Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 148.943
Filtrar
1.
Br J Nurs ; 29(18): 1064-1067, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841573

RESUMO

Nurses have a vital role in providing nursing care to patients requiring mobile radiography. Mobile radiography is requested when a patient's condition makes it impossible for them to be transported to the radiology department. All health professionals involved in mobile radiography, such as nurses, medical doctors and radiographers should be knowledgeable in this area. This is even more important in current practice, where nurse consultants and nurse advanced practitioners are assessing and referring patients for limited radiological examinations. However, there is little literature to equip nurses with knowledge about mobile radiography. The aim of this article is to raise awareness of this subject at a time when the number of patients requiring mobile radiography has increased globally, due to the outbreak of coronavirus. Critically ill patients with COVID-19 require portable chest X-rays to diagnose complications of the disease, such as pneumonia.


Assuntos
Radiografia/instrumentação , Radiografia/enfermagem , Competência Clínica , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
2.
Biomed Instrum Technol ; 54(5): 346-351, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049766

RESUMO

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a sensitive and weak biosignal that varies from person to person. It is easily affected by noise and artifacts. Hence, maintaining the signal integrity to design an EEG acquisition system is crucial. This article proposes an analog design for acquiring EEG signals. The proposed design consists of eight blocks: (1) a radio-frequency interference filter and electro-static discharge protection, (2) a preamplifier and second-order high-pass filter with feedback topology and an unblocking mechanism, (3) a driven right leg circuit, (4) two-stage main and variable amplifiers, (5) an eight-order anti-aliasing filter, (6) a six-order 50-Hz notch filter (optional), (7) an opto-isolator circuit, and (8) an isolated power supply. The maximum gain of the design is approximately 94 dB, and its bandwidth ranges from approximately 0.18 to 120 Hz. The depth of the 50-Hz notch filter is -35 dB. Using this filter is optional because it causes EEG integrity problems in frequencies ranging from 40 to 60 Hz.


Assuntos
Amplificadores Eletrônicos , Eletroencefalografia , Artefatos , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos
3.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 169: 112643, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007615

RESUMO

Detection of antibodies to upper respiratory pathogens is critical to surveillance, assessment of the immune status of individuals, vaccine development, and basic biology. The urgent need for antibody detection tools has proven particularly acute in the COVID-19 era. We report a multiplex label-free antigen microarray on the Arrayed Imaging Reflectometry (AIR) platform for detection of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, MERS, three circulating coronavirus strains (HKU1, 229E, OC43) and three strains of influenza. We find that the array is readily able to distinguish uninfected from convalescent COVID-19 subjects, and provides quantitative information about total Ig, as well as IgG- and IgM-specific responses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/virologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Análise Serial de Proteínas/instrumentação , Análise Serial de Proteínas/métodos , Vírus da SARS/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e22545, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nasogastric tubes can be easily inserted in patients under general anesthesia. However, for difficult cases, insertion techniques that can be used in routine clinical practice are limited. SUZY forceps are designed for the removal of pharyngolaryngeal foreign bodies under guidance of a McGrath videolaryngoscope. We hypothesized that using SUZY forceps under McGrath videolaryngoscopic guidance may facilitate nasogastric tube insertion and tested this in a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Adult patients who underwent gastrointestinal or hepato-pancreato-biliary surgery were randomly allocated to 2 groups; the SUZY group and the Magill group. Patients, nurses, and all clinical staff except for the attending anesthesiologist were blinded to group assignment throughout the study. After anesthesia induction, insertion of the nasogastric tube was performed by skilled anesthesiologists with either SUZY or Magill forceps according to group allocation under McGrath videolaryngoscopic guidance. The primary endpoint was insertion time which was defined as the time required to advance the nasogastric tube by 55 cm from the nostril. Secondary endpoints were the success rates of the nasogastric tube insertion, which were defined as a 55-cm advancement from the nostril at the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd attempt, proper insertion rate, the severity of pharyngolaryngeal complications, and hemodynamic parameters during nasogastric tube insertion. RESULTS: Sixty patients were randomized and none of these patients were excluded from the final analysis. The median [interquartile range] insertion time was 25 [18-33] seconds in the SUZY group, and 33 [21-54] seconds in the Magill group (P = .02). Success rates were not different between the groups (97% and 80% in the SUZY and Magill group at 1st attempt, respectively, P = .10). Both, the severity score of the mucosal injury and the severity of sore throat were higher in the Magill than in the SUZY group, whereas the degree of hoarseness did not differ between the 2 groups. Hemodynamic parameters were not significantly different between the groups. CONCLUSION: Using SUZY forceps under McGrath videolaryngoscopic guidance reduced the time required to insert a nasogastric tube and the severity of pharyngolaryngeal complications, when compared to using Magill forceps.


Assuntos
Intubação Gastrointestinal/métodos , Laringoscopia/métodos , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos , Gravação em Vídeo , Idoso , Anestesia Geral , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Br J Nurs ; 29(18): 1064-1067, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035087

RESUMO

Nurses have a vital role in providing nursing care to patients requiring mobile radiography. Mobile radiography is requested when a patient's condition makes it impossible for them to be transported to the radiology department. All health professionals involved in mobile radiography, such as nurses, medical doctors and radiographers should be knowledgeable in this area. This is even more important in current practice, where nurse consultants and nurse advanced practitioners are assessing and referring patients for limited radiological examinations. However, there is little literature to equip nurses with knowledge about mobile radiography. The aim of this article is to raise awareness of this subject at a time when the number of patients requiring mobile radiography has increased globally, due to the outbreak of coronavirus. Critically ill patients with COVID-19 require portable chest X-rays to diagnose complications of the disease, such as pneumonia.


Assuntos
Radiografia/instrumentação , Radiografia/enfermagem , Competência Clínica , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
6.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(7): 728-732, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020354

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the present study is twofold: to evaluate cyclic fatigue resistance differences of two different nickel-titanium rotary instruments, brand new and after an ex vivo instrumentation of single root extracted teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty new S One 20.06 were randomly divided into two groups. The first group (n = 10) was immediately subjected to a cyclic fatigue test (S One Group I). The second group (n = 10) (S one Group II) performed a cyclic fatigue test after three ex vivo root canal treatment with a single-file technique. The same process has been carried out for 20 M-Two 20.06 instruments. RESULTS: Mean time to fracture (TtF) for Group I was 51.14 ± 1.28 for S One and 32.62 ± 0.17 for M-Two 20.06 and for Group II was 46.00 ± 0.99 for S One and 27.75 ± 1.58 for M-Two 20.06. The reduction in TtF values from Group I to Group II was 11% for S One and 15% for M-Two. Statistical analysis found significant differences in all the groups examined (p value < 0.05). Mean fragment length (FL) for Group I was 3.07 ± 0.17 for S One and 3.05 ± 0.14 for M-Two 20.06 and for Group II was 3.05 ± 0.07 for S One and 3.05 ± 0.14 for M-Two 20.06. Statistical analysis was pursued, and no significant difference was found (p value > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The S-One showed significantly more resistance to cyclic fatigue stress than M-Two for both new and used instruments. This validates the hypothesis that the AF H wire enables the S One files to endure more the cyclic fatigue stresses. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates the cyclic fatigue resistance of a new endodontic instrument after repetitive usage.


Assuntos
Níquel , Titânio , Cavidade Pulpar , Desenho de Equipamento , Falha de Equipamento , Teste de Materiais , Preparo de Canal Radicular
7.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1473-1476, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018269

RESUMO

The benefits of array coils in MRI and MRS are well known. A key component of essentially all array coils used today is the decoupling preamplifier. Unlike conventional 50 ohm low-noise preamps, decoupling preamps present a reactive impedance to the coil, which can be used to 'block' currents from being induced in the receive coil, reducing the impact of any electromagnetic coupling between array elements. While available from a number of vendors, a lower-cost solution would be advantageous. We investigate the use of conventional operational amplifiers as low-noise decoupling preamplifiers. In this paper the performance of the op-amp preamplifier is compared to conventional 50 Ω. The op-amp preamp design shows promise for use as a decoupling preamplifier with array coils.Clinical Relevance- This work could facilitate the development of array coils for spectroscopy and imaging.


Assuntos
Amplificadores Eletrônicos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Impedância Elétrica , Fenômenos Eletromagnéticos , Desenho de Equipamento
8.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3411-3414, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018736

RESUMO

In this paper, a power-efficient and high-resolution ultrasonically powered and controlled optogenetic stimulator system is proposed. The proposed system benefits from a novel fully analog Time to Current Converter (TCC) for driving a µLED for optogenetics according to time-encoded data over ultrasonic waves. The whole system including a high-efficiency active rectifier, a double-pass regulator, a burst detector, an overvoltage regulator, a reference generator and the novel TCC are designed, analyzed and simulated in transistor level in standard TSMC 0.18 µm CMOS technology in conjunction with a lumped-element model for the piezoelectric receiver. For an LED current of 1 mA, a chip efficiency of 94 % is achieved according to the simulation results. The rectified voltage at the output of the active rectifier is equal to 2.85 V for a 1 mA load and is limited to 3.02 V by the overvoltage regulator, for loads of less than 905 µA. The proposed TCC demands only 0.2 V overhead voltage and specifically designed to converts the time duration between 5-55 µs to a current of 0-1000 µA linearly and according to the application requirements.


Assuntos
Optogenética , Próteses e Implantes , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Desenho de Equipamento
9.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3544-3548, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018768

RESUMO

Direct current (DC) has potential as a clinical and scientific tool to accelerate wound healing, increase the permeability of the skin to drug treatment and modulate neural activity. But long duration delivery of DC unavoidably causes hazardous electrolysis at the tissue-electrode interface. To be able to deliver long duration DC, we previously proposed a design for a safe direct current stimulator (SDCS). This device uses alternating current that does not cause chemical reactions at the metal electrodes within the device, but delivers ionic direct current output to the tissue via microfluidic valves. We previously developed and published designs of multiple SDCS components including microfluidic, electronic, data processing, and energy systems. In this paper we focus on the development of the integrated microfluidics needed by the SDCS system. We developed a fabrication method and characterized valve performance within the multi-valve microfluidic system. We used poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to fabricate three microfluidic chips that integrated valves actuated by 50-µm Nitinol (NiTi) shape memory alloy (SMA) wire. We tested system operation by driving SMA valves with a current pulse and recording the valve response with an electrical assay. The valve operation complied with the SDCS system requirements. The time for valves to open was rapid at 0.177 ± 0.04 seconds, and the time for the valves to close was 0.265 ± 0.05 seconds. Open microfluidic channel impedance for unrestricted ionic current flow was 15.90 ± 8.28 kΩ and it increased by a factor of 40 to restrict ionic current flow at 678 ± 102 kΩ for the closed valves.


Assuntos
Microfluídica , Ligas de Memória da Forma , Eletrodos , Desenho de Equipamento
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(18)2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906831

RESUMO

Social distancing and contact/exposure tracing are accepted to be critical strategies in the fight against the COVID-19 epidemic. They are both closely connected to the ability to reliably establish the degree of proximity between people in real-world environments. We proposed, implemented, and evaluated a wearable proximity sensing system based on an oscillating magnetic field that overcomes many of the weaknesses of the current state of the art Bluetooth based proximity detection. In this paper, we first described the underlying physical principle, proposed a protocol for the identification and coordination of the transmitter (which is compatible with the current smartphone-based exposure tracing protocols). Subsequently, the system architecture and implementation were described, finally an elaborate characterization and evaluation of the performance (both in systematic lab experiments and in real-world settings) were performed. Our work demonstrated that the proposed system is much more reliable than the widely-used Bluetooth-based approach, particularly when it comes to distinguishing between distances above and below the 2.0 m threshold due to the magnetic field's physical properties.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Campos Magnéticos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Smartphone , Distância Social , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação , Tecnologia sem Fio/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(18)2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911861

RESUMO

Lung sounds acquired by stethoscopes are extensively used in diagnosing and differentiating respiratory diseases. Although an extensive know-how has been built to interpret these sounds and identify diseases associated with certain patterns, its effective use is limited to individual experience of practitioners. This user-dependency manifests itself as a factor impeding the digital transformation of this valuable diagnostic tool, which can improve patient outcomes by continuous long-term respiratory monitoring under real-life conditions. Particularly patients suffering from respiratory diseases with progressive nature, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, are expected to benefit from long-term monitoring. Recently, the COVID-19 pandemic has also shown the lack of respiratory monitoring systems which are ready to deploy in operational conditions while requiring minimal patient education. To address particularly the latter subject, in this article, we present a sound acquisition module which can be integrated into a dedicated garment; thus, minimizing the role of the patient for positioning the stethoscope and applying the appropriate pressure. We have implemented a diaphragm-less acousto-electric transducer by stacking a silicone rubber and a piezoelectric film to capture thoracic sounds with minimum attenuation. Furthermore, we benchmarked our device with an electronic stethoscope widely used in clinical practice to quantify its performance.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/instrumentação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Monitorização Ambulatorial/instrumentação , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Sons Respiratórios/diagnóstico , Sons Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Estetoscópios , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Acústica , Auscultação/instrumentação , Impedância Elétrica , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Pandemias , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Transdutores , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(18)2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932585

RESUMO

The current COVID-19 pandemic is having a major impact on our daily lives. Social distancing is one of the measures that has been implemented with the aim of slowing the spread of the disease, but it is difficult for blind people to comply with this. In this paper, we present a system that helps blind people to maintain physical distance to other persons using a combination of RGB and depth cameras. We use a real-time semantic segmentation algorithm on the RGB camera to detect where persons are and use the depth camera to assess the distance to them; then, we provide audio feedback through bone-conducting headphones if a person is closer than 1.5 m. Our system warns the user only if persons are nearby but does not react to non-person objects such as walls, trees or doors; thus, it is not intrusive, and it is possible to use it in combination with other assistive devices. We have tested our prototype system on one blind and four blindfolded persons, and found that the system is precise, easy to use, and amounts to low cognitive load.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Betacoronavirus , Cegueira/reabilitação , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Auxiliares Sensoriais , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Acústica , Adulto , Algoritmos , Inteligência Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Cegueira/psicologia , Visão de Cores , Sistemas Computacionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Robótica , Semântica , Óculos Inteligentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Distância Social , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/reabilitação , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 166: 112431, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862842

RESUMO

Last few decades, viruses are a real menace to human safety. Therefore, the rapid identification of viruses should be one of the best ways to prevent an outbreak and important implications for medical healthcare. The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus which belongs to the single-stranded, positive-strand RNA viruses. The pandemic dimension spread of COVID-19 poses a severe threat to the health and lives of seven billion people worldwide. There is a growing urgency worldwide to establish a point-of-care device for the rapid detection of COVID-19 to prevent subsequent secondary spread. Therefore, the need for sensitive, selective, and rapid diagnostic devices plays a vital role in selecting appropriate treatments and to prevent the epidemics. During the last decade, electrochemical biosensors have emerged as reliable analytical devices and represent a new promising tool for the detection of different pathogenic viruses. This review summarizes the state of the art of different virus detection with currently available electrochemical detection methods. Moreover, this review discusses different fabrication techniques, detection principles, and applications of various virus biosensors. Future research also looks at the use of electrochemical biosensors regarding a potential detection kit for the rapid identification of the COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/instrumentação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/instrumentação , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Testes Imediatos , Vírus/patogenicidade
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4384, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873796

RESUMO

The ability to detect low concentrations of biomarkers in patient samples is one of the cornerstones of modern healthcare. In general, biosensing approaches are based on measuring signals resulting from the interaction of a large ensemble of molecules with the sensor. Here, we report a biosensor platform using DNA origami featuring a central cavity with a target-specific DNA aptamer coupled with a nanopore read-out to enable individual biomarker detection. We show that the modulation of the ion current through the nanopore upon the DNA origami translocation strongly depends on the presence of the biomarker in the cavity. We exploit this to generate a biosensing platform with a limit of detection of 3 nM and capable of the detection of human C-reactive protein (CRP) in clinically relevant fluids. Future development of this approach may enable multiplexed biomarker detection by using ribbons of DNA origami with integrated barcoding.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , DNA/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Imagem Individual de Molécula/instrumentação , Biomarcadores/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Nanotecnologia/métodos
15.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 421, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894167

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The advent of new technologies has made it possible to explore alternative ventilator manufacturing to meet the worldwide shortfall for mechanical ventilators especially in pandemics. We describe a method using rapid prototyping technologies to create an electro-mechanical ventilator in a cost effective, timely manner and provide results of testing using an in vitro-in vivo testing model. RESULTS: Rapid prototyping technologies (3D printing and 2D cutting) were used to create a modular ventilator. The artificial manual breathing unit (AMBU) bag connected to wall oxygen source using a flow meter was used as air reservoir. Controlled variables include respiratory rate, tidal volume and inspiratory: expiratory (I:E) ratio. In vitro testing and In vivo testing in the pig model demonstrated comparable mechanical efficiency of the test ventilator to that of standard ventilator but showed the material limits of 3D printed gears. Improved gear design resulted in better ventilator durability whilst reducing manufacturing time (< 2-h). The entire cost of manufacture of ventilator was estimated at 300 Australian dollars. A cost-effective novel rapid prototyped ventilator for use in patients with respiratory failure was developed in < 2-h and was effective in anesthetized, healthy pig model.


Assuntos
Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Ventiladores Mecânicos/provisão & distribução , Anestesia Geral/métodos , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Volume de Reserva Expiratória/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Volume de Reserva Inspiratória/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Impressão Tridimensional/instrumentação , Respiração Artificial/economia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia , Suínos , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar/fisiologia , Ventiladores Mecânicos/economia
17.
Appl Opt ; 59(25): 7585-7595, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902458

RESUMO

We present evidence-based design principles for three different UV-C based decontamination systems for N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) within the context of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak of 2019-2020. The approaches used here were created with consideration for the needs of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and other under-resourced facilities. As such, a particular emphasis is placed on providing cost-effective solutions that can be implemented in short order using generally available components and subsystems. We discuss three optical designs for decontamination chambers, describe experiments verifying design parameters, validate the efficacy of the decontamination for two commonly used N95 FFRs (3M, #1860 and Gerson #1730), and run mechanical and filtration tests that support FFR reuse for at least five decontamination cycles.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar , Descontaminação/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Máscaras , Raios Ultravioleta , Filtros de Ar/microbiologia , Filtros de Ar/virologia , Reutilização de Equipamento , Umidade , Ozônio/síntese química , Ozônio/toxicidade , Temperatura , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4683, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943621

RESUMO

Wearable dry electrodes are needed for long-term biopotential recordings but are limited by their imperfect compliance with the skin, especially during body movements and sweat secretions, resulting in high interfacial impedance and motion artifacts. Herein, we report an intrinsically conductive polymer dry electrode with excellent self-adhesiveness, stretchability, and conductivity. It shows much lower skin-contact impedance and noise in static and dynamic measurement than the current dry electrodes and standard gel electrodes, enabling to acquire high-quality electrocardiogram (ECG), electromyogram (EMG) and electroencephalogram (EEG) signals in various conditions such as dry and wet skin and during body movement. Hence, this dry electrode can be used for long-term healthcare monitoring in complex daily conditions. We further investigated the capabilities of this electrode in a clinical setting and realized its ability to detect the arrhythmia features of atrial fibrillation accurately, and quantify muscle activity during deep tendon reflex testing and contraction against resistance.


Assuntos
Condutividade Elétrica , Epiderme , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Movimento (Física) , Pele , Artefatos , Impedância Elétrica , Eletrocardiografia/instrumentação , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Eletrodos , Eletroencefalografia/instrumentação , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Eletromiografia/instrumentação , Eletromiografia/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Polímeros/química , Sorbitol
19.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(28): 7685-7699, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870351

RESUMO

Pathogen-host cell interactions play an important role in many human infectious and inflammatory diseases. Several pathogens, including Escherichia coli (E. coli), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb), and even the recent 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), can cause serious breathing and brain disorders, tissue injury and inflammation, leading to high rates of mortality and resulting in great loss to human physical and mental health as well as the global economy. These infectious diseases exploit the microbial and host factors to induce serious inflammatory and immunological symptoms. Thus the development of anti-inflammatory drugs targeting bacterial/viral infection is an urgent need. In previous studies, YojI-IFNAR2, YojI-IL10RA, YojI-NRP1,YojI-SIGLEC7, and YojI-MC4R membrane-protein interactions were found to mediate E. coli invasion of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which activated the downstream anti-inflammatory proteins NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 2(NLRP2), using a proteomic chip conjugated with cell immunofluorescence labeling. However, the studies of pathogen (bacteria/virus)-host cell interactions mediated by membrane protein interactions did not extend their principles to broad biomedical applications such as 2019-nCoV infectious disease therapy. The first part of this feature article presents in-depth analysis of the cross-talk of cellular anti-inflammatory transduction signaling among interferon membrane protein receptor II (IFNAR2), interleukin-10 receptor subunit alpha (IL-10RA), NLRP2 and [Ca2+]-dependent phospholipase A2 (PLA2G5), based on experimental results and important published studies, which lays a theoretical foundation for the high-throughput construction of the cytokine and virion solution chip. The paper then moves on to the construction of the novel GPCR recombinant herpes virion chip and virion nano-oscillators for profiling membrane protein functions, which drove the idea of constructing the new recombinant virion and cytokine liquid chips for HTS of leading drugs. Due to the different structural properties of GPCR, IFNAR2, ACE2 and Spike of 2019-nCoV, their ligands will either bind the extracellular domain of IFNAR2/ACE2/Spike or the specific loops of the GPCR on the envelope of the recombinant herpes virions to induce dynamic charge distribution changes that lead to the variable electron transition for detection. Taken together, the combined overview of two of the most innovative and exciting developments in the immunoinflammatory field provides new insight into high-throughput construction of ultrasensitive cytokine and virion liquid chips for HTS of anti-inflammatory drugs or clinical diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory diseases including infectious diseases, acute or chronic inflammation (acute gouty arthritis or rheumatoid arthritis), cardiovascular disease, atheromatosis, diabetes, obesity, tissue injury and tumors. It has significant value in the prevention and treatment of these serious and painful diseases. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/instrumentação , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/instrumentação , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Descoberta de Drogas/instrumentação , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Vírion/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírion/imunologia , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Viroses/imunologia
20.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 169: 112578, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911317

RESUMO

The ongoing global pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to active research in its associated diagnostics and medical treatments. While quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is the most reliable method to detect viral genes of SARS-CoV-2, serological tests for specific antiviral antibodies are also important as they identify false negative qRT-PCR responses, track how effectively the patient's immune system is fighting the infection, and are potentially helpful for plasma transfusion therapies. In this work, based on the principle of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), we develop an opto-microfluidic sensing platform with gold nanospikes, fabricated by electrodeposition, to detect the presence and amount of antibodies specific to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in 1µL of human plasma diluted in 1mL of buffer solution, within ∼30min. The target antibody concentration can be correlated with the LSPR wavelength peak shift of gold nanospikes caused by the local refractive index change due to the antigen-antibody binding. This label-free microfluidic platform achieves a limit of detection of ∼0.08ng/mL (∼0.5pM), falling under the clinical relevant concentration range. We demonstrate that our opto-microfluidic platform offers a promising point-of-care testing tool to complement standard serological assays and make SARS-CoV-2 quantitative diagnostics easier, cheaper, and faster.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Nanoestruturas/química , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/instrumentação , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Ouro/química , Humanos , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Limite de Detecção , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA