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1.
Barbarói ; (58): 154-171, jan.-jun. 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1150837

RESUMO

O suicídio é considerado um problema de saúde pública pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS), mas pouco se estuda qual a ligação desse fenômeno complexo junto as expressões da questão social. Este trabalho tem como objetivo compreender a influência do capitalismo no adoecimento da classe trabalhadora e de que forma as expressões da questão social influenciam no desejo de morte do trabalhador. Tendo como resultados o entendimento de que as expressões da questão social produzidas pela sociedade capitalista têm forte influência no desejo de morte dos trabalhadores, sendo necessário além de respostas individuais, respostas coletivas de enfrentamento a essa demanda.(AU)


The World Health Organization (WHO) considers suicide to be a public health issue, but very few studies have been made the connection of this complex phenomenon with the expression of social questions. The goal of this essay if to comprehend the influence of capitalism with the sickening of the working class and in what ways does the expressions of the social questions influence the desire to die of the worker. Having as results the comprehensions that the expressions of social questions produces by capitalist society has a strong influence in the desire do die by workers, being necessary more than just individual responses, but also collective responses to cope with this demand.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Estresse Psicológico , Suicídio , Desemprego , Trabalho , Capitalismo , Saúde Pública
2.
Saudi Med J ; 42(4): 384-390, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795493

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To measure the Saudi population's sleep quality during the lockdown of COVID-19. METHODS: An internet-based questionnaire that was performed during the lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic among the Saudi population over 2 weeks from April 1 to April 15, 2020. We used the instant messaging application WhatsApp and Twitter to reach the targeted population. Saudi citizens and non-Saudi residents who can read and understand the questionnaire were recruited. Data were analyzed using Stata and SPSS. RESULTS: A total of 790 responses were included. The majority of participants were the Saudi population 735 (92.9%). The prevalence of insomnia and poor sleep quality were 54.4% and 55.5%, respectively. Saudi citizenship was associated with longer sleep duration (p=0.031). Female gender and being married were associated with worse global PSQI, sleep quality, sleep distribution, sleep latency, and daytime dysfunction. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that during the COVID-19 pandemic, the Saudi population had a high prevalence of insomnia and poor sleep quality. Routine monitoring of the psychological impact of life-threatening outbreaks and the adoption of effective early mental health actions should be considered.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Sono por Sonolência Excessiva/epidemiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Sono , Adulto , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Política Pública , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Latência do Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800434

RESUMO

The massive incorporation of Spanish women into the labor market is a phenomenon that began in the second half of the 20th century, being many the obstacles that this group has had to overcome to reach the current situation, where getting a job can be an achievement that, in many cases, does not correspond to the capacity and academic training of the worker, creating a labor and economic imbalance (the cost in training is not rewarded with the work done). In this work, the Spanish labor market was analyzed through the labor force survey (EPA) from a gender perspective, demonstrating the existing inequalities at the labor level, both of employment and unemployment rates, and of jobs where the glass ceiling is evident and of economic remuneration where the salary gap continues to be important. In addition, through an ARIMA model, the evolution of the number of Spanish working women was analyzed, and how the economic crisis of 2009 and the sanitaria have affected their employment in the various crises (COVID-19). Measures to solve the problem as well as laws and active policies in favor of the creation of female jobs and a greater awareness of empowerment on the part of the female collective are proposed.


Assuntos
Economia , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Ocupações , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Desemprego
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(15)2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766888

RESUMO

We estimate the effects of shelter-in-place (SIP) orders during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. We do not find detectable effects of these policies on disease spread or deaths. We find small but measurable effects on mobility that dissipate over time. And we find small, delayed effects on unemployment. We conduct additional analyses that separately assess the effects of expanding versus withdrawing SIP orders and test whether there are spillover effects in other states. Our results are consistent with prior studies showing that SIP orders have accounted for a relatively small share of the mobility trends and economic disruptions associated with the pandemic. We reanalyze two prior studies purporting to show that SIP orders caused large reductions in disease prevalence, and show that those results are not reliable. Our results do not imply that social distancing behavior by individuals, as distinct from SIP policy, is ineffective.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Abrigo de Emergência , /prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Abrigo de Emergência/economia , Abrigo de Emergência/tendências , Humanos , Pandemias , Políticas , Prevalência , Fatores de Tempo , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0249352, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784339

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Existing literature on how employment loss affects depression has struggled to address potential endogeneity bias caused by reverse causality. The COVID-19 pandemic offers a unique natural experiment because the source of unemployment is very likely to be exogenous to the individual. This study assessed the effect of job loss and job furlough on the mental health of individuals in South Africa during the COVID-19 pandemic. DATA AND METHODS: The data for the study came from the first and second waves of the national survey, the National Income Dynamics-Coronavirus Rapid Mobile Survey (NIDS-CRAM), conducted during May-June and July-August 2020, respectively. The sample for NIDS-CRAM was drawn from an earlier national survey, conducted in 2017, which had collected data on mental health. Questions on depressive symptoms during the lockdown were asked in Wave 2 of NIDS-CRAM, using a 2-question version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2). The PHQ-2 responses (0-6 on the discrete scale) were regrouped into four categories making the ordered logit regression model the most suited for assessing the impact of employment status on depressive symptoms. RESULTS: The study revealed that adults who retained paid employment during the COVID-19 lockdown had significantly lower depression scores than adults who lost employment. The benefits of employment also accumulated over time, underscoring the effect of unemployment duration on mental health. The analysis revealed no mental health benefits to being furloughed (on unpaid leave), but paid leave had a strong and significant positive effect on the mental health of adults. CONCLUSIONS: The economic fallout of the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in unprecedented job losses, which impaired mental wellbeing significantly. Health policy responses to the crisis therefore need to focus on both physical and mental health interventions.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desemprego/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 625778, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33718322

RESUMO

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide pandemic in 2020. In response, most countries in the world implemented lockdowns, restricting their population's movements, work, education, gatherings, and general activities in attempt to "flatten the curve" of COVID-19 cases. The public health goal of lockdowns was to save the population from COVID-19 cases and deaths, and to prevent overwhelming health care systems with COVID-19 patients. In this narrative review I explain why I changed my mind about supporting lockdowns. The initial modeling predictions induced fear and crowd-effects (i.e., groupthink). Over time, important information emerged relevant to the modeling, including the lower infection fatality rate (median 0.23%), clarification of high-risk groups (specifically, those 70 years of age and older), lower herd immunity thresholds (likely 20-40% population immunity), and the difficult exit strategies. In addition, information emerged on significant collateral damage due to the response to the pandemic, adversely affecting many millions of people with poverty, food insecurity, loneliness, unemployment, school closures, and interrupted healthcare. Raw numbers of COVID-19 cases and deaths were difficult to interpret, and may be tempered by information placing the number of COVID-19 deaths in proper context and perspective relative to background rates. Considering this information, a cost-benefit analysis of the response to COVID-19 finds that lockdowns are far more harmful to public health (at least 5-10 times so in terms of wellbeing years) than COVID-19 can be. Controversies and objections about the main points made are considered and addressed. Progress in the response to COVID-19 depends on considering the trade-offs discussed here that determine the wellbeing of populations. I close with some suggestions for moving forward, including focused protection of those truly at high risk, opening of schools, and building back better with a economy.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Saúde Pública , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , /prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Pobreza , Desemprego/tendências
8.
J Ment Health Policy Econ ; 24(1): 31-41, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unemployment is associated with a high risk of experiencing mental illness. This can lead to stigmatisation, reduced quality of life, and long-term costs like increased healthcare expenditure and productivity losses for society as a whole. Previous research indicates evidence for an association between unemployment and higher mental health service costs, but there is insufficient information available for the German healthcare system. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aims to identify costs and cost drivers for health and social service use among unemployed people with mental health problems in Germany. METHODS: A sample of 270 persons participated at baseline and six-month-follow-up. Healthcare and social service use was assessed using the Client Socio-Demographic and Service Receipt Inventory. Descriptive cost analysis was performed. Associations between costs and potential cost drivers were tested using structural equation modelling. RESULTS: Direct mean costs for 12 months range from EUR 1265.13 (somatic costs) to EUR 2206.38 (psychiatric costs) to EUR 3020.70 (total costs) per person. Path coefficients indicate direct positive effects from the latent variable mental health burden (MHB) on stigma stress, somatic symptoms, and sick leave. DISCUSSION: The hypothesis that unemployed people with mental health problems seek help for somatic symptoms rather than psychiatric symptoms was not supported. Associations between MHB and costs strongly mediated by sick leave indicate a central function of healthcare provision as being confirmation of the inability to work. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH POLICIES: Targeted interventions to ensure early help-seeking and reduce stigma remain of key importance in reducing long-term societal costs. IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: Future research should explore attitudes regarding effective treatment for the target group.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/economia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/economia , Licença Médica/economia , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Estigma Social , Desemprego/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Eur Psychiatry ; 64(1): e18, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a major threat to the public. However, the comprehensive profile of suicidal ideation among the general population has not been systematically investigated in a large sample in the age of COVID-19. METHODS: A national online cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 28, 2020 and March 11, 2020 in a representative sample of Chinese adults aged 18 years and older. Suicidal ideation was assessed using item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. The prevalence of suicidal ideation and its risk factors was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 56,679 participants (27,149 males and 29,530 females) were included. The overall prevalence of suicidal ideation was 16.4%, including 10.9% seldom, 4.1% often, and 1.4% always suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was higher in males (19.1%) and individuals aged 18-24 years (24.7%) than in females (14.0%) and those aged 45 years and older (11.9%). Suicidal ideation was more prevalent in individuals with suspected or confirmed infection (63.0%), frontline workers (19.2%), and people with pre-existing mental disorders (41.6%). Experience of quarantine, unemployed, and increased psychological stress during the pandemic were associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation and its severity. However, paying more attention to and gaining a better understanding of COVID-19-related knowledge, especially information about psychological interventions, could reduce the risk. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated prevalence of suicidal ideation among the general population in China during COVID-19 was significant. The findings will be important for improving suicide prevention strategies during COVID-19.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Quarentena/psicologia , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/psicologia , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Infez Med ; 29(1): 54-64, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664173

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore the psychological impact of the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on people living with HIV (PLWH), a population at increased risk of psychological distress. PLWH participated in an online survey exploring demographic and clinical data, physical symptoms, contact history, knowledge and concerns, precautionary measures and additional information about COVID-19 during the first phase of the pandemic in Italy. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) (identifying the COVID-19 pandemic as a specific traumatic life event) and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) also formed part of the survey. Out of 98 participants, 45% revealed from mild to severe psychological impact from COVID-19 according to IES-R. A lower percentage, instead, complained of significant levels of depression (14%), anxiety (11%) or stress (6%) according to DASS-21. Higher education, being unemployed, number of perceived COVID-19 physical symptoms, concerns about risk of contracting COVID-19 and the pandemic situation in Italy, and needing additional information to prevent COVID-19 infection were positively associated to a higher risk of negative psychological impact. Moreover, among the participants, female gender, age, fewer years from HIV diagnosis and not being aware of their own viremia were associated to a higher risk of negative psychological outcomes. Almost half of our PLWH sample experienced significant levels of distress related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Women, elderly patients and those with recent HIV diagnosis appear to be the more psychologically fragile subgroups. Our findings could help identify patients most in need of psychological interventions to improve the wellbeing of PLWH.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Pandemias , Angústia Psicológica , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , /epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Desemprego/psicologia
13.
Front Public Health ; 9: 630620, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692982

RESUMO

The outbreak of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) ineluctably caused social distancing and unemployment, which may bring additional health risks for patients with cancer. To investigate the association of the pandemic-related impacts with the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients with melanoma during the COVID-19 pandemic, we conducted a cross-sectional study among Chinese patients with melanoma. A self-administered online questionnaire was distributed to melanoma patients through social media. Demographic and clinical data, and pandemic-related impacts (unemployment and income loss) were collected. HRQoL was determined by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) and its disease-specific module (the melanoma subscale, MS). A total of 135 patients with melanoma completed the study. The mean age of the patients was 55.8 ± 14.2 years, 48.1% (65/135) were male, and 17.04% (34/135) were unemployed since the epidemic. Unemployment of the patients and their family members and income loss were significantly associated with a lower FACT-G score, while the MS score was associated with the unemployment of the patients' family members. Our findings suggested that unemployment is associated with impaired HRQoL in melanoma patients during the COVID-19 epidemic.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , /psicologia , Melanoma/economia , Melanoma/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Desemprego/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247823, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651819

RESUMO

We discuss the impact of a Covid-19-like shock on a simple model economy, described by the previously developed Mark-0 Agent-Based Model. We consider a mixed supply and demand shock, and show that depending on the shock parameters (amplitude and duration), our model economy can display V-shaped, U-shaped or W-shaped recoveries, and even an L-shaped output curve with permanent output loss. This is due to the economy getting trapped in a self-sustained "bad" state. We then discuss two policies that attempt to moderate the impact of the shock: giving easy credit to firms, and the so-called helicopter money, i.e. injecting new money into the households savings. We find that both policies are effective if strong enough. We highlight the potential danger of terminating these policies too early, although inflation is substantially increased by lax access to credit. Finally, we consider the impact of a second lockdown. While we only discuss a limited number of scenarios, our model is flexible and versatile enough to accommodate a wide variety of situations, thus serving as a useful exploratory tool for a qualitative, scenario-based understanding of post-Covid recovery. The corresponding code is available on-line.


Assuntos
Modelos Econômicos , Análise de Sistemas , /epidemiologia , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Inflação , Pandemias , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(3): 426-434, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600235

RESUMO

Federal Pandemic Unemployment Compensation (FPUC) provided unemployment insurance beneficiaries an extra $600 a week during the unprecedented economic downturn during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, but it initially expired in July 2020. We applied difference-in-differences models to nationally representative data from the Census Bureau's Household Pulse Survey to examine changes in unmet health-related social needs and mental health among unemployment insurance beneficiaries before and after initial expiration of FPUC. The initial expiration was associated with a 10.79-percentage-point increase in risk for self-reported missed housing payments. Further, risk for food insufficiency, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms also increased among households that reported receiving unemployment insurance benefits, relative to the period when FPUC was in effect. As further unemployment insurance reform is debated, policy makers should recognize the potential health impact of unemployment insurance.


Assuntos
Programas Governamentais , Seguro , Saúde Mental , Apoio Social , Desemprego , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Recessão Econômica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Am J Public Health ; 111(4): 696-699, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600244

RESUMO

Objectives. To project the range of excess deaths potentially associated with COVID-19-related unemployment in the United States and quantify inequities in these estimates by age, race/ethnicity, gender, and education.Methods. We used previously published meta-analyzed hazard ratios (HRs) for the unemployment-mortality association, unemployment data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics to estimate 1-year age-standardized deaths attributable to COVID-19-related unemployment for US workers aged 25 to 64 years. To accommodate uncertainty, we tested ranges of unemployment and HR scenarios.Results. Our best estimate is that there will be 30 231 excess deaths attributable to COVID-19-related unemployment between April 2020 and March 2021. Across scenarios, attributable deaths ranged from 8315 to 201 968. Attributable deaths were disproportionately high among Blacks, men, and those with low education.Conclusions. Deaths attributable to COVID-19-related unemployment will add to those directly associated with the virus and will disproportionately burden groups already experiencing incommensurate COVID-19 mortality.Public Health Implications. Supportive economic policies and interventions addressing long-standing harmful social structures are essential to mitigate the unequal health harms of COVID-19.


Assuntos
/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Escolaridade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2036809, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544146

RESUMO

Importance: Studying long-term changes in neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) may help to better understand the associations between neighborhood exposure and weight outcomes and provide evidence supporting neighborhood interventions. Little previous research has been done to examine associations between neighborhood SES and weight loss, a risk factor associated with poor health outcomes in the older population. Objective: To determine whether improvements in neighborhood SES are associated with reduced likelihoods of excessive weight gain and excessive weight loss and whether declines are associated with increased likelihoods of these weight outcomes. Design, Study, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted using data from the National Institutes of Health-AARP (formerly known as the American Association of Retired Persons) Diet and Health study (1995-2006). The analysis included a cohort of 126 179 adults (aged 50-71 years) whose neighborhoods at baseline (1995-1996) were the same as at follow-up (2004-2006). All analyses were performed from December 2018 through December 2020. Exposures: Living in a neighborhood that experienced 1 of 8 neighborhood SES trajectories defined based on a national neighborhood SES index created using data from the US Census and American Community Survey. The 8 trajectory groups, in which high, or H, indicated rankings at or above the sample median of a specific year and low, or L, indicated rankings below the median, were HHH (ie, high in 1990 to high in 2000 to high in 2010), or stable high; HLL, or early decline; HHL, or late decline; HLH, or transient decline; LLL, or stable low; LHH, or early improvement; LLH, or late improvement; and LHL, or transient improvement. Main Outcomes and Measures: Excessive weight gain and loss were defined as gaining or losing 10% or more of baseline weight. Results: Among 126 179 adults, 76 225 (60.4%) were men and the mean (SD) age was 62.1 (5.3) years. Improvements in neighborhood SES were associated with lower likelihoods of excessive weight gain and weight loss over follow-up, while declines in neighborhood SES were associated with higher likelihoods of excessive weight gain and weight loss. Compared with the stable low group, the risk was significantly reduced for excessive weight gain in the early improvement group (odds ratio [OR], 0.87; 95% CI, 0.79-0.95) and for excessive weight loss in the late improvement group (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80-1.00). Compared with the stable high group, the risk of excessive weight gain was significantly increased for the early decline group (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.08-1.31) and late decline group (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04-1.24) and for excessive weight loss in the early decline group (OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02-1.28). The increases in likelihood were greater when the improvement or decline in neighborhood SES occurred early in the study period (ie, 1990-2000) and was substantiated throughout the follow-up (ie, the early decline and early improvement groups). Overall, we found a linear association between changes in neighborhood SES and weight outcomes, in which every 5 percentile decline in neighborhood SES was associated with a 1.2% to 2.4% increase in the risk of excessive weight gain or loss (excessive weight gain: OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.02 for women; OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03 for men; excessive weight loss: OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03 for women; OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03 for men; P for- trend < .0001). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that changing neighborhood environment was associated with changes in weight status in older adults.


Assuntos
Trajetória do Peso do Corpo , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Classe Social , Idoso , Escolaridade , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Habitação/tendências , Humanos , Renda/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Pública/tendências , Família de Pais Solteiros , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Desemprego/tendências , Estados Unidos , Ganho de Peso , Perda de Peso
18.
J Rural Health ; 37(2): 278-286, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619746

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify the county-level effects of social determinants of health (SDoH) on COVID-19 (corona virus disease 2019) mortality rates by rural-urban residence and estimate county-level exceedance probabilities for detecting clusters. METHODS: The county-level data on COVID-19 death counts as of October 23, 2020, were obtained from the Johns Hopkins University. SDoH data were collected from the County Health Ranking and Roadmaps, the US Department of Agriculture, and the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Semiparametric negative binomial regressions with expected counts based on standardized mortality rates as offset variables were fitted using integrated Laplace approximation. Bayesian significance was assessed by 95% credible intervals (CrI) of risk ratios (RR). County-level mortality hotspots were identified by exceedance probabilities. FINDINGS: The COVID-19 mortality rates per 100,000 were 65.43 for the urban and 50.78 for the rural counties. Percent of Blacks, HIV, and diabetes rates were significantly associated with higher mortality in rural and urban counties, whereas the unemployment rate (adjusted RR = 1.479, CrI = 1.171, 1.867) and residential segregation (adjusted RR = 1.034, CrI = 1.019, 1.050) were associated with increased mortality in urban counties. Counties with a higher percentage of college or associate degrees had lower COVID-19 mortality rates. CONCLUSIONS: SDoH plays an important role in explaining differential COVID-19 mortality rates and should be considered for resource allocations and policy decisions on operational needs for businesses and schools at county levels.


Assuntos
/mortalidade , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Segregação Social , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 334, 2021 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID-19 has caused mental health problems and increased unemployment due to the economic recession. This survey aimed to assess the psychological impact of the state of emergency. We estimated changes in mental health, quality of life, and unemployment experience for general workers during the first COVID-19 outbreak in Japan. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide follow-up study. During the periods of March 26 to April 6, 2020 and June 26 to July 2, 2020, we used the internet to survey general workers aged 15 to 59 years in Japan. The questionnaire items covered employment status and socioeconomic factors, and we used the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and EQ-5D-5L to assess depression and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL), respectively. The differences in outcomes of permanent and non-permanent workers were analyzed using propensity score analysis. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between unemployment and CES-D scores. RESULTS: We included 2351 subjects in the analysis. Changes in both CES-D scores and utility were not significantly different between the two groups. However, a significant difference was found regarding the rate of unemployment, which was associated with higher CES-D scores. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that the mental health of non-permanent workers was not negatively affected following the state of emergency due to COVID-19 in Japan. Unemployment is an important factor that influences the mental health of general workers.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Desemprego/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Recessão Econômica , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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