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2.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In epidemiologic studies, standardised measurement of socio-demographic and employment-related factors is becoming increasingly important, as variables such as gender, age, education or employment status are factors influencing health and disease risks. AIMS: The article gives an overview of the scientific background and assessment of socio-demographic factors in the German National Cohort Study. In addition, the distribution of individual characteristics in the cohort as well as relationships with health-related measures are presented by way of example. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The analysis is based on the data of the first half of the baseline survey (n = 101,724). On this basis, we present the distribution of key socio-demographic characteristics and analyse relationships with exemplary selected health indicators (body mass index, self-reported health) to assess the validity of socio-demographic data measurements. RESULTS: On average, study participants were 52.0 years old (SD = 12.4). Of the participants, 53.6% were women, 54.3% had high education, 60.1% were married and 72% were employed while 3.4% were unemployed. Well-established correlations between socio-demographic factors and health could be reproduced with the German National Cohort data. For example, low education, old age and unemployment were associated with an increased prevalence of obesity and poor self-reported health. DISCUSSION: The German National Cohort provides a comprehensive measurement of socio-demographic characteristics. Combined with a wide range of health data and the longitudinal measurements available in the future, this opens up new opportunities for health science and social epidemiological research in Germany.


Assuntos
Emprego , Nível de Saúde , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Desemprego
3.
Gesundheitswesen ; 82(2): 148-150, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273937

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to analyze associations between utilization of gynaecological cancer screening (GCS) and the number of months during which state unemployment benefits (Social Security Code II) were drawn by women aged 20 to 35 years. The sample included 223 women with complete interview data (participation rate: 69%). The findings show that more women drawing unemployment benefits for a short-term (<12 months) utilized GCS compared to those receiving long-term benefits (>36 months).


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos , Previdência Social , Adulto , Feminino , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/diagnóstico , Alemanha , Humanos , Desemprego , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 29(1): e22-e28, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A proximal humeral fracture is well established as a fracture of fragility in elderly patients. However, this injury does not receive the same emphasis on post-injury management as a femoral neck fracture. The objectives of this study were to establish the influence of sustaining a proximal humeral fracture on mortality and to identify the variables predictive of 5-year mortality. METHODS: Between January 2007 and January 2011, 288 consecutive patients who were admitted after sustaining a proximal humeral fracture were identified from the clinical coding department. Data were retrospectively collected and included patient demographic characteristics, comorbidities, anemia, physical and social independence, length of inpatient stay, management, and mortality. RESULTS: Of the patients, 13 (4.5%) had died at 1 month; 28 (9.7%), at 3 months; 46 (16.0%), at 1 year; and 117 (40.6%), at 5 years. A Cox proportional hazards regression identified male sex, comorbidities, unemployment or retirement, and nonoperative management as independent predictors of 5-year mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly patients who require admission after sustaining a proximal humeral fracture are frail and subject to a greater-than-average risk of mortality for their age. The risk of mortality is greater for those of male sex who have comorbidities and a loss of physical and social independence.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Fraturas do Ombro/mortalidade , Fraturas do Ombro/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Tratamento Conservador/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Fragilidade/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Aposentadoria/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fraturas do Ombro/complicações , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1555, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research shows that parental unemployment is associated with low life satisfaction in adolescents. It is unclear whether this translates to an association between national unemployment and adolescent life satisfaction, and whether such a contextual association is entirely explained by parental unemployment, or if it changes as a function thereof. For adults, associations have been shown between unemployment and mental health, including that national unemployment can affect mental health and life satisfaction of both the employed and the unemployed, but to different degrees. The aim of this paper is to analyse how national unemployment levels are related to adolescent life satisfaction, across countries as well as over time within a country, and to what extent and in what ways such an association depends on whether the individual's own parents are unemployed or not. METHODS: Repeated cross-sectional data on adolescents' (aged 11, 13 and 15 years, n = 386,402) life satisfaction and parental unemployment were collected in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, in 27 countries and 74 country-years, across 2001/02, 2005/06 and 2009/10 survey cycles. We linked this data to national harmonised unemployment rates provided by OECD and tested their associations using multilevel linear regression, including interaction terms between national and parental unemployment. RESULTS: Higher national unemployment rates were related to lower adolescent life satisfaction, cross-sectionally between countries but not over time within countries. The verified association was significant for adolescents with and without unemployed parents, but stronger so in adolescents with unemployed fathers or both parents unemployed. Having an unemployed father, mother och both parents was in itself related to lower life satisfaction. CONCLUSION: Living in a country with higher national unemployment seems to be related to lower adolescent life satisfaction, whether parents are unemployed or not, although stronger among adolescents where the father or both parents are unemployed. However, variation in unemployment over the years did not show an association with adolescent life satisfaction.


Assuntos
Pais , Satisfação Pessoal , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , América do Norte , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1418, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early exit from paid employment is a notable public health and societal challenge. Previous research has largely focused on the relationships among variables instead of the relationships among individuals with different work participation history. Person-oriented methods enable to identify latent groups of individuals who are likely to follow similar development in their work participation over time. We thus aimed to identify work participation trajectories during early and midlife careers and their social determinants using large nationally representative data comprising over 1 million initially employed individuals and a 10-year follow-up for their work participation. A further aim was to determine the cumulative incidence of sickness absence due to key diagnostic groups, mental disorders and musculoskeletal diseases within the trajectories. METHODS: Young (25-38 years at baseline, n = 495,663) and midlife (39-52 years at baseline, n = 603,085) Finnish people, all working in 2004, were followed up through 2013, with registers of the Social Insurance Institution, and the Statistics Finland. The registers provided data for work participation and its determinants, as well as for computing the cumulative incidence of sickness absence. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify trajectories. RESULTS: Three distinctive trajectories were identified: temporary exit, permanent exit, and continuously employed people. As compared to the other trajectories, those belonging to the permanent exit trajectory were more likely men, manual workers and had a lower income. The cumulative incidence of sickness absence due to mental disorders was highest in the permanent exit trajectory group. For musculoskeletal diseases, the cumulative incidence of sickness absence increased in the permanent exit trajectory mainly in the older age groups. CONCLUSION: Distinct group-based trajectories of early work exit can be identified in a representative cohort of initially employed people. Focusing on the determinants of premature exit and early intervention to tackle increasing sickness absence may promote work participation particularly in the most vulnerable groups.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Emprego , Renda , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Ocupações , Licença Médica , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635154

RESUMO

This study examined the associations between area-level unemployment rates and lower back pain using large-scale data provided by the Japanese working population. We analyzed data from a nationally representative, repeated, cross-sectional study across three waves from 2010, 2013, and 2016 in 47 Japanese subnational level areas. Workers aged 18-64 years (n = 962,586) were eligible to participate in the study. A multilevel logistic model was used to examine the association between the unemployment rate and lower back pain. The self-report of lower back pain was a dependent variable. The prefecture-level unemployment rate was analyzed as an independent variable, adjusted for individual-level covariates (e.g., gender, age, socioeconomic status). After adjusting for all covariates, the main effect of the prefecture-level unemployment rate was statistically significant: the odds ratio (OR) (95% credible interval (CrI)) was 1.01 (1.002, 1.03). Additionally, the OR (95% CrI) for the interaction between gender and the prefecture-level unemployment rate was 1.02 (1.01, 1.03) indicating that women were more affected by area-level employment status than men. In conclusion, a significant association between the unemployment rate and lower back pain was observed in the Japanese working population. Women were more sensitive to the unemployment rate.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar/epidemiologia , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 907, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to examine nutrient intakes of tuberculosis (TB) patients and to identify their associated factors. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 300 adult TB patients were surveyed in two impoverished counties in China. Nutrient intakes were evaluated through two consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and compared with the Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) 2013. The potential socio-demographic and behavioral factors were analyzed using multivariate logistic model to identify strong influential factors. RESULTS: We found that mean daily energy intake was 1655.0 kcal (SD: 619.3 kcal) and 1360.3 kcal (SD: 552.1 kcal) for male and female patients, respectively. The mean daily energy intake was significantly lower than that has been recommended by DRI (i.e., 2250 and 1800 kcal for males and females, respectively), with 87.4% of the male patients and 59.9% of female patients failed to consume adequate energy. The protein intakes were 44.6 g (SD: 18.2 g) and 35.9 g (SD: 12.3 g) for male and female patients, respectively, which were lower than the recommended values by DRI (i.e., 65 and 55 g for males and females, respectively). Most male (90.8%) and female (58.4%) TB patients had insufficient daily protein intake. Further analyses suggested that mean daily intakes of many micronutrients, were insufficient, while for most of patients, intakes of vitamin E and sodium were sufficient. We identified that unemployment was a risk factor for low energy intake (p < 0.05) and out-home-eating was a protective factor for low protein intake (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In impoverished areas in China, intakes of macronutrients and most micronutrients in TB patients were inadequate compared with DRIs, especially for unemployed patients and patients eating at home. These findings suggested that public health actions are needed to promote education on TB patients about significance of nutritional support, and, further interventions in TB patients' nutritional intakes are also required.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Conscientização , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição , Micronutrientes , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Saúde Pública , Recomendações Nutricionais , Desemprego , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Public Health ; 64(9): 1313-1323, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Social policies help people to overcome various unfavourable living situations, such as unemployment, which may lead to health inequalities. The aim of this study is to examine how adults and children perceive the impact of social policies connected to unemployment on well-being in the household, and whether their views differ. METHODS: We obtained data from 123 stakeholders in Slovakia, 96 adults and 27 children aged 11-15 years. We used concept mapping, based on qualitative data collection and quantitative data analysis. RESULTS: We obtained four clusters related to: children and education; current workforce; disadvantaged groups; labour office support. Adults rated the current workforce as the most important and urgent, and children the disadvantaged groups. Contrasts were largest on the disadvantaged groups and on combining family life and working abroad which children rated as very important and urgent but adults less so. CONCLUSIONS: Stakeholders had many perceptions, which may help to improve social policies. Adults were more concerned about work, and children were more so about inequalities. In general, adults were more practical and individualistic, and children, more emphatic and idealistic.


Assuntos
Emprego/legislação & jurisprudência , Emprego/psicologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Política Pública , Desemprego/psicologia , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Eslováquia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601008

RESUMO

Background: No study to date, as far as we know, has analyzed the potential effect of neighborhood-level deprivation on autoimmune disorders (ADs), when adjusted for individual-level characteristics. Methods: A total of 5.4 million individuals from 8363 neighborhoods, comprising the whole Swedish population (ages 25-74 years), were followed for the period 1 January 2000, until admission due to diagnosis of ADs during the period of the study, or the conclusion of the study (31 December 2010). We used a neighborhood deprivation index, constructed from variables such as low education, low income, unemployment, and social welfare assistance, to assess the level of neighborhood deprivation. Multilevel logistic regression was used in the analysis with individual level characteristics at the first level and level of neighborhood deprivation at the second level. Results: A significant association between level of neighborhood deprivation and ADs was found. The crude odds were 1.32 (95% confidence interval 1.27-1.36) for those residing in the high-deprived neighborhoods compared to those living in low-deprivation neighborhoods. In the full model, where individual level characteristics were taken into account, the odds of ADs were 1.18 (1.14-1.22) in the most deprived neighborhoods. Certain Ads-angiitis hypersensitive (5.14), ankylosing spondylitis (1.66), celiac disease (1.65), Crohn's disease (1.21), diabetes mellitus type 1 (1.45), Graves's disease (1.13), Hashimoto thyroiditis (1.51), psoriasis (1.15), rheumatoid arthritis (1.15), sarcoidosis (1.20), and systemic sclerosis (1.27)-remained significantly associated with high level of neighborhood deprivation after adjustment for the individual-level variables. Conclusion: This study is the largest to date analyzing the potential influence of neighborhood deprivation on ADs. Our results indicate that neighborhood deprivation may affect risk of ADs, independent of individual level sociodemographic characteristics. For health care policies, both individual and neighborhood level approaches seem to be of importance.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Pobreza , Características de Residência , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Suécia/epidemiologia , Desemprego
11.
BMC Womens Health ; 19(1): 120, 2019 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine whether use of intrauterine device (IUD) is influenced by a history of induced abortion and the type of contraceptives used until costs are covered. METHODS: We analyzed data from 301 female residents in Mecklenburg-West Pomerania, an economically challenged community. The women, aged between 20 and 35 years, were entitled to receive unemployment benefits, and had access to free-of-charge oral contraceptives, ring or IUD. Cross-sectional data were analyzed using logistic regression. RESULTS: There were 112 (37.2%) women with a history of induced abortion, and 46 (15.3%) reported exclusively using less effective contraceptives (e.g. condoms). In a univariate logistic regression, use of an IUD was associated with a history of having had an induced abortion. Furthermore, uptake of an IUD was associated with women who had, until costs were covered, exclusively choice to use less effective contraceptives (OR = 3.281, 95% CI: 1.717; 6.273). Both associations remained significant in a multivariate model. CONCLUSIONS: Free contraceptives provided to women receiving unemployment benefits may increase the use of IUDs, especially among those with a history of an induced abortion and those using less effective contraceptives.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Contraceptivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepção/estatística & dados numéricos , Dispositivos Intrauterinos/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepção/economia , Dispositivos Anticoncepcionais Femininos/economia , Dispositivos Anticoncepcionais Femininos/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticoncepcionais Orais/economia , Anticoncepcionais Orais/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Dispositivos Intrauterinos/economia , Modelos Logísticos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Waste Manag ; 100: 278-286, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563841

RESUMO

Predicting waste disposal of a given municipality could be complicated and expensive for government agencies. Lack of a uniform modeling approach, the gap between the scientific community and the government, inaccessibility to the forecasts of variables used in the waste management literature, and budget deficiencies could all result in over-simplification and possibly employing inaccurate modeling approaches for decision makers. This paper portrays the trend of Total Solid Waste (TSW) and Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal of Philadelphia (Pennsylvania, US) with respect to the rate of population change, unemployment rate change, and the current recycling policies. The objective is to develop satisfactory predictive models for the TSW disposal using the same number of variables as currently used by the City of Philadelphia. It is crucial to include an economic factor such as unemployment rate in modeling the waste disposal, especially during economic downturns when economic factors can dominate the effects of population change on waste generation and therefore disposal. Two predictive models are developed using time series analysis and stationary multiple linear regression. The stationary multiple linear regression model yields more accurate predictions for both TSW and MSW disposal of Philadelphia with an approximate level of 8.8% Root Mean Square Percentage Error (RMSPE) and R2 of 0.7. Even the VAR model, with RMSE of 0.15 million tons (RMSPE = 10.7%), provides better estiamtions than does the City of Philadelphia's current working model.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Cidades , Philadelphia , Resíduos Sólidos , Desemprego
13.
Muscle Nerve ; 60(6): 700-706, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478207

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Labor-market participation is potentially very difficult for patients with refractory myasthenia gravis (MG). In this study, employment status and work absences are compared between refractory and nonrefractory MG. METHODS: Adults (aged 18-64 years, all diagnosed ≥2 years previously) were included if enrolled in the Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America Patient Registry during July 2013 to February 2018. RESULTS: Seventy-six patients (9.2%) had refractory and 749 (90.8%) had nonrefractory disease; demographic data did not differ between groups. Relative to the nonrefractory group, the refractory group patients were more than twice as likely to work fewer hours per week (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: currently employed, 2.777 [1.640-4.704]; employed over previous 6 months, 2.643 [1.595-4.380]), but those employed were not more likely to be absent from work. DISCUSSION: Because absence from the labor market adversely affects quality of life and personal finances, these findings reaffirm the considerable disease burden associated with refractory MG.


Assuntos
Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Miastenia Gravis/fisiopatologia , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miastenia Gravis/terapia , Falha de Tratamento , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480718

RESUMO

Annual suicide figures are critical in identifying trends and guiding research, yet challenges arising from significant lags in reporting can delay and complicate real-time interventions. In this paper, we utilized Google Trends search volumes for behavioral forecasting of national suicide rates in Ireland between 2004 and 2015. Official suicide rates are recorded by the Central Statistics Office in Ireland. While similar investigations using Google trends data have been carried out in other jurisdictions (e.g., United Kingdom, United Stated of America), such research had not yet been completed in Ireland. We compiled a collection of suicide- and depression-related search terms suggested by Google Trends and manually sourced from the literature. Monthly search rate terms at different lags were compared with suicide occurrences to determine the degree of correlation. Following two approaches based on vector autoregression and neural network autoregression, we achieved mean absolute error values between 4.14 and 9.61 when incorporating search query data, with the highest performance for the neural network approach. The application of this process to United Kingdom suicide and search query data showed similar results, supporting the benefit of Google Trends, neural network approach, and the applied search terms to forecast suicide risk increase. Overall, the combination of societal data and online behavior provide a good indication of societal risks; building on past research, our improvements led to robust models integrating search query and unemployment data for suicide risk forecasting in Ireland.


Assuntos
Depressão , Previsões , Ferramenta de Busca/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Risco , Desemprego
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394754

RESUMO

Precarious employment and unemployment are important factors that impact suicidal behavior. This study investigated (1) how employment transitions among permanent employment, precarious employment, and unemployment are associated with suicidal ideation in working employees and compared (2) whether individuals transitioning among these three states were more vulnerable than those remaining. Using nationally representative longitudinal data between 2012-2017, a total of 25,862 adults aged 25 to 59 years old without a record of suicidal ideation were included at baseline. Transitions in employment status (permanent work, precarious work, or unemployment) and suicidal ideation were analyzed using hierarchical logistic regression models. Compared to the "permanent to permanent" group, individuals in the "permanent to precarious" (odds ratio (OR) 1.74, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.29-2.35], "permanent to unemployment" (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.32-2.96), "precarious to precarious" (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.21-2.85), and the "precarious to unemployment" (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.05-1.95) groups had higher odds of suicidal ideation. The magnitude of such odds was generally higher than that of individuals at annual unemployment or precarious states. The results show that adults moving in and out of different employment states have higher odds of suicidal ideation than individuals at annually static precarious or unemployment status.


Assuntos
Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Ideação Suicida , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(10): 1062-1069, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384025

RESUMO

Advances in robotics and artificial intelligence are increasingly enabling organizations to replace humans with intelligent machines and algorithms1. Forecasts predict that, in the coming years, these new technologies will affect millions of workers in a wide range of occupations, replacing human workers in numerous tasks2,3, but potentially also in whole occupations1,4,5. Despite the intense debate about these developments in economics, sociology and other social sciences, research has not examined how people react to the technological replacement of human labour. We begin to address this gap by examining the psychology of technological replacement. Our investigation reveals that people tend to prefer workers to be replaced by other human workers (versus robots); however, paradoxically, this preference reverses when people consider the prospect of their own job loss. We further demonstrate that this preference reversal occurs because being replaced by machines, robots or software (versus other humans) is associated with reduced self-threat. In contrast, being replaced by robots is associated with a greater perceived threat to one's economic future. These findings suggest that technological replacement of human labour has unique psychological consequences that should be taken into account by policy measures (for example, appropriately tailoring support programmes for the unemployed).


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Atitude , Emprego , Ocupações , Robótica , Adulto , União Europeia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desemprego , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 65(7-8): 543-547, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unemployment and mental ill health often contribute to each other and lead to social exclusion with negative consequences for individuals and society. Yet, unemployed people with mental health problems often do not seek care. AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess predictors of help-seeking among unemployed people with mental health problems. METHODS: At baseline, 301 unemployed participants with mental health problems reported potential predictors of help-seeking in terms of mental health literacy, perceived barriers to care, self-concept as having a mental illness and current mental health service use. At 6-month follow-up, 240 participants reported whether or not they had started new mental health treatment since baseline. RESULTS: Adjusted for symptoms, sociodemographic and work-related variables, help-seeking was predicted by previous mental health service use and by fewer non-stigma-related barriers, not by stigma-related barriers. CONCLUSION: Implications for interventions to increase help-seeking among this vulnerable group are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Estigma Social , Desemprego/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Alfabetização em Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Autoeficácia
19.
Res Q Exerc Sport ; 90(4): 567-577, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403896

RESUMO

Purpose: Despite the well-known health benefits of physical activity (PA), disadvantaged populations usually have lower PA levels than the rest of the population. Some intra- and interpersonal factors such as different types of barriers to PA may influence PA levels, particularly among disadvantaged adult women. The first aim of this qualitative study was to identify the barriers to PA perceived by disadvantaged adult women. The second aim was to analyse the differences in perceived barriers to PA between adult Roma and non-Roma women. Methods: Eleven disadvantaged adult women participated in the current study (M = 37.72; SD = 8.34), seven of whom belonged to the Roma population. Data were obtained from discussion groups as well as from one-to-one interviews, and these were analysed by NVivo Pro 11. Results: Three categories of perceived barriers to PA were identified: personal (i.e., economy, labour, physical limitations, illness, and psychological characteristics) social (i.e., culture, lack of social support, and family), and environmental. Family was identified as the main common and most frequent barrier to PA in disadvantaged adult women. Differences in perceived barriers to PA between adult Roma and non-Roma women were found. While Roma women perceived culture, physical limitations, and lack of social support barriers to PA, non-Roma women mainly perceived labour-related barriers to PA. Conclusions: Multilevel interventions addressing specific barriers to PA for disadvantaged adult women are required to overcome barriers to PA and, consequently, increase PA levels. Particular attention should be paid to specific barriers to PA among adult Roma and non-Roma women, respectively.


Assuntos
Exercício/psicologia , Roma/psicologia , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Adulto , Carência Cultural , Escolaridade , Meio Ambiente , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etnologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Pobreza , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Apoio Social , Espanha/epidemiologia , Desemprego
20.
Qual Life Res ; 28(12): 3237-3247, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463726

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Trends of person-oriented indices with respect to the general population have not been adequately investigated. In Athens, two Health Surveys in 2003 and 2016 provide the opportunity to analyze HRQL in the general adult population. The objectives of this study were to investigate changes in HRQL of adults in the broader area of Athens between 2003 and 2016 and their association with certain socio-demographic determinants. METHODS: We compared participants from pre- and during-crisis cross-sectional surveys. We used data from 982 and 1060 adult residents of Athens from 2003 and 2016 surveys, respectively. Income-related missing data were treated using three alternative methods. Subscale and summary component SF-36 scores were compared with Mann-Whitney tests and linear regression analyses were used to estimate the effect of demographic and socio-economic variables on HRQL before and after the onset of crisis. RESULTS: The analysis was based on the results of the procedure of handling missing income data as a separate income group and showed that physical component summary score (PCS) has improved and Mental Component Summary score has deteriorated. The most important predictors of HRQL were being widowed and during the crisis not being employed. Additionally, socio-demographic characteristics explained a higher proportion of variance of HRQL after the onset of crisis, especially for PCS. CONCLUSION: Decline in mental and improvement in physical HRQL were observed between 2003 and 2016. HRQL has been certainly affected by the recession, but it is difficult to estimate the exact impact of the financial crisis on HRQL.


Assuntos
Declarações Financeiras/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Desemprego/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Administração Financeira , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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