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1.
Univ. salud ; 21(2): 176-187, mayo-ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1004856

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: La Evaluación de Desempeño (ED) permite el desarrollo personal-profesional y contribuye al mejoramiento de la Calidad de Vida Laboral (CVL) del trabajador. Posibilita la identificación de fortalezas, genera procesos de autoevaluación y mejoramiento en el desarrollo organizacional y su competitividad. Objetivo: Definir el concepto de evaluación de desempeño y evaluar sus efectos en la calidad de vida laboral del trabajador en algunos sectores durante los últimos 10 años. Materiales y métodos: Revisión sistemática de la literatura, como estudio integrativo, observacional y retrospectivo, en el cual se combinaron investigaciones que examinan la misma temática. Se revisaron 55 artículos publicados en las bases de datos Redalyc, SciELO, ScienceDirect y Dialnet. Resultados: Se presentan los criterios de selección, definición, relación entre CVL y ED abordados en los sectores de salud, educación y organizacional. Conclusiones: La ED reconoce el aporte del trabajador al logro de los objetivos organizacionales, teniendo en cuenta la productividad, el desarrollo y la CVL de los colaboradores.


Abstract Introduction: A Performance evaluations (PE) promotes personal-professional development and contributes to the improvement of the Quality of Work Life (QWL) of employees. A PE also enables the identification of strengths, generates self-evaluation processes and improves organizational development and competitiveness. Objective: To define the concept of performance evaluation and evaluate its effects on the quality of work life of employees from some sectors, during the last 10 years. Materials and methods: A systematic literature review using an integrative, observational and retrospective approach that included research studies sharing the same scope. We reviewed 55 articles published in databases such as Redalyc, SciELO, ScienceDirect and Dialnet. Results: We present and discuss the selection criteria, definition, and association between QWL and PE related to health, education and organizational sectors. Conclusions: The PE recognizes the contribution of the employee to the achievement of the organizational objectives and it takes into consideration the productivity, development and maintenance of the QWL of coworkers.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Desempenho Psicomotor , Avaliação Educacional , Descrição de Cargo
2.
West Afr J Med ; 36(2): 158-164, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385602

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous reports has shown that asthmatic patients with poor asthma control exhibited cognitive dysfunction. However, there is paucity of information on the cognitive functions of patients with clinically stable asthma particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Subjects, study setting, materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Federal Medical Centre, Owo, South West Nigeria from 2014-2016. Forty patients with mild to moderate asthma and forty matched (age, sex and educational status) non-asthmatic control subjects were included. Spirometry was done for all participants. Cognitive performance on domains of psychomotor speed, attention/concentration, memory and vigilance were assessed in all the participants using the Fepsy neuropsychological test battery Results: The mean age of the patients with asthma in years was 38.65±16.67 while that of the control subjects was 39.18±11.64 years. The patients with asthma had prolonged visual and binary choice reaction time relative to controls. Older asthmatic patients had prolonged visual and binary choice reaction time when compared to controls (p<0.05) while other socio-demographic clinical characteristics of the patients did not have impact on their cognitive performance (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Cognitive performance was similar between the patients with mild to moderate asthma and non-asthmatic controls. Older asthmatic patients have impaired psychomotor speed relative to younger asthmatic patients.


Assuntos
Asma/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Asma/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Memória , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Nigéria
3.
Codas ; 31(4): e20180177, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460569

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to present findings on language, behavior, and neurodevelopment in a girl diagnosed with Angelman Syndrome, evaluated when she was three and eight years old. METHODS: The following evaluation instruments were used: Observation of Communication Behavior, Early Language Milestone (ELM) Scale, and Denver Developmental Screening Test, 2nd edition (DDST-II). RESULTS: In this case report, presence of AS phenotype signals such as wide mouth and wide-spaced teeth, tongue thrusting, strabismus, up slanting palpebral fissures, and sialorrhea are verified. Expressive and receptive deficits were verified in the language assessment, with the absence of orality and loss of comprehension with very similar performances in both evaluations. The ELM and DDST-II tests indicated severe impairment of all abilities evaluated at both three and eight years of age. Performance was quite similar in both evaluations in all areas of child development. Little progress was observed over time despite the great therapeutic and educational investment. CONCLUSION: The presence of a complex scenario such as AS demands high complexity clinical needs, a situation that is worsened due to scarcity of therapeutic resources that could minimize the harmful impacts of AS and culminate in increased quality of life for the AS population and their families.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Angelman/reabilitação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/reabilitação , Síndrome de Angelman/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Angelman/psicologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Comunicação , Feminino , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Testes de Linguagem , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Desempenho Psicomotor
4.
5.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1132-1139, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182867

RESUMO

An approaching predator and self-motion toward an object can generate similar looming patterns on the retina, but these situations demand different rapid responses. How central circuits flexibly process visual cues to activate appropriate, fast motor pathways remains unclear. Here we identify two descending neuron (DN) types that control landing and contribute to visuomotor flexibility in Drosophila. For each, silencing impairs visually evoked landing, activation drives landing, and spike rate determines leg extension amplitude. Critically, visual responses of both DNs are severely attenuated during non-flight periods, effectively decoupling visual stimuli from the landing motor pathway when landing is inappropriate. The flight-dependence mechanism differs between DN types. Octopamine exposure mimics flight effects in one, whereas the other probably receives neuronal feedback from flight motor circuits. Thus, this sensorimotor flexibility arises from distinct mechanisms for gating action-specific descending pathways, such that sensory and motor networks are coupled or decoupled according to the behavioral state.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Reação de Fuga/fisiologia , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Vias Eferentes/fisiologia , Octopamina/farmacologia , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Estimulação Luminosa
6.
Forensic Sci Int ; 301: 137-141, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153990

RESUMO

Etizolam is a drug from the thienotriazoldiazepine class, widely prescribed as anxiolytic due to its apparently secure toxicological profile. Nevertheless, some recent cases of etizolam dependence, intoxications and fatalities associated to its abuse have been reported in the international literature. For this reason, the drug listed as new psychoactive substance (NPS) by the World Health Organization (WHO) since 2015. Euphoric effect at high dosage is the first cause of its recreational use that has determined a wider distribution in the illicit market. An experimental study was performed to obtain evidence that etizolam at low therapeutic dosages is a drug with negligible influence on the psychomotor performances involved in driving. The psychomotor performance was assessed by performing different tests, such as critical tracking task (CTT), critical flicker fusion (CFF), choice reaction time (CRT), visual vigilance task (VVT), response competition test (RCT) in a group of 16 healthy volunteers after a single administration of etizolam at two different dosages (0.25 mg or 1.00 mg) in comparison to placebo. The test results showed that etizolam at 0.25 mg and 1.00 mg had no significant effect on vigilance, short term memory, psychomotor coordination or speed in decision making. Differently, abuse of etizolam to obtain the euphoric effects at presumably high dosages or in combination with other psychoactive substances could be fatal. The negligible side effects on mental and behavioral function demonstrated by this study, could represent an incitement to abuse, which can be strongly discouraged with correct information on differences between its correct use and its misuse.


Assuntos
Diazepam/análogos & derivados , Desempenho Psicomotor/efeitos dos fármacos , Tranquilizantes/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Tomada de Decisões/efeitos dos fármacos , Diazepam/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tempo de Reação/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 68(12): 503-509, 16 jun., 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180477

RESUMO

Introducción. Los prematuros tardíos constituyen actualmente el 70% de los nacimientos prematuros. Presentan mayor comorbilidad, incluyendo las alteraciones del neurodesarrollo, que pueden no manifestarse hasta la escolarización. Objetivo. Identificar dificultades en el desarrollo neurológico a los dos años de edad. Sujetos y métodos. Se valoró el desarrollo psicomotor a los dos años de los prematuros tardíos y del grupo control a término nacidos en nuestro centro entre enero y septiembre del año 2014 mediante la escala de Brunet-Lézine revisada y el cuestionario de edades y etapas para la detección de trastornos del neurodesarrollo Ages & Stages Questionnaires (ASQ-3). Resultados. Se incluyó a 88 niños. Los prematuros tardíos presentaron puntuaciones inferiores en el lenguaje y el desarrollo postural. Las niñas obtuvieron resultados superiores en la edad de desarrollo global, la coordinación oculomotriz, el lenguaje y la sociabilidad. El cuestionario ASQ-3 detectó las diferencias en comunicación y socioindividuales. Se identificaron como factores de riesgo para presentar alteración del desarrollo la prematuridad, para alteración del lenguaje, y el sexo masculino, para menor edad de desarrollo y alteración del lenguaje. La correlación entre la valoración del lenguaje con la escala de Brunet-Lézine revisada y el cuestionario ASQ-3 fue buena, con un coeficiente de correlación de Pearson de 0,7 (p < 0,001), lo que nuestra la utilidad del cuestionario. Conclusiones. Los prematuros tardíos presentan menor desarrollo del lenguaje a los dos años. La prematuridad y el sexo masculino son factores de riesgo para presentar alteración. La valoración del lenguaje con el cuestionario ASQ-3 puede ser útil para detectar alteraciones


Introduction. Late preterm infants currently constitute 70% of preterm infant births. They present greater comorbidity, including neurodevelopment disorders, which may not manifest until the school age. Aim. To identify the existence of difficulties in the neurodevelopment at the age of two years. Subjects and methods. The psychomotor development was performed at two years of age in late preterm infants and term control group born at our center between January and September 2014, with Brunet-Lezine Revised test and Ages & Stages Questionnaires (ASQ-3) questionnaire. Results. 88 children were included. Late preterm infants had lower scores in the language area and postural developmental. Girls achieved better results than males at global developmental age, oculo-motor coordination, language area and sociability. The ASQ-3 questionnaire detected differences in communication and socio-individual. Prematurity and male sex were identified as an independent risk factor to present a developmental disorder, prematurity for language impairment and male sex for younger developmental age and language impairment. The correlation between language assessment with the Brunet-Lezine Revised test and the ASQ-3 questionnaire was good, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.7 (p < 0.001), showing the usefulness of the questionnaire. Conclusions. Late preterm infants have a lower developmental age in the language area at two years. Prematurity and male sex are risk factors for developmental disorder. Language assessment with the ASQ-3 questionnaire may be a useful tool to detect disorders and intervene early


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Seguimentos , Idade Gestacional , Fatores de Risco , Estudos de Casos e Controles
8.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(3): eAO4607, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215590

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine associations between sex and neurodevelopmental outcomes in human milk-fed very preterm infants, adjusted to early measured nutrient intakes and other neonatal cofactors. METHODS: Consecutive inborn human milk-fed infants, with gestational age <33 weeks, were eligible. In-hospital energy and protein intakes have relied on measured human milk composition. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development II mental and psychomotor developmental indexes were used to assess neurodevelopment at 20 months' corrected age. After univariate analysis, some covariables were used for linear multiple regression. RESULTS: Thirty-two infants were included, with a mean (standard deviation) gestational age of 29.8 (1.8) weeks, and a median birth weight of 1168g (interquartile range 990-1419g). Minimum recommended intakes were achieved in 63.6% and 15.2% of infants for protein and energy, respectively. The mental and psychomotor developmental indexes were within normal limits in 93.8% of infants. The mean mental and psychomotor developmental indexes were significantly lower in males. Only male sex negatively and significantly affected the mental and psychomotor developmental indexes (B=-9.44; 95%CI: -17.64- -1.23; adjusted r2=0.17; p=0.026), adjusted to gestational age and measured energy intake. CONCLUSION: In human milk-fed very preterm infants, males had a significantly lower mental and psychomotor developmental indexes score at 20 months' corrected age, adjusted for gestational age and measured energy intake.


Assuntos
Doenças do Prematuro/etiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Leite Humano , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Fatores Etários , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Doenças do Prematuro/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2718, 2019 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221968

RESUMO

Motor preparation typically precedes movement and is thought to determine properties of upcoming movements. However, preparation has mostly been studied in point-to-point delayed reaching tasks. Here, we ask whether preparation is engaged during mid-reach modifications. Monkeys reach to targets that occasionally jump locations prior to movement onset, requiring a mid-reach correction. In motor cortex and dorsal premotor cortex, we find that the neural activity that signals when to reach predicts monkeys' jump responses on a trial-by-trial basis. We further identify neural patterns that signal where to reach, either during motor preparation or during motor execution. After a target jump, neural activity responds in both preparatory and movement-related dimensions, even though error in preparatory dimensions can be small at that time. This suggests that the same preparatory process used in delayed reaching is also involved in reach correction. Furthermore, it indicates that motor preparation and execution can be performed simultaneously.


Assuntos
Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Eletrodos Implantados , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Life Sci ; 228: 285-294, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063733

RESUMO

AIMS: Oxidative stress and apoptosis have major roles in the progression of traumatic brain injury (TBI)-associated motor and cognitive deficits. The present study was aimed to elucidate the putative effects of chrysin, a natural flavonoid compound, against TBI-induced motor and cognitive dysfunctions and possible involved mechanisms. MAIN METHODS: Chrysin (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg) was orally administered to rats starting immediately following TBI induction by Marmarou's weight-drop technique and continuously for 3 or 14 days. Neurological functions, motor coordination, learning and memory performances, histological changes, cell apoptosis, expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins, and oxidative status were assayed at scheduled time points after experimental TBI. KEY FINDINGS: The results indicated that treatment with chrysin improved learning and memory disabilities in passive avoidance task, and ameliorated motor coordination impairment in rotarod test after TBI. These beneficial effects were accompanied by increased the concentrations of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione (GSH), decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content, prevented neuronal loss, diminished apoptotic index, elevated the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein, and reduced the expression of pro-apoptotic Bax protein in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus tissues. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that both anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic properties of chrysin (especially in the dose of 100 mg/kg) are possible mechanisms that improve cognitive/motor deficits and prevent neuronal cell death after TBI.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/metabolismo , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Desempenho Psicomotor/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Wistar
12.
Perception ; 48(5): 386-401, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066643

RESUMO

When an observer sees a uniformly moving visual stimulus, he or she typically perceives an illusory motion of his or her body in the opposite direction (vection). In this study, the effects of the visual inducer's perceived rigidity were examined using a horizontal sine wave-like line stimulus moving horizontally. Lowering the sine wave amplitude resulted in the perception of a less rigid visual stimulus motion, although the stimulus was always set to move completely rigidly. The psychophysical experiment revealed that visual self-motion perception was weaker in the lower amplitude condition where the visual stimulus was perceived as less rigid. The follow-up experiments showed that the effects of sine wave amplitude manipulation were unrelated to the modulation of the perceived speed. Furthermore, small gaps inserted into the sine waves effectively increased the perceived rigidity and resulted in a strong self-motion perception even in the lower amplitude condition. The current investigation, together with previous studies, clearly demonstrated that perceived features, in addition to the physical ones, play a key role in visual self-motion perception. Visual stimuli, perceived as more rigid, provide a more reliable frame of reference in the observers' spatial orientation, determining their self-motion perception.


Assuntos
Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Propriocepção/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Am J Occup Ther ; 73(3): 7303205090p1-7303205090p8, 2019 May/Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding how repetitive finger movement performance, an assessment of bradykinesia (slowness of movement), is related to fine-motor dexterity tasks in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: This pilot study examined the relationship between the performance of fine-motor dexterity tasks and repetitive finger movement in people with PD. METHOD: Forty-six participants with PD completed an acoustically cued repetitive finger movement task (1-3 Hz). Movement amplitude, movement rate difference, and coefficient of variation were obtained for each tone rate. Participants also completed a buttoning and Purdue pegboard assembly task. Buttoning time and number of assemblies were recorded. RESULTS: A significant association was found between movement rate difference and movement rate difference coefficient of variation and buttoning performance in which higher movement rate and higher variability were associated with slower buttoning times. No significant associations between any of the repetitive finger movement outcome measures and Purdue pegboard assembly performance were revealed. CONCLUSION: Changes in movement amplitude and movement rate may influence fine-motor dexterity tasks differently. Thus, it is important to consider the quantitative assessment of both movement rate and movement amplitude because they may indicate differential clinical applications in the treatment of people with PD.


Assuntos
Dedos/fisiopatologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Movimento , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Projetos Piloto , Desempenho Psicomotor
15.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1122-1131, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31133689

RESUMO

A remarkable feature of motor control is the ability to coordinate movements across distinct body parts into a consistent, skilled action. To reach and grasp an object, 'gross' arm and 'fine' dexterous movements must be coordinated as a single action. How the nervous system achieves this coordination is currently unknown. One possibility is that, with training, gross and fine movements are co-optimized to produce a coordinated action; alternatively, gross and fine movements may be modularly refined to function together. To address this question, we recorded neural activity in the primary motor cortex and dorsolateral striatum during reach-to-grasp skill learning in rats. During learning, the refinement of fine and gross movements was behaviorally and neurally dissociable. Furthermore, inactivation of the primary motor cortex and dorsolateral striatum had distinct effects on skilled fine and gross movements. Our results indicate that skilled movement coordination is achieved through emergent modular neural control.


Assuntos
Corpo Estriado/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Animais , Condicionamento Operante , Corpo Estriado/efeitos dos fármacos , Membro Anterior/fisiologia , Trombose Intracraniana/fisiopatologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Muscimol/farmacologia , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Ratos , Reforço (Psicologia)
16.
Nurse Educ Today ; 79: 25-31, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A game-based virtual reality phone application is used as a simulation to teach psychomotor skills in nursing education. OBJECTIVE: This study aims at determining the effect of a game-based virtual reality phone application on tracheostomy care education for nursing students. DESIGN: Single-blind randomized controlled trial conducted from March-April 2017. SETTING: Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Central Anatolia of Turkey. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 86 first-year nursing students registered in Fundamentals of Nursing-II were included in this study. The students were divided at random into two groups, control (n = 43) and experimental (n = 43). METHOD: The data were collected with an informative features form, a tracheostomy care knowledge test and skill checklists, and a performance assessment form. The control group commenced the study first so that the students did not affect each other. After the students completed the theoretical class, laboratory class, and small group study, they had their knowledge test and skills evaluation. The application featured tracheostomy care and was designed in support of formal education. It was uploaded to the mobile phones of the experimental group at a different phase of the study from the control group. After the experimental group made use of this application for seven days, their last knowledge test and skills evaluation were conducted. RESULTS: The results of this study determined that the suctioning a tracheostomy tube and peristomal skin care average final test scores of the students in the experiment group were higher than the average scores of the students in the control group; this was statistically significant (p = 0.017, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: The game-based virtual reality phone application was effective in teaching the skill of suctioning a tracheostomy tube for nursing students in the short term, and it is recommended that this application be used in psychomotor skill training.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Aplicativos Móveis , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Traqueostomia/enfermagem , Realidade Virtual , Competência Clínica , Educação em Enfermagem , Avaliação Educacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Desempenho Psicomotor , Método Simples-Cego , Turquia
17.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 197: 10-15, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048105

RESUMO

Previous research suggests that people tend to underestimate risks that are under their control. It is however unclear which processes underlie the control-risk relation. The present research investigated the feeling of causal control known as agency as a predictor of risk-perception and risk-taking. In two studies, participants performed a risk-taking task in which their actions either caused immediate or delayed outcomes - a validated manipulation of agency. Results show that when outcomes were shown immediately rather than delayed, and respectively, when agency was high rather than low, participants reported a higher ability to control risks (Study 1). Furthermore, they were also more inclined to take risks (Study 2). The present research, the first to apply principles that emerged from fundamental research on agency into the societally relevant domain of risk-related perception and behavior, therefore showed a clear relation between agency and risk.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Adulto , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 197: 16-22, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077994

RESUMO

The aims of the study were to initially investigate whether the perceived distance of a field hockey push pass task was influenced by manipulating task difficulty (Experiment 1), and further, expanding on the research, whether perceptual biases would translate into the execution of a corresponding push pass action (Experiment 2). Based on predictions from the two-visual systems model, we hypothesized that the action-specific perceptual biases in distance perception would not translate into the control of movement. In Experiment 1, elite field hockey players estimated the distance from targets that differed in size before making push pass actions toward the target (i.e., the smaller targets being more difficult). Results showed that participants did estimate the perceived distance of the push pass task to be larger as a function of task difficulty. We found a similar result in Experiment 2, and in addition, manipulated the required outcome of the push-pass while measuring the speed of the push-pass and found that a perceptual bias did not translate into the execution of the actual push pass task (Experiment 2). In line with the action-specific account of perception, a perceptual bias arose that may assist in making adaptive action choices. However, consistent with the two-visual systems model, this perceptual bias did not affect subsequent control of movement, preventing it from becoming maladaptive. Implications for talent identification and development are briefly discussed.


Assuntos
Percepção de Distância/fisiologia , Hóquei/fisiologia , Hóquei/psicologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adolescente , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 197: 106-114, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132570

RESUMO

Vigilance, or sustained attention, is the ability to maintain attention for prolonged periods of time. Interestingly, to date, few studies on vigilance have focused on the role of state motivation in sustaining attention. To address this disparity in the literature, the present study examined the effect of two types of state motivation on vigilance performance across task types (cognitive or sensory) and across the number of displays (one, two, or four). A sample of 105 participants completed a 24-min overload or underload vigilance task in a research laboratory. Participants were randomly assigned to either a cognitive or sensory vigilance task, and were randomly assigned to monitor one, two, or four displays for target stimuli. The results indicated that intrinsic state motivation predicted correct detection performance and state success motivation predicted sensitivity, but not false alarm performance, response bias, or global workload. We conclude with a discussion of the theoretical and practical applications of this research.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
20.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 4032428, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049134

RESUMO

Tolfenamic acid is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with neuroprotective properties, and it alleviates learning and memory deficits in the APP transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. However, whether tolfenamic acid can prevent motor and memory dysfunction in transgenic animal models of Huntington's disease (HD) remains unclear. To this end, tolfenamic acid was orally administered to transgenic R6/1 mice from 10 to 20 weeks of age, followed by several behavioral tests to evaluate motor and memory function. Tolfenamic acid improved motor coordination in R6/1 mice as tested by rotarod, grip strength, and locomotor behavior tests and attenuated memory dysfunction as analyzed using the novel object recognition test and passive avoidance test. Tolfenamic acid decreased the expression of mutant huntingtin in the striatum of 20-week-old R6/1 mice by inhibiting specificity protein 1 expression and enhancing autophagic function. Furthermore, tolfenamic acid exhibited antioxidant effects in both R6/1 mice and PC12 cell models. Collectively, these results suggest that tolfenamic acid has a good therapeutic effect on R6/1 mice, and may be a potentially useful agent in the treatment of HD.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Huntington , Transtornos da Memória , Desempenho Psicomotor/efeitos dos fármacos , ortoaminobenzoatos/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteína Huntingtina/genética , Proteína Huntingtina/metabolismo , Doença de Huntington/genética , Doença de Huntington/metabolismo , Doença de Huntington/patologia , Doença de Huntington/prevenção & controle , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos da Memória/genética , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória/patologia , Transtornos da Memória/prevenção & controle , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , Células PC12 , Ratos
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