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1.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1449, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) have been one of the most critical public health problems in Thailand for decades. The objective of this study was to examine to what extent provincial economy was associated with RTIs, road traffic deaths and case fatality rate in Thailand. METHODS: A secondary data analysis on time-series data was applied. The unit of analysis was a panel of 77 provinces during 2012-2016. Data were obtained from relevant public authorities, including the Ministry of Public Health. Descriptive statistics and econometric models, using negative binomial (NB) regression, negative binomial regression with random-effects (RE) model, and spatial Durbin model (SDM) were employed. The main predictor variable was gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and the outcome variables were incidence proportion of RTIs, traffic deaths and case fatality rate. The analysis was adjusted for key covariates. RESULTS: The incidence proportion of RTIs rose from 449.0 to 524.9 cases per 100,000 population from 2012 till 2016, whereas the incidence of traffic fatalities fluctuated between 29.7 and 33.2 deaths per 100,000 population. Case fatality rate steadily stood at 0.06-0.07 deaths per victim. RTIs and traffic deaths appeared to be positively correlated with provincial economy in the NB regression and the RE model. In the SDM, a log-Baht increase in GDP per capita (equivalent to a growth of GDP per capita by about 2.7 times) enlarged the incidence proportion of injuries and deaths by about a quarter (23.8-30.7%) with statistical significance. No statistical significance was found in case fatality rate by the SDM. The SDM also presented the best model fitness relative to other models. CONCLUSION: The incidence proportion of traffic injuries and deaths appeared to rise alongside provincial prosperity. This means that RTIs-preventive measures should be more intensified in economically well-off areas. Furthermore, entrepreneurs and business sectors that gain economic benefit in a particular province should share responsibility in RTIs prevention in the area where their businesses are running. Further studies that explore others determinants of road safety, such as patterns of vehicles used, attitudes and knowledge of motorists, investment in safety measures, and compliance with traffic laws, are recommended.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Dados , Feminino , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Modelos Econométricos , Análise Espacial , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(36): 36274-36286, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713824

RESUMO

In energy economics literature, we found few studies on the association between environmental quality energy consumption and financial development. The current study is an attempt to contribute in literature by examining the link between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, financial development, energy consumption, and economic growth, in South East Asian economies for the period 1980-2017 using annual time series data. For empirical analysis, Bound tests for cointegration and error correction approach are used. The estimated results confirm that financial development has positive impact on environmental quality. On the other hand, in the long run, the rise in energy consumption economic growth and trade openness is unfavorable for environment quality. Our results confirm U-shaped relationship between economic growth and environmental quality that is a proof of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). Additionally, the government needs to design different modes of energy consumption to solve the problem of environmental degradation. Moreover, the major conclusion extends new insight for authority to make a comprehensive trade and financial policies to improve environmental quality.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Ásia Sudeste , Pesquisa Empírica , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/economia , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Ambiente , Internacionalidade
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(36): 36248-36263, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713133

RESUMO

This study investigates the impact of the human capital index, globalization, and financial development on carbon dioxide of grouping OECD countries using pool mean group estimation technique from 1990 to 2015. This study also applies the second-generation cross-sectional augmented Dickey-Fuller and cross-sectional Im, Pesaran, Shin panel (CIPS) unit root, and the latest (Westerlund 2008) cointegration tests for further investigations. The result shows that both the human development index and financial development stimulate environmental improvement by using PMG long-run panel estimation approach. Furthermore, the pairwise Dumitrescu-Hurlin panel causality results prove the two-way causal association between financial development and carbon emissions. The unidirectional causality running from globalization and human development index towards carbon emission is also supported. Based on the aforementioned results, we provide a set of recommendations for policy implication. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Humano , Internacionalidade , Estudos Transversais , Política Ambiental , Humanos , Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico/economia , Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581715

RESUMO

The study of carbon emissions is of great significance for environmental change and economic development. Gender factors is an important perspective to examine the path of carbon emissions. Based on the panel data of 30 provinces in China from 2005 to 2016, this paper selects the optimal spatial measurement model structure by using the Bayesian posterior probability model structure selection method, and studies the impact of economy on carbon emissions and the influence mechanism of gender-based "synergy effect" on carbon emissions from the National level and regional levels. The research shows that the increase of economic promotes the increase of carbon emission in this region, but it has a restraining effect on the carbon emission in the surrounding areas. Moreover, gender factors have a significant positive effect on the region at the National level and the Eastern and Northeastern regions, but not significantly in other ones, and have a significant negative impact on carbon emissions in surrounding areas. Overall, the influence intensity of economy on carbon emission increases with the increase of gender in the National level and the Eastern and Northeastern, while the influence intensity of economy of peripheral regions on carbon emission in Central Region decreases with the increase of gender factors in peripheral regions.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Emissões de Veículos , Teorema de Bayes , China , Pesquisa Empírica , Humanos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597246

RESUMO

With rapid economic development in China, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of children and adolescents is on a decline. However, this appears to have slowed down, reaching stagnation in certain areas. However, it is unclear if the change in CRF is related to economic growth and development or not. This study describes trends in CRF of Chinese children and adolescents, and empirically tests the relationships between China's macro-economic developments and cardiorespiratory fitness of children and adolescents over the past 30 years using provincial panel data collected from one million samples. We used per capita disposable income as the economic indicator. CRF was assessed by using running tests: 50 m × 8 for boys and girls (7-12 years), 1000 m for boys (13-22 years), and 800 m for girls (13-22 years). The results show that economic growth has a U-shaped relationship with CRF of children and adolescents (both boys and girls). It appears that as incomes increased, CRF of urban male and female students in China gradually decreased to its lowest point, after which it showed an upward trend. From a horizontal perspective, it can be inferred that for low-developed provinces, increases in incomes cause a decrease in CRF levels. In contrast, for highly developed provinces, as incomes increase, CRF levels increase. This study provides the first empirical evidence of the relationship between macro-economy and CRF of youth, based on provincial panel data. The results presented here can be used to formulate health policies targeting the cardiorespiratory fitness of children and adolescents from middle-income provinces in China. This study also provides a reference for developing countries.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Criança/tendências , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , China , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597376

RESUMO

In the global economy, tourism is one of the most noticeable and growing sectors. Thissector plays an important role in boosting a nation's economy. An increase in tourism flow canbring positive economic outcomes to the nations, especially in gross domestic product (GDP) andemployment opportunities. In South Asian countries, the tourism industry is an engine ofeconomic development and GDP growth. This study investigates the impact of tourism onPakistan's economic growth and employment. The period under study was from 1990 to 2015. Tocheck whether the variables under study were stationary, augmented Dickey-Fuller andPhillips-Perron unit root tests were applied. A regression technique and Johansen cointegrationapproach were employed for the analysis of data. The key finding of this study shows that there isa positive and significant impact of tourism on Pakistan's economic growth as well as employmentsector and there is also a long-run relationship among the variables under study. This studysuggests that legislators should focus on the policies with special emphasis on the promotion oftourism due to its great potential throughout the country. Policy implications of this recent studyand future research suggestions are also mentioned.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Viagem/economia , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia , Paquistão
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623353

RESUMO

Quantitative analysis on decoupling between economic output, carbon emission, and the driving factors behind decoupling states can serve to make the economy grow without increasing carbon emission in China's transport sector. In this work, we investigate the decoupling states and driving factors of decoupling states in the transport sector of China's four municipalities (Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, and Chongqing) through combining the Tapio decoupling approach with the decomposition technique. The results show that (i) the decoupling state of Beijing, Shanghai, and Tianjin improved; Beijing stabilized in weak decoupling; Shanghai and Tianjin appeared to have strong decoupling, but the decoupling state of Chongqing deteriorated from decoupling to negative decoupling. (ii) The energy-saving effect was the primary contributor to decoupling in these four municipalities, promoting transport's economic growth strongly decouple from carbon emission. The economic scale effect was not optimized enough in Chongqing, facilitating expansive coupling, and expansive negative decoupling emerged. But it had a rather positive impact on decoupling process in Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin, promoting economic growth to weakly decouple from carbon emission. (iii) The carbon-reduction effect promoted strong decoupling, which emerged in Shanghai's transport sector, more so than in the other three municipalities, in which weak decoupling emerged. Finally, several relevant policy recommendations were offered to promote the decoupling of carbon emission from economic growth and low-carbon transport.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/estatística & dados numéricos , Urbanização/tendências , Carbono/análise , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/economia , Humanos
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(31): 31654-31666, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485947

RESUMO

Since the "China Western Development" plan was initiated in 2000, the Sichuan-Chongqing region has experienced rapid economic growth, especially in the energy segment. However, energy shortage and environmental degradation currently pose a significant hurdle for sustainable development in this region. In the existing literature on factors driving the energy demand, the effect of technological progress on energy demand is discussed as a whole, but few papers have investigated the effect of technological progress from the perspective of its components. Additionally, existing studies have neglected the temporal and spatial aspect of energy demand, thereby generating biased and unreasonable results. Correspondingly, in the current study, the factors driving the per capita energy demand in the Sichuan-Chongqing region over the 2005-2016 period were, to the best of our knowledge, explored for the first time by employing the data envelopment analysis-Malmquist method and spatial dynamic panel model concurrently. The empirical results suggest that an improvement in total factor productivity (TFP) plays a positive but insignificant role in decreasing energy demand. Additionally, there is clear evidence that the effect of TFP on energy demand primarily emerges through spatial spillover effects and their components.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , China , Eficiência , Emprego , Tecnologia
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 30069-30075, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418145

RESUMO

Energy is a crucial part of any economy and holds a central position in enhancing social development in the world. Energy consumption and the economy in Brazil have both increased in the past decade. In this paper, time series statistics from 1980 to 2017 will be used to analyze the relationship between real GDP per capita and energy consumption to will examine how energy use in the country affects economic growth using causality models. This is established through testing for stationarity using Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) test for trend stationarity. A cointegration relationship is found between the two variables.


Assuntos
Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Modelos Teóricos , Brasil , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 30145-30153, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418148

RESUMO

This study empirically investigates the role of eco-innovation on the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions (CO2) in an extended version of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). Under dynamic framework, second-generation panel econometric techniques such as the CADF and the CIPS unit root tests, DSUR cointegrating test, and DH panel causality test are employed over the period 2007-2016 for the case of top 20 refined oil exporting countries. Results reveal that eco-innovation (i.e. research and development) exerts a negative and significant long-term effect on carbon emissions (CO2). This result indicates that the extended version of EKC and the Porter hypotheses are validated for the selected countries. The findings, which show heterogeneity and cross-sectionally dependence in the panel time-series framework, suggest that rising levels of carbon emissions and real income may encourage more research and development (i.e. eco innovation) and lower energy consumption.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Política Ambiental/economia , Modelos Econométricos , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Renda , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 30229-30241, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422533

RESUMO

This paper investigates the CO2 emissions-economic growth relationship in Kazakhstan for the period 1992-2013. Johansen, ARDLBT, DOLS, FMOLS, and CCR cointegration methods are used for robustness purpose. We start with the cubic functional form to rule out any misleading results that can be caused by misspecification. Although the estimation results suggest "U"-shaped relationship, the turning point of income is out of the period. It means that the impact of economic growth on CO2 is monotonically increasing in the long run indicating the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis does not hold for Kazakhstan. Moreover, we calculate that the income elasticity of CO2 is about unity. The paper concludes that the Kazakhstani policymakers should focus on less energy-intensive sectors as well as using more renewable energy in order to avoid higher pollution effects of economic growth. They may also set new policy regulations for CO2 reduction.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Ambiental/economia , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Energia Renovável/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Poluição Ambiental/economia , Renda , Cazaquistão , Energia Renovável/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443198

RESUMO

With the rapid development of China's economy, the environmental problems are becoming increasingly prominent, especially the PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameter smaller than 2.5 µm) concentrations that have exerted adverse influences on human health. Considering the fact that PM2.5 concentrations are mainly caused by anthropogenic activities, this paper selected economic growth, economic structure, urbanization, and the number of civil vehicles as the primary factors and then explored the nexus between those variables and PM2.5 concentrations by employing a panel data model for 31 Chinese provinces. The estimated model showed that: (1) the coefficients of the variables for provinces located in North, Central, and East China were larger than that of other provinces; (2) GDP per capita made the largest contribution to PM2.5 concentrations, while the number of civil vehicles made the least contribution; and (3) the higher the development level of a factor, the greater the contribution it makes to PM2.5 concentrations. It was also found that a bi-directional Granger causal nexus exists between PM2.5 concentrations and economic progress as well as between PM2.5 concentrations and the urbanization process for all provinces. Policy recommendations were finally obtained through empirical discussions, which include that provincial governments should adjust the economic and industrial development patterns, restrict immigration to intensive urban areas, decrease the successful proportion of vehicle licenses, and promote electric vehicles as a substitute to petrol vehicles.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Automóveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Industrial/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Urbanização , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284528

RESUMO

When cities develop rapidly, there are negative effects such as population expansion, traffic congestion, resource shortages, and pollution. It has become essential to explore new types of urban development patterns, and thus, the concept of the "smart city" has emerged. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the links between smart city policies and urban green total factor productivity (GTFP) in the context of China. Based on panel data of 200 cities in China from 2007-2016 and treating smart city policy as a quasi-natural experiment, the paper uses a difference-in-differences propensity score matching (PSM-DID) approach to prevent selection bias. The results show: (a) Smart city policies can significantly increase urban GTFP by 16% to 18%; (b) the larger the city, the stronger and more significant this promotion.


Assuntos
Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Regulamentação Governamental , Urbanização , China , Cidades , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Econômicos , Pontuação de Propensão
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(26): 27138-27147, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321715

RESUMO

Commercial department assumes the vital part in energy conservation and carbon dioxide emission mitigation of China. This paper applies the time-series data covering 2001-2015 and introduces the STIRPAT method to research the factors of commercial department's carbon dioxide emissions in China. The combination of STIRPAT method and ridge regression is first adopted to research carbon dioxide emissions of commercial department in China. Potential influencing factors of carbon dioxide emission, including economic growth, level of urbanization, aggregate population, energy intensity, energy structure and foreign direct investment, are selected to establish the extended stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology (STIRPAT) model, where ridge regression is adopted to eliminate multicollinearity. The estimation consequences show that all forces were positively related to carbon dioxide emissions in China's commercial department except for energy structure. Energy structure is the only negative factor and aggregate population is the maximal influencing factor of carbon dioxide emissions. The economic growth, urbanization level, energy intensity and foreign direct investment all positively contribute to carbon dioxide emissions of commercial department. The findings have significant implications for policy-makers to enact emission reduction policies in commercial sector. Therefore, the paper ought to take into full consideration these different impacts of above influencing factors to abate carbon dioxide emissions of commercial sector.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Modelos Econômicos , China , Carvão Mineral , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Investimentos em Saúde , Dinâmica Populacional , Análise de Regressão , Processos Estocásticos , Tecnologia , Urbanização
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(26): 27168-27179, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321720

RESUMO

The study explores the relationship between ecological footprint, urbanization, and energy consumption by applying the ARDL estimation technique on data spanning 1965-2014 for South Africa. After applying the unit root test that accounts for a break in the data, the Bayer and Hanck (J Time Ser Anal 34:83-95, 2013) combined cointegration test affirms cointegrating relationship among the variables. Findings further reveal that economic growth and financial development exact a deteriorating impact on the environment in the short run. However, the same was not true for both energy use and urbanization. While urbanization and energy use promote environmental quality in the long run, financial development and economic growth degrade it further. The long-run findings of our study are confirmed to be robust as reported by the fully modified OLS (FMOLS), dynamic OLS (DOLS), and the canonical cointegrating regression (CCR) estimates. The direction of causality supports the energy-led growth hypothesis for South Africa. Policy outcomes and directions, and the possibility of promoting sustainable growth without degrading the environment are discussed.


Assuntos
Ecologia/métodos , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , África do Sul , Urbanização
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(26): 27414-27434, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327141

RESUMO

This research aims to study the effect on industrial carbon intensity by decomposing electricity consumption into electricity consumption volume and electric power intensity by using panel data of 27 China's manufacturing sectors. An improved STIRPAT model is also developed by this article to identify the unexplored potential influencing factors. The research findings suggest that there exists a long-run equilibrium relationship between electricity consumption and carbon intensity and unidirectional causality from electricity consumption volume to carbon intensity. Regression results indicate that electricity consumption volume has a significantly negative effect on industrial carbon intensity for the full sample. However, due to the significantly positive influence that electric power intensity has on carbon intensity, we conclude that energy consumption and industrial economy failed to achieve the decoupling effect. The impacts of electricity consumption volume and electric power intensity have industrial heterogeneity. Electric power intensity impacts carbon intensity the most for resource intensive sectors. The effects of subgroups are further examined for sectors with high/low carbon emission volume and carbon intensity. Foreign direct investment (FDI) is conducive to reducing carbon intensity for sectors with high volume and sectors with high intensity. Industrialization level demonstrates a significantly positive effect on improving carbon intensity for sectors with low volume and sectors with low intensity. Finally, we put forward specific suggestions on the basis of these empirical findings.


Assuntos
Carbono , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Indústria Manufatureira , Carbono/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Eletricidade , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Desenvolvimento Industrial , Investimentos em Saúde
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(26): 26500-26516, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292875

RESUMO

In this study, we analyze the time-varying causality linkages between energy consumption, economic growth, and environmental degradation in 33 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries, spanning the period 2000 to 2013. The curve causality approach provides evidence of a significant environmental Kuznets curve in 25 countries in the case of the ecological footprint and in 23 countries in the case of the Environmental Performance Index. However, out of them, only Italy, Slovakia, and South Korea have traditional environmental Kuznets curve, in the form of an inverted U-shaped curve. For the remaining countries, different forms of curves are valid. In particular, an N-shaped curve appears to be valid between income and environmental degradation for nearly half of the sample, i.e., for Austria, Belgium, Chile, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, New Zealand, Turkey, and the USA. Additionally, bidirectional causality relationships are confirmed among all covariates in most countries. In view of the results, some crucial policy implications would be suggested, such as sustainable development that aims to make a balance between economic growth and environmental protection.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Ambiental/economia , Renda , Modelos Econômicos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Organização para a Cooperação e Desenvolvimento Econômico
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(27): 27660-27676, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338760

RESUMO

This study empirically investigates the agriculture-induced environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in an agrarian framework. Annual time series data from 1981-2014 was employed using augmented Dickey-Fuller and the Phillips-Perron (PP) unit root test complemented by the Zivot and Andrews unit root that accounts for a single structural break to ascertain stationarity properties of variables under consideration. For the cointegration analysis, an autoregressive distributive lag methodology and the recent novel Bayer and Hanck combined cointegration technique are employed. For the direction of causality, the Granger causality test is used as estimation technique. Empirical findings lend support for the long-run equilibrium relationship among the variables under consideration. This study also validates the inverted U-shaped pattern of EKC for the case of Nigeria, affirming that Nigeria remains at the scale-effect stage of its growth trajectory. Further empirical results show that foreign direct investment attraction helps mitigate carbon emissions in Nigeria. Based on these results, several policy prescriptions on the Nigeria energy mix and agricultural operations in response to quality of the environment were suggested for policymakers, stakeholders, and environmental economists that formulate and design environmental regulations and strategies to realise the goal 7 of sustainable development (SDG).


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Agricultura , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Internacionalidade , Investimentos em Saúde , Nigéria , Políticas
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 783, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: India's economic development and urbanisation in recent decades has varied considerably between states. Attempts to assess how overweight (including obesity) varies by socioeconomic position at the national level may mask considerable sub-national heterogeneity. We examined the socioeconomic patterning of overweight among adults in India's most and least economically developed states between 1998 and 2016. METHODS: We used state representative data from the National Family Health Surveys from 1998 to 99, 2005-06 and 2015-16. We estimated the prevalence of overweight by socioeconomic position in men (15-54 years) and women (15-49 years) from India's most and least economically developed states using multilevel logistic regressions. RESULTS: We observed an increasing trend of overweight prevalence among low socioeconomic position women. Amongst high socioeconomic position women, overweight prevalence either increased to a smaller extent, remained the same or even declined between 1998 and 2016. This was particularly the case in urban areas of the most developed states, where in the main analysis, the prevalence of overweight increased from 19 to 33% among women from the lowest socioeconomic group between 1998 and 2016 compared to no change among women from the highest socioeconomic group. Between 2005 and 2016, the prevalence of overweight increased to similar extents among high and low socioeconomic status men, irrespective of residence. CONCLUSIONS: The converging prevalence of overweight by socioeconomic position in India's most developed states, particularly amongst urban women, implies that this subpopulation may be the first to exhibit a negative association between socioeconomic position and overweight in India. Programs aiming to reduce the increasing overweight trends may wish to focus on poorer women in India's most developed states, amongst whom the increasing trend in prevalence has been considerable.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Classe Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(24): 24819-24830, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240648

RESUMO

Recently, China is named among the most carbon dioxide (CO2)-emitting countries in the world after the United State of America (USA). A major part of Chinese carbon dioxide emissions is as a result of offshore industrial activities which come into the economy as foreign direct investment (FDI). Following this, the present study seeks to investigate the nexus between CO2 emissions, FDI, energy use, and tourism arrivals, and possibly to advise on who will bear the responsibility of offshore CO2 emissions. Utilizing ARDL-bound testing and Granger causality approaches for both short- and long-run effects the author found that economic growth (GDP) has a positive relationship with both tourism arrivals, energy use, FDI, and CO2.This contributes to heavy CO2 emissions which the author classified as the outsourced/offshore CO2emissions in China's FDI. Tourism arrivals have a bi-directional (feedback) causal relationship with energy use and a uni-directional causal relationship with CO2(transmitting from tourism to CO2). Both FDI and energy use have a bi-directional (feedback) causal relationship; CO2, energy use, and tourism arrivals have a unidirectional relationship with GDP which established the triangular nexus causality among the variables and the impact on GDP. Hence, the policy implication should be geared towards implementing the policies and regulations that will checkmate and reduce the excesses of foreign firms to the environment quality of China and promote environmentally friendly economic activities.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Investimentos em Saúde , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico/estatística & dados numéricos , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Ambiental , Gases de Efeito Estufa/economia , Internacionalidade , Investimentos em Saúde/economia , Investimentos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
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