Sport celebrates differences in competitors that lead to the often razor-thin margins between victory and defeat. The source of this variation is the interaction between the environment in which the athletes develop and compete and their genetic make-up. However, a darker side of sports may also be genetically influenced: some anti-doping tests are affected by the athlete's genotype. Genetic variation is an issue that anti-doping authorities must address as more is learned about the interaction between genotype and the responses to prohibited practices. To differentiate between naturally occurring deviations in indirect blood and urine markers from those potentially caused by doping, the "biological-passport" program uses intra-individual variability rather than population values to establish an athlete's expected physiological range. The next step in "personalized" doping control may be the inclusion of genetic data, both for the purposes of documenting an athlete's responses to doping agents and doping-control assays as well facilitating athlete and sample identification. Such applications could benefit "clean" athletes but will come at the expense of risks to privacy. This article reviews the instances where genetics has intersected with doping control, and briefly discusses the potential role, and ethical implications, of genotyping in the struggle to eliminate illicit ergogenic practices.


Assuntos
Doping nos Esportes/ética , Variação Genética , Atletas/legislação & jurisprudência , Desempenho Atlético/ética , Desempenho Atlético/legislação & jurisprudência , Quimera , Doping nos Esportes/legislação & jurisprudência , Doping nos Esportes/métodos , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem/ética , Hematócrito , Humanos , Masculino , Miostatina/genética , Miostatina/fisiologia , Privacidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Receptores Adrenérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores da Eritropoetina/genética , Testosterona/sangue , Testosterona/farmacologia , Testosterona/urina
18.
Rev. andal. med. deporte ; 5(2): 53-56, jun. 2012. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-102442

RESUMO

Objetivo. El objetivo del trabajo fue analizar, a partir de series temporales, las diferencias en la variabilidad de la marcha en dos situaciones distintas (marcha espontánea frente a marcha en tapiz rodante) en sujetos jóvenes, sanos y activos. Método. Las series temporales de diez hombres sanos y físicamente activos fueron evaluadas en dos situaciones experimentales: a) 25 minutos caminando de forma espontánea por un circuito circular abierto; y b) 25 minutos caminando en un tapiz rodante a la misma velocidad que la situación a. Un dispositivo de captura fue diseñado expresamente para la obtención directa y almacenamiento de series de tiempo durante la marcha en ambas situaciones, a partir de un simple pulsador electrónico colocado en la zona del calcáneo de la palmilla del pie dominante introducida en la zapatilla deportiva. Se calcularon la media y desviación estándar (DE), la entropía aproximada (ApEn), la entropía muestral (SampEn) y la entropía multiescala (MSE). Resultados. La DE, la ApEn y la SampEn no presentaron cambios significativos al comparar ambas situaciones experimentales. Todas las MSE disminuyen significativamente al comparar la marcha espontánea con la situación en tapiz. Conclusiones. Existe una pérdida de complejidad de la señal cuando la marcha se realiza en un tapiz rodante y esto debe ser tenido en cuenta para futuras estudios en esta situación(AU)


Objective. The aim of study was to analyze the differences in gait variability (stride interval time series) in two different conditions (spontaneous walking vs. treadmill walking) in healthy and active young subjects. Method. The stride interval time series derived from ten healthy and active males were studied in three experimental conditions: a) walking on level ground at their self-determined usual paces around open circle circuit for 25 minutes; and b) walking on a treadmill for 25 minutes at the same pace as in Situation a. A capture device enabled stride interval time series to be collected directly and stored during walking in both conditions, using a simple electronic push-button mounted in the heel of the dominant foot support of an insole placed in the running shoe. The mean and standard deviation (SD), Approximate Entropy (ApEn), Sample Entropy (SampEn) and Multiscale Entropy (MSE) were calculated. Results. DE, ApEn and SampEn showed no significant changes between both experimental conditions. All MSE significantly decreased from the spontaneous walking to treadmill walking. Conclusions. There was a loss of complexity signal when subjects walked on a treadmill. This should be taken into account for future studies under these conditions(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Marcha/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/ética , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Esportes/ética , Esportes/fisiologia , Esportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Dados/ética , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/legislação & jurisprudência , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/normas , Declaração de Helsinki , Análise de Dados/métodos , Análise Estatística
19.
An. psicol ; 28(1): 233-239, ene.-abr. 2012. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-96428

RESUMO

El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar los estilos explicativos de los entrenadores de fútbol profesional al término de los partidos de competición. Se recogieron 4366 declaraciones en prensa pertenecientes a 29 jornadas de liga, las cuales se relacionan con las dimensiones de la teoría de los estilos explicativos y aspectos como el resultado, el lugar, el momento de la temporada y la categoría. Los resultados indican diferencias significativas en las tres dimensiones de las pautas explicativas en alguno de los aspectos analizados. Se discute la importancia de los estilos explicativos de los entrenadores para influir en el rendimiento del equipo, así como la posible diferencia de atribuciones en función de lo analizado y las posibilidades de asesoramiento psicológico a entrenadores para una mejora de la evaluación del rendimiento y el feedback hacia los deportistas (AU)


The aim of this research was analyzing the explanatory styles of professional coaches at the end of competition matches. We collected 4366 coaches' declarations in the press belonging to 29 league season fixtures, which are related to the dimensions of the explanatory styles theory and aspects like result, place, stage of the season and category. The results show significant differences in the three dimensions of the explanatory guidelines respected to the analyzed aspects. We discuss the importance of the explanatory styles of coaches to influence on the team performance, as well as the possible difference of attributing according to what was analyzed and the possibilities of psychological counselling to coaches in order to improve the performance evaluation and the feedback to football players (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Esportes/ética , Futebol/psicologia , Esportes/psicologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Futebol/ética , Futebol/história , Desempenho Atlético/educação , Desempenho Atlético/ética , Competência Profissional , Futebol/educação , Futebol/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/normas
20.
Clin J Sport Med ; 22(1): 51-7, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22222587

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the impact of therapeutic bodily assistive devices that enable beyond-the-normal body abilities on sport in general and the Paralympics and Olympics in particular. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Online. PARTICIPANTS: Members of the National Council on Rehabilitation Education (United States). Distribution of online survey link to membership. ASSESSMENT OF RISK FACTORS: The survey used a combination of 37 simple yes or no, Likert scale, and opinion rating scale questions. This article is based on 4 of the 37 questions that focus on the impact of therapeutic enhancements on various aspects of sport. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Whether respondents felt that there is an impact of therapeutic bodily assistive devices that enable beyond-the-normal body abilities on the participation of people with disabilities in sport of all levels and the self-identity of athletes with disabilities. Secondary outcome measure was what the respondents felt the impact may be. RESULTS: The respondents indicated that therapeutic bodily assistive devices, which enable beyond-the-normal body abilities, will have an impact on participation of people with disabilities in sport at all levels and on the self-identity of athletes with disabilities. CONCLUSIONS: Given the result that the respondents felt that therapeutic enhancements will impact various aspects of sport, it may be prudent to initiate a broader discourse around therapeutic enhancement and to revise codes of ethics so that they give guidance on this topic.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Esportes/psicologia , Desempenho Atlético/ética , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Coleta de Dados , Humanos , Esportes/ética , Esportes/fisiologia
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