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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(11)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073142

RESUMO

This study evaluates and compares the suitability for child-computer interaction (CCI, the branch within human-computer interaction focused on interactive computer systems for children) of two devices: a standard computer mouse and the ENLAZA interface, a head mouse that measures the user's head posture using an inertial sensor. A multidirectional pointing task was used to assess the motor performance and the users' ability to learn such a task. The evaluation was based on the interpretation of the metrics derived from Fitts' law. Ten children aged between 6 and 8 participated in this study. Participants performed a series of pre- and post-training tests for both input devices. After the experiments, data were analyzed and statistically compared. The results show that Fitts' law can be used to detect changes in the learning process and assess the level of psychomotor development (by comparing the performance of adults and children). In addition, meaningful differences between the fine motor control (hand) and the gross motor control (head) were found by comparing the results of the interaction using the two devices. These findings suggest that Fitts' law metrics offer a reliable and objective way of measuring the progress of physical training or therapy.


Assuntos
Movimento , Desempenho Psicomotor , Computadores , Mãos , Postura
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3112, 2021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34035303

RESUMO

Sleep is thought to support memory consolidation via reactivation of prior experiences, with particular electrophysiological sleep signatures (slow oscillations (SOs) and sleep spindles) gating the information flow between relevant brain areas. However, empirical evidence for a role of endogenous memory reactivation (i.e., without experimentally delivered memory cues) for consolidation in humans is lacking. Here, we devised a paradigm in which participants acquired associative memories before taking a nap. Multivariate decoding was then used to capture endogenous memory reactivation during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in surface EEG recordings. Our results reveal reactivation of learning material during SO-spindle complexes, with the precision of SO-spindle coupling predicting reactivation strength. Critically, reactivation strength (i.e. classifier evidence in favor of the previously studied stimulus category) in turn predicts the level of consolidation across participants. These results elucidate the memory function of sleep in humans and emphasize the importance of SOs and spindles in clocking endogenous consolidation processes.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Consolidação da Memória/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Polissonografia/métodos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 6(1): 41, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046743

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has considerably heightened health and financial concerns for many individuals. Similar concerns, such as those associated with poverty, impair performance on cognitive control tasks. If ongoing concerns about COVID-19 substantially increase the tendency to mind wander in tasks requiring sustained attention, these worries could degrade performance on a wide range of tasks, leading, for example, to increased traffic accidents, diminished educational achievement, and lower workplace productivity. In two pre-registered experiments, we investigated the degree to which young adults' concerns about COVID-19 correlated with their ability to sustain attention. Experiment 1 tested mainly European participants during an early phase of the pandemic. After completing a survey probing COVID-related concerns, participants engaged in a continuous performance task (CPT) over two, 4-min blocks, during which they responded to city scenes that occurred 90% of the time and withheld responses to mountain scenes that occurred 10% of the time. Despite large and stable individual differences, performance on the scene CPT did not significantly correlate with the severity of COVID-related concerns obtained from the survey. Experiment 2 tested US participants during a later phase of the pandemic. Once again, CPT performance did not significantly correlate with COVID concerns expressed in a pre-task survey. However, participants who had more task-unrelated thoughts performed more poorly on the CPT. These findings suggest that although COVID-19 increased anxiety in a broad swath of society, young adults are able to hold these concerns in a latent format, minimizing their impact on performance in a demanding sustained attention task.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Atenção/fisiologia , COVID-19 , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2514, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947840

RESUMO

Primates use their arms in complex ways that frequently require coordination between the two arms. Yet the planning of bimanual movements has not been well-studied. We recorded spikes and local field potentials (LFP) from the parietal reach region (PRR) in both hemispheres simultaneously while monkeys planned and executed unimanual and bimanual reaches. From analyses of interhemispheric LFP-LFP and spike-LFP coherence, we found that task-specific information is shared across hemispheres in a frequency-specific manner. This shared information could arise from common input or from direct communication. The population average unit activity in PRR, representing PRR output, encodes only planned contralateral arm movements while beta-band LFP power, a putative PRR input, reflects the pattern of planned bimanual movement. A parsimonious interpretation of these data is that PRR integrates information about the movement of the left and right limbs, perhaps in service of bimanual coordination.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Animais , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Eletrofisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2643, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976118

RESUMO

Prediction of future sensory input based on past sensory information is essential for organisms to effectively adapt their behavior in dynamic environments. Humans successfully predict future stimuli in various natural settings. Yet, it remains elusive how the brain achieves effective prediction despite enormous variations in sensory input rate, which directly affect how fast sensory information can accumulate. We presented participants with acoustic sequences capturing temporal statistical regularities prevalent in nature and investigated neural mechanisms underlying predictive computation using MEG. By parametrically manipulating sequence presentation speed, we tested two hypotheses: neural prediction relies on integrating past sensory information over fixed time periods or fixed amounts of information. We demonstrate that across halved and doubled presentation speeds, predictive information in neural activity stems from integration over fixed amounts of information. Our findings reveal the neural mechanisms enabling humans to robustly predict dynamic stimuli in natural environments despite large sensory input rate variations.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Sensação/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Encéfalo/citologia , Feminino , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografia/métodos , Masculino , Neurônios/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 217: 103328, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991794

RESUMO

Performing two tasks simultaneously involves the coordination of their processing. Task coordination is particularly required in dual-task situations with varying order of the component tasks. When task order switches between subsequent trials, task-order coordination leads to order switch costs in comparison to task order repetitions (i.e., worse performance in trials associated with an order switch compared to an order repetition). However, the adaptive characteristics of task-coordination processes and order switch costs are underspecified so far. For example, studies on conflict control have shown that these coordination processes can be modulated in response to changes in task demands. The present study investigated therefore whether task-order coordination processes are modulated by the previous experience of a task-order switch. To investigate order switch costs in a dual-task situation with two sensorimotor tasks with variable task-order, we analyzed performance in current trials with task-order switches and with task-order repetitions following task-order switches and task order repetitions in the preceding trial. The data of four different experimental conditions showed that order switch costs were reduced in trials following task-order switches compared to task-order repetitions; resembling the Gratton effect commonly observed in conflict adaptation paradigms. We discussed the present results in the context of task-order set representations, cognitive control theories, and dual-task models.


Assuntos
Desempenho Psicomotor , Humanos , Tempo de Reação
7.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 217: 103332, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991795

RESUMO

In order to gauge the executive processes underlying adaptive behavior, a central criterion in psychology is the extent to which experimental findings generalize across response types. The latency of two major acts of control, action initiation and inhibition, was evaluated using a stop-signal paradigm with two response types, involving either a finger key-pressing or a wrist pen-swiping response. In both conditions, 40 participants were instructed to respond quickly to a GO stimulus but to cancel their responses when a STOP signal was presented, which occurred randomly in 25% of the trials. Taken together, analyses of reaction times and of inhibition probability functions indicated that action initiation generalized across the two response types. In contrast, the finger key-pressing and the wrist pen-swiping responses involved independent inhibition processes. These results challenge a strictly top-down view for some acts of control by showing an interaction between the executive and motor levels in terms of response modality specificity.


Assuntos
Inibição Psicológica , Movimento , Animais , Cognição , Dedos , Cavalos , Humanos , Desempenho Psicomotor , Tempo de Reação
8.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918236

RESUMO

Recently, researchers have focused their attention on the role of cognitive processes on eating habits and body weight changes. Few studies have examined the relationship between the first stages of overweight and executive functions (EFs), excluding obesity conditions. This study is aimed to detect the involvement of the EFs and their predictive role on body mass index (BMI) in a sample of healthy individuals from childhood to young adulthood with a cross-sectional design. One-hundred and sixty-six healthy students were recruited from different Italian public schools: 46 children (age range: 7-11), 50 adolescents (age range: 15-18), 70 young adults (age range: 19-30). BMI was used to evaluate body weight and different EFs tasks were used to assess the EFs domains of inhibition, updating and shifting. After adjusting BMI for age, a hierarchical multiple linear regression was carried out for each EFs task. Pearson's r correlations were reported for each of the age subgroups. Motor disinhibition was associated with greater BMI in the overall sample. Higher BMI was related to poorer set-shifting in adolescence and poorer motor inhibition in young adulthood, but higher BMI was not associated with EFs in childhood. Differences in the development of EFs over time may influence weight changes over time through different responses to food and eating behavior.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor , Adulto Jovem
9.
Percept Mot Skills ; 128(3): 1292-1309, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33928825

RESUMO

While several empirical studies using dual-task methodology have examined the effect of attentional direction on motor skill execution; few have studied the effect of attentional direction on just the preparation phase of motor practice. In this study, via a keying sequence paradigm, we explored processing stages of preparation for a motor skill and disentangled the effect of attentional direction on various stages across practice. First, participants learned two keying sequences (three versus six keys). Then, they practiced the keying sequences in response to corresponding sequence labels under two block-wise alternating dual-task conditions. To dissect the preparation phase into sequence selection and sequence initiation stages, participants received varying amounts of preparation time (0, 300, 900 ms) before a starting signal instructed them to begin sequence execution. In each trial, a tone was paired with one of the three or six keypresses, and participants indicated either the keypress with which the tone was presented (skill-focused dual task) or the tone's pitch (extraneous dual task) after the sequence execution. We found that attentional direction affected only the sequence selection stage, not the sequence initiation stage. During early practice, compared to drawing attention away from execution, directing attention toward execution led to faster sequence selection. This advantage decreased with practice and vanished during late blocks of trials. Moreover, for the execution phase, relative to directing attention toward execution, drawing attention away from execution led to better performance of keying sequence execution across practice. Thus, attentional direction alone does not fully explain the difference between performance patterns at different skill levels in the dual-task literature; rather, types of motor skills and dual task difficulty levels may also drive performance differences.


Assuntos
Atenção , Destreza Motora , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Desempenho Psicomotor
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1985, 2021 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790275

RESUMO

Successful pursuit and evasion require rapid and precise coordination of navigation with adaptive motor control. We hypothesize that the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), which communicates bidirectionally with both the hippocampal complex and premotor/motor areas, would serve a mapping role in this process. We recorded responses of dACC ensembles in two macaques performing a joystick-controlled continuous pursuit/evasion task. We find that dACC carries two sets of signals, (1) world-centric variables that together form a representation of the position and velocity of all relevant agents (self, prey, and predator) in the virtual world, and (2) avatar-centric variables, i.e. self-prey distance and angle. Both sets of variables are multiplexed within an overlapping set of neurons. Our results suggest that dACC may contribute to pursuit and evasion by computing and continuously updating a multicentric representation of the unfolding task state, and support the hypothesis that it plays a high-level abstract role in the control of behavior.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Macaca mulatta/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Giro do Cíngulo/citologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Neurológicos , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Recompensa
11.
Neuron ; 109(7): 1074-1076, 2021 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831362

RESUMO

Errors yield unfavorable outcomes but also elicit adaptive mechanisms optimizing future behavior. Norman et al. demonstrate a previously unknown direct projection from medial frontal performance-monitoring areas in mice that modulate visual cortex network activity and enable post-error attentional adaptation.


Assuntos
Desempenho Psicomotor , Córtex Visual , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Atenção , Humanos , Camundongos , Lobo Parietal
12.
Neuron ; 109(9): 1554-1566.e4, 2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756104

RESUMO

New technologies are key to understanding the dynamic activity of neural circuits and systems in the brain. Here, we show that a minimally invasive approach based on ultrasound can be used to detect the neural correlates of movement planning, including directions and effectors. While non-human primates (NHPs) performed memory-guided movements, we used functional ultrasound (fUS) neuroimaging to record changes in cerebral blood volume with 100 µm resolution. We recorded from outside the dura above the posterior parietal cortex, a brain area important for spatial perception, multisensory integration, and movement planning. We then used fUS signals from the delay period before movement to decode the animals' intended direction and effector. Single-trial decoding is a prerequisite to brain-machine interfaces, a key application that could benefit from this technology. These results are a critical step in the development of neuro-recording and brain interface tools that are less invasive, high resolution, and scalable.


Assuntos
Intenção , Neuroimagem/métodos , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Animais , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Movimento , Neuroimagem/instrumentação , Ultrassonografia/instrumentação
13.
Neuron ; 109(9): 1567-1581.e12, 2021 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789082

RESUMO

Across a range of motor and cognitive tasks, cortical activity can be accurately described by low-dimensional dynamics unfolding from specific initial conditions on every trial. These "preparatory states" largely determine the subsequent evolution of both neural activity and behavior, and their importance raises questions regarding how they are, or ought to be, set. Here, we formulate motor preparation as optimal anticipatory control of future movements and show that the solution requires a form of internal feedback control of cortical circuit dynamics. In contrast to a simple feedforward strategy, feedback control enables fast movement preparation by selectively controlling the cortical state in the small subspace that matters for the upcoming movement. Feedback but not feedforward control explains the orthogonality between preparatory and movement activity observed in reaching monkeys. We propose a circuit model in which optimal preparatory control is implemented as a thalamo-cortical loop gated by the basal ganglia.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tálamo/fisiologia , Animais , Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Retroalimentação , Haplorrinos
14.
Trends Cogn Sci ; 25(6): 493-505, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745819

RESUMO

Others' observed actions cause continuously changing retinal images, making it challenging to build neural representations of action identity. The monkey anterior intraparietal area (AIP) and its putative human homologue (phAIP) host neurons selective for observed manipulative actions (OMAs). The neuronal activity of both AIP and phAIP allows a stable readout of OMA identity across visual formats, but human neurons exhibit greater invariance and generalize from observed actions to action verbs. These properties stem from the convergence in AIP of superior temporal signals concerning: (i) observed body movements; and (ii) the changes in the body-object relationship. We propose that evolutionarily preserved mechanisms underlie the specification of observed-actions identity and the selection of motor responses afforded by them, thereby promoting social behavior.


Assuntos
Movimento , Lobo Parietal , Mapeamento Encefálico , Neurônios , Desempenho Psicomotor
15.
J Vis ; 21(3): 13, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33688920

RESUMO

Eye movements can support ongoing manipulative actions, but a class of so-called look ahead fixations (LAFs) are related to future tasks. We examined LAFs in a complex natural task-assembling a camping tent. Tent assembly is a relatively uncommon task and requires the completion of multiple subtasks in sequence over a 5- to 20-minute duration. Participants wore a head-mounted camera and eye tracker. Subtasks and LAFs were annotated. We document four novel aspects of LAFs. First, LAFs were not random and their frequency was biased to certain objects and subtasks. Second, latencies are larger than previously noted, with 35% of LAFs occurring within 10 seconds before motor manipulation and 75% within 100 seconds. Third, LAF behavior extends far into future subtasks, because only 47% of LAFs are made to objects relevant to the current subtask. Seventy-five percent of LAFs are to objects used within five upcoming steps. Last, LAFs are often directed repeatedly to the target before manipulation, suggesting memory volatility. LAFs with short fixation-action latencies have been hypothesized to benefit future visual search and/or motor manipulation. However, the diversity of LAFs suggest they may also reflect scene exploration and task relevance, as well as longer term problem solving and task planning.


Assuntos
Acampamento , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
Neuroscience ; 463: 57-69, 2021 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737027

RESUMO

When simultaneously performing asymmetrical movements with both hands, there is a tendency for the action of one limb to interfere with control of the other. Little is known about how sensory feedback influences interference. We conducted two experiments to determine how manipulating force feedback and visual feedback alter bimanual coordination during center-out reaching. In the adaptive experiment, asymmetrical reaching was induced by a visual feedback rotation for the right hand while the left hand operated under kinesthetic control (i.e., without visual feedback); in the non-adaptive experiment, asymmetrical reaching was induced by having participants move their right hand to rotated targets under veridical visual feedback, again with the left hand operating under kinesthetic control. In both experiments, we applied a spring resistive force to each hand, with different groups of participants experiencing 0 N/m, 30 N/m, or 60 N/m of resistance. In the adaptive experiment, interference increased with an increase in the force demands for movement in a dose-response fashion (i.e., the higher the resistive force, the larger the interference), but this result did not hold generally for the non-adaptive experiment. Our results indicate that adapting to a visuomotor perturbation may increase sensitivity to feedback gains, including to sensory information not present in the perturbation. Additionally, interference may reflect the application of an explicit strategy used for one limb to control the other, and the addition of an implicit adapting process may bolster this communication of motor information across motor cortices.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Desempenho Psicomotor , Retroalimentação Sensorial , Mãos , Humanos , Cinestesia , Movimento
17.
Ann Neurol ; 89(5): 926-941, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675084

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) are a leading cause of hemorrhagic stroke and neurological deficits in children and young adults, however, no pharmacological intervention is available to treat these patients. Although more than 95% of bAVMs are sporadic without family history, the pathogenesis of sporadic bAVMs is largely unknown, which may account for the lack of therapeutic options. KRAS mutations are frequently observed in cancer, and a recent unprecedented finding of these mutations in human sporadic bAVMs offers a new direction in the bAVM research. Using a novel adeno-associated virus targeting brain endothelium (AAV-BR1), the current study tested if endothelial KRASG12V mutation induces sporadic bAVMs in mice. METHODS: Five-week-old mice were systemically injected with either AAV-BR1-GFP or -KRASG12V . At 8 weeks after the AAV injection, bAVM formation and characteristics were addressed by histological and molecular analyses. The effect of MEK/ERK inhibition on KRASG12V -induced bAVMs was determined by treatment of trametinib, a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved MEK/ERK inhibitor. RESULTS: The viral-mediated KRASG12V overexpression induced bAVMs, which were composed of a tangled nidus mirroring the distinctive morphology of human bAVMs. The bAVMs were accompanied by focal angiogenesis, intracerebral hemorrhages, altered vascular constituents, neuroinflammation, and impaired sensory/cognitive/motor functions. Finally, we confirmed that bAVM growth was inhibited by trametinib treatment. INTERPRETATION: Our innovative approach using AAV-BR1 confirms that KRAS mutations promote bAVM development via the MEK/ERK pathway, and provides a novel preclinical mouse model of bAVMs which will be useful to develop a therapeutic strategy for patients with bAVM. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:926-941.


Assuntos
Endotélio Vascular , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/metabolismo , Animais , Cognição , Dependovirus/genética , Encefalite/genética , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/antagonistas & inibidores , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/complicações , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas/psicologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/genética , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Mutação/genética , Neovascularização Patológica/etiologia , Neovascularização Patológica/genética , Desempenho Psicomotor , Piridonas/farmacologia , Pirimidinonas/farmacologia
18.
Percept Mot Skills ; 128(3): 1252-1274, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775176

RESUMO

Piano performance motor learning research requires more "artful" methodologies if it is to meaningfully address music performance as a corporeal art. To date, research has been sparse and it has typically constrained multiple performance variables in order to isolate specific phenomena. This approach has denied the fundamental ethos of music performance which, for elite performers, is an act of interpretation, not mere reproduction. Piano performances are intentionally manipulated for artistic expression. We documented motor movements in the complex task of performance of the first six measures of Chopin's "Revolutionary" Etude by two anthropometrically different elite pianists. We then discussed their motor strategy selections as influenced by anthropometry and the composer's musical directives. To quantify the joint angles of the trunk, shoulders, elbows, and wrists, we used a VICON 3 D motion capture system and biomechanical modeling. A Kistler force plate (1 N, Swiss) quantified center of gravity (COG) shifts. Changes in COG and trunk angles had considerable influence on the distal segments of the upper limbs. The shorter pianist used an anticipatory strategy, employing larger shifts in COG and trunk angles to produce dynamic stability as compensation for a smaller stature. Both pianists took advantage of low inertial left shoulder internal rotation and adduction to accommodate large leaps in the music. For the right arm, motor strategizing was confounded by rests in the music. These two cases illustrated, in principle, that expert pianists' individualized motor behaviors can be explained as compensatory efforts to accommodate both musical goals and anthropometric constraints. Motor learning among piano students can benefit from systematic attention to motor strategies that consider both of these factors.


Assuntos
Música , Humanos , Movimento , Desempenho Psicomotor
19.
Brain Cogn ; 150: 105705, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652364

RESUMO

Motor imagery practice is a current trend, but there is a need for a systematic integration of neuroscientific advances in the field. In this review, we describe the technique of motor imagery practice and its neural representation, considering different fields of application. The current practice of individualized motor imagery practice schemes often lacks systematization and is mostly based on experience. We review literature related to motor imagery practice in order to identify relevant modulators of practice effects like previous experience in motor training and motor imagery practice, the type of motor task to be trained, and strategies to increase sensory feedback during physical practice. Relevant discrepancies are identified between neuroscientific findings and practical consideration of these findings. To bridge these gaps, more effort should be directed at analyzing the brain network activities related to practically relevant motor imagery practice interventions.


Assuntos
Imaginação , Desempenho Psicomotor , Retroalimentação Sensorial , Humanos , Destreza Motora
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(4)2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671643

RESUMO

Many survivors of stroke have persistent somatosensory deficits on the contralesional side of their body. Non-invasive supplemental feedback of limb movement could enhance the accuracy and efficiency of actions involving the upper extremity, potentially improving quality of life after stroke. In this proof-of-concept study, we evaluated the feasibility and the immediate effects of providing supplemental kinesthetic feedback to stroke survivors, performing goal-directed actions with the contralesional arm. Three survivors of stroke in the chronic stage of recovery participated in experimental sessions wherein they performed reaching and stabilization tasks with the contralesional arm under different combinations of visual and vibrotactile feedback, which was induced on the ipsilesional arm. Movement kinematics were encoded by a vibrotactile feedback interface in two ways: state feedback-an optimal combination of hand position and velocity; and error feedback-the difference between the actual hand position and its instantaneous target. In each session we evaluated the feedback encoding scheme's immediate objective utility for improving motor performance as well as its perceived usefulness. All three participants improved their stabilization performance using at least one of the feedback encoding schemes within just one experimental session. Two of the participants also improved reaching performance with one or the other of the encoding schemes. Although the observed beneficial effects were modest in each participant, these preliminary findings show that supplemental vibrotactile kinesthetic feedback can be readily interpreted and exploited to improve reaching and object stabilizing actions performed with the contralesional arm after stroke. These short-term training results motivate a longer multisession training study using personalized vibrotactile feedback as a means to improve the accuracy and efficacy of contralesional arm actions after stroke.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Feminino , Objetivos , Humanos , Cinestesia , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor , Qualidade de Vida
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