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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(10)2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069613

RESUMO

As a well-known medical imaging methodology, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging plays a critical role in diagnosis, treatment guidance and post-treatment assessment of coronary artery diseases. By cannulating a miniature ultrasound transducer mounted catheter into an artery, the vessel lumen opening, vessel wall morphology and other associated blood and vessel properties can be precisely assessed in IVUS imaging. Ultrasound transducer, as the key component of an IVUS system, is critical in determining the IVUS imaging performance. In recent years, a wide range of achievements in ultrasound transducers have been reported for IVUS imaging applications. Herein, a comprehensive review is given on recent advances in ultrasound transducers for IVUS imaging. Firstly, a fundamental understanding of IVUS imaging principle, evaluation parameters and IVUS catheter are summarized. Secondly, three different types of ultrasound transducers (piezoelectric ultrasound transducer, piezoelectric micromachined ultrasound transducer and capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducer) for IVUS imaging are presented. Particularly, the recent advances in piezoelectric ultrasound transducer for IVUS imaging are extensively examined according to their different working mechanisms, configurations and materials adopted. Thirdly, IVUS-based multimodality intravascular imaging of atherosclerotic plaque is discussed. Finally, summary and perspectives on the future studies are highlighted for IVUS imaging applications.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Transdutores , Ultrassonografia
2.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(5)2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069758

RESUMO

A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based self-priming microfluidic chip with cushion chambers is presented in this study for robust and easy-operation digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR). The chip has only one inlet and can partition samples autonomously through negative pressure, provided by a de-gassed PDMS layer with a multi-level vertical branching microchannel design. Meanwhile, cushion chambers make the chip capable of very robust use for sample partitioning. Finally, the proposed microfluidic chip showed excellent performance in the absolute quantification of a target gene by performing quantitative detection of a 10-fold serial dilution DNA template. Owing to its characteristics of easy operation, low cost, and high robustness, the proposed dPCR chip is expected to further promote the extensive application of digital PCR, especially in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Dimetilpolisiloxanos , Desenho de Equipamento , Microfluídica , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(9)2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066680

RESUMO

Soft grippers have experienced a growing interest due to their considerable flexibility that allows them to grasp a variety of objects, in contrast to hard grippers, which are designed for a specific item. One of their most remarkable characteristics is the ability to manipulate soft objects without damaging them. This, together with their wide range of applications and the use of novels materials and technologies, renders them a very robust device. In this paper, we present a comparison of different technologies for soft robotics grippers. We fabricated and tested four grippers. Two use pneumatic actuation (the gripper with chambered fingers and the jamming gripper), while the other two employ electromechanical actuation (the tendon driver gripper and the gripper with passive structure). For the experiments, a group of twelve objects with different mechanical and geometrical properties have been selected. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of the environmental conditions on the grippers, by testing each object in three different environments: normal, humid, and dusty. The aim of this comparative study is to show the different performances of different grippers tested under the same conditions. Our findings indicate that we can highlight that the mechanical gripper with a passive structure shows greater robustness.


Assuntos
Robótica , Desenho de Equipamento , Dedos , Força da Mão
4.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(5)2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062874

RESUMO

Molecular diagnostics has been the front runner in the world's response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Particularly, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the quantitative variant (qRT-PCR) have been the gold standard for COVID-19 diagnosis. However, faster antigen tests and other point-of-care (POC) devices have also played a significant role in containing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 by facilitating mass screening and delivering results in less time. Thus, despite the higher sensitivity and specificity of the RT-PCR assays, the impact of POC tests cannot be ignored. As a consequence, there has been an increased interest in the development of miniaturized, high-throughput, and automated PCR systems, many of which can be used at point-of-care. This review summarizes the recent advances in the development of miniaturized PCR systems with an emphasis on COVID-19 detection. The distinct features of digital PCR and electrochemical PCR are detailed along with the challenges. The potential of CRISPR/Cas technology for POC diagnostics is also highlighted. Commercial RT-PCR POC systems approved by various agencies for COVID-19 detection are discussed.


Assuntos
Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/instrumentação , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Testes Imediatos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/instrumentação , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/genética
5.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(6)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073756

RESUMO

Despite collaborative efforts from all countries, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been continuing to spread globally, forcing the world into social distancing period, making a special challenge for public healthcare system. Before vaccine widely available, the best approach to manage severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is to achieve highest diagnostic accuracy by improving biosensor efficacy. For SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics, intensive attempts have been made by many scientists to ameliorate the drawback of current biosensors of SARS-CoV-2 in clinical diagnosis to offer benefits related to platform proposal, systematic analytical methods, system combination, and miniaturization. This review assesses ongoing research efforts aimed at developing integrated diagnostic tools to detect RNA viruses and their biomarkers for clinical diagnostics of SARS-CoV-2 infection and further highlights promising technology for SARS-CoV-2 specific diagnosis. The comparisons of SARS-CoV-2 biomarkers as well as their applicable biosensors in the field of clinical diagnosis were summarized to give scientists an advantage to develop superior diagnostic platforms. Furthermore, this review describes the prospects for this rapidly growing field of diagnostic research, raising further interest in analytical technology and strategic plan for future pandemics.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Teste para COVID-19/instrumentação , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Teste para COVID-19/métodos , Colorimetria/instrumentação , Colorimetria/métodos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/instrumentação , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/instrumentação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Testes Imediatos
6.
Braz Oral Res ; 35: e064, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076189

RESUMO

Sixty moderately curved canals of mandibular molars classified as Vertucci's type IV canal configuration were selected by micro-CT 1174. The teeth were divided into two groups according to the kinematics used, whether reciprocating or rotary motion (n=30, totaling 60 mesial root canals). The instruments used to perform the glide path procedures had identical features (0.15 mm of tip size, 0.04 mm/mm taper, thermal treatment, and square cross-section), but differed in the direction of the cutting blade. The duration of the procedure and the absolute and percentage frequency of the instruments to reach the full working length were recorded. The torsional test (3630-1; 1992) was performed on both used and unused instruments, to evaluate a possible reduction in the torsional resistance when using the glide path procedure. Statistical analysis was performed using the unpaired t-test and the chi-square test, and the level of significance was set at 5%. The type of kinematics used affected the duration of glide path procedures, and the reciprocating motion seemed to induce less torsional stress during glide path procedures.


Assuntos
Cavidade Pulpar , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Desenho de Equipamento , Dente Molar/diagnóstico por imagem , Microtomografia por Raio-X
7.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(5)2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063695

RESUMO

A middle ear infection is a prevalent inflammatory disease most common in the pediatric population, and its financial burden remains substantial. Current diagnostic methods are highly subjective, relying on visual cues gathered by an otoscope. To address this shortcoming, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been integrated into a handheld imaging probe. This system can non-invasively and quantitatively assess middle ear effusions and identify the presence of bacterial biofilms in the middle ear cavity during ear infections. Furthermore, the complete OCT system is housed in a standard briefcase to maximize its portability as a diagnostic device. Nonetheless, interpreting OCT images of the middle ear more often requires expertise in OCT as well as middle ear infections, making it difficult for an untrained user to operate the system as an accurate stand-alone diagnostic tool in clinical settings. Here, we present a briefcase OCT system implemented with a real-time machine learning platform for middle ear infections. A random forest-based classifier can categorize images based on the presence of middle ear effusions and biofilms. This study demonstrates that our briefcase OCT system coupled with machine learning can provide user-invariant classification results of middle ear conditions, which may greatly improve the utility of this technology for the diagnosis and management of middle ear infections.


Assuntos
Otite Média/diagnóstico , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/instrumentação , Orelha Média , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos
8.
Protein Eng Des Sel ; 342021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991088

RESUMO

To combat the enduring and dangerous spread of COVID-19, many innovations to rapid diagnostics have been developed based on proteinprotein interactions of the SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid proteins to increase testing accessibility. These antigen tests have most prominently been developed using the lateral flow assay (LFA) test platform which has the benefit of administration at point-of-care, delivering quick results, lower cost, and does not require skilled personnel. However, they have gained criticism for an inferior sensitivity. In the last year, much attention has been given to creating a rapid LFA test for detection of COVID-19 antigens that can address its high limit of detection while retaining the advantages of rapid antibodyantigen interaction. In this review, a summary of these proteinprotein interactions as well as the challenges, benefits, and recent improvements to protein based LFA for detection of COVID-19 are discussed.


Assuntos
Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Testes Imediatos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/análise , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/instrumentação , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/análise , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo de Coronavírus/imunologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Fosfoproteínas/análise , Fosfoproteínas/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/análise , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10187, 2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986353

RESUMO

The severe outbreak of respiratory coronavirus disease 2019 has increased the significant demand of respiratory mask and its use become ubiquitous worldwide to control this unprecedented respiratory pandemic. The performance of a respiratory mask depends on the efficiency of the filter layer which is mostly made of polypropylene melt blown non-woven (PP-MB-NW). So far, very limited characterization data are available for the PPE-MB-NW in terms to achieve desired particulate filtration efficiency (PFE) against 0.3 µm size, which are imperative in order to facilitate the right selection of PP-MB-NW fabric for the development of mask. In present study, eight different kinds of PP-MB-NW fabrics (Sample A-H) of varied structural morphology are chosen. The different PP-MB-NW were characterized for its pore size and distribution by mercury porosimeter and BET surface area analyzer was explored first time to understand the importance of blind pore in PFE. The PP-MB-NW samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy so as to know the surface morphology. The filtration efficiency, pressure drop and breathing resistance of various PP-MB-NW fabric samples are investigated in single and double layers combination against the particle size of 0.3, 0.5 and 1 µm. The samples which are having low pore dia, high solid fraction volume, and low air permeability has high filtration efficiency (> 90%) against 0.3 µm particle with high pressure drop (16.3-21.3 mm WC) and breathing resistance (1.42-1.92 mbar) when compared to rest of the samples. This study will pave the way for the judicial selection of right kind of filter layer i.e., PP-MB-NW fabric for the development of mask and it will be greatly helpful in manufacturing of mask in this present pandemic with desired PFE indicating considerable promise for defense against respiratory pandemic.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Máscaras , Aerossóis/isolamento & purificação , Filtros de Ar/virologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Máscaras/virologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Polipropilenos/química , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Têxteis/virologia
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2905, 2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34006857

RESUMO

The need for rapid, accurate, and scalable testing systems for COVID-19 diagnosis is clear and urgent. Here, we report a rapid Scalable and Portable Testing (SPOT) system consisting of a rapid, highly sensitive, and accurate assay and a battery-powered portable device for COVID-19 diagnosis. The SPOT assay comprises a one-pot reverse transcriptase-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) followed by PfAgo-based target sequence detection. It is capable of detecting the N gene and E gene in a multiplexed reaction with the limit of detection (LoD) of 0.44 copies/µL and 1.09 copies/µL, respectively, in SARS-CoV-2 virus-spiked saliva samples within 30 min. Moreover, the SPOT system is used to analyze 104 clinical saliva samples and identified 28/30 (93.3% sensitivity) SARS-CoV-2 positive samples (100% sensitivity if LoD is considered) and 73/74 (98.6% specificity) SARS-CoV-2 negative samples. This combination of speed, accuracy, sensitivity, and portability will enable high-volume, low-cost access to areas in need of urgent COVID-19 testing capabilities.


Assuntos
Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Genes Virais/genética , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Saliva/virologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2950, 2021 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011979

RESUMO

Human motions, such as joint/spinal bending or stretching, often contain information that is useful for orthopedic/neural disease diagnosis, rehabilitation, and prevention. Here, we show a badge-reel-like stretch sensing device with a grating-structured triboelectric nanogenerator exhibiting a stretching sensitivity of 8 V mm-1, a minimum resolution of 0.6 mm, a low hysteresis, and a high durability (over 120 thousand cycles). Experimental and theoretical investigations are performed to define the key features of the device. Studies from human natural daily activities and exercise demonstrate the functionality of the sensor for real-time recording of knee/arm bending, neck/waist twisting, and so on. We also used the device in a spinal laboratory, monitoring human subjects' spine motions, and validated the measurements using the commercial inclinometer and hunchback instrument. We anticipate that the lightweight, precise and durable stretch sensor applied to spinal monitoring could help mitigate the risk of long-term abnormal postural habits induced diseases.


Assuntos
Articulações/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Sistemas Computacionais , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Cifose/diagnóstico , Cifose/fisiopatologia , Sistemas Microeletromecânicos/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Movimento/fisiologia , Postura/fisiologia
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2692, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976216

RESUMO

Rapid developments of robotics and virtual reality technology are raising the requirements of more advanced human-machine interfaces for achieving efficient parallel control. Exoskeleton as an assistive wearable device, usually requires a huge cost and complex data processing to track the multi-dimensional human motions. Alternatively, we propose a triboelectric bi-directional sensor as a universal and cost-effective solution to a customized exoskeleton for monitoring all of the movable joints of the human upper limbs with low power consumption. The corresponding movements, including two DOF rotations of the shoulder, twisting of the wrist, and the bending motions, are detected and utilized for controlling the virtual character and the robotic arm in real-time. Owing to the structural consistency between the exoskeleton and the human body, further kinetic analysis offers additional physical parameters without introducing other types of sensors. This exoskeleton sensory system shows a great potential of being an economic and advanced human-machine interface for supporting the manipulation in both real and virtual worlds, including robotic automation, healthcare, and training applications.


Assuntos
Desenho de Equipamento/instrumentação , Exoesqueleto Energizado , Aparelhos Ortopédicos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Robótica/instrumentação , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Desenho de Equipamento/economia , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Humanos , Articulações/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Robótica/economia , Robótica/métodos
13.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 23(5): 297-301, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Management of acquired laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) is challenging and often requires recurrent procedures. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and safety of balloon dilatation (BD) versus rigid dilatation (RD) in the treatment of LTS. METHODS: A retrospective study of patients undergoing endoscopic intervention for LTS was performed. RESULTS: The study included 69 balloon (BD) and 48 rigid dilations (RD). Most cases were grade 3 Cotton-Meyer stenosis. Mean time interval to recurrence after BD and RD were 27.9 and 19.6 weeks, respectively. Remission of over 8 weeks was achieved in 71% of BD compared to 31.2% of RD (P < 0.05). In the BD group, dilatation of subglottic stenosis showed higher rates of remission of over 8 weeks compared to upper and mid-tracheal stenosis (92% vs. 62% and 20%, respectively, P < 0.05). Complications were encountered in 4.2% of RD and 2.9% of BD. CONCLUSIONS: BD and RD are effective and safe procedures. Overall, BD achieved slightly better long-term results compared to RD.


Assuntos
Dilatação/métodos , Endoscopia/métodos , Laringoestenose/terapia , Estenose Traqueal/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Dilatação/efeitos adversos , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Chromatogr A ; 1647: 462167, 2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962076

RESUMO

Simultaneously reducing the bed-height and increasing the area of cross-section, while keeping the bed-volume the same, would substantially reduce the pressure drop across a process chromatography column. This would minimize problems such as resin compaction and non-uniformity in column packing, which are commonly faced when using soft chromatographic media. However, the increase in macroscale convective dispersion due to the increase in column diameter, and the resultant loss in resolution would far outweigh any potential benefit. Cuboid-packed bed devices have lower macroscale convective dispersion compared to their equivalent cylindrical columns. In this paper, we discuss how and why a flat cuboid chromatography device having a short bed-height gives better protein separation, at a significantly lower pressure drop, than a taller column having the same bed-volume. First, we explored this option based on computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations. Depending on the flow rate, the pressure drop across the flat cuboid device was lower than that in the tall column by a factor of 6.35 to 6.4 (i.e. less than 1/6th the pressure). The CFD results also confirmed that the macroscale convective dispersion within the flat cuboid device was significantly lower. Head-to-head separation experiments using a 1 mL flat cuboid device having a bed-height of 10 mm, and a 1 mL tall column having a bed-height of 25.8 mm, both packed with the same chromatographic media, were carried out. The number of theoretical plates per unit bed-height was on an average, around 2.5 time times greater with the flat cuboid device, while the total number of theoretical plates in the two devices were comparable. At any given superficial velocity, the height equivalent of a theoretical plate in the tall column was on an average, higher by a factor 2.5. Binary protein separation experiments showed that at any given flow rate, the resolution obtained using the flat cuboid device was significantly higher than that obtained with the tall column. This work opens up the possibility of designing and developing short bed-height chromatography devices for carrying out high-resolution biopharmaceutical purifications, at very low pressures.


Assuntos
Cromatografia/instrumentação , Cromatografia/métodos , Proteínas/isolamento & purificação , Simulação por Computador , Desenho de Equipamento , Proteínas/análise
15.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(5): 378-386, 2021 05.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34003190

RESUMO

High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) are an oxygen therapy device developed in the last years for the treatment of patients with acute or acute on chronic hypoxemic respiratory failure with different etiology and severity (including covid-19 pneumonia). HFNC combine the possibility of delivering high flows of gases, actively humidified and heated, with the use of a comfortable nasal interface, resulting generally well tolerated by most patients. In light of these characteristics, together with the simplicity of use and versatility, they have spread not only in intensive and semi-intensive care units but also in general medical ward in which they can play an important role in the treatment of elderly, frail patients with comorbidity where other more aggressive and invasive methods of ventilations are not indicated or not practicable.


Assuntos
Cânula , Oxigenoterapia/instrumentação , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Acidose Respiratória/complicações , Acidose Respiratória/terapia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Hipóxia/complicações , Hipóxia/terapia , Medicina Interna , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Cuidados Paliativos , Edema Pulmonar/complicações , Edema Pulmonar/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/complicações
16.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 225, 2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the success of plaque reduction after external toothbrushing by instructed laypeople versus dental professionals using either a manual or powered toothbrush. Longitudinal, randomized, parallel-group intervention study in periodontitis patients with reduced oral hygiene quality undergoing anti-infective therapy. Patients were randomly and equally assigned to one of four groups: laypeople using a manual or powered toothbrush or dental professionals using a manual or powered toothbrush. Plaque reduction (Quigley-Hein-Index (QHI), Marginal Plaque Index (MPI)), gingivitis (papilla bleeding index), and cleaning time (seconds) were investigated. RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients participated in the study. Neither the choice of toothbrush (p = 0.399) nor the use of a dental professional (p = 0.790) had a significant influence on plaque levels achieved. However, multivariate modeling indicated statistically significant differences in the external cleaning time between brushing groups, with longer time required by laypeople (p = 0.002) and longer use of the powered toothbrush (p = 0.024). CONCLUSION: When the ability to carry out personal oral hygiene is reduced, external brushing by dental professionals or instructed laypeople who meet previously defined criteria such as sufficient personal oral hygiene at home could help to fill the emerging dental care gap. A combination of oral hygiene approaches adapted to the individual needs of the patients in need of external help is necessary for optimum oral hygiene. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials register ( https://www.germanctr.de ; number DRKS00018779; date of registration 04/11/2019).


Assuntos
Gengivite , Escovação Dentária , Índice de Placa Dentária , Desenho de Equipamento , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Higiene Bucal , Índice Periodontal , Método Simples-Cego
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3141, 2021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34035237

RESUMO

Ultra-compact wireless implantable medical devices are in great demand for healthcare applications, in particular for neural recording and stimulation. Current implantable technologies based on miniaturized micro-coils suffer from low wireless power transfer efficiency (PTE) and are not always compliant with the specific absorption rate imposed by the Federal Communications Commission. Moreover, current implantable devices are reliant on differential recording of voltage or current across space and require direct contact between electrode and tissue. Here, we show an ultra-compact dual-band smart nanoelectromechanical systems magnetoelectric (ME) antenna with a size of 250 × 174 µm2 that can efficiently perform wireless energy harvesting and sense ultra-small magnetic fields. The proposed ME antenna has a wireless PTE 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than any other reported miniaturized micro-coil, allowing the wireless IMDs to be compliant with the SAR limit. Furthermore, the antenna's magnetic field detectivity of 300-500 pT allows the IMDs to record neural magnetic fields.


Assuntos
Eletrodos Implantados , Nanotecnologia/instrumentação , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação , Animais , Desenho de Equipamento , Campos Magnéticos , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Ratos , Materiais Inteligentes
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e26192, 2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032780

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: To assess effectiveness and safety associated with radioactive stenting for hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA) patients.This single-center retrospective study compared baseline and treatment data of recruited consecutive patients with HCCA underwent either normal or radioactive stenting between January 2016 and December 2019. Clinical success was defined by total bilirubin (TBIL) levels falling below 70% of the preoperative baseline within 2 weeks post stent insertion.Sixty-five patients with inoperable HCCA underwent normal (n = 35) or radioactive (n = 30) stenting at our center. Technical success of both types of the normal and radioactive stent insertion was 100%. Each patient received 1 stent. In the radioactive stent group, each patient received 1 radioactive seed strand (RSS), containing 10 to 12 radioactive seeds. Clinical success rates were 86.8% and 100% in normal and radioactive groups, respectively (P = .495). We observed stent dysfunction in 9 patients (normal group) and 7 patients (radioactive group) (P = .824). Median duration of stent patency was 165 days (normal group) and 226 days (radioactive group) (P < .001). During follow-up, all patients died from tumor progression, with respective median survival of 198 days (normal group) and 256 days (radioactive group) (P < .001). Seven and 5 patients in the normal and radioactive groups suffered from stent-related complications (P = .730).Radioactive stenting is effective and safe for inoperable HCCA patient and may prolong stent patency and survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/complicações , Colangiocarcinoma/complicações , Colestase/prevenção & controle , Radioisótopos do Iodo/administração & dosagem , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Stents , Idoso , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/radioterapia , Colangiocarcinoma/radioterapia , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Radioisótopos do Iodo/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Stents/efeitos adversos , Análise de Sobrevida
20.
Br J Radiol ; 94(1122): 20201422, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33956486

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Leeds Test Object Ten (TO.10) is routinely used to subjectively estimate Threshold Contrast Detail Detectability (TCDD) as a measure of image quality in fluoroscopy. However, manufacturer guidance provides calibrated contrasts for only limited peak voltage and copper filtration thickness combinations. Prescribed testing conditions are often difficult to attain as modern flat panel fluoroscopic systems independently determine voltage and copper filtration thickness settings. This work aims to extend the range of TO.10 contrasts available for routine testing at peak voltage and copper thickness settings likely to be encountered. METHODS: Two methods are described for generalising the calculation of target contrasts: a three-dimensional interpolation/extrapolation model in MATLAB®, and a multivariate log-polynomial function. Both methods utilise the available calibrated contrasts to estimate contrasts at voltage and copper thickness combinations routinely encountered. RESULTS: Results are presented as Threshold Detection Index [Formula: see text] curves fit by a second-order polynomial of log [Formula: see text] to log [Formula: see text] . Results are found to be more accurate at unprescribed conditions while also reproducible for relatively consistent input air kerma rate (IAKR) expected from automatic dose rate controls (ADRC). CONCLUSIONS: The calculation of TO.10 contrasts at non-standard conditions aids in the determination of an absolute estimate of image quality in fluoroscopy with greater accuracy, reproducibility and efficiency. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: TO.10 detail contrasts for TCDD testing of fluoroscopy units have been significantly extended beyond those previously available. The described methods will aid the clinical physicist in absolute assessments of fluoroscopic image quality and facilitate inter system comparisons.


Assuntos
Fluoroscopia/instrumentação , Controle de Qualidade , Intensificação de Imagem Radiográfica/instrumentação , Calibragem , Cobre/química , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Razão Sinal-Ruído
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