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1.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 7019078, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35694591

RESUMO

With the advent of big data, statistical accounting based on artificial intelligence can realistically reflect the dynamics of labor force and market segmentation. Therefore, based on the combination of machine learning algorithm and traditional statistical data under big data, a prediction model of unemployment in labor force based on the combination of time series model and neural network model is built. According to the theoretical parameters, the algorithm of the two-weight neural network is proposed, and the unemployment rate in labor force is predicted according to the weight combination of the two. The outcomes show that the fitting effect based on the combined model is superior to that of the single model and the traditional BP neural network model; at the same time, the prediction results with total unemployment and unemployment rate as evaluation indexes are excellent. The model can offer new ideas for assisting to solve the unemployment of the labor force in China.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Desemprego , Demografia , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Redes Neurais de Computação , Dinâmica Populacional , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682391

RESUMO

Previous research suggests that volunteering can mitigate the negative mental health impacts of unemployment but has yielded mixed results. This study extends the previous literature by examining whether volunteering can buffer the negative impacts of both unemployment and economic inactivity on mental health. Using nationally representative panel data from the United Kingdom Longitudinal Household Study (2010-2020) and fixed effects models, this study yields three important findings: First, volunteering cannot mitigate the adverse effects of unemployment, regardless of gender. Second, frequent volunteering (at least once per month) can benefit the mental health of economically inactive groups (e.g., family care and long-term sickness). Third, the study reveals the gendered patterns of the impacts of volunteering. Specifically, frequent volunteering can buffer the negative impacts of family care or long-term sickness for men, and the negative impacts of unpaid work for women. Overall, these findings contribute towards a more nuanced understanding of the buffering role of volunteering and its gendered patterns. Policymakers should offer more volunteering opportunities and training to these economically inactive groups to reduce their risk of mental issues.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Desemprego , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Desemprego/psicologia , Reino Unido , Voluntários/psicologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682507

RESUMO

The previous studies found that women and low-income households were more likely to experience unemployment prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there is no cohort study to examine the relationship during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this prospective cohort study is to examine the relationship between sociodemographic factors and unemployment during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan. We surveyed the socioeconomic status, personal characteristics, and occupation of recruited workers at baseline (22-25 December 2020); subsequent unemployment was examined at follow-up (18-19 February 2021). We determined the odds ratio of unemployment by sociodemographic status and occupation. The multivariate model was adjusted for sex and age. Among the 19,941 participants, 725 (3.6%) had experienced unemployment. Multivariate analysis showed significant high unemployment amongst women and participants of younger age, bereaved or divorced, unmarried, of lower income, or with short educational background. By occupation, the unemployment rate of temporary or contract employees and self-employed is high. COVID-19 expelled socially vulnerable groups from employment. This suggests the need for employment and economic support for such individuals.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Desemprego , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
Demography ; 59(3): 827-855, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35583671

RESUMO

This study examines the sociodemographic divide in early labor market responses to the U.S. COVID-19 epidemic and associated policies, benchmarked against two previous recessions. Monthly Current Population Survey (CPS) data show greater declines in employment in April and May 2020 (relative to February) for Hispanic individuals, younger workers, and those with a high school diploma or some college. Between April and May, the demographic subgroups considered regained some employment. Reemployment in May was broadly proportional to the employment drop that occurred through April, except for Black individuals, who experienced a smaller rebound. Compared to the 2001 recession and the Great Recession, employment losses in the early COVID-19 recession were smaller for groups with low or high (vs. medium) education. We show that job loss was greater in occupations that require more interpersonal contact and that cannot be performed remotely, and that pre-COVID-19 sorting of workers into occupations and industries along demographic lines can explain a sizable portion of the demographic gaps in new unemployment. For example, while women suffered more job losses than men, their disproportionate pre-epidemic sorting into occupations compatible with remote work shielded them from even larger employment losses. However, substantial gaps in employment losses across groups cannot be explained by socioeconomic differences. We consider policy lessons and future research needs regarding the early labor market implications of the COVID-19 crisis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ocupações , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Desemprego
5.
Soc Sci Med ; 305: 115041, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35598442

RESUMO

Economic uncertainty is a driver of the business cycle. Its leading properties make it a key advanced indicator to assess the impact of socioeconomic factors on suicide for prevention purposes. This paper evaluates the effect of economic uncertainty on suicide rates worldwide. Uncertainty is gauged by a global economic policy uncertainty index. Suicide rates from 183 countries between 2000 and 2019 are matched to annual economic uncertainty, controlling for unemployment and economic growth in a fixed-effects panel model. Overall, the analysis suggests that increases in lagged economic uncertainty, as well as in unemployment and economic growth, may lead to an increased risk of suicide. When replicating the experiment for different regions of the world, the greatest impact of an increase in economic uncertainty can be found in Africa and the Middle East. Given the anticipatory nature of economic uncertainty regarding the evolution of economies, and its relationship with suicide rates, the results highlight the usefulness of uncertainty indicators as tools for the early detection of periods of increased suicide risk and the design of suicide prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Suicídio , Desemprego , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Recessão Econômica , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Incerteza
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35627402

RESUMO

The COVID-19 crisis is a global event that has created and amplified social inequalities, including an already existing and steadily increasing problem of employment and income insecurity and erosion of workplace rights, affecting workers globally. The aim of this exploratory study was to review employment-related determinants of health and health protection during the pandemic, or more specifically, to examine several links between non-standard employment, unemployment, economic, health, and safety outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden, Belgium, Spain, Canada, the United States, and Chile, based on an online survey conducted from November 2020 to June 2021. The study focused on both non-standard workers and unemployed workers and examined worker outcomes in the context of current type and duration of employment arrangements, as well as employment transitions triggered by the COVID-19 crisis. The results suggest that COVID-19-related changes in non-standard worker employment arrangements, or unemployment, are related to changes in work hours, income, and benefits, as well as the self-reported prevalence of suffering from severe to extreme anxiety or depression. The results also suggest a link between worker type, duration of employment arrangements, or unemployment, and the ability to cover regular expenses during the pandemic. Additionally, the findings indicate that the type and duration of employment arrangements are related to the provision of personal protective equipment or other COVID-19 protection measures. This study provides additional evidence that workers in non-standard employment and the unemployed have experienced numerous and complex adverse effects of the pandemic and require additional protection through tailored pandemic responses and recovery strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Desemprego , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Emprego , Humanos , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35627474

RESUMO

In a follow-up to our 2021 scoping review of the quantitative literature on the impacts of economic recessions on mental health, this scoping review summarizes qualitative research to develop a descriptive understanding of the key factors that transmute the socioeconomic stressors of a recession into poorer mental health. The previous study identified 22 qualitative studies from 2008 to 2020, which were updated with search results from six databases for articles published between 2020 and 2021. After inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to the total 335 identified studies, 13 articles were included. These were peer-reviewed, qualitative studies in developed economies, published from 2008 to 2021, and available online in English. Participants perceived that financial hardship and unemployment during recessions increased stress and led to feelings of shame, loss of structure and identity, and a perceived lack of control, which increased interpersonal conflict, social isolation, maladaptive coping, depression, self-harm, and suicidal behavior. Participants struggled with accessing health and social services and suggested reforms to improve the navigation and efficiency of services and to reduce the perceived harms of austerity measures. Providers should screen for mental distress and familiarize themselves with health and social resources in their community to help patients navigate these complex systems. Policy makers should be aware of the potential protective nature of unemployment safeguards and consider other low-cost measures to bolster mental health supports and informal social networks. Research in this area was limited. Further research would be beneficial given the impacts of the ongoing COVID-19 recession.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Recessão Econômica , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Políticas , Desemprego/psicologia
8.
Geospat Health ; 17(1)2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35532021

RESUMO

This study examined the relationship between the homicide rate and diverse indicators of social disorganization in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) using datasets collected between 2008 and 2017. Due to the statistical limitations of previous homicide research, which used either cross-sectional or longitudinal methodology, this study applied the dynamic spatial panel data model to explore both the spatial and temporal aspects of homicide. The results demonstrate that the homicide rate is spatially and temporally dependent on those of neighbouring units and the time-lagged homicide rate. Moreover, this study found that divorce rate, unemployment rate, number of males in the neighbourhood and ethnic heterogeneity have a statistically significant impact on the homicide phenomenon. This study contributes to the existing literature by taking a new approach - the dynamic spatial panel data model - to investigate the homicide phenomenon in Korea. In doing so, several suggestions are made for policymakers to respond to homicide rates. Based on the social disorganization theory, these indicators have been found to impact the social network and community members' willingness to engage in social control. This study suggests that customized policies should be implemented to alleviate the level of social disorganization and promote social control over lethal violence.


Assuntos
Homicídio , Desemprego , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 870073, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570905

RESUMO

In general, being unemployed has negative implications for the individual and the mental health of the public as a collective. One way to escape this situation is to search for a job. However, following self-determination theory (SDT), unemployed people's different reasons (i.e., their motivation) for engaging in a job search influence their well-being, attitudes, and behaviors for better or worse. Some research has already supported the associations between different types of motivation and these outcomes, but less is known about how these types of motivation simultaneously associate with these outcomes. The current study addressed this issue by studying how different motivational profiles had different implications for the affective experiences, commitment to employment, and job search behavior of the unemployed. Latent profile analysis, among 865 unemployed individuals from previously disadvantaged communities in South Africa, highlighted four distinct motivational profiles: motivated, ambivalent, amotivated, and unmotivated. The motivated reported some good well-being (i.e., positive experiences) and economic outcomes (i.e., employment commitment and job search), but these came at a cost (i.e., more negative experiences). The same went for the ambivalent, but to a lesser extent. Being unmotivated seemed to have the opposite effect in that it came with psychological benefits, but with economic costs, as these individuals might withdraw from the labor market. This also applied to the amotivated, although they experienced less psychological benefit than their unmotivated counterparts. The findings made several contributions to SDT and unemployment research and could help tailor interventions and policies for particular types of unemployed people.


Assuntos
Motivação , Desemprego , Atitude , Emprego , Humanos , Autonomia Pessoal , Desemprego/psicologia
10.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1015, 2022 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35590290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study aims to investigate the association between educational qualification and early labor market exit among men and to examine the contribution of labor market marginalization measured across the working life on this association. METHOD: A register-linked cohort study was conducted including men who completed military service in 1969/70 (born between 1949 and 1951) and were alive at age 55 and not disability pension beneficiaries (n = 40 761). Information on the highest level of educational qualification and the outcome of early exit (disability pension, sickness absence, unemployment, and early old-age pension) was obtained from Swedish nationwide registers between the ages of 55 and 64 years. Labor market marginalization was defined as periods of long-term unemployment and sickness absence over the working life and up to follow-up. Cox regression analyses were used to obtain hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Low-educated men were more likely to leave the labor force early due to disability pension or sickness absence (HR: 2.48), unemployment (HR: 2.09), and early old-age pension with- (HR:1.25) and without -income (HR: 1.58). Labor market marginalization across the working life explained a large part of the association for the more involuntary early exit routes (disability pensions, sickness absence, unemployment) and explained very little with regards to the more voluntary early exit routes (early old-age pension with and without income). CONCLUSION: Exposure to labor market marginalization across the working life was important in explaining educational differences in early labor market exit due to disability pension or sickness absence and unemployment. This study underscores the importance of identifying and implementing preventive measures in the workplace (e.g. adaptions) to prevent new spells of sickness absence and unemployment, especially among low educated individuals.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Pensões , Estudos de Coortes , Emprego , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações , Licença Médica , Suécia/epidemiologia , Desemprego
12.
Work ; 72(1): 211-220, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35431202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The negative consequences of job loss on financial and psychological quality of life have been well documented. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the level of unemployed individuals' embitterment and the mechanism by which negative life experiences increase embitterment by lowering the belief in a just world (BJW). METHODS: A survey was administered to 1,074 unemployed Korean adults who visited a regional Center for Employment and Welfare. Question items included the Korean version of posttraumatic embitterment disorder (PTED) self-rating scale, the BJW (personal and general) scale, negative life events, and sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: Only 45.9% of the participants were categorized as being in a 'normal state,' indicating that many of the unemployed were emotionally embittered. There was a positive direct effect of an increase in negative life events on embitterment. Negative life events also significantly and indirectly affected embitterment through personal BJW. CONCLUSIONS: Embitterment was prevalent among the unemployed participants and embitterment was a reactive emotion following personal downgrading, not so much related to conditions in the world at large. Thus, we recommend developing a screening program to detect extreme embitterment and an interventional program to help people better cope with emotional stress due to job loss. Efforts should be made to restore their violated expectation and trust that they would be treated in a just and fair way.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adulto , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desemprego
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6670, 2022 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35461341

RESUMO

Unemployment is associated with a variety of adverse health-related outcomes, yet little data on primary care services for this risk group exist. Using data from two surveys, we analyzed the frequency of GP contacts and patients' experiences with GPs comparing unemployed with employed individuals. Data of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1), a nationwide cross-sectional study (n = 8151), were analyzed regarding associations between employment status and the number of GP visits. The General Practice Care-1 study (GPCare-1), a cross-sectional questionnaire survey (n = 813), evaluated patients' communication with their GP. Data were collected from June to August 2020 in 12 teaching practices affiliated with our university. The statistical analysis included individuals of working age (18-64 years old) (DEGS1 n = 5659, GPCare-1 n = 587). In both studies, working age subpopulations were analyzed (DEGS1: n = 5659 of 8151, GPCare-1: n = 587 of 813). In DEGS1, the prevalence of unemployment was 6.5% (n = 372). Unemployed individuals had more GP contacts in the last 12 months (4.50 vs. 2.86, p < 0.001). In the GPCare-1 study, unemployed individuals (6.6%, n = 39) were significantly less satisfied with GP communication: enough space in consultations (42.9% vs. 60.3%, p = 0.043), feeling comfortable to address sensitive topics (44.1% vs. 65.9%, p = 0.010), problems taken very seriously by GP (48.6% vs. 70.6%, p = 0.007). Yet, they were more willing to accept GPs' help for psychosocial burdens (67.6% vs. 47.6%, p = 0.024). GPs should be aware that patients with unemployment wish more support to cope with their burdening situation.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral , Desemprego , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(4): e226815, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35476068

RESUMO

Importance: Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at greater risk for unemployment. Pharmacological treatment is effective in reducing the core symptoms of ADHD, but whether it helps to reduce the unemployment rate among adult patients remains unclear. Objective: To investigate the association between use of ADHD medication and long-term unemployment in working-age adults with ADHD. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data for this population-based cohort study were extracted from Swedish national registers. Among 25 358 individuals with ADHD born from 1958 to 1978, 12 875 middle-aged adults among the workforce were included. The longitudinal cohort was followed up from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2013. Data were analyzed from March 1, 2020, through May 31, 2021. Exposures: Use of medication for ADHD during the previous 2 years was the main exposure, as both categorical and continuous variables. Main Outcomes and Measures: Yearly accumulated unemployed days were derived from the Public Employment Service, and long-term unemployment was defined as 90 or more days of unemployment per year. Overall and sex-specific relative risks (RRs) with 95% CIs were estimated using generalized estimating equations. Results: Among 12 875 individuals with ADHD (5343 women [41.50%] and 7532 men [58.50%]; mean [SD] age, 37.9 [5.6] years), the use of ADHD medications during the previous 2 years was associated with a 10% lower risk of long-term unemployment in the following year (adjusted RR, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.87-0.95]). An association between use of ADHD medications and long-term unemployment was found among women (RR, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.76-0.89]) but not men (RR, 0.96 [95% CI, 0.91-1.01]). Longer treatment duration was associated with a lower risk of subsequent long-term unemployment among women (RR for use of 1-6 months, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.78-0.95]; RR for use of 18-24 months, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.58-0.90]; P < .001 for trend). Within-individual comparisons showed that the long-term unemployment rate was lower during periods of ADHD medication treatment compared with nontreatment periods (RR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.85-0.94). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort study suggest that the use of ADHD medication is associated with a lower risk of subsequent long-term unemployment for middle-aged women. These findings should be considered together with the existing knowledge of risks and benefits of ADHD medication when developing treatment plans for working-age adults.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia , Desemprego
15.
Reprod Health ; 19(1): 94, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35428313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Promoting exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is a major child survival strategy in developing countries like Ethiopia. Studies in EBF are found in a fragmented and inconclusive way in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine evidences on the effect of post natal care counseling and maternal employment status on exclusive breastfeeding practice of women in Ethiopia. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted from PubMed (contains MEDLINE), CINAHL (EBSCO), Global Health, Food Science and Technology Abstracts (FSTA) (EBSCO) and Grey literature sources such as Google and Google scholar. All primary studies on the effects of employment status and/or post-natal care utilization on EBF practices of women in Ethiopia were included. Data analyses were performed using STATA software. Forest plot, I2 test and the Cochrane Q statistics were used to detect heterogeneity among studies. Heterogeneity was considered significant when the I2 value was ≥ 50%, with p-value < 0.05. Publication bias was checked by looking the asymmetry of funnel and confirmed by Egger's regression test at a 5% significant level. The pooled odds ratio (POR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to report the measures of associations. RESULT: A total of 622 studies were identified in the initial search of which 42 articles were included this systematic review and meta-analysis. A meta-analysis of 24 studies indicated that maternal employment status was significantly associated (POR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.16, 0.86) EBF practice in that employed mother were less likely to practice to practice EBF. Post-natal care service utilization significantly increases (POR = 1.76, 95% CI 1.32, 2.34) the EBF practice in Ethiopia and it was computed using 25 eligible articles. Besides, the pooled estimates of EBF practice was found to be 62.58% (95% CI 56.98, 68.19, I2 = 96.4%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This review found that post-natal care service utilization and maternal employment status has a significant effect on EBF practice. The findings from this review may be used to inform for better supportive and promotive strategies for EBF practice in Ethiopia.


Promotion of EBF in developing countries including Ethiopia is very crucial strategy to improve the survival of children. Despite this, several factors prohibit women from practicing EBF of which post-natal care service utilization and employment status are the main determinants. The previous studies in Ethiopia are inconsistent and inconclusive to policy makers. Thus, this systematic review and meta-analysis underpinned the effects post-natal care service and maternal employment status on the EBF practice of women in Ethiopia. The findings of this study will be vital to forward recommendations on the duration of maternal leave and design promotion strategies of post-natal care, the most unaddressed maternal health care service in Ethiopia. The original studies were retrieved systematically from reputable databases and grey literature sources. The data were extracted using standardized data extraction sheet. Analyses were performed using STATA software. Fixed and random effect models were utilized to compute pooled estimates. Heterogeneities were computed and the sources of heterogeneities were explained. In the current study, the pooled prevalence of EBF was 62.6%. Likewise, post-natal care service utilization and employment status were found to have significant association with the EBF practice. Unemployed women had a better EBF practice as compared to the employed ones. This could be due to the fact that most employed women in Ethiopia are governmental employees where the maximum duration of maternal leave is four months after birth. This is before the due date of commencement of complementary feeding. Post-natal care should also be promoted to improve the EBF practice.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Desemprego , Criança , Emprego , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Mães
16.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0265888, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442951

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the unemployment rate in the United States peaked at 14.8% in April 2020. We examined patterns in unemployment following this peak in counties with rapid increases in COVID-19 incidence. METHOD: We used CDC aggregate county data to identify counties with rapid increases in COVID-19 incidence (rapid riser counties) during July 1-October 31, 2020. We used a linear regression model with fixed effect to calculate the change of unemployment rate difference in these counties, stratified by the county's social vulnerability (an indicator compiled by CDC) in the two months before the rapid riser index month compared to the index month plus one month after the index month. RESULTS: Among the 585 (19% of U.S. counties) rapid riser counties identified, the unemployment rate gap between the most and least socially vulnerable counties widened by 0.40 percentage point (p<0.01) after experiencing a rapid rise in COVID-19 incidence. Driving the gap were counties with lower socioeconomic status, with a higher percentage of people in racial and ethnic minority groups, and with limited English proficiency. CONCLUSION: The widened unemployment gap after COVID-19 incidence rapid rise between the most and least socially vulnerable counties suggests that it may take longer for socially and economically disadvantaged communities to recover. Loss of income and benefits due to unemployment could hinder behaviors that prevent spread of COVID-19 (e.g., seeking healthcare) and could impede response efforts including testing and vaccination. Addressing the social needs within these vulnerable communities could help support public health response measures.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Grupos Minoritários , Pandemias , Vulnerabilidade Social , Desemprego , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
BMC Prim Care ; 23(1): 89, 2022 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of unemployment on health is well studied. However, information on associations of unemployment, migration background and general practitioner-patient communication is scarce. METHODS: Data from the representative German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) of individuals in working age (n = 5938) were analysed stratified by unemployment and migration background. Using official weighting factors, the prevalence of chronic stress, having ≥1 chronic disease, having a GP and GP visits in the last 12 months was determined. Multivariate regression models were analysed for associations between unemployment, migration background, and other socio-demographic characteristics with GP visits and chronic stress. Data from the General Practice Care-1 (GPCare-1) study (n = 813 patients) were analysed for differences in patient-physician communication between unemployed with and without migration background. Reverse proportional odds models were estimated for associations of unemployment and migration background with physician-patient communication. RESULTS: In the DEGS1, 21.5% had experienced unemployment (n = 1170). Of these, 31.6% had a migration background (n = 248). Compared to unemployed natives, unemployed with migration background had higher chronic stress (mean: 14.32 vs. 13.13, p = 0.02), while the prevalence of chronic disease was lower (21.7% vs. 30.2%, p = 0.03). They were less likely to have a GP (83.6% vs. 90%, p = 0.02), while GP visits were similar (mean: 3.7 vs. 3.3, p = 0.26). Migration background and unemployment experience were not associated with GP visits, while both factors were significantly associated with higher chronic stress (both: p < 0.01). In GPCare-1, 28.8% had ever experienced unemployment (n = 215). Of these, 60 had a migration background (28.6%). The unemployed with migration background reported less frequently that the GP gives them enough space to describe personal strains (46.5% vs. 58.2%; p = 0.03), and that their problems are taken very seriously by their GP (50.8% vs. 73.8%; p = 0.04). In multivariate analyses, migration background showed a lower probability of having enough space to describe personal strains and feeling that problems were taken very seriously. CONCLUSION: Unemployment experience and migration background were associated with higher chronic stress. Only migration background was associated with less satisfaction regarding physician-patient communication.


Assuntos
Migrantes , Desemprego , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Comunicação , Humanos , Satisfação Pessoal
18.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 657, 2022 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35382786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Successful transitions from unemployment to employment are an important concern, yet little is known about health-related selection into employment. We assessed the association of various physical and psychiatric conditions with finding employment, and employment stability. METHODS: Using total population register data, we followed Finnish residents aged 30-60 with an unemployment spell during 2009-2018 (n = 814,085) for two years from the onset of unemployment. We predicted any, stable, and unstable employment by health status using Cox proportional hazards models. The data on specialized health care and prescription reimbursement were used to identify any alcohol-related conditions and poisonings, psychiatric conditions and self-harm, injuries, and physical conditions. We further separated physical conditions into cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and neurological conditions, and psychiatric conditions into depression, anxiety disorders and substance use disorders. RESULTS: The likelihood of any employment was lower among those who had any of the assessed health conditions. It was lowest among those with alcohol-related or psychiatric conditions with an age-adjusted hazard ratio of 0.45 (95% confidence interval 0.44, 0.46) among men and 0.39 (0.38, 0.41) among women for alcohol-related and 0.64 (0.63, 0.65) and 0.66 (0.65, 0.67) for psychiatric conditions, respectively. These results were not driven by differences in socioeconomic characteristics or comorbidities. All the included conditions were detrimental to both stable and unstable employment, however alcohol-related and psychiatric conditions were more harmful for stable than for unstable employment. CONCLUSIONS: The prospects of the unemployed finding employment are reduced by poor health, particularly alcohol-related and psychiatric conditions. These two conditions may also lead to unstable career trajectories. The selection process contributes to the health differentials between employed and unemployed people. Unemployed people with health problems may therefore need additional support to improve their chances of employment.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool , Desemprego , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Desemprego/psicologia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457716

RESUMO

The unemployment rate among newly arrived refugees in European countries is high and many experience mental health problems. This has negative consequences on integration and mental well-being. In this case series study we investigated the effect of a 30-week program that included horticulture activities, nature-based therapy, and traditional job training on job market affiliation and mental well-being. Fifty-two refugees met initial screening criteria and twenty-eight met all inclusion criteria and were enrolled. The program took place in a small community and consisted of informal therapeutic conversations, exercises aimed at reducing psychological stress, increasing mental awareness and physical wellbeing. At the end of the program traditional job market activities were led by social workers. Provisionary psychiatric interviews showed that at baseline 79% met criteria for either an anxiety, depression, or PTSD diagnosis. After the program, statistical analyses revealed an increase in the one-year incidence of job market affiliation (n = 28) and an increase in mental health according to two of four questionnaire measures (nrange = 15-16). The results strengthen the hypothesis that horticulture and nature-based therapy can help refugees enter the job market. However, the small sample size emphasizes the need for methodologically stronger studies to corroborate these preliminary findings.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Dinamarca , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Ocupações , Refugiados/psicologia , Desemprego
20.
Soc Sci Res ; 104: 102668, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400384

RESUMO

With growing flexibilization in the labour market, continuous and consistent career trajectories have become less the norm, and workers facing unemployment may need to look for employment opportunities outside the occupation they are trained in. But what are their employment chances? And what are the chances of returning to the occupation they were trained in after having worked in a different occupation? Despite much research on how employers evaluate job candidates with vertical skill mismatches (e.g. over-qualification and under-qualification) and unemployment, there is little research to investigate how employers view horizontal mismatch in comparison to unemployment, and whether a combination of both generates multiplicative negative effects. Using data gathered from an employer survey experiment in Switzerland and Greece, we find that in Switzerland both unemployment and horizontal mismatch significantly reduce employment chances, but the scarring effect of horizontal mismatch is much stronger. In contrast, in Greece horizontal mismatch significantly reduces employment chances but unemployment does not. Furthermore, we found that horizontal mismatch scarring is significantly stronger in Switzerland than in Greece. These findings suggest that the scarring effects of both unemployment and horizontal mismatch vary across contexts. Further analyses show that, rather than experiencing multiplicative scarring effects, unemployment does not add further disadvantages to mismatched candidates in either country, highlighting the importance of occupational specificity of skills in labour market matching. Overall, these findings facilitate a more nuanced understanding of demand-side labour market processes, highlighting the distinct interactive effects of unemployment and horizontal mismatch across national contexts.


Assuntos
Cicatriz , Desemprego , Emprego , Humanos , Ocupações , Inquéritos e Questionários
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