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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13354, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922459

RESUMO

Stochastic optimal control has been studied to explain the characteristics of human upper-arm reaching movements. The optimal movement based on an extended linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) demonstrated that control-dependent noise is the essential factor of the speed-accuracy trade-off in the point-to-point reaching movement. Furthermore, the extended LQG reproduced the profiles of movement speed and positional variability. However, the expected value and variance were computed based on the Monte Carlo method in these studies, which is not considered efficient. In this study, I obtained update equations to efficiently compute the expected value and variance based on the extended LQG. Using the update equations, I computed the profiles of simulated movement speed and positional variability for various amplitudes of noises in a point-to-point reaching movement. The profiles of movement speed were basically bell-shaped for the noises. The speed peak was changed by the control-dependent noise and state-dependent observation noise. The positional variability changed for various noises, and the period during which the variability changed differed with the noise type. Efficient computation in stochastic optimal control based on the extended LQG would contribute to the elucidation of motor control under various noises.


Assuntos
Movimento , Desempenho Psicomotor , Humanos , Método de Monte Carlo , Ruído , Distribuição Normal
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13319, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922460

RESUMO

In motor learning tasks, there is mixed evidence for whether increased task-relevant variability in early learning stages leads to improved outcomes. One problem is that there may be a connection between skill level and motor variability, such that participants who initially have more variability may also perform worse on the task, so will have more room to improve. To avoid this confound, we experimentally manipulated the amount of movement timing variability (MTV) during training to test whether it improves performance. Based on previous studies showing that most of the improvement in finger-opposition tasks comes from optimizing the relative onset time of the finger movements, we used auditory cues (beeps) to guide the onset times of sequential movements during a training session, and then assessed motor performance after the intervention. Participants were assigned to three groups that either: (a) followed a prescribed random rhythm for their finger touches (Variable MTV), (b) followed a fixed rhythm (Fixed control MTV), or (c) produced the entire sequence following a single beep (Unsupervised control MTV). While the intervention was successful in increasing MTV during training for the Variable group, it did not lead to improved outcomes post-training compared to either control group, and the use of fixed timing led to significantly worse performance compared to the Unsupervised control group. These results suggest that manipulating MTV through auditory cues does not produce greater learning than unconstrained training in motor sequence tasks.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Destreza Motora , Dedos , Humanos , Movimento , Desempenho Psicomotor , Extremidade Superior
3.
Neurosci Lett ; 786: 136798, 2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35843470

RESUMO

Stable synchronization with external auditory/visual events is important for cooperative behavior, such as playing music in an orchestra. One way to enhance synchronization in the auditory domain is by inserting different tones between tones to synchronize. Synchronized tapping for every other tone or more (1: n tapping) is less variable than that for each tone (1:1 tapping). This phenomenon is called the "subdivision benefit," which is interpreted as that additional temporal references by subdivided tones make synchronization more stable. However, it is unclear whether visuomotor synchronization becomes more stable by subdividing a stimulus sequence. To clarify this, the present study compared 1:3 tapping with a sequence of three-picture patterns and 1:1 tapping with a single picture repetition. When the inter-tap interval (ITI) was 1200 ms or more, the tapping variability showed a subdivision benefit, irrespective of the position of the pictures (1st, 2nd, or 3rd picture) in the three-picture pattern. However, when the ITI was <1000 ms, subdivision did not have any significant effect. These results imply that the subdivision benefit is due to the additional temporal reference provided by the subdivided stimuli, and the benefit depends on the ITI length.


Assuntos
Música , Desempenho Psicomotor , Estimulação Acústica , Percepção Auditiva , Cafeína , Comportamento Cooperativo
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(30): e2204379119, 2022 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35858450

RESUMO

Prediction errors guide many forms of learning, providing teaching signals that help us improve our performance. Implicit motor adaptation, for instance, is thought to be driven by sensory prediction errors (SPEs), which occur when the expected and observed consequences of a movement differ. Traditionally, SPE computation is thought to require movement execution. However, recent work suggesting that the brain can generate sensory predictions based on motor imagery or planning alone calls this assumption into question. Here, by measuring implicit motor adaptation during a visuomotor task, we tested whether motor planning and well-timed sensory feedback are sufficient for adaptation. Human participants were cued to reach to a target and were, on a subset of trials, rapidly cued to withhold these movements. Errors displayed both on trials with and without movements induced single-trial adaptation. Learning following trials without movements persisted even when movement trials had never been paired with errors and when the direction of movement and sensory feedback trajectories were decoupled. These observations indicate that the brain can compute errors that drive implicit adaptation without generating overt movements, leading to the adaptation of motor commands that are not overtly produced.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Desempenho Psicomotor , Adaptação Fisiológica , Retroalimentação Sensorial , Humanos , Movimento
5.
eNeuro ; 9(4)2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35835589

RESUMO

A hallmark of human reaching movements is that they are appropriately tuned to the task goal and to the environmental context. This was demonstrated by the way humans flexibly respond to mechanical and visual perturbations that happen during movement. Furthermore, it was previously showed that the properties of goal-directed control can change within a movement, following abrupt changes in the goal structure. Such online adjustment was characterized by a modulation of feedback gains following switches in target shape. However, it remains unknown whether the underlying mechanism merely switches between prespecified policies, or whether it results from continuous and potentially dynamic adjustments. Here, we address this question by investigating participants' feedback control strategies in presence of various changes in target width during reaching. More specifically, we studied whether the feedback responses to mechanical perturbations were sensitive to the rate of change in target width, which would be inconsistent with the hypothesis of a single, discrete switch. Based on movement kinematics and surface EMG data, we observed a modulation of feedback response clearly dependent on dynamical changes in target width. Together, our results demonstrate a continuous and online transformation of task-related parameters into suitable control policies.


Assuntos
Movimento , Desempenho Psicomotor , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Eletromiografia , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Movimento/fisiologia
6.
Exp Brain Res ; 240(7-8): 2191-2203, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35796858

RESUMO

Temporal binding is an illusion in which the temporal interval between two events appears compressed. In the context of intentional actions, this effect is observed as a compression of the perceived interval between these actions and their causal outcomes. This 'intentional binding effect' has been used to investigate the Sense of Agency, which is the experience of intentionally causing an outcome through volitional action. Intentional binding is reduced for negative outcomes such as error feedback, but the role of mistakes (e.g., errors of commission) for binding and agency has not been extensively studied. In our study, participants played a virtual game in which they attempted to 'splat' (hit) visual stimuli that looked like coloured bugs, using mouse clicks. On some trials, stimulus colours changed unpredictably immediately before actions were made, sometimes inducing mistakes. Actions were thus clearly identifiable as mistakes at the time of their onset before any outcome feedback had been provided. Participants reported shorter action-outcome intervals when stimuli changed, but only when this change caused a mistake according to the game's rules. This suggests that intentional binding is strengthened by errors of commission. We discuss how this effect may be accounted for by agency itself and via more general processes such as changes in arousal.


Assuntos
Desempenho Psicomotor , Percepção do Tempo , Nível de Alerta , Objetivos , Humanos , Intenção , Volição
7.
Neurosci Lett ; 785: 136775, 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35817313

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Task complexity could affect acquisition efficiency of motor skills and interlimb transfer; however, how task complexity affects interlimb transfer remains unclear. We hypothesized that left- and right-handed participants may have different interlimb transfer efficiency depending on the task complexity. METHODS: Left-hand (n = 28) and right-hand (n = 28) dominant participants (age = 24.70 ± 4.02 years, male:female = 28:28) performed a finger sequence test with two levels of complexity (simple: one-digit with four fingers vs. complex: two-digit with five fingers) before and after ten trials of 2-min practice each on the same apparatus. The speed and task errors were measured and analyzed. RESULTS: Right-handed participants failed to improve performance on their right hand (non-trained hand) after contralateral left-hand practice in the simple finger sequence task. In contrast, the left-handed participants improved performance on non-trained hands both right and left after contralateral practices. In the complex task, however, both the left- and right-handed participants improved performance on non-trained hands by contralateral practices. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that task complexity of skilled practice gave different effects on interlimb transfer between right- and left-handed subjects. It appears that a certain level of appropriate complexity is necessary to detect inter-limb transfers in motor learning in right-handed subjects.


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional , Mãos , Adulto , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Destreza Motora , Desempenho Psicomotor , Extremidade Superior , Adulto Jovem
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11645, 2022 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35804087

RESUMO

The emergence of the level 3 automated vehicles (L3 AVs) can enable drivers to be completely disengaged from driving and safely perform other non-driving related tasks, but sometimes their takeover of control of the vehicle is required. The takeover of control is an important human-machine interaction in L3 AVs. However, little research has focused on investigating the effect of gender on takeover performance. In order to fill this research gap, a driving simulator study with 76 drivers (33 females and 43 males) was conducted. The participants took over control from L3 AVs, and the timing and quality of takeover were measured. The results show that although there was no significant difference in most of the measurements adopted to quantify takeover performance between female and male. Gender did affect takeover performance slightly, with women exhibited slightly better performance than men. Compared to men, women exhibited a smaller percentage of hasty takeovers and slightly faster reaction times as well as slightly more stable operation of the steering wheel. The findings highlight that it is important for both genders to recognise they can use and interact with L3 AVs well, and more hands-on experience and teaching sessions could be provided to deepen their understanding of L3 AVs. The design of the car interiors of L3 AVs should also take into account gender differences in the preferences of users for different non-driving related tasks.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Veículos Autônomos , Desempenho Psicomotor , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11427, 2022 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794174

RESUMO

The present study examined the perceptual consequences of learning arbitrary mappings between visual stimuli and hand movements. Participants moved a small cursor with their unseen hand twice to a large visual target object and then judged either the relative distance of the hand movements (Exp.1), or the relative number of dots that appeared in the two consecutive target objects (Exp.2) using a two-alternative forced choice method. During a learning phase, the numbers of dots that appeared in the target object were correlated with the hand movement distance. In Exp.1, we observed that after the participants were trained to expect many dots with larger hand movements, they judged movements made to targets with many dots as being longer than the same movements made to targets with few dots. In Exp.2, another group of participants who received the same training judged the same number of dots as smaller when larger rather than smaller hand movements were executed. When many dots were paired with smaller hand movements during the learning phase of both experiments, no significant changes in the perception of movements and of visual stimuli were observed. These results suggest that changes in the perception of body states and of external objects can arise when certain body characteristics co-occur with certain characteristics of the environment. They also indicate that the (dis)integration of multimodal perceptual signals depends not only on the physical or statistical relation between these signals, but on which signal is currently attended.


Assuntos
Desempenho Psicomotor , Percepção Visual , Mãos , Humanos , Movimento , Visão Ocular
10.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271164, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35819966

RESUMO

Shaping one owns actions by observing others' actions is driven by the deep-rooted mechanism of perception-action coupling. It typically occurs automatically, expressed as for example the unintentional synchronization of reaction times in interactive games. Theories on perception-action coupling highlight its benefits such as the joint coordination of actions to cooperatively perform tasks properly, the learning of novel actions from others, and the bonding with likable others. However, such functional aspects and how they shape perception-action coupling have never been compared quantitatively. Here we tested a total of hundred-fifteen participants that played a stimulus-response task while, in parallel, they observed videos of agents that played the exact same task several milliseconds in advance. We compared to what degree the reaction times of actions of agents, who varied their behavior in terms of functionality and likability in preceding prisoner dilemma games and quizzes, shape the reaction times of human test participants. To manipulate functionality and likability, we varied the predictability of cooperative behavior and correctness of actions of agents, respectively, resulting in likable (cooperative), dislikable (uncooperative), functional (correct actions), and dysfunctional (incorrect actions) agents. The results of three experiments showed that the participants' reaction times correlated most with the reaction times of agents that expressed functional behavior. However, the likability of agents had no effects on reaction time correlations. These findings suggest that, at least in the current computer task, participants are more likely to adopt the timing of actions from people that perform correct actions than from people that they like.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Desempenho Psicomotor , Computadores , Humanos , Dilema do Prisioneiro , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(28): e2122395119, 2022 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35867763

RESUMO

To understand the cortical neuronal dynamics behind movement generation and control, most studies have focused on tasks where actions were planned and then executed using different instances of visuomotor transformations. However, to fully understand the dynamics related to movement control, one must also study how movements are actively inhibited. Inhibition, indeed, represents the first level of control both when different alternatives are available and only one solution could be adopted and when it is necessary to maintain the current position. We recorded neuronal activity from a multielectrode array in the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) of monkeys performing a countermanding reaching task that requires, in a subset of trials, them to cancel a planned movement before its onset. In the analysis of the neuronal state space of PMd, we found a subspace in which activities conveying temporal information were confined during active inhibition and position holding. Movement execution required activities to escape from this subspace toward an orthogonal subspace and, furthermore, surpass a threshold associated with the maturation of the motor plan. These results revealed further details in the neuronal dynamics underlying movement control, extending the hypothesis that neuronal computation confined in an "output-null" subspace does not produce movements.


Assuntos
Córtex Motor , Desempenho Psicomotor , Animais , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Primatas , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia
12.
Exp Brain Res ; 240(7-8): 2121-2133, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35786747

RESUMO

Sensory information about object properties, such as size or material, can be used to make an estimate of object weight and to generate an accurate motor plan to lift the object. When object properties change, the motor plan needs to be corrected based on the new information. The current study investigated whether such corrections could be made quickly, after the movement was initiated. Participants had to grasp and lift objects of different weights that could be indicated with different cues. During the reaching phase, the cue could change to indicate a different weight and participants had to quickly adjust their planned forces in order to lift the object skilfully. The object weight was cued with different object sizes (Experiment 1) or materials (Experiment 2) and the cue was presented in different sensory modality conditions: visually, haptically or both (visuohaptic). Results showed that participants could adjust their planned forces based on both size and material. Furthermore, corrections could be made in the visual, haptic and visuohaptic conditions, although the multisensory condition did not outperform the conditions with one sensory modality. These results suggest that motor plans can be quickly corrected based on sensory information about object properties from different sensory modalities. These findings provide insights into the information that can be shared between brain areas for the online control of hand-object interactions.


Assuntos
Remoção , Desempenho Psicomotor , Sinais (Psicologia) , Força da Mão , Humanos
13.
Neural Netw ; 153: 349-372, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35779444

RESUMO

The redundancy inherent to the human body is a central problem that must be solved by the brain when acquiring new motor skills. The problem of redundancy becomes particularly critical when learning a new motor policy from scratch in a novel environment and task (i.e., de novo learning). It has been proposed that motor variability could be leveraged to explore and identify task-potent motor commands, and recent results indicated a possible role of motor exploration in error-based motor learning, including in de novo learning tasks. However, the precise computational mechanisms underlying this role remain poorly understood. A new controller in a de novo motor task can potentially be learned by first using motor exploration to learn a sensitivity derivative, which can transform observed task errors into motor corrections, enabling the error-based learning of the controller. Although this approach has been discussed, the computational properties of exploration and how this mechanism can explain recent reports of motor exploration in error-based de-novo learning have not been thoroughly examined. Here, we used this approach to simulate the tasks used in several recent studies of human motor learning tasks in which motor exploration was observed, and replicating their main results. Analyses of the proposed learning mechanism using equations and simulations suggested that exploring the entire motor command space leads to the training of an efficient sensitivity derivative, enabling rapid learning of the controller, in visuomotor adaptation and de novo tasks. The successful replication of previous experimental results elucidated the role of motor exploration in motor learning.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Desempenho Psicomotor , Adaptação Fisiológica , Encéfalo , Humanos , Destreza Motora
14.
Elife ; 112022 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35894379

RESUMO

To generate the next eye movement, oculomotor circuits take into consideration the physical salience of objects in view and current behavioral goals, exogenous and endogenous influences, respectively. However, the interactions between exogenous and endogenous mechanisms and their dynamic contributions to target selection have been difficult to resolve because they evolve extremely rapidly. In a recent study (Salinas et al., 2019), we achieved the necessary temporal precision using an urgent variant of the antisaccade task wherein motor plans are initiated early and choice accuracy depends sharply on when exactly the visual cue information becomes available. Empirical and modeling results indicated that the exogenous signal arrives ∼80 ms after cue onset and rapidly accelerates the (incorrect) plan toward the cue, whereas the informed endogenous signal arrives ∼25 ms later to favor the (correct) plan away from the cue. Here, we scrutinize a key mechanistic hypothesis about this dynamic, that the exogenous and endogenous signals act at different times and independently of each other. We test quantitative model predictions by comparing the performance of human participants instructed to look toward a visual cue or away from it under high urgency. We find that, indeed, the exogenous response is largely impervious to task instructions; it simply flips its sign relative to the correct choice, and this largely explains the drastic differences in psychometric performance between the two tasks. Thus, saccadic choices are strongly dictated by the alignment between salience and behavioral goals.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Movimentos Sacádicos , Humanos , Estimulação Luminosa , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
15.
Neuropsychologia ; 173: 108314, 2022 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35798065

RESUMO

Life is filled with uncertainty that imposes challenges for goal-directed effort. For example, whether effort reaps reward impacts the effort process. Real-life activities involve a long-term input of effort, implying that our effort process should be stably and consistently managed. The present study investigated how efficacy modulates the effort process from the perspective of overall performance and effort stability. Using a mini-block Stroop task and electroencephalography, we manipulated performance-reward contingency to pinpoint behavioral and neural features at each time stage (preparation, execution, and feedback-processing). Our findings revealed an efficacy-modulated effort process from three aspects. First, high efficacy induced a more prepared state before target presentation, which was identified by two neural indicators: contingent negative variation (CNV) and ß oscillation (13-20 Hz). Then, drift rate and decision boundary reflected how people executed the task under different efficacy levels. Moreover, CNV and ß oscillation affected sustained effort by modulating the drift rate, indicating preparatory state changed the execution to influence sustained effort. Finally, feedback-P3b captured shifts in the sustained effort after receiving different feedback. Taken together, these findings showed that efficacy modulates effort at each time course. Informative signals about efficacy and feedback are beneficial to trigger high-quality preparation and execution and drive effort adjustment.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Desempenho Psicomotor , Variação Contingente Negativa , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Recompensa
16.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 179: 21-29, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35753563

RESUMO

Taking a short midday nap has been associated with higher alertness and better cognitive task performance. Yet, the mechanisms associated with nap-dependent performance enhancement are unclear. The current study was conducted to explore the impact of physiological arousal during cognitive task and sleep architecture during a pre-task nap on post-nap behavioral outcomes. A within-subjects design (N = 18) was employed, in which participants either took a nap or remained awake for 40 min during the post-lunch period. The psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) and n-back task were administered to assess sustained attention and working memory, respectively, with each task including one block of easy trials and one block of difficult trials. Results showed that a short midday nap improved sustained attention but not working memory. In addition, a midday nap induced lower physiological arousal during the performance on both cognitive tasks, with relatively higher delta and lower beta activity. The relative power of theta and alpha were positively correlated with performance on the easy PVT, whereas the alpha power was negatively correlated with performance on the difficult PVT, and the theta power was negatively correlated with reaction speed in the n-back task regardless of the task difficulty. Meanwhile, the shorter total sleep time and longer time of wake after sleep onset were associated with the faster overall reaction speed in PVT easy trials. These findings suggested that both changes in physiological arousal and sleep variables might account for changes in task performance after a short midday nap.


Assuntos
Desempenho Psicomotor , Sono , Atenção/fisiologia , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação , Sono/fisiologia , Privação do Sono , Vigília/fisiologia
17.
Conscious Cogn ; 103: 103359, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35687981

RESUMO

How does one know that (s)he is the causal agent of their motor actions? Earlier theories of sense of agency have attributed the capacity for perception of self-agency to the comparator process of the motor-control/action system. However, with the advent of the findings implying a role of non-motor cues (like affective states, beliefs, primed concepts, and social instructions or previews of actions) in the sense of agency literature, the perception of self-agency is hypothesized to be generated even by non-motor cues (based on their relative reliability or weighting estimate); and, this theory is come to be known as the cue-integration of sense of agency. However, the cue-integration theory motivates skepticism about whether it is falsifiable and whether it is plausible that non-motor cues that are sensorily unrelated to typical sensory processes of self-agency have the capacity to produce a perception of self-agency. To substantiate this skepticism, I critically analyze the experimental operationalizations of cue-integration-with the (classic) vicarious agency experiment as a case study-to show that (1) the participants in these experiments are ambiguous about their causal agency over motor actions, (2) thus, these participants resort to reports of self-agency as heuristic judgments (under ambiguity) rather than due to cue-integration per se, and (3) there might not have occurred cue-integration based self-agency reports if these experimental operationalizations had eliminated ambiguity about the causal agency. Thus, I conclude that the reports of self-agency (observed in typical non-motor cues based cue-integration experiments) are not instances of perceptual effect-that are hypothesized to be produced by non-motor cues-but are of heuristic judgment effect.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Desempenho Psicomotor , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino , Percepção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Hum Mov Sci ; 84: 102967, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35687915

RESUMO

Appropriate motor performance, which must be precisely processed and timed to temporal and spatial requirements, can be studied using a synchronized tapping task. For gait rehabilitation, estimation of bilateral foot-tapping accuracy is important, as walking involves bilateral movements, usually antiphase, of the lower extremities. Rhythmic control of lower limb movements, such as gait, involves voluntary control and may also be automatically regulated by the central pattern generator. This study investigated the temporal synchronization of in-phase and antiphase movements using synchronized bilateral finger and foot-tapping tasks. Thirty healthy young adult volunteers were enrolled and instructed to tap the finger or foot button synchronously with the tones presented at fixed inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs). One of 10 different ISIs (250-4800 ms) was selected for each block, in which 110 tones were presented. Taps were performed by either unilateral or bilateral fingers or feet, either in-phase (to move bilateral fingers or ankles simultaneously) or antiphase (to move bilateral fingers or ankles alternately). The synchronization error (SE) and coefficient of variation (CV) of the inter-tap interval (ITI) were evaluated. In all trials with short ISIs, SEs were narrowly distributed, either clustered around 0 ms or with a slightly negative value. Although SE variability gradually increased with increasing ISI, the CV of ITI was significantly lower for antiphase movement than for unilateral or in-phase movement in the foot-tapping task, but not in the finger-tapping task. The preserved temporal synchronization for antiphase movement of the foot, but not finger tapping, may be due to the neural mechanisms underlying locomotion.


Assuntos
Dedos , Movimento , , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Desempenho Psicomotor , Caminhada , Adulto Jovem
19.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 143: 105823, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35689985

RESUMO

Procedural learning is a vital brain function that allows us to acquire motor skills during development or re-learn them after lesions affecting the motor system. Procedural learning can be improved by feedback of different valence, e.g., monetary or social, mediated by dopaminergic circuits. While processing motivationally relevant stimuli, dopamine interacts closely with oxytocin, whose effects on procedural learning, particularly feedback-based approaches, remain poorly understood. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we investigated whether oxytocin modulates the differential effects of monetary and social feedback on procedural learning. Sixty-one healthy male participants were randomized to receive a placebo or oxytocin intranasally. The participants then performed a modified serial reaction time task. Oxytocin plasma concentrations were measured before and after applying the placebo or verum. Groups did not differ regarding general reaction times or measures of procedural learning. For the placebo group, monetary feedback improved procedural learning compared to a neutral control condition. In contrast, the oxytocin group did not show a differential effect of monetary or social feedback despite a significant increase in oxytocin plasma levels after intranasal application. The data suggest that oxytocin does not influence procedural learning per se. Instead, oxytocin seems to attenuate the effects of monetary feedback on procedural learning specifically.


Assuntos
Fármacos do Sistema Nervoso Central , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Aprendizagem , Ocitocina , Desempenho Psicomotor , Recompensa , Administração Intranasal , Fármacos do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Fármacos do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Retroalimentação Psicológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Retroalimentação Psicológica/fisiologia , Humanos , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/efeitos dos fármacos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação , Comportamento Social
20.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269557, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35687556

RESUMO

Embodied and grounded cognition theories state that cognitive processing is built upon sensorimotor systems. In the context of numerical cognition, support to this framework comes from the interactions between numerical processing and the hand actions of reaching and grasping documented in skilled adults. Accordingly, mechanisms for the processing of object size and location during reach and grasp actions might scaffold the development of mental representations of numerical magnitude. The present study exploited motor adaptation to test the hypothesis of a functional overlap between neurocognitive mechanisms of hand action and numerical processing. Participants performed repetitive grasping of an object, repetitive pointing, repetitive tapping, or passive viewing. Subsequently, they performed a symbolic number comparison task. Importantly, hand action and number comparison were functionally and temporally dissociated, thereby minimizing context-based effects. Results showed that executing the action of pointing slowed down the responses in number comparison. Moreover, the typical distance effect (faster responses for numbers far from the reference as compared to close ones) was not observed for small numbers after pointing, while it was enhanced by grasping. These findings confirm the functional link between hand action and numerical processing, and suggest new hypotheses on the role of pointing as a meaningful gesture in the development and embodiment of numerical skills.


Assuntos
Mãos , Desempenho Psicomotor , Adulto , Cognição , Mãos/fisiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia
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