Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 53.582
Filtrar
1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e22548, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031299

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and complications that might be associated with pyrocarbon compared with silicone in patients undergoing joint replacement surgery. METHODS: The full-text papers about the clinical efficacy of pyrocarbon and silicone were retrieved from multiple databases. Review Manager version 5.0 was adopted for meta-analysis and analyses of sensitivity and bias. RESULTS: Ultimately, we studied 232 patients across eight studies that met the eligibility criteria. The meta-analysis suggested a significant difference between the pyrocarbon and silicone groups in terms of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score (standard mean difference (SMD) = 1.48; 95% CI [0.97, 1.99]; P = .009; P for Heterogeneity <0.00001; I = 63%); Visual Analogue Score (VAS) (SMD = 1.68; 95% CI [1.36, 1.99]; P < .00001; P for heterogeneity = 0.01; I = 61%), and the abnormal radiolucent line (RR = 6.66; 95% CI [3.19, 13.89]; P < .00001; P for heterogeneity = 0.87, I = 0%); and ossification development (RR = 0.90; 95% CI [0.56, 1.44], P = .66; P for heterogeneity = 0.94, I = 0%). CONCLUSION: This study showed that pyrocarbon might be an efficient material compared with silicone for joint replacement surgery, but resulted in poorer functional and pain outcomes compared with silicone.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Substituição , Carbono , Prótese Articular , Silicones , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Avaliação da Deficiência , Humanos , Medição da Dor , Desenho de Prótese
2.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(7): 815-818, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020369

RESUMO

AIM: An apparatus named "laser pointer apparatus" is proposed for accurate iris positioning in a prosthetic eye. BACKGROUND: Loss of an eye leads to significant psychological stress due to functional disability and societal response to the facial disablement. Custom-made eye prosthesis is a good option to rehabilitate such defects. Inaccurately positioned iris in a prosthetic eye results in squint eye appearance leading to poor esthetics and poor psychological impact among such unfortunate patients. TECHNIQUE: A new apparatus called a laser pointer apparatus, which is an assembly of an occlusal plane analyzer, web camera, laser pointer, and software, has been introduced for iris positioning in a prosthetic eye. CONCLUSION: Iris positioning is one of the key steps in fabricating an eye prosthesis. Laser pointer apparatus is a reliable method for iris positioning in a prosthetic eye. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Positioning the iris to the ideal symmetrical position is a cardinal step in the fabrication of an ocular prosthesis. This article aims to introduce a "laser pointer apparatus" to orient iris in a prosthetic eye objectively to overcome the subjective errors.


Assuntos
Estética Dentária , Olho Artificial , Humanos , Iris/cirurgia , Desenho de Prótese
3.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3310-3313, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018712

RESUMO

Designing prosthetic hands for children is challenging due to the limited space for electronics and the need of reducing the cost to cater for the constant growth of their hand. In this paper, we proposed an anthropomorphic hand prosthesis for children, using monolithic design and 3D printing of soft/compliant materials. The use of monolithic soft robotic structure provides a lightweight and compact design required in paediatric hand prostheses. The use of 3D printing also allows fabrication of customised products manufactured at low volumes in a cost-effective way which is of interest in prosthetic hand for children. The proposed hand/arm design has a total weight of 230gr including battery and actuation and control systems and a size similar to the biological hand of 5-7 years old children. The hand can provide two grasp types: pinch/tripod and power (cylindrical and spherical) and controlled by using two surface electromyography electrodes. The capability of the proposed hand prosthesis is demonstrated through grasping objects with different shapes and sizes.


Assuntos
Membros Artificiais , Robótica , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Impressão Tridimensional , Desenho de Prótese , Extremidade Superior
5.
Int Heart J ; 61(5): 1059-1069, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921666

RESUMO

Because of its rigidity and non-steerability, the presence of a horizontal aortic root poses a major anatomical issue during transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with Evolut self-expanding valve. Previous studies have elucidated the difficulties of coaxial implantation of the self-expanding valve in patients with horizontal aorta, often resulting in increased complications and a lower device success rate. To date, most patients with extremely horizontal aorta (aortic root angle ≥ 70°) have been excluded from major TAVR clinical trials. Therefore, available data on TAVR with Evolut in this challenging anatomy are limited, and standardized treatment strategies and clinical results remain unknown. Herein, we report a clinical case series of TAVR with Evolut in extremely horizontal aorta. Among seven patients (aged 80-92 years; STS score, 12.6% ± 7.9%) who underwent TAVR with Evolut system, aortic root angle ranged from 71° to 83° (mean, 75.1°± 4.5°). All patients achieved device success with dedicated strategies and were clinically stable at 3-month follow-up. None of the patients had more than mild paravalvular leakage (PVL) at any point during follow-up.Complications in three patients included complete atrioventricular block requiring a permanent pacemaker implantation, cerebral infarction because of atrial fibrillation 3 days after TAVR, and cardiac tamponade requiring pericardiocentesis. In this case series, Evolut self-expanding TAVR in extremely horizontal aorta was effective and feasible with a high device success rate. Based on anatomical features, some dedicated strategies majorly contribute to the success of this procedure. Large-scale multicenter studies are required to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/métodos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aorta Torácica/anatomia & histologia , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/epidemiologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/terapia , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial , Tamponamento Cardíaco/epidemiologia , Infarto Cerebral/epidemiologia , Infarto Cerebral/etiologia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Feminino , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Humanos , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Marca-Passo Artificial , Pericardiocentese , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Desenho de Prótese , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/instrumentação , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(10): 1405-1411, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993326

RESUMO

AIMS: This exploratory randomized controlled trial (RCT) aimed to determine the splint-related outcomes when using the novel biodegradable wood-composite splint (Woodcast) compared to standard synthetic fibreglass (Dynacast) for the immobilization of undisplaced upper limb fractures in children. METHODS: An exploratory RCT was performed at a tertiary paediatric referral hospital between 1 June 2018 and 30 September 2019. The intention-to-treat population consisted of 170 patients (mean age 8.42 years (SD 3.42); Woodcast (WCG), n = 84, 57 male (67.9%); Dynacast (DNG), n = 86, 58 male (67.4%)). Patients with undisplaced upper limb fractures were randomly assigned to WCG or DNG treatment groups. Primary outcome was the stress stability of the splint material, defined as absence of any deformations or fractures within the splint during study period. Secondary outcomes included patient satisfaction and medical staff opinion. Additionally, biomechanical and chemical analysis of the splint samples was carried out. RESULTS: Of the initial 170 patients, 168 (98.8%) completed at least one follow-up, and were included for analysis of the primary endpoint. Both treatment groups were well-matched regarding to age, sex, and type and localization of the fracture. Splint breakage occurred in three patients (3.6%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.007% to 0.102%) in the WCG and in three children (3.5%, 95% CI 0.007% to 0.09%) in the DNG (p > 0.99). The incidence of splint-related adverse events did not differ between the WCG (n = 21; 25.0%) and DNG (n = 24; 27.9%; p = 0.720). Under experimental conditions, the maximal tensile strength of Dynacast samples was higher than those deriving from Woodcast (mean 15.37 N/mm² (SD 1.37) vs 10.75 N/mm² (SD 1.20); p = 0.002). Chemical analysis revealed detection of polyisocyanate-prepolymer in Dynacast and polyester in Woodcast samples. CONCLUSION: Splint-related adverse events appear similar between WCG and DNG treatment groups during the treatment of undisplaced forearm fractures. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(10):1405-1411.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Braço/terapia , Fraturas Ósseas/terapia , Contenções , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Vidro , Humanos , Imobilização , Lactente , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Desenho de Prótese , Madeira
7.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(10): 1319-1323, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993348

RESUMO

AIMS: We present the results, in terms of survival, clinical outcome, and radiological appearance at 20 years, in a cohort of 225 cemented Exeter Universal femoral components (Stryker, Newbury, UK) implanted in 207 patients, at a district general hospital. METHODS: All patients in this study had a total hip arthroplasty (THA) using an Exeter Universal femoral component with a cemented (n = 215) or cementless (n = 10) acetabular component. Clinical and radiological data were collected prospectively at one year, five years, and every five years thereafter. Patients lost to radiological and clinical follow-up (five) were cross-referenced with National Joint Registry (NJR) data and general practitioner (GP) records to assess whether they had undergone revision for any reason. RESULTS: During this period of study 144 patients (157 hips) died (69.78%). Two patients were lost to follow-up, leaving 61 patients (66 hips) available for review (29.33%). Of the 225 hips, three underwent revision for femoral failure with osteolysis. One underwent femoral component revision for treatment of a periprosthetic fracture. Eight underwent revision of the acetabular component only for loosening. Two hips had both components revised, when components were found to be loose at time of revision for acetabular loosening, though no radiological femoral osteolysis. Two patients underwent revision for infection. Using femoral loosening as an endpoint, the survival of the Exeter Universal femoral component was 98.7% (n = 220, 95% confidence interval (CI) 96.1% to 100%) at 20 to 22 years. Survival with an endpoint of revision for any reason was 92.6% (n = 209, 95% CI 89.4 to 95.55), with a 'worst-case scenario' (considering two patients lost to follow-up to have failed), the overall survival rate was 91.7% (n = 207, 95% CI 87.8 to 95.9) at 20 to 22 years. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm excellent long-term results for the cemented Exeter Universal femoral componentimplanted outside of the originating centre. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(10):1319-1323.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Fêmur/cirurgia , Prótese de Quadril , Osteólise/cirurgia , Fraturas Periprotéticas/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cimentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Desenho de Prótese , Falha de Prótese , Reino Unido
8.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 99(10): 887-894, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study used a 3-point pressure spinal orthosis made of fabric material in neuromuscular scoliosis patients with flexible spinal curve to evaluate the in-brace correction of the spinal curve and to estimate changes in pulmonary function associated with brace wearing. DESIGN: Twenty-eight children with neuromuscular scoliosis with spinal curve flexibility of more than 50% were enrolled. A custom-made 3-point pressure spinal orthosis was fitted for each patient. The Cobb angles in sitting and supine positions, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in the first second, and peak cough flow were measured before and after applying spinal orthoses. Each participant recorded the brace wearing duration, and questionnaires on brace tolerance were collected. RESULTS: Cobb angles after application of orthosis decreased from 31.0 degrees (interquartile range = 21.9-45.0 degrees) to 16.6 degrees (interquartile range = 10.0-34.0 degrees) in the sitting position and from 13.3 degrees (interquartile range = 4.0-21.0 degrees) to 1.4 degrees (interquartile range = 0.0-19.0 degrees) while supine (P < 0.01, P = 0.04, respectively). Preorthosis and postorthosis application forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in the first second, and peak cough flow were unaffected. Caregivers reported improved sitting postures and manual activities. CONCLUSIONS: In children with flaccid-type neuromuscular scoliosis, curve correction can be achieved using a simple fabric-type spinal orthosis when applied to patients with flexible scoliosis, without compromising lung function. TO CLAIM CME CREDITS: Complete the self-assessment activity and evaluation online at http://www.physiatry.org/JournalCME CME OBJECTIVES: Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to: (1) Describe the factors associated with the effects of spinal braces in neuromuscular scoliosis; (2) Discuss the characteristics of flaccid-type neuromuscular scoliosis; and (3) Discuss the benefits of fabric-type orthosis regarding pulmonary function and patient compliance. LEVEL: Advanced. ACCREDITATION: The Association of Academic Physiatrists is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians.The Association of Academic Physiatrists designates this Journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.


Assuntos
Aparelhos Ortopédicos , Desenho de Prótese , Ajuste de Prótese , Escoliose/terapia , Têxteis , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Função Respiratória , Escoliose/diagnóstico por imagem , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(9): 1128-1135, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862681

RESUMO

AIMS: The rate of dislocation when traditional single bearing implants are used in revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been reported to be between 8% and 10%. The use of dual mobility bearings can reduce this risk to between 0.5% and 2%. Dual mobility bearings are more expensive, and it is not clear if the additional clinical benefits constitute value for money for the payers. We aimed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of dual mobility compared with single bearings for patients undergoing revision THA. METHODS: We developed a Markov model to estimate the expected cost and benefits of dual mobility compared with single bearing implants in patients undergoing revision THA. The rates of revision and further revision were calculated from the National Joint Registry of England and Wales, while rates of transition from one health state to another were estimated from the literature, and the data were stratified by sex and age. Implant and healthcare costs were estimated from local procurement prices and national tariffs. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were calculated using published utility estimates for patients undergoing THA. RESULTS: At a minimum five-year follow-up, the use of dual mobility was cost-effective with an estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of between £3,006 and £18,745/QALY for patients aged < 55 years and between 64 and 75 years, respectively. For those aged > 75 years dual mobility was only cost-effective if the timeline was beyond seven years. The use of dual mobility bearings was cost-saving for patients aged < 75 years and cost-effective for those aged > 75 years if the time horizon was beyond ten years. CONCLUSION: The use of dual mobility bearings is cost-effective compared with single bearings in patients undergoing revision THA. The younger the patient is, the more likely it is that a dual mobility bearing can be more cost-effective and even cost-saving. The results are affected by the time horizon and cost of bearings for those aged > 75 years. For patients aged > 75 years, the surgeon must decide whether the use of a dual mobility bearing is a viable economic and clinical option. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(9):1128-1135.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Prótese de Quadril/economia , Reoperação/economia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desenho de Prótese
10.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(9): 1158-1166, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862688

RESUMO

AIMS: The primary objective of this study was to compare migration of the cemented ATTUNE fixed bearing cruciate retaining tibial component with the cemented Press-Fit Condylar (PFC)-sigma fixed bearing cruciate retaining tibial component. The secondary objectives included comparing clinical and radiological outcomes and Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs). METHODS: A single blinded randomized, non-inferiority study was conducted including 74 patients. Radiostereometry examinations were made after weight bearing, but before hospital discharge, and at three, six, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. PROMS were collected preoperatively and at three, six, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. Radiographs for measuring radiolucencies were collected at two weeks and two years postoperatively. RESULTS: The overall migration (mean maximum total point motion (MPTM)) at two years was comparable: mean 1.13 mm (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97 to 1.30) for the ATTUNE and 1.16 mm (95% CI, 0.99 to 1.35) for the PFC-sigma. At two years, the mean backward tilting was -0.43° (95% CI, -0.65 to -0.21) for the ATTUNE and 0.08° (95% CI -0.16 to 0.31), for the PFC-sigma. Overall migration between the first and second postoperative year was negligible for both components. The clinical outcomes and PROMs improved compared with preoperative scores and were not different between groups. Radiolucencies at the implant-cement interface were mainly seen below the medial baseplate: 17% in the ATTUNE and 3% in the PFC-sigma at two weeks, and at two years 42% and 9% respectively (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: In the first two postoperative years the initial version of the ATTUNE tibial component was not inferior with respect to overall migration, although it showed relatively more backwards tilting and radiolucent lines at the implant-cement interface than the PFC-sigma. The version of the ATTUNE tibial component examined in this study has subsequently undergone modification by the manufacturer. Level of Evidence: 1 (randomized controlled clinical trial) Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(9):1158-1166.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Cimentos para Ossos , Migração de Corpo Estranho/epidemiologia , Prótese do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Feminino , Migração de Corpo Estranho/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Desenho de Prótese , Falha de Prótese , Análise Radioestereométrica , Método Simples-Cego , Tíbia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Int Heart J ; 61(5): 951-960, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879260

RESUMO

The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the clinical outcomes in patients who underwent rapid deployment aortic valve replacement (RDAVR) and conventional bio prosthetic aortic valve replacement (CAVR).We performed a literature search by August 2018. The primary outcomes were hospital and 1-year mortality, and the secondary endpoints included the aortic cross-clamp (ACC), cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time, and postoperative and valve-related complications.Two randomized controlled trials and 13 propensity score-matched studies were included. There was no difference between RDAVR and CAVR in hospital mortality (2.5% versus 2.1%; risk ratio (RR) 1.16 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-1.68]) or 1-year mortality (2.9% versus 4.1%; RR 0.69 [95% CI 0.34-1.34]). RDAVR significantly reduced the ACC time ( (mean difference (MD) -24.33 [95% CI -28.35 to -20.32]) and CPB time (MD -21.51 [95% CI -22.83 to -20.20]). The pooled analysis showed that RDAVR doubled the occurrence of permanent pacemaker implantation (8.6% versus 4.3%; RR 2.05 [95% CI 1.62-2.60]). Meanwhile, the blood transfusion amount (MD -1.54 [95% CI -2.22 to -0.86]) and postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) occurrence (RR 0.83 [95% CI 0.69-0.99]) was reduced. The difference of paravalvular leakage frequency between RDAVR and CAVR was marginal (RR 1.77 [95% CI 1.00-3.17]; P = 0.05). Furthermore, RDAVR was related to larger valves (MD 0.70 cm [95% CI 0.33-1.07]) and lower mean pressure gradients (MD -1.93 mmHg [95% CI -3.58 to -0.28]).The hospital and 1-year survival rates between RDAVR and CAVR are comparable. RDAVR reduces POAF occurrence and blood transfusion but is associated with a higher occurrence of pacemaker implantation.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Bioprótese , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Desenho de Prótese , Aorta , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Constrição , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/instrumentação , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 47: e20202481, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965301

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Endovascular treatment for femoropopliteal arterial disease has made revascularization procedures less invasive, but the self-expanding stents used can suffer great wear in arteries with extreme mobility. To evaluate the prevalence of fractures in stents implanted in the femoropopliteal segment, to identify predisposing factors and consequences on arterial patency. METHOD: between March and June 2019, thirty patients previously operated for femoropopliteal obstruction underwent stent X-rays in anteroposterior and lateral views to detect fractures and Doppler to analyze arterial patency. RESULTS: we observed 12 cases with fractures (33.3%): 1 type I (2.8%), 3 type II (8.3%), 5 type III (13.9%), 3 type IV (8.3%) and no type V. According to the TASC II we had 1 in group B (8.3%), 6 in group C (50%) and 5 in group D (41.6%) p <0.004. The number of stents per limb was 3.1 (± 1.3) in cases of fracture versus 2.3 (± 1.3) in cases without fracture (p = 0.08). The extension was 274.17mm (± 100.94) in cases of fracture and 230.83mm (± 135.44) in cases without fracture (p = 0.29). On Doppler we had: 17 patients (47.2%) without stenosis, 9 patients (25%) with stenosis> 50% and 10 patients (27.8%) with occlusion (p = 0.37). There was no correlation between fracture and arterial obstruction (p = 0.33). CONCLUSION: stent fractures are a frequent finding in the femoropopliteal area (33.3%), being more prevalent in cases of more advanced disease (C and D). There was no association between the finding of fracture and arterial obstruction.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Doença Arterial Periférica , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/terapia , Artéria Poplítea , Falha de Prótese , Stents , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores/métodos , Humanos , Perna (Membro)/irrigação sanguínea , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/diagnóstico por imagem , Prevalência , Desenho de Prótese , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
13.
Fisioterapia (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 42(4): 218-223, jul.-ago. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193509

RESUMO

ANTECEDENTES Y OBJETIVO: La amputación de miembros inferiores genera ajustes en los sistemas somato sensorial y musculoesquelético modificando la manera como se mantiene la estabilidad, parámetro sensible y clínicamente relevante en la evaluación clínica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar las características de la estabilidad en personas con amputación transtibial unilateral (ATU) en fase posprotésica. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo de serie de casos que incluyó 5 varones con ATU con marcha independiente y que no usaran dispositivos de asistencia. Se evaluó la estabilidad estática y dinámica con ojos abiertos (OA) y ojos cerrados (OC). RESULTADOS: La estabilometría estática mostró una superficie de elipse de baricentro corporal mayor con OC y en el miembro inferior sano (MIS) respecto al miembro inferior protetizado (MIP), la media del índice de Romberg se ubicó en el rango de referencia; la estabilometría dinámica mostró límites de estabilidad menores en sentido anterior y hacia el MIS, y aún más reducidos con OC. CONCLUSIÓN: Las personas con ATU tienden a generar mayor apoyo y oscilaciones en el MIS y menores límites de estabilidad en el MIP para mantener el control de la estabilidad estática y dinámica


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The amputation of lower limbs leads to adjustments in somatosensory and musculoskeletal systems to modify the way that stability is maintained. This is a sensitive and relevant parameter within clinical evaluation. The objective of this study was to determine the characteristics of stability in patients with a unilateral transtibial amputation (TTA) in the post-prosthetic phase. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive study of a case series including five men with TTA and an independent gait, and who did not use assistive devices. Static and dynamic stability was evaluated with open eyes (OE) and closed eyes (CE). RESULTS: Static stabilometry displayed a greater elliptical surface area of body centre of gravity with CE and in the Healthy Lower Limb (HLL) compared to the Prosthetic Lower Limb (PLL). The mean Romberg ratio (EC/EO) was within the reference range. Dynamic stabilometry showed lower limits of stability in the anterior direction and towards the HLL, and even more reduced stability with CE. CONCLUSION: People with TTA tend to generate more support and oscillations in the HLL and lower stability limits in the PLL to maintain static and dynamic stability control


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Amputação/métodos , Amputação/reabilitação , Cotos de Amputação , Amputados , Desenho de Prótese , Membros Artificiais , Marcha/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia
14.
N Engl J Med ; 383(6): 526-536, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) was designed to avoid complications related to the transvenous ICD lead by using an entirely extrathoracic placement. Evidence comparing these systems has been based primarily on observational studies. METHODS: We conducted a noninferiority trial in which patients with an indication for an ICD but no indication for pacing were assigned to receive a subcutaneous ICD or transvenous ICD. The primary end point was the composite of device-related complications and inappropriate shocks; the noninferiority margin for the upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval for the hazard ratio (subcutaneous ICD vs. transvenous ICD) was 1.45. A superiority analysis was prespecified if noninferiority was established. Secondary end points included death and appropriate shocks. RESULTS: A total of 849 patients (426 in the subcutaneous ICD group and 423 in the transvenous ICD group) were included in the analyses. At a median follow-up of 49.1 months, a primary end-point event occurred in 68 patients in the subcutaneous ICD group and in 68 patients in the transvenous ICD group (48-month Kaplan-Meier estimated cumulative incidence, 15.1% and 15.7%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71 to 1.39; P = 0.01 for noninferiority; P = 0.95 for superiority). Device-related complications occurred in 31 patients in the subcutaneous ICD group and in 44 in the transvenous ICD group (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.44 to 1.09); inappropriate shocks occurred in 41 and 29 patients, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 0.89 to 2.30). Death occurred in 83 patients in the subcutaneous ICD group and in 68 in the transvenous ICD group (hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.70); appropriate shocks occurred in 83 and 57 patients, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.12). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with an indication for an ICD but no indication for pacing, the subcutaneous ICD was noninferior to the transvenous ICD with respect to device-related complications and inappropriate shocks. (Funded by Boston Scientific; PRAETORIAN ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01296022.).


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Desfibriladores Implantáveis/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Cardiomiopatias/terapia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Eletrodos Implantados/efeitos adversos , Falha de Equipamento , Feminino , Seguimentos , Cardiopatias/terapia , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desenho de Prótese
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21554, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVS) completely resorb within 3 years after placement into the coronary artery. The safety and effectiveness of bioabsorbable scaffolds are of critical importance during this 3-year period. OBJECTIVE: We performed a meta-analysis to compare the safety and efficacy of BVS and second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) at 3 years after implantation. METHODS: Published randomized trials comparing BVS to second-generation DES for the treatment of coronary artery disease were identified within PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and relevant Web sites with publication dates through June 2019. The primary efficacy endpoint was target lesion failure. The primary safety endpoint was definite/probable stent/scaffold thrombosis. Secondary outcomes were cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction, ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization, and a patient-oriented composite end point. RESULTS: Six randomized controlled trials, with a total of 5,412 patients (BVS n = 3,177; DES n = 2,235), were included. At 3 years, BVS was associated with higher rates of target lesion failure (OR = 1.33, 95%CI: 1.10-1.60, P = 0.003) and definite/probable stent/scaffold thrombosis (OR = 3.75, 95% CI: 2.22-6.35, P < .00001)compared with DES. The incidence of target vessel myocardial infarction (OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.30-2.17, P < .0001), ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.14-1.86, P = .003), and the patient-oriented composite end point(OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.04-1.39, P = .01) were higher for those treated with BVS compared with DES. However, there was no significant difference in risk of cardiac death (OR = 0.94, 95%CI: 0.61-1.45, P = .79) between treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: At the 3-year follow-up, BVS was inferior to second-generation DES in both safety and efficacy.


Assuntos
Implantes Absorvíveis/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Stents Farmacológicos/efeitos adversos , Morte , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Revascularização Miocárdica/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenho de Prótese , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Trombose/etiologia
16.
Orthopade ; 49(9): 797-807, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wrist arthroplasty is still an exceptional indication in the field of hand surgery. In recent years, it has become increasingly accepted as an alternative to wrist arthrodesis as the ultima ratio for panarthrosis or similar destruction of the wrist. In particular, the patient's desire for functional integrity also plays an important role. COMPLICATIONS: While there were often complications with earlier prosthesis designs of the older generations and only a short survival rate could be achieved, this has improved, if the indication of the so-called fourth generation prostheses is done properly. Survival rates of over 10 years are no longer uncommon, even without revision operations. Currently, the indication for hemiarthroplasty has been increasing, particularly in the case of post-traumatic destruction. Those who are seriously interested in endoprosthesis should also be able to treat the associated complications. The present article is intended to provide an overview of common or potential complications in the context of wrist arthroplasty and to demonstrate possible solutions by presenting case studies. The basics of primary implantation are, therefore, not discussed. Reference is made to further literature.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Substituição , Hemiartroplastia , Prótese Articular , Reoperação , Punho , Humanos , Desenho de Prótese , Punho/cirurgia , Articulação do Punho
17.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 22(1): 59, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anatomically pre-shaped sinus prostheses (SP) were developed to mimic the aortic sinus with the goal to preserve near physiological hemodynamic conditions after valve-sparing aortic root replacement. Although SP have shown more physiological flow patterns, a comparison to straight tube prosthesis and the analysis of derived quantitative parameters is lacking. Hence, this study sought to analyze differences in aortic wall shear stress (WSS) between anatomically pre-shaped SP, conventional straight tube prostheses (TP), and age-matched healthy subjects) using time-resolved 3-dimensional flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (4D Flow CMR). Moreover, the WSS gradient was introduced and analyzed regarding its sensitivity to detect changes in hemodynamics and its dependency on the expression of secondary flow patterns. METHODS: Twelve patients with SP (12 male, 62 ± 9yr), eight patients with TP (6 male, 59 ± 9yr), and twelve healthy subjects (2 male, 55 ± 6yr) were examined at 3 T with a 4D Flow CMR sequence in this case control study. Six analysis planes were placed in the thoracic aorta at reproducible landmarks. The following WSS parameters were recorded: WSSavg (spatially averaged over the contour at peak systole), max. WSSseg (maximum segmental WSS), min. WSSseg (minimum segmental WSS) and the WSS Gradient, calculated as max. WSSseg - min. WSSseg. Kruskal-Wallis- and Mann-Whitney-U-Test were used for statistical comparison of groups. Occurrence and expression of secondary flow patterns were evaluated and correlated to WSS values using Spearman's correlation coefficient. RESULTS: In the planes bordering the prosthesis all WSS values were significantly lower in the SP compared to the TP, approaching the physiological optimum of the healthy subjects. The WSS gradient showed significantly different values in the four proximally localized contours when comparing both prostheses with healthy subjects. Strong correlations between an elevated WSS gradient and secondary flow patterns were found in the ascending aorta and the aortic arch. CONCLUSION: Overall, the SP has a positive impact on WSS, most pronounced at the site and adjacent to the prosthesis. The WSS gradient differed most obviously and the correlation of the WSS gradient with the occurrence of secondary flow patterns provides further evidence for linking disturbed flow, which was markedly increased in patients compared to healthy sub jects, to degenerative remodeling of the vascular wall.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Prótese Vascular , Hemodinâmica , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem de Perfusão/métodos , Desenho de Prótese , Adulto , Idoso , Aorta Torácica/fisiopatologia , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Técnicas de Imagem de Sincronização Cardíaca , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Estresse Mecânico , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Am Heart J ; 227: 111-117, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Complete revascularization in patients with an acute coronary syndrome and multivessel disease is superior compared to culprit-only treatment. However, it is unknown whether direct complete or staged complete revascularization should be pursued. METHODS: The BIOVASC study is an investigator-initiated, prospective, multicenter, randomized, 2-arm, international, open-label, noninferiority trial. We will randomize 1,525 patients 1:1 to immediate complete revascularization (experimental arm) or culprit-only plus staged complete revascularization (control arm). Patients will be enrolled in approximately 30 sites in Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, and Spain. The primary end point is a composite of all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, any unplanned ischemia-driven revascularization (excluding staged procedures in the control arm at the predetermined time), and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) at 1 year post index procedure. CONCLUSIONS: The BIOVASC study aims to further refine the treatment algorithm for acute coronary syndrome patients with multivessel disease in terms of optimal timing for complete revascularization (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03621501).


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Stents Farmacológicos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Sirolimo/administração & dosagem , Implantes Absorvíveis , Estudos de Equivalência como Asunto , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Polímeros , Estudos Prospectivos , Desenho de Prótese
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236701, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hip replacement and hip resurfacing are common surgical procedures with an estimated risk of revision of 4% over 10 year period. Approximately 58% of hip replacements will last 25 years. Some implants have higher revision rates and early identification of poorly performing hip replacement implant brands and cup/head brand combinations is vital. AIMS: Development of a dynamic monitoring method for the revision rates of hip implants. METHODS: Data on the outcomes following the hip replacement surgery between 2004 and 2012 was obtained from the National Joint Register (NJR) in the UK. A novel dynamic algorithm based on the CUmulative SUM (CUSUM) methodology with adjustment for casemix and random frailty for an operating unit was developed and implemented to monitor the revision rates over time. The Benjamini-Hochberg FDR method was used to adjust for multiple testing of numerous hip replacement implant brands and cup/ head combinations at each time point. RESULTS: Three poorly performing cup brands and two cup/ head brand combinations have been detected. Wright Medical UK Ltd Conserve Plus Resurfacing Cup (cup o), DePuy ASR Resurfacing Cup (cup e), and Endo Plus (UK) Limited EP-Fit Plus Polyethylene cup (cup g) showed stable multiple alarms over the period of a year or longer. An addition of a random frailty term did not change the list of underperforming components. The model with added random effect was more conservative, showing less and more delayed alarms. CONCLUSIONS: Our new algorithm is an efficient method for early detection of poorly performing components in hip replacement surgery. It can also be used for similar tasks of dynamic quality monitoring in healthcare.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Prótese de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Desenho de Prótese , Falha de Prótese , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Reino Unido
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237841, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813733

RESUMO

To function effectively, a lower limb prosthetic socket must remain securely coupled to the residual limb during walking, running and other activities of daily living; this coupling is referred to as suspension. When this coupling is insufficient longitudinal pistoning of the socket relative to the residual limb occurs. Increasing friction of the socket/liner interface may improve socket suspension and textured sockets may be fabricated relatively easily with 3D printing. The aim of this study was to investigate longitudinal displacement of sockets with different types of textures under two suspension conditions: passive suction and active vacuum. In order to do this, we developed a mock residual limb and mechanical testing protocol. Prosthetic sockets, 14 textured sockets and an Original Squirt-Shape (OSS) Socket, were fabricated from polypropylene copolymer using the Squirt-Shape™ 3D Printer and compared to a smooth socket thermoformed from polypropylene copolymer. Sockets were mounted onto a dual durometer mock residual limb and subjected to four levels of distraction forces (100 N, 250 N, 500 N and 650 N) using a hydraulic material testing system. There was a statistically significant three-way interaction between suspension, force level and texture (p < 0.0005). Longitudinal displacements between textured and reference sockets, for all force levels and both suspension conditions, were significantly different (p < 0.0005). Using these newly developed mechanical testing protocols, it was demonstrated that texturing of polypropylene copolymer sockets fabricated using Squirt-Shape significantly decreased longitudinal displacements compared to a smooth socket. However, none of the novel textured sockets significantly reduced longitudinal displacement compared to the OSS socket under passive suction suspension.


Assuntos
Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Teste de Materiais , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Desenho de Prótese , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Sucção , Vácuo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA