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2.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1557, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major infectious diseases that seriously endanger people's health. In Shandong province, the relationship between the level of economic development and TB incidence has not been studied. This study aims to provide more research basis for the government to prevent and control TB by exploring the impact of different economic factors on TB incidence. METHODS: By constructing threshold regression model (TRM), we described the extent to which different economic factors contribute to TB registered incidence and differences in TB registered incidence among seventeen cities with different levels of economic development in Shandong province, China, during 2006-2017. Data were retrieved from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. RESULTS: Per capita medical expenditure (regression coefficient, -0.0314462; SD, 0.0079305; P > |t|, 0.000) and per capita savings (regression coefficient, 0.0001924; SD, 0.0000566; P > |t|, 0.001) passed the significance test at the level of 1%.They are the two economic indicators that have the greatest impact on TB registered incidence. Through the threshold test, we selected the per capita savings as the threshold variable. In the three stages of per capita savings (<9772.8086 China Yuan(CNY); 9772.8086-33,835.5391 CNY; >33,835.5391 CNY), rural per capita income always has a significant negative impact on the TB registered incidence (The regression coefficients are - 0.0015682, - 0.0028132 and - 0.0022253 respectively. P is 0.007,0.000 and 0.000 respectively.).In cities with good economies, TB registered incidence was 38.30% in 2006 and dropped to 25.10% by 2017. In cities with moderate economies, TB registered incidence peaked in 2008 at 43.10% and dropped to 27.1% by 2017.In poorer cities, TB registered incidence peaked in 2008 at 56.30% and dropped to 28.9% in 2017. CONCLUSION: We found that per capita savings and per capita medical expenditure are most closely related to the TB incidence. Therefore, relevant departments should formulate a more complete medical system and medical insurance policy to effectively solve the problem of "difficult and expensive medical treatment". In order to further reduce the TB incidence, in addition to timely and accurate diagnosis and treatment, it is more important for governments to increase investment in medicine and health care.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Sistema de Registros
3.
Ambio ; 49(12): 1860-1877, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034874

RESUMO

This review article examines how social science literature co-produces various imaginaries of forest-based bioeconomy transformations and pathways for reaching desired ends. Based on an analysis of 59 research articles, we find that despite a growing number of social sciences studies on the forest-based bioeconomy, much of the research tends to replicate a bioeconomy imaginary articulated in EU and national bioeconomy policies and strategies. Accordingly, the research primarily reproduces a weak approach to sustainability, which prioritize economic growth and competitiveness. Expectations are largely directed at national and regional corporate interests and forest industrial renewal, while the state has a supportive rather than restricting role. We discuss the findings against the role of social sciences, and conclude that social science scholars may adopt various strategies if interested in opening up forest-based policy debates and offer alternative imaginaries of sustainable bioeconomy transformations.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Florestas , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Indústrias , Políticas
4.
Ambio ; 49(12): 1897-1911, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044701

RESUMO

Media can play a key role in shaping public opinion and setting a policy agenda by conveying and influencing public discourse. This article evaluates how the Spanish media has covered the topic of the forest bioeconomy and what kind of discourse it has produced and reproduced around it. For this purpose, we analysed the content of 204 national and regional newspaper articles. The results reveal the scarce penetration of the forest bioeconomy in media and some weaknesses in the narrative production and communicative dimension. The discourse is mainly constructed by governments with a limited presence of multiple stakeholders and an absence of conflict and divergent or alternative views. In addition, the discourse only addresses regional or local problems within the framework of an extended and dominant paradigm of economic growth considering the forest bioeconomy as an opportunity to combat fire, rural abandonment, smallholdings, and poor forest management. We conclude that media is not using its strategic potential and capacity as a public space. To become agents of change, the media should reflect a forest bioeconomy based on successful experiences of innovation and valorization, and adopt a transformative social vision that gives relevance to the interconnection between multiple stakeholders, forest multifunctionality and rural development.


Assuntos
Fogo , Florestas , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Opinião Pública , Espanha
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(10): 665, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001326

RESUMO

With economic development and the acceleration of urbanization, China's energy demand has gradually increased and brought a lot of energy-related CO2 emissions. Energy-related CO2 emissions are affected by a variety of factors. Quantifying the correlation between energy-related CO2 and driving factors and constructing the driving factor system are conducive to predict the future energy-related CO2 emissions and analyze the impact of driving factors. In this paper, the improved grey relational analysis (IGRA) was proposed to screen the influencing factors of energy-related CO2 emissions considering the sample difference, and the factor analysis (FA) was used to reduce dimensionality of the influencing factors. Then, a carbon dioxide emission forecasting model based on the bacterial foraging optimization algorithm (BFO) and the least square support vector machine (LSSVM) was proposed. Empirical analysis results of Hebei show that the LSSVM optimized BFO significantly improves the accuracy of energy-related CO2 emissions forecasting, and IGRA-FA-BFOLSSVM model is significantly better than BP, PSOBP, SVM, and LSSVM models. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of the proposed model is 0.374%. The forecasting results of the supplementary case show that the model has better generalization ability. In addition, education and technological progress have proven to be important drivers of energy-related CO2 emissions. Simultaneously, the research results can also offer more breakthrough points for policy makers to control carbon emissions.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Análise Fatorial
6.
Sex Reprod Health Matters ; 28(3): 1831717, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073725

RESUMO

In recent decades, bold steps taken by the government of Nepal to liberalise its abortion law and increase the affordability and accessibility of safe abortion and family planning have contributed to significant improvements in maternal mortality and other sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes. The Trump administration's Global Gag Rule (GGR) - which prohibits foreign non-governmental organisations (NGOs) from receiving US global health assistance unless they certify that they will not use funding from any source to engage in service delivery, counselling, referral, or advocacy related to abortion - threatens this progress. This paper examines the impact of the GGR on civil society, NGOs, and SRH service delivery in Nepal. We conducted 205 semi-structured in-depth interviews in 2 phases (August-September 2018, and June-September 2019), and across 22 districts. Interview participants included NGO programme managers, government employees, facility managers and service providers in the NGO and private sectors, and service providers in public sector facilities. This large, two-phased study complements existing anecdotal research by capturing impacts of the GGR as they evolved over the course of a year, and by surfacing pathways through which this policy affects SRH outcomes. We found that low policy awareness and a considerable chilling effect cut across levels of the Nepali health system and exacerbated impacts caused by routine implementation of the GGR, undermining the ecology of SRH service delivery in Nepal as well as national sovereignty.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/economia , Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/economia , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Global , Política , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Feminino , Regulamentação Governamental , Direitos Humanos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Entrevistas como Assunto , Nepal , Estados Unidos
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21767, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871897

RESUMO

Risk factors such as smoking and sugar intake threaten the health of human being at an individual national level as well as at a global level. The globalization affect health indirectly through macro and micro-level factors. This study aimed to identify the global trend of dental caries according to countries national income level, and to examine the role of globalization, health services, obesity, and sugar consumption on dental caries. Data for 160 countries were collected for the time period of the 1990s to 2010s. The final sample included 46 countries with complete data (21 high income countries (HIC) and 25 middle and low income countries (MLIC)). The main dependent variable was the mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index of 12-year-olds as an indicator of dental caries. Globalization was a main independent variable which was measured by economic growth, urbanization and economic freedom. Other independent variables were health services, obesity and sugar consumption. The data were analyzed first using repeated measures analysis of variance to compare dental caries trends in HIC and MLIC. Then, using multiple linear regression and partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), the relationships between globalization, health services, obesity, sugar consumption, and dental caries were examined. The results of PLS-SEM revealed that globalization was associated with lower DMFT in HIC. The global dental caries trend had a declined pattern, but this pattern has been attenuated in MLIC after the new millennium. There is a need for policy change and regulations on sugar trade especially in MLIC to diminish the adverse consequences of globalization, and to improve population dental health.


Assuntos
Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Internacionalidade , Criança , Açúcares da Dieta , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Modelos Lineares , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Urbanização
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 740: 140057, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927541

RESUMO

Existing related researches have focused on the linear relationship between population aging and carbon emissions, which easily lead to partial understanding of the effect of population aging on carbon emissions. In order to more comprehension of the effect of population aging on carbon emissions, this study explores the nonlinear relationship between population aging and carbon emission through empirical analysis of ten selected provinces in China from 2000 to 2016 using the panel threshold model. In the proposed panel threshold model, carbon emission is set as the explained variable, population aging is set as the core explanatory variable, the levels of population aging and trade openness are set as threshold variables, the levels of economic development, energy consumption structure, industrial structure, and technological innovation are set as the controlling variables, respectively. The results show that population aging has a threshold effect on curbing carbon emission. The levels of population aging and trade openness are two key factors that affect the relationship between population aging and carbon emission. Whether the level of popultion aging is lower or higher than the threshold value of 0.12937, the population aging has a negative coefficient on carbon emissions. Moreover, the higher the level of population aging, the greater the offsetting effect of population aging on carbon emission. When the level of trade openness is below the threshold value of 0.30990, the effect of population aging on carbon emission is negligible. When the level of trade openness is higher than the threshold value of 0.30990, the offesetting effect of population aging on carbon emission begins to appear. In other words, population aging has an offsetting effect on carbon emission when trade openness is in relatively high level, whereas the offsetting effect disappears when trade openness is lower than threshold value.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Carbono , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237500, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881890

RESUMO

After the United Kingdom has left the European Union it remains unclear whether the two parties can successfully negotiate and sign a trade agreement within the transition period. Ongoing negotiations, practical obstacles and resulting uncertainties make it highly unlikely that economic actors would be fully prepared to a "no-trade-deal" situation. Here we provide an economic shock simulation of the immediate aftermath of such a post-Brexit no-trade-deal scenario by computing the time evolution of more than 1.8 million interactions between more than 6,600 economic actors in the global trade network. We find an abrupt decline in the number of goods produced in the UK and the EU. This sudden output reduction is caused by drops in demand as customers on the respective other side of the Channel incorporate the new trade restriction into their decision-making. As a response, producers reduce prices in order to stimulate demand elsewhere. In the short term consumers benefit from lower prices but production value decreases with potentially severe socio-economic consequences in the longer term.


Assuntos
Comércio/economia , Participação da Comunidade , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Fatores de Tempo , União Europeia , Geografia , Modelos Econômicos , Reino Unido
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942766

RESUMO

This paper examines the linkages in financial markets during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak. For this purpose, daily stock market returns were used over the period of December 31, 2019-April 20, 2020 for the following economies: USA, Spain, Italy, France, Germany, UK, China, and Romania. The study applied the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model to explore whether the Romanian stock market is impacted by the crisis generated by novel coronavirus. Granger causality was employed to investigate the causalities among COVID-19 and stock market returns, as well as between pandemic measures and several commodities. The outcomes of the ARDL approach failed to find evidence towards the impact of Chinese COVID-19 records on the Romanian financial market, neither in the short-term, nor in the long-term. On the other hand, our quantitative approach reveals a negative effect of the new deaths' cases from Italy on the 10-year Romanian bond yield both in the short-run and long-run. The econometric research provide evidence that Romanian 10-year government bond is more sensitive to the news related to COVID-19 than the index of the Bucharest Stock Exchange. Granger causality analysis reveals causal associations between selected stock market returns and Philadelphia Gold/Silver Index.


Assuntos
Comércio/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Betacoronavirus , China , França , Alemanha , Humanos , Itália , Romênia , Espanha , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238475, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877439

RESUMO

Regional resilience refers to the resilience of a country or region against the ecological environment, social economy, and other internal and external natural factors and human factors in the process of development. When this resilience is lower than a certain critical threshold, the country or region will be in a fragile state. The comprehensive embodiment of ecological resilience, social resilience, and economic resilience of a country or region is regional resilience. Due to the wide range of countries along "the Belt and Road", differences in natural background conditions and stages of economic and social development among different countries lead to different degrees of vulnerability, and the improvement of resilience is conducive to reducing vulnerability. At the same time, the research on the measurement and differentiation characteristics of regional resilience is of considerable significance to solve the weak foundation of environmental management and the lack of ability to deal with climate change of "the Belt and Road" countries. In this study, by using entropy weighting method and multi-index comprehensive evaluation method, 24 specific indicators are selected from three different dimensions: ecology, economy, and society, to construct a comprehensive evaluation index system about "the Belt and Road" countries resilience, and to evaluate the comprehensive resilience and spatial heterogeneity characteristics of China and 64 countries along "the Belt and Road", and use multiple linear regression analysis to identify the main influencing factors of comprehensive resilience and analyze its influencing mechanism. According to the research, the overall resilience level of "the Belt and Road" countries shows prominent differentiation characteristics of "extreme difference", the countries with low and low recovery status account for the vast majority; and the spatial differentiation characteristics of the levels of ecological resilience, economic resilience, and social resilience of countries along "the Belt and Road" are quite different. In countries with high levels of economic development, their comprehensive resilience is significantly higher than that of countries with low levels of economic development. There is no inevitable connection between a country's economic growth rate and its comprehensive resilience level. At the same time, the relationship between resource richness and comprehensive resilience of countries is not apparent, but for those countries that are over-dependent on resources, the level of resilience is generally below. There is a certain degree of correspondence between urbanization rate and comprehensive resilience, that is, the comprehensive resilience will increase with the increase of urbanization rate. When the urbanization rate rises to a certain level, the level of comprehensive resilience does not change much. In this study, it provides scientific guidance for enriching regional resilience and national sustainable development theory, solving the fragile ecological environment foundation of "the Belt and Road" countries, speeding up the transformation of economic growth mode and dealing with a series of social problems.


Assuntos
Ecologia/tendências , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , China , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Meio Social , Análise Espacial , Urbanização
12.
J Environ Manage ; 271: 110785, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778253

RESUMO

Contextualising on the internationally low oil prices era and historically high oil production in USA and refusal to honour the commitments under Paris Agreement (COP: 21), this study investigates the role of education, oil prices and natural resources on energy demand and CO2 emissions in the USA for the period of 1976-2016. In so doing, we employed a bounds testing approach to cointegration accounting for structural breaks in the series. Key findings suggest the presence of a long-run association between underlying variables. The abundance of natural resources and economic growth of the US economy seem to weigh on environmental quality by increasing energy consumption and carbon emissions. Oil prices show a negative association with energy consumption as well as carbon emissions suggesting that a low oil prices regime can lead to an increase in carbon emissions and energy consumption. Interestingly, education seems to play an important role by reducing energy consumption and carbon emissions, resultantly improving the US environmental quality. Our findings have profound environmental implications in terms of efforts to tackle climate change and meeting the Paris agreement (COP: 21) ambitions with reality and USA policy stance.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Mudança Climática , Paris , Políticas
13.
J Environ Manage ; 271: 111026, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778306

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study is to explain the long-run and causal effects of innovation, financial development, and transportation infrastructure on CO2 emissions using the combined cointegration and wavelet coherence approaches over the period from 1971 to 2018, while using economic growth as a control variable in the model. The outcomes of the Bayer-Hanck cointegration test show that there is an important cointegration equation among CO2 emissions, innovation, financial development, transportation infrastructure, and real GDP. Moreover, the findings from a wavelet power spectrum reveal that there is a significant vulnerability in innovation, financial development, transportation infrastructure, and CO2 emissions at different time frames and frequencies. Furthermore, the outcomes of wavelet coherence approach reveal that (i) Innovation is observed as a significant predictor of CO2 emissions over the period from 2007 to 2013; (ii) In the long run, there are negative correlations between CO2 emissions and financial development; (iii) Over the periods from 2000 to 2015, and from 1985 to 1989, transportation significantly causes CO2 emissions. Our findings have substantial policy implications that suggest there is a need to strengthen innovation and transportation infrastructure to achieve environmental sustainability targets.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico , China , Políticas , Transportes
14.
J Environ Manage ; 271: 111027, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778307

RESUMO

This study analyses the dynamics of carbon emissions for N-11 countries from 1990 to 2017. We introduce some innovative factors such as financial development, human capital, renewable energy consumption, and gross domestic product as determinants of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The empirical estimations are based on Pesaran (2007) unit root test, common correlated effect mean group, and augmented mean group. The findings reveal a positive relationship between carbon emissions and financial development as well as a gross domestic product. In contrast, technological innovation and renewable energy consumption are adversely related to carbon emissions. These findings have important implications, and we recommend the promotion of technological innovation and the use of renewable energy consumption. This will help in achieving the goals set by COP21.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Energia Renovável , Dióxido de Carbono , Produto Interno Bruto , Humanos , Invenções
15.
J Environ Manage ; 271: 111028, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778308

RESUMO

This study provides new empirical evidence on the determinants of renewable energy consumption in the case of OECD economies over the period from 1990 to 2017. To examine the long run relationship among variables of renewable energy consumption and its determinants, this study uses the Durbin Hausman group mean cointegration test. The long-run and short-run coefficients are estimated via the cross-sectional Autoregressive Distributive Lag (CS-ARDL) method. The significant cointegration vector confirms the long-run equilibrium among the variables presented in the model. The results show that income, human capital, energy productivity, energy prices, and eco-innovation are important factors in explaining renewable energy consumption. This study adopts the Augmented Mean Group (AMG) method to check the robustness of the model. The results are found to be consistent with the estimates of the cross-sectional Autoregressive Distributive Lag Model method. To offer viable solutions to environmental problems and to achieve the targets set in the Paris Climate Agreement, policies and strategies should be devised to increase the share of renewable energy in the overall energy mix.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Renda , Energia Renovável
16.
J Environ Manage ; 271: 111035, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778315

RESUMO

Human-made material stocks promote the economic prosperity, while the consumption, maintenance, and operation of them have led to adverse environmental impacts. Decoupling materials stocks from economic growth is a key strategy for relieving environmental pressures and achieving sustainable development. China's unprecedented development offers a unique opportunity for uncovering the relationship between in-use stocks and economic growth. In this study, we analyzed the regional disparity of in-use steel stocks estimated by bottom-up accounting method during 1978-2018 in 31 provinces in mainland China, explored the stocks productivity on provincial and regional scale, and conducted a decoupling analysis of in-use steel stocks with economic growth. The results showed that there was a huge disparity among the provincial total steel stocks, per-capita steel stocks, and stocks density. Some provinces, e.g. Beijing, Tianjin, and Shanghai, that had the highest stocks density had comparatively lower per-capita steel stocks and total steel stocks, indicating higher share of in-use steel stocks and lower material intensive economic structure. In-use steel stocks in China showed no clear signs of saturation or flatten off pattern although their growth rate declined recently. An increase in steel stocks productivity was found during 1978-2018, which means relative decoupling of in-use steel stocks from economic growth, but still far away from absolute decoupling. The dematerialization pattern revealed in this study deepens our understanding of material-economy interactions. Policy implications for dematerialization transition should focus on developing compact cities, prolonging the lifespan of products, and advancing technological development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Aço , Pequim , China , Cidades , Humanos
17.
J Environ Manage ; 271: 111036, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778316

RESUMO

Assessing emissions-reduction pressure among Chinese cities is a critical task for local governments formulating and implementing environmental policies. From the perspectives of carbon intensity and carbon inequality, this study develops an improved carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions-reduction index to quantify emissions-reduction pressure on 284 cities in China. Results indicate that driven by the decrease of overall carbon intensity and the rise of inter-city carbon inequality, emissions-reduction pressure on 41.38% of provinces and 49.65% of cities was greater than the overall national level; emissions-reduction pressure on 52.35% of cities exceeded the provincial average level. The central government determines national emissions-reduction pressure by adjusting carbon-inequality tolerance between cities and determines carbon-inequality preference based on population and economic output principles. These determinations become benchmarks for local governments' CO2 emissions-reduction pressure. Provinces and cities that exceed benchmarks become foci for promoting energy savings, emissions reduction, and low-carbon development in the future.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Governo Local , China , Cidades , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
J Environ Manage ; 272: 111089, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854892

RESUMO

This research investigates how renewable energy consumption interacts with international trade and environmental quality in Nordic counties from 2001 to 2018. The present study adopted the CIPS unit root test and cross-sectional dependence (CD) test to test the stationarity and diagnose the cross-sectional dependence issues, respectively. Further, the study employed a dynamic common correlated effect (DCCE) model for robustness. The findings revealed that renewable energy strongly and positively associated with international trade in Nordic countries. Also, the results indicate that renewable energy consumption improved to environmental quality. Therefore, policies to promote renewables can provide for economic growth and environmental sustainability and ensure crucial sustainable development goals. Further, the findings provide theoretical support for the formulation of eco-friendly policies to understand the role of renewable energy in spurring international trade, which supports balancing eco-environmental sustainability.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Comércio , Estudos Transversais , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Internacionalidade , Energia Renovável
19.
J Environ Manage ; 272: 111119, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854898

RESUMO

China is facing great water and energy pressure due to industrialization, urbanization, population growth and environmental change. China's explosive economic development has come at a steep cost in terms of natural resource exploitation and environmental problems. These unintended negative consequences are partly the result of a narrow single-sector management approach to natural resources, which often caused conflicts and low efficiency of related policies. Although the nexus approach is beneficial for optimization of natural resource utilization and development, the question of whether it can be applied in policy and practice is determined by various factors. The science-policy interface that stresses the political and social contexts provides a useful perspective for understanding the process of the nexus approach, from the scientific domain to policy. Combining criteria of good governance and an effective science-policy interface, suggestions for promoting good energy-water nexus governance are put forward, including popularization of scientific knowledge about the nexus in the political and social fields, collaborative governance of the nexus, and accelerating good governance of the whole of society.


Assuntos
Urbanização , Água , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Desenvolvimento Econômico
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(30): 38353-38359, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740835

RESUMO

Recently, empirical studies revealed that democracy is positively associated with environmental quality through the freedom gained by the people to demand environmental protection. In this paper, we explore empirical evidence linking how environmental performance interacts with democracy to influence tourism demand in twenty-seven European countries. To achieve this objective, we use the method of moments quantile regression (MMQR) model by Machado and Silva (J Econ 213: 145-173, 2019) and a balanced panel data covering the period 2002 to 2014. The empirical results suggest that environmental performance interacts heterogenously with democracy at different quantiles of the conditional distribution to stimulate tourism demand. Also, the effect of an increase in income and environmental performance is stronger in countries with lower tourism market shares than in countries with higher tourism market shares. The major implication for this study is that countries with lesser shares of the tourism market should strive for higher environmental performance and economic development as this would grant them more advantage in the tourism sector than their counterparts with higher market shares.


Assuntos
Democracia , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Europa (Continente) , Renda
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