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1.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216200, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042765

RESUMO

We evaluate a bridging intervention for a group of young people aged 18-29, with no formal educational qualifications, who are not in employment, education or training. The bridging intervention consisted of classroom training, educational internships and mentoring. Based on Danish register data with a large number of control variables, a propensity score matching estimator was applied to assess the effectiveness of the bridging intervention. The results show that the bridging intervention was effective in increasing educational enrollment and completion for all participants. The effects of the intervention were particularly large for participants assessed to be 'not ready for education' and those diagnosed with psychiatric disorders suggesting that the bridging intervention may be especially beneficial for these subgroups.


Assuntos
Educação/métodos , Desemprego/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pontuação de Propensão , Ensino/psicologia , Desemprego/tendências , Adulto Jovem
2.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 54(2): 201-208, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30421039

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the association between unemployment and suicide in Italy during the years 1990-2014, with a peculiar focus on the great recession (GR) and the role played by social protection as buffering mechanism against the negative effect on health outcomes. METHODS: Fixed effects panel regressions were used to assess the association between changes in unemployment rate and suicide rates. Additional models investigated the role of active labor market programs (ALMPs) as possible moderators of the association. Analyses were carried out for both males and females, stratified by age and region. RESULTS: The negative time-trend displayed by suicide rate in Italy until 2007 was slowed down by changes in unemployment at the beginning of the GR, when this trend reversed and the rate of suicide started increasing. Male workers aged 25-64 and women aged 55-64 years were affected by both "normal" unemployment rate fluctuations as well as severe economic crises. Women aged 35-44 were only influenced by the latter. Men benefit from ALMPs mainly in Central Italy, while women did not benefit significantly from ALMPs. CONCLUSIONS: In Italy, economic downturns were associated with increased suicides mainly among men, while severe economic crises were associated with increased suicides among both men and women. ALMPs showed to be effective in moderating the association between unemployment and suicide among men aged 45-54 only in Central Italy. The overall small effectiveness of such programs may be due to lack of sufficient funding.


Assuntos
Recessão Econômica/história , Suicídio/tendências , Desemprego/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações , Política Pública , Suicídio/psicologia , Desemprego/psicologia
3.
Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment ; 12(1): 28-36, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29174040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is published about the impact of the 2008 economic crisis on mental health services in Spain. METHOD: An interrupted time series analysis was conducted to investigate a potential short-term association between the 2008 economic crisis and the number of psychiatric hospital admissions. The timing of the intervention (April 2008) was based on observed changes in Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Data on 1,152,880 psychiatric inpatients from the national Hospital Morbidity Survey, 69 months before and after the onset of the economic crisis (April 2008), were analyzed. RESULTS: Age-adjusted psychiatric (ICD9 290-319) hospital discharge rates significantly increased from April 2008, matching the onset of the crisis, especially for inpatients aged 15-24 years old and to a less extend for inpatients aged 25-34 years old. Other age groups were not affected. There was a significant increase in diagnoses for disturbance of conduct and emotions, depression, neurotic and personality disorders and alcohol and drug disorders; however, diagnoses for mental retardation and organic psychosis for 15-34 years old inpatients were unaffected. CONCLUSIONS: Psychiatric hospital admissions abruptly increased in April 2008, coinciding with the onset of the economic crisis. We identified age groups and diagnoses affected. Increased hospitalizations were found only at the age-ranges most affected by the rise in unemployment. The diagnoses affected were those most sensitive to environmental changes.


Assuntos
Recessão Econômica , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/tendências , Transtornos Mentais/economia , Admissão do Paciente/tendências , Desemprego/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Desemprego/tendências , Adulto Jovem
4.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 195: 66-73, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592998

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prescription opioid overdose (POD) and heroin overdose (HOD) rates have quadrupled since 1999. Community-level socioeconomic characteristics are associated with opioid overdoses, but whether this varies by urbanicity is unknown. METHODS: In this serial cross-sectional study of zip codes in 17 states, 2002-2014 (n = 145,241 space-time units), we used hierarchical Bayesian Poisson space-time models to analyze the association between zip code-level socioeconomic features (poverty, unemployment, educational attainment, and income) and counts of POD or HOD hospital discharges. We tested multiplicative interactions between each socioeconomic feature and zip code urbanicity measured with Rural-Urban Commuting Area codes. RESULTS: Percent in poverty and of adults with ≤ high school education were associated with higher POD rates (Rate Ratio [RR], 5% poverty: 1.07 [95% credible interval: 1.06-1.07]; 5% low education: 1.02 [1.02-1.03]), while median household income was associated with lower rates (RR, $10,000: 0.88 [0.87-0.89]). Urbanicity modified the association between socioeconomic features and HOD. Poverty and unemployment were associated with increased HOD in metropolitan areas (RR, 5% poverty: 1.12 [1.11-1.13]; 5% unemployment: 1.04 [1.02-1.05]), and median household income was associated with decreased HOD (RR, $10,000: 0.88 [0.87-0.90]). In rural areas, low educational attainment alone was associated with HOD (RR, 5%: 1.09 [1.02-1.16]). CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of urbanicity, elevated rates of POD were found in more economically disadvantaged zip codes. Economic disadvantage played a larger role in HOD in urban than rural areas, suggesting rural HOD rates may have alternative drivers. Identifying social determinants of opioid overdoses is particularly important for creating effective population-level interventions.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , População Rural/tendências , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/tendências , Sucesso Acadêmico , Adulto , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/economia , Estudos Transversais , Overdose de Drogas/diagnóstico , Overdose de Drogas/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza/economia , Pobreza/tendências , Problemas Sociais/economia , Problemas Sociais/tendências , Desemprego/tendências , Populações Vulneráveis , Adulto Jovem
5.
Arh Hig Rada Toksikol ; 69(3): 220-225, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285945

RESUMO

Occupational diseases (ODs) often have a chronic, progressive course, resulting in reduced work capacity and quality of life, prolonged sick leaves, unemployment, early retirements, and disability claims. The aim of this retrospective study was to see how diagnosed ODs affected the employment of 95 Croatian workers between 2005 and 2014. To do that, we reviewed archived data and made a telephone survey. The lowest age at which an OD was diagnosed was 20 years in women and 22 in men, while the shortest duration of work before OD diagnosis was one year for both genders. The most common ODs were overuse syndromes on the arms, carpal tunnel syndrome in particular, diagnosed mostly in textile and office workers. Of the 95 participants, 12 lost their jobs since the OD diagnosis, 46 retired, and 37 continued to work. Significantly more participants became unemployed after OD diagnosis in the period 2010-2014 than 2005-2009 (9 out of 43, 21 %, vs. 3 out of 52, 6 %, P<0.05). Only five participants were included in an occupational rehabilitation programme. Our findings warn against the deterioration in care for workers diagnosed with OD in Croatia.


Assuntos
Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Emprego/tendências , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/tendências , Adulto , Croácia , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Cancer Surviv ; 12(5): 669-678, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30058009

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate factors associated with job loss and early retirement in men diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa) 18-42 months previously. METHODS: Men ≤ 60 years at diagnosis who completed the Life After Prostate Cancer Diagnosis (LAPCD) survey were identified. Men who moved from employment at diagnosis to unemployment (EtoU) or retirement (EtoR) at survey (18-42 months post-diagnosis) were compared to men remaining in employment (EtoE). Sociodemographic, clinical and patient-reported factors were analysed in univariable and multivariable analysis. RESULTS: There were 3218 men (81.4%) in the EtoE, 245 (6.2%) in EtoU and 450 (11.4%) in the EtoR groups. Men with stage IV disease (OR = 4.7 95% CI 3.1-7.0, relative to stage I/II) and reporting moderate/big bowel (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.6-3.9) or urinary problems (OR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.4-3.0) had greater odds of becoming unemployed. Other clinical (≥ 1 comorbidities, symptomatic at diagnosis) and sociodemographic (higher deprivation, divorced/separated), living in Scotland or Northern Ireland (NI)) factors were predictors of becoming unemployed. Men who were older, from NI, with stage IV disease and with caring responsibilities had greater odds of retiring early. Self-employed and non-white men had lesser odds of retiring early. CONCLUSION: PCa survivors who retire early following diagnosis do not report worse urinary or bowel problems compared to men remaining in employment. However, we identified clinical and sociodemographic factors which increased unemployment risk in PCa survivors. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Targeted support and engagement with PCa survivors at risk of unemployment, including their families and employers, is needed.


Assuntos
Emprego/tendências , Neoplasias da Próstata/economia , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Aposentadoria/tendências , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Desemprego/tendências , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Aposentadoria/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Int J Cardiol ; 272: 333-340, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30017513

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Socioeconomic disadvantages during childhood are hypothesised to have negative implications for health. We aimed to investigate the association between socioeconomic disadvantages and children's total metabolic syndrome (MetS) score at baseline and follow-up and the extent to which socioeconomic disadvantages over time and the accumulation of these socioeconomic disadvantages can affect children's MetS risk. METHODS: The two-year longitudinal IDEFICS study included 2401 European children (aged 2.0-9.9) with complete information of the 16,229 participating at baseline. Sociodemographic variables, psychosocial factors and lifestyle were proxy-reported via questionnaires. Socioeconomically disadvantaged groups included children from families with low income, low education, migrant origin, unemployed parents, parents who lacked a social network, and from non-traditional families. MetS risk score was calculated as the sum of z-scores of waist circumference, blood pressure, lipids and insulin resistance. Linear mixed-effects models were used to study the association between social disadvantages and MetS risk. Models were adjusted for sex, age, well-being and lifestyle (fruit and vegetables consumption, physical activity, screen time). RESULTS: At both time points, children from low-income families (0.20 [0.03-0.37]); (ß estimate and 99% confidence interval), children from non-traditional families (0.14 [0.02-0.26]), children whose parents were unemployed (0.31 [0.05-0.57]) and children who accumulated >3 disadvantages (0.21 [0.04-0.37]) showed a higher MetS score compared to non-socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. CONCLUSION: Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families are at high metabolic risk independently of diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviours and well-being. Interventions focusing on these socioeconomically disadvantaged groups should be developed to tackle health disparities.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Estilo de Vida , Síndrome Metabólica/economia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Populações Vulneráveis , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Desemprego/tendências
8.
Eur Psychiatry ; 52: 104-112, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29777938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Restriction of access to suicide methods has been shown to effectively reduce suicide mortality rates. AIMS: To examine how the global economic crisis of 2008 and the firearm legislation reform of 1997 affected suicide and homicide mortality rate within Austria. METHODS: Official data for the years 1985-2016 for firearm certificates, suicide, homicide, unemployment rates and alcohol consumption were examined using auto regressive error and Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Firearm certificates, total suicide mortality rate, suicide and homicides by firearms, and the fraction of firearm suicides/homicides among all suicides/homicides decreased after the firearm legislation reform in 1997. However, significant trend changes can be observed after 2008. The availability of firearm certificates significantly increased and was accompanied by significant changes in trends of firearm suicide and homicide rates. Concurrently, the total suicide mortality rate in 2008, for the first time since 1985, stopped its decreasing trend. While the total homicide rate further decreased, the fraction of firearm homicides among all homicides significantly increased. CONCLUSION: The initially preventative effect of the firearm legislation reform in Austria in 1997 seems to have been counteracted by the global economic downturn of 2008. Increased firearm availability was associated with corresponding increases in both firearm suicide and firearm homicide mortality. Restrictive firearm legislation should be an imperative part of a country's suicide prevention programme. Although firearm legislation reform may have long-lasting effects, societal changes may facilitate compensatory firearm acquisitions and thus counteract preventive efforts, calling in turn again for adapted counter-measures.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte/tendências , Recessão Econômica , Armas de Fogo/legislação & jurisprudência , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Áustria , Recessão Econômica/tendências , Feminino , Armas de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Homicídio/tendências , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Suicídio/tendências , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/tendências , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/mortalidade
10.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 13(2): 265-273, 2018 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29348264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with ESRD face significant challenges to remaining employed. It is unknown when in the course of kidney disease patients stop working. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We examined employment trends over time among patients ages 18-54 years old who initiated dialysis in the United States between 1996 and 2013 from a national ESRD registry. We compared unadjusted trends in employment at the start of dialysis and 6 months before ESRD and used linear probability models to estimate changes in employment over time after adjusting for patient characteristics and local unemployment rates in the general population. We also examined employment among selected vulnerable patient populations and changes in employment in the 6 months preceding dialysis initiation. RESULTS: Employment was low among patients starting dialysis throughout the study period at 23%-24%, and 38% of patients who were employed 6 months before ESRD stopped working by dialysis initiation. However, after adjusting for observed characteristics, the probability of employment increased over time; patients starting dialysis between 2008 and 2013 had a 4.7% (95% confidence interval, 4.3% to 5.1%) increase in the absolute probability of employment at the start of dialysis compared with patients starting dialysis between 1996 and 2001. Black and Hispanic patients were less likely to be employed than other patients starting dialysis, but this gap narrowed during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Although working-aged patients in the United States starting dialysis have experienced increases in the adjusted probability of employment over time, employment at the start of dialysis has remained low.


Assuntos
Emprego/tendências , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Renal/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Comorbidade , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Desemprego/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Psychiatry Res ; 261: 406-413, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29353765

RESUMO

Sedentary behaviour is associated with poor mental health, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, all of which are a concern among hazardous drinkers. Little is known about sedentary behaviour and it's correlates in hazardous drinkers, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. We investigated correlates of sedentary behaviour among community-dwelling adults aged ≥18 years with hazardous drinking patterns in six low- and middle-income countries. Cross-sectional data were analyzed from the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health. Hazardous drinking was defined as consuming >7 (females) or >14 (males) standard drinks per week. Associations between time spent sedentary and a range of correlates were examined using multivariable linear and logistic regression. The mean time spent sedentary in 2142 individuals with hazardous drinking patterns (mean age = 45.7 years; 13% female) was 216±135min/day. Nine percent (95%CI=6.1-13.2%) were sedentary for ≥8h per day. Living in an urban setting and unemployment were strong sociodemographic correlates of being sedentary for ≥8h per day. From a health-related perspective, weak grip strength, stroke and disability were associated with increasing time spent sedentary. The current data provides important guidance for future interventions across low- and middle-income countries to assist hazardous drinkers to reduce sedentary behaviour.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Hábitos , Pobreza/economia , Pobreza/psicologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Desemprego/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Vida Independente/economia , Vida Independente/psicologia , Vida Independente/tendências , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza/tendências , Inquéritos e Questionários/economia , Desemprego/tendências , População Urbana/tendências
12.
Women Health ; 58(7): 744-758, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28742990

RESUMO

The present study analyzed relationships between employment status, gender role conformity, and health among adult Spanish women from a biopsychosocial approach. We first examined the potential relationship between employment status and conformity to feminine norms (CFNI), second, the relationship between employment status and general and psychological health, and finally, the relationship between CFNI and general and psychological health. Unemployed women (n = 103), employed women (n = 144), and full-time homemakers (n = 100) aged 18-70 yr completed a survey, including measures of psychological health (GHQ-12), general health (self-rated health), and CFNI. Data collection was conducted during 2014. Multiple logistic regression analyses produced odds ratios (OR) and 95 petrcent confidence intervals (CI) that showed that full-time homemakers were more likely to show higher levels of feminine norms conformity (OR = 2.04; 95 percent CI = 1.13-3.69; p = .017), although these differences were no longer significant when controlled for educational level. Unemployed women (OR = 3.27; 95 percent CI = 1.87-5.73; p < .001) and women who presented greater CFNI (OR = 1.56; 95 percent CI = 1.01-2.40; p = .044) were more likely to show psychological morbidity. Public health institutions should pay attention to the relevance of employment status and gender roles, given the relation of these factors to women's health.


Assuntos
Emprego , Nível de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Saúde da Mulher , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Mulheres/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Emprego/psicologia , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Comportamento Social , Conformidade Social , Espanha , Desemprego/psicologia , Desemprego/tendências , Adulto Jovem
13.
Soc Sci Med ; 194: 142-150, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100139

RESUMO

The effects of unemployment on depression are difficult to establish because of confounding and limited understanding of the mechanisms at the population level. In particular, due to longitudinal interdependencies between exposures, mediators and outcomes, intermediate confounding is an obstacle for mediation analyses. Using longitudinal Finnish register data on socio-economic characteristics and medication purchases, we extracted individuals who entered the labor market between ages 16 and 25 in the period 1996 to 2001 and followed them until the year 2007 (n = 42,172). With the parametric G-formula we estimated the population-averaged effect on first antidepressant purchase of a simulated intervention which set all unemployed person-years to employed. In the data, 74% of person-years were employed and 8% unemployed, the rest belonging to studying or other status. In the intervention scenario, employment rose to 85% and the hazard of first antidepressant purchase decreased by 7.6%. Of this reduction 61% was mediated, operating primarily through changes in income and household status, while mediation through other health conditions was negligible. These effects were negligible for women and particularly prominent among less educated men. By taking complex interdependencies into account in a framework of observed repeated measures data, we found that eradicating unemployment raises income levels, promotes family formation, and thereby reduces antidepressant consumption at the population-level.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Desemprego/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Desemprego/tendências
15.
J Policy Anal Manage ; 36(4): 880-908, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28991426

RESUMO

Many Unemployment Insurance (UI) recipients do not find new jobs before exhausting their benefits, even when benefits are extended during recessions. Using Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) panel data covering the 2001 and 2007 to 2009 recessions and their aftermaths, we identify individuals whose jobless spells outlasted their UI benefits (exhaustees) and examine household income, program participation, and health-related outcomes during the six months following UI exhaustion. For the average exhaustee, the loss of UI benefits is only slightly offset by increased participation in other safety net programs (e.g., food stamps), and family poverty rates rise substantially. Self-reported disability also rises following UI exhaustion. These patterns do not vary dramatically across household demographic groups, broad income level prior to job loss, or the two business cycles. The results highlight the unique, important role of UI in the U.S. social safety net.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Assistência Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Recessão Econômica , Previsões , Humanos , Renda , Seguro , Pobreza , Assistência Pública/tendências , Previdência Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Previdência Social/tendências , Desemprego/tendências , Estados Unidos
16.
Pap. psicol ; 38(3): 185-194, sept. 2017. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-168070

RESUMO

El proceso de convergencia con el Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior motivó la publicación del Libro Blanco del Título de Grado en Psicología (ANECA, 2005) donde se desglosa un análisis de la situación de los estudios de Psicología en España y se enumera una serie de recomendaciones para adecuar la titulación a los requisitos europeos. El presente trabajo pretende, diez años después, analizar el grado de implementación de las medidas y propuestas incluidas en el Libro Blanco, así como presentar modelos pronósticos en base a las tendencias observadas mediante análisis de series temporales. Los resultados muestran un incremento progresivo y constante de la oferta formativa, del número de nuevos centros donde se imparte el Grado de Psicología así como de otros indicadores estrechamente relacionados con dicho crecimiento. Por último, se discuten los posibles motivos y se reflexiona sobre el impacto en la precariedad laboral, las elevadas tasas de desempleo y las consecuencias nocivas para un modelo sostenible de la profesión (AU)


The process of convergence with the European Higher Education Area led to the publication of the White Paper on the qualification of the Degree in Psychology (ANECA, 2005) in which an extensive analysis was carried out of the situation of university studies in psychology in Spain and guidelines were produced to adapt the degree to the European requirements. Ten years later, the present paper aims to analyze the implementation rate of the guidelines included in the White Paper, as well as to develop prognostic models based on the trends observed using time series analyses. The results show a constant and progressive increase in the educational training offered, the number of new faculties, and other closely associated indicators related to this growth. Different explanations and reasons for these results are discussed. We also reflect on the detrimental impact on job security amongst psychologists, the high unemployment rates, and the negative consequences for a sustainable model of professional development (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos , Psicologia/educação , Competência Profissional , Papel Profissional/história , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Psicologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Quantitativa/métodos , Educação Profissionalizante/organização & administração , Análise Estatística , Desemprego/tendências
17.
Issue Brief (Commonw Fund) ; 17: 1-19, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28613067

RESUMO

ISSUE: The American Health Care Act (AHCA), passed by the U.S. House of Representatives, would repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act. The Congressional Budget Office indicates that the AHCA could increase the number of uninsured by 23 million by 2026. GOAL: To determine the consequences of the AHCA on employment and economic activity in every state. METHODS: We compute changes in federal spending and revenue from 2018 to 2026 for each state and use the PI+ model to project the effects on states' employment and economies. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: The AHCA would raise employment and economic activity at first, but lower them in the long run. It initially raises the federal deficit when taxes are repealed, leading to 864,000 more jobs in 2018. In later years, reductions in support for health insurance cause negative economic effects. By 2026, 924,000 jobs would be lost, gross state products would be $93 billion lower, and business output would be $148 billion less. About three-quarters of jobs lost (725,000) would be in the health care sector. States which expanded Medicaid would experience faster and deeper economic losses.


Assuntos
Emprego/legislação & jurisprudência , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Emprego/tendências , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Cobertura do Seguro/legislação & jurisprudência , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura do Seguro/tendências , Seguro Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/tendências , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/tendências , Previsões , Humanos , Governo Estadual , Estados Unidos
19.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 161: D1176, 2017.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28378701

RESUMO

Unemployment among young physicians has been a difficult problem for years. In this contribution, we are looking at the difficult medical job market from a historical perspective. The article shows that education of medical doctors and medical specialists has been politicised for a very long time, that ever-changing parties and interests are playing a role and that both the nature and objective of the issue - admission policy, whether to educate more or fewer physicians - have been shifting over time. We argue that there are no clear solutions available but that we, while learning from the past, must continually look for solutions that fit the current situation.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Especialização/tendências , Desemprego/tendências , Humanos , Medicina , Países Baixos , Médicos , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Int J Epidemiol ; 46(4): 1147-1156, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28338775

RESUMO

Background: In the 20th century, periods of macroeconomic growth have been associated with increases in population mortality. Factors that cause or mitigate this association are not well understood. Evidence suggests that social policy may buffer the deleterious impact of economic growth. We sought to explore associations between changing unemployment (as a proxy for economic change) and trends in mortality over 30 years in the context of varying social protection expenditures. Methods: We model change in all-cause mortality in 21 OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries from 1980 to 2010. Data from the Comparative Welfare States Data Set and the WHO Mortality Database were used. A decrease in the unemployment rate was used as a proxy for economic growth and age-adjusted mortality rates as the outcome. Social protection expenditure was measured as percentage of gross domestic product expended. Results: A 1% decrease in unemployment (i.e. the proxy for economic growth) was associated with a 0.24% increase in the overall mortality rate (95% confidence interval: 0.07;0.42) in countries with no changes in social protection. Reductions in social protection expenditure strengthened this association between unemployment and mortality. The magnitude of the association was diminished over time. Conclusions: Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that social protection policies that accompany economic growth can mitigate its potential deleterious effects on health. Further research should identify specific policies that are most effective.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Mortalidade/tendências , Política Pública , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico , Análise de Regressão , Desemprego/tendências , Organização Mundial da Saúde
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