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1.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(1): 27-31, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital heart defects (CHD) may be associated with neurodevelopmental abnormalities mainly due to brain hypoperfusion. This defect is attributed to the major cardiac operations these children underwent, but also to hemodynamic instability during fetal life. Advances in imaging techniques have identified changes in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)in children with CHD. OBJECTIVES: To examine the correlation between CHD and brain injury using fetal brain MRI. METHODS: We evaluated 46 fetuses diagnosed with CHD who underwent brain MRI. CHD was classified according to in situs anomalies, 4 chamber view (4CV), outflow tracts, arches, and veins as well as cyanotic or complex CHD. We compared MRI results of different classes of CHD and CHD fetuses to a control group of 113 healthy brain MRI examinations. RESULTS: No significant differences were found in brain pathologies among different classifications of CHD. The anteroposterior percentile of the vermis was significantly smaller in fetuses with abnormal 4CV. A significantly higher biparietal diameter was found in fetuses with abnormal arches. A significantly smaller transcerebellar diameter was found in fetuses with abnormal veins. Compared to the control group, significant differences were found in overall brain pathology in cortex abnormalities and in extra axial findings in the study group. Significantly higher rates of overall brain pathologies, ventricle pathologies, cortex pathologies, and biometrical parameters were found in the cyanotic group compared to the complex group and to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Fetuses with CHD demonstrate findings in brain MRI that suggest an in utero pathogenesis of the neurological and cognitive anomalies found during child development.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/embriologia , Feto/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias Congênitas/etiologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/embriologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Lesões Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Encefálicas/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroimagem , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos
2.
Eur J Histochem ; 64(1)2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941265

RESUMO

The seed morphology of three Pseudocereal Grains (PSCg), i.e. quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd, Chenopodiaceae), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, Polygonaceae) and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L., Amaranthaceae) was studied by light microscopy (LM) and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (ESEM-EDS). LM was used with visible light to evaluate either unstained sections or sections stained with Azan mixture and with fluorescent light. The aim of the study was to compare the architecture of the three seeds in order to connect their morphology with nutrient localization. The Azan staining allowed for the visualization of the seed coat, the embryo - with its shoot apical meristem - and the radicle cell layers, whereas the use of fluorescent microscopy identified the cells rich in phenolic compounds. Finally, the ESEM-EDS analysis revealed that the seed coat of the quinoa was thinner than that of amaranth or buckwheat. In all PSCg, starch granules appeared to be located in large polygonal cells, surrounded by a thin cell wall. Several globoids of proteins were observed in the embryo cells. In the radicle section, the vascular bundles of the procambium were evident, while Amaranth only showed a consistent layer of calcium crystals, located between the embryo and the perysperm. The morphological differences of the three PSCg were discussed in the context of their structural resistance to processing technologies which impact on nutritional value of derived foods.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/anatomia & histologia , Chenopodium quinoa/anatomia & histologia , Grão Comestível/anatomia & histologia , Fagopyrum/anatomia & histologia , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Amaranthus/embriologia , Chenopodium quinoa/embriologia , Grão Comestível/embriologia , Fagopyrum/embriologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Sementes/embriologia
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 539, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988277

RESUMO

In the Caenorhabditis elegans zygote, PAR protein patterns, driven by mutual anatagonism, determine the anterior-posterior axis and facilitate the redistribution of proteins for the first cell division. Yet, the factors that determine the selection of the polarity axis remain unclear. We present a reaction-diffusion model in realistic cell geometry, based on biomolecular reactions and accounting for the coupling between membrane and cytosolic dynamics. We find that the kinetics of the phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle of PARs and the diffusive protein fluxes from the cytosol towards the membrane are crucial for the robust selection of the anterior-posterior axis for polarisation. The local ratio of membrane surface to cytosolic volume is the main geometric cue that initiates pattern formation, while the choice of the long-axis for polarisation is largely determined by the length of the aPAR-pPAR interface, and mediated by processes that minimise the diffusive fluxes of PAR proteins between cytosol and membrane.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Polaridade Celular , Animais , Divisão Celular Assimétrica , Caenorhabditis elegans/citologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/embriologia , Biologia Computacional , Citosol/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/citologia , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Cinética , Modelos Biológicos , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais , Termodinâmica
4.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110982, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747621

RESUMO

With epidemic of obesity, it affects aspects of female reproduction. Genistein could ameliorate obesity in people and animals, but might exert adverse effects on the female reproductive system. To evaluate the effects of fetal and neonatal genistein exposure on the ovarian health of F1 obese female mice with obesity induced by high-fat diet after weaning, we simulated a diet-induced obesity model to observe and determine biological effects of genistein exposure on the ovarian follicle of overfed female mice. Results showed that F1 female mice with obesity induced by high-fat diet significantly prolonged the estrus cycle, disrupted sex hormonal balance and ovarian follicle development after they were exposed to 25 mg/kg b.w./day of genistein during the fetal and neonatal stages. Genistein significantly up-regulated the ovarian mRNA expression of estrogen receptor beta in F1 obese female mice, and high-fat diet influenced the ovarian mRNA expression of estrogen receptor alpha, luteinizing hormone receptor and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor. Hence, genistein exposure from the fetal stage might increase the risk of reproductive diseases in obese females in later life. Thus, the long-term risks of genistein to obese females should be thoroughly assessed.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Genisteína/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Folículo Ovariano/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Estradiol/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/genética , Ciclo Estral/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Feto/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Luteinizante/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Obesidade/metabolismo , Folículo Ovariano/embriologia , Folículo Ovariano/patologia , Gravidez , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
5.
Mar Genomics ; 49: 100721, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711848

RESUMO

Since the discovery of new members of the globin superfamily such as Cytoglobin, Neuroglobin and Globin X, in addition to the most well-known members, Hemoglobin and Myoglobin, different hypotheses have been suggested about their function in vertebrates. Globins are ubiquitously found in living organisms and can carry out different functions based on their ability to bind ligands such as O2, and nitric oxide (NO) and to catalyze reactions scavenging NO or generating NO by reducing nitrite. NO is a highly diffusible molecule with a central role in signaling important for egg maturation, fertilization and early embryonic development. The globins ability to scavenge or generate NO makes these proteins ideal candidates in regulating NO homeostasis depending on the micro environment and tissue NO demands. Different amounts of various globins have been found in zebrafish eggs and developing embryos where it's unlikely that they function as respiratory proteins and instead could play a role in maintaining embryonic NO homeostasis. Here we summarize the current knowledge concerning the role of NO in adult fish in comparison to mammals and we discuss NO function during embryonic development with possible implications for globins in maintaining embryonic NO homeostasis.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Peixes/embriologia , Globinas/fisiologia , Óxido Nítrico/fisiologia , Animais , Homeostase
6.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124936, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568941

RESUMO

Triphenyltin (TPT) is widely used and commonly found in a water environment, so its effects on aquatic systems are of great concern. This study aimed to reveal the effects of chronic parental exposure of TPT on thyroid disruption and growth inhibition in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish (F0 generation) were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations (1, 10, and 100 ng/L) of TPT for 60 days, and the larvae (F1 generation) were tested without TPT treatment. Results demonstrated that parental exposure to TPT disrupts thyroid function in zebrafish offspring: serum thyroxine (T4) significantly decreased, while serum 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) increased, and several genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis were down-regulated. In addition, we observed developmental abnormalities in the larvae, demonstrated by a significantly altered hatching rate, malformation rate, body length, heart rate, and survival rate, as well as down-regulation of genes involved in the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF) axis. Therefore, parental exposure to TPT induces toxicity in fish offspring through perturbation of the HPT and GH/IGF axes.


Assuntos
Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos Orgânicos de Estanho/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Feminino , Hormônio do Crescimento/genética , Hormônio do Crescimento/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Exposição Paterna/efeitos adversos , Somatomedinas/genética , Somatomedinas/metabolismo , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiroxina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia
7.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 111057, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846720

RESUMO

Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) may lead to offspring's testicular dysplasia. Here, we confirmed the intergenerational effect of PNE on testosterone synthetic function and explored its epigenetic programming mechanism. Pregnant Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with nicotine (2 mg/kg.d) from gestational day 9-20. Some dams were anesthetized to obtain fetal rats, the rest were allowed to spontaneous labor to generate F1 and F2 generation. In utero, PNE impaired testicular development and testosterone production. Meanwhile, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3ß-HSD) were decreased both in F1 and F2 generations. Furthermore, PNE enhanced the expression of fetal testicular nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4), while obviously weakened histone 3 lysine 9 acetylation (H3K9ac) level of StAR/3ß-HSD promoter from GD20 to postnatal week 12 and even in F2 generation. In vitro, nicotine increased nAChRs and HDAC4 expression, and decreased the StAR/3ß-HSD H3K9ac level and expression, as well as the testosterone production in Leydig cells. Antagonism of nAChRs and inhibition of HDAC4 reversed the aforementioned changes. In conclusion, PNE programmed testicular low steroidogenesis and its heritability in male offspring rats. The underlying mechanism was associated to the low-level programming of StAR/3ß-HSD H3K9ac via nAChR/HDAC4.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Comportamento Materno , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/biossíntese , Idoso , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Nicotina/farmacologia , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Testículo/embriologia , Testículo/metabolismo
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134133, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505348

RESUMO

The series of breakthroughs that have occurred within the realm of nanotechnology have been the source of several new products and technological interventions. One of the most salient examples in this regard is the widespread employment of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles across a range of consumer goods. Given that waste is generated at every stage of the consumer-product cycle (from production to disposal), many items with TiO2 nanoparticles are likely to end up being discarded into water bodies. In order to understand the interaction of TiO2 NPs with aquatic ecosystem, the ecological fate and toxicity of TiO2 NPs was studied by exposing zebrafish embryos to a combination of abiotic factors (humic acid and clay) to assess its effect on the development of zebrafish embryos. The physiological changes were correlated with genetic marker analysis to holistically understand the effect on embryos development. Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory was used to analyze the interaction energy between TiO2 NPs and natural organic matter (NOM) for understanding the aggregation behavior of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in media. The study revealed that combination of HA and clay stabilized TiO2 NPs, compared to bare TiO2 and HA or clay alone. TiO2 NPs and TiO2 NPs + Clay significantly altered the expression of genes involved in development of dorsoventral axis and neural network of zebrafish embryos. However, the presence of HA and HA + clay showed protective effect on zebrafish embryo development. The complete system analysis demonstrated the possible ameliorating effects of abiotic factors on the ecotoxicity of ENPs.


Assuntos
Argila/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Titânio/toxicidade , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Titânio/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669372

RESUMO

The razor clam Sinonovacula constricta is a commercial benthic bivalve, and burrows the deeper cave than the other buried benthic bivalves. Due to the little exchange of seawater and to anoxic conditions, S. constricta is exposed to considerable amounts of sulfide during low tide, but exhibits strong sulfide tolerance. Mitochondrial sulfide oxidation is a particular defense strategy against sulfide toxicity of sulfide-tolerant organisms, for which sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) is the first key enzyme. In order to investigate the mechanism of sulfide tolerance in S. constricta, its SQR (designated as ScSQR), was cloned and characterized. The full-length cDNA of ScSQR was 3698 bp and encoded 443 amino acids. The deduced ScSQR protein contained conserved FAD-binding domains, two cysteine residues, two histidines, and one glutamic acid, which are the essential elements for the catalytic mechanism of SQR. Subcellular localization analysis by the TargetP 1.1 prediction and the Western blot confirmed that ScSQR was only located in the mitochondria. The response of ScSQR in the gill and liver of S. constricta were investigated during sulfide exposure (50, 150, and 300 µM sulfide) for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h by qRT-PCR. Moreover, the time-course expressions of ScSQR protein in the S. constricta gill were detected when exposed to 150 µM sulfide by Western blot. The expression level of ScSQR increased significantly and showed a time-dependent pattern. In addition, under sulfide stress, the expression level of the gill was higher than that of liver. Together, our results suggest that ScSQR may perform important roles in protecting cells from sulfide stress by participating in mitochondrial sulfide detoxification and providing high sulfide tolerance to S. constricta.


Assuntos
Bivalves/embriologia , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinona Redutases/biossíntese , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Animais , Brânquias/enzimologia , Fígado/enzimologia
10.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124653, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473528

RESUMO

Discharge of heated effluent at 8-12 °C above ambient into water areas is known to retard the growth of aquatic organisms due to heat stress. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) maintains genome integrity by removing helix-distorting adducts such as UV-induced DNA lesions. This study explored how NER in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos at different hours post fertilization (hpf) responded to + 8.5 °C heat shock for 30 min. Our transcription-based repair assay monitoring the ability of zebrafish extracts to upregulate a UV-suppressed gene expression detected a 2-fold increase of NER capacity in 10 hpf early embryos after heat stress. In contrast, heat stress caused a mild inhibition of NER capacity in 24 hpf mid-early embryos. Heat-treated and untreated 10 hpf zebrafish extracts displayed similar levels of UV-damaged-DNA binding activities, while an apparently weaker (6-4) photoproduct (6-4 PP) binding activity was present in heat-stressed 24 hpf zebrafish extracts. Heat stress enhanced UV-induced NER in 10 hpf embryos by increasing the efficiency of damage incision/excision based on both genomic DNA electrophoresis and terminal deoxytransferase (TdT)-mediated end labeling assay. UV-irradiated embryos preexposed to heat stress produced a significantly larger amount of NER-associated DNA fragments about 20-30 nucleotides in length than embryos only heat-treated or irradiated. Correlated with its inhibitory effect on 6-4 PP damage recognition, heat stress downregulated damage incision/excision activities in 24 hpf embryos. Hence, thermal stress may positively or negatively modulate NER capacity in zebrafish embryos at different stages by targeting at the step of DNA incision/excision or damage recognition.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Animais , DNA/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Fatores de Tempo , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 700: 134867, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706091

RESUMO

Different studies have reported the ecotoxicological effects of polyethylene microplastics (PE MPs) on aquatic organisms; however, little is known about their toxicity in the early life stages of aquatic vertebrates living in freshwater ecosystems. Thus, the aim of the current study is to evaluate the toxicity of PE MPs throughout the development of Danio rerio after their static and semi-static exposure to different concentrations of these pollutants (6.2, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/L) - models were monitored at different time-periods, namely: 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 h. Based on the collected data, small PE MP concentrations have harmful effects on D. rerio embryos and larvae; the magnitude and characteristics of these effects depend on the adopted exposure system, which can be static or semi-static. PE MPs had negative effect on embryos' hatching rate in both exposure systems. However, the early hatching observed during the exposure through the static system could explain the lower larval survival rate after egg hatching. Nevertheless, PE MPs induced significant changes in various morphometric parameters. The present study is the first to assess the addressed topic; therefore, it is recommended to carry out future investigations to broaden the knowledge about PE MP toxicity.


Assuntos
/toxicidade , Polietileno/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Embrião não Mamífero , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 701: 134870, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726413

RESUMO

Deltamethrin (DM) is a widely used insecticide and reveals neural, cardiovascular and reproductive toxicity to various aquatic organisms. It has been known that DM negatively affects motion of zebrafish (Danio rerio). However, little is known in relation to the impacts of DM on development of swim bladder, which is a key organ for motion. In the present study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 20 and 40 µg/L DM. The changes of swim bladder morphology were observed and transcription levels of key genes were compared between DM treatments and the control. The results showed that DM treatments significantly blocked the formation of progenitor and tissue layers in swim bladder of zebrafish embryos, leading to failed inflation of swim bladder. Compared with the control, the key genes (pbx1, foxA3, mnx1, has2, anxa5b, hprt1l and elovl1a) responsible for swim bladder development also showed decreased levels in response to DM treatments, suggesting that DM might specifically affect swim bladder development. Moreover, transcription levels of genes in the Wnt (wnt5b, tcf3a, wnt1, wnt9b, fzd1, fzd3 and fzd5) and Hedgehog (ihhb, ptc1 and ptc2) signaling pathways all decreased significantly in response to DM treatments, compared with the control. Considering the importance of Wnt and Hedgehog pathways in development of swim bladder, these results suggested that DM might affect swim bladder development through inhibiting the Wnt and Hedgehog pathways. Overall, the present study reported that swim bladder might be a potential target organ of DM toxicity in zebrafish, which contributed more information to the evaluation of DM's environmental risks.


Assuntos
Sacos Aéreos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Nitrilos/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Sacos Aéreos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero
13.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124587, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425864

RESUMO

Pharmaceuticals are emerging as environmentally problematic compounds. As they are often not appropriately removed by sewage treatment plants, pharmaceutical compounds end up in surface water environments worldwide at concentrations in the ng to µg L-1 range. There is a need to further explore single compound and mixture effects using e.g. in vivo test model systems. We have investigated, for the first time, behavioral effects in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to a binary mixture of an antidepressant drug (citalopram) and a synthetic opioid (tramadol). Citalopram and tramadol have a similar mode of action (serotonin reuptake inhibition) and are known to produce drug-drug interactional effects resulting in serotonin syndrome (SS) in humans. Zebrafish embryo-larvae were exposed to citalopram, tramadol and 1:1 binary mixture from fertilization until 144 h post-fertilization. No effects on heart rate, spontaneous tail coiling, or death/malformations were observed in any treatment at tested concentrations. Behavior (hypoactivity in dark periods) was on the other hand affected, with lowest observed effect concentrations (LOECs) of 373 µg L-1 for citalopram, 320 µg L-1 for tramadol, and 473 µg L-1 for the 1:1 mixture. Behavioral EC50 was calculated to be 471 µg L-1 for citalopram, 411 µg L-1 for tramadol, and 713 µg L-1 for the 1:1 mixture. The results of this study conclude that tramadol and citalopram produce hypoactivity in 144 hpf zebrafish larvae. Further, a 1:1 binary mixture of the two caused the same response, albeit at a higher concentration, possibly due to SS.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Citalopram/farmacologia , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/farmacologia , Tramadol/farmacologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124586, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442775

RESUMO

Cyantraniliprole can effectively control lepidopteran pests and has been used all over the world. In general, the risk of cyantraniliprole seems low for fish, but the toxicity selectivity among different fish species was not clear. Here the acute toxicity and chronic effects of cyantraniliprole to juvenile tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) were assessed. The results showed that 96 h LC50 of cyantraniliprole to tilapia was 38.0 mg/L. After exposed for 28 days, specific growth rates of the blank control, solution control, and the treatments of 0.037, 0.37 and 3.7 mg/L of cyantraniliprole were 1.14, 0.95, 0.93, 0.82 and 0.70% per day, respectively. The results of micronucleus experiment and single cell gel electrophoresis showed that cyantraniliprole damaged DNA in liver cells of tilapia larvae. Quantitative PCR results showed that cyantraniliprole could induce the up-regulation of Rpa 3 that is responsible for the DNA repair. The significantly down-regulation of Chk 2 gene was related to p53 pathway. It is therefore proposed that cyantraniliprole causes DNA damage in liver cells of tilapia and activates DNA damage and repair pathways.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Fígado/patologia , Pirazóis/toxicidade , Tilápia/embriologia , Tilápia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , ortoaminobenzoatos/toxicidade , Animais , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/biossíntese , Dano ao DNA/genética , Reparo do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Reparo do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Brânquias/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva , Dose Letal Mediana , Alimentos Marinhos
15.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124676, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473531

RESUMO

While sublethal effects of insecticide on insect development have been widely studied, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Our previous studies revealed that sublethal concentrations of chlorantraniliprole significantly increased the juvenile hormone levels and resulted in both prolonged developmental time and reduced fecundity in Chilo suppressalis. In the present study, we evaluated the sublethal effects of chlorantraniliprole on molting hormone (MH) levels and mRNA expressions of three Halloween genes including CsCYP307A1, CsCYP306A1 and CsCYP314A1 in C. suppressalis. The results showed that the MH levels in different developmental stages of C. suppressalis were decreased after exposure to LC10 and LC30 of chlorantraniliprole. However, analysis of temporal expression profiles revealed that the mRNA levels of three Halloween genes were not closely correlated with the ecdysteroid titers in C. suppressalis. Notably, the transcript levels of CsCYP307A1, CsCYP306A1 and CsCYP314A1 were induced after treatment with sublethal concentrations of chlorantraniliprole in specific developmental stages. These results indicated that chlorantraniliprole had adverse effects on insect MH biosynthesis, and in addition to the involvement in MH biosynthesis, CsCYP307A1, CsCYP306A1 and CsCYP314A1 may also play important roles in the detoxification metabolism of chlorantraniliprole in C. suppressalis.


Assuntos
Ecdisona/metabolismo , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Hormônios Juvenis/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Muda/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/embriologia , ortoaminobenzoatos/farmacologia , Animais , Hormônios Juvenis/genética , Muda/genética , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese
16.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124753, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545217

RESUMO

Boscalid is a widely used fungicide in agriculture and has been frequently detected in both environments and agricultural products. However, evidence on the neurotoxic effect of boscalid is scarce. In this study, zebrafish served as an animal model to investigate the toxic effects and mechanisms of boscalid on aquatic vertebrates or higher animals. And we unravelled that boscalid induced developmental defects associated with oxidative stress. Developmental defects, including head deformity, hypopigmentation, decreased number of newborn neurons, structural defects around the ventricle, enlarged intercellular space in the brain, and nuclear concentration, were observed in zebrafish embryos after boscalid exposure at 48 hpf. Interestingly, we found that boscalid might directly induce oxidative stress and alter the activity of ATPase, which in turn disrupted the expression of genes involved in neurodevelopment and transmitter-transmitting signalings and melanocyte differentiation and melanin synthesis signalings. Ultimately, the differentiation of nerve cells and melanocytes were both impacted and the synthesis of melanin was inhibited, leading to morphological abnormalities. Additionally, exposure to boscalid led to less and imbalance motion and altered tendency of locomotor in larval fish. Collectively, our results provide new evidences for a comprehensive assessment of its toxicity and a warning for its residues in environment and agricultural products.


Assuntos
Compostos de Bifenilo/toxicidade , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Niacinamida/análogos & derivados , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Melaninas/biossíntese , Melanócitos/citologia , Neurônios/citologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/patologia , Niacinamida/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 702: 134703, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733549

RESUMO

Cardiovascular agents are among the most frequently prescribed pharmaceuticals worldwide. They are widely detected in aquatic ecosystems, while their ecotoxicological implications are rarely explored. Here, by the use of a new developed high-throughput zebrafish embryo screening approach, we systematically assessed the cardiovascular disruptive effects of 32 commonly used cardiovascular agents at environmental relevant concentrations and above (0.04, 0.2 and 1 µM). Multiple endpoints, including cardiac output, heart rate and blood flow, were quantified via customized video analysis approaches. Among the 32 agents, simvastatin and lovastatin exhibited the strongest toxicities to fish embryos, and the lethal doses were observed at 0.2 µM and 1 µM. Beta-blockers such as atenolol and metoprolol significantly decreased heart rates by up to 15% and 12% and increased blood flows by up to 14% and 14%, respectively, at concentrations as low as 0.04 µM. Several hypertension/hyperlipidemia medications such as pravastatin and enalapril led to significant inhibition of heart rates (up to 14% and 16% decreases, respectively) as well as slightly decreases of the cardiac outputs and blood flows. In addition, a tentative risk assessment clearly demonstrated that some compounds such as atenolol, metoprolol and bezafibrate pose considerable risks to aquatic organisms at environmental or slightly higher than surface water concentrations. Our results provided novel insights into understanding of the potential risks of cardiovascular agents and contributed to their environmental hazard ranking.


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Animais , Atenolol , Ecotoxicologia , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião não Mamífero/fisiologia , Metoprolol , Medição de Risco
18.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124802, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521933

RESUMO

Pesticides are usually present as mixtures in water environments. Evaluating the toxic effects of individual pesticide may not be enough for protecting ecological environment due to interactions among substances. In this study, we aimed to examine the lethal doses and gene expression changes in zebrafish (Danio rerio) upon exposure to individual and mixture pesticides [malathion (MAL), chlorpyrifos (CHL) and lambda-cyhalothrin (LCY)]. Individual pesticide toxicity evaluation manifested that the toxicity of the three pesticides to D. rerio at various developmental stages (embryonic, larval, juvenile and adult stages) followed the order of LCY > CHL > MAL. On the contrary, the least toxicity to the animals was discovered from MAL. Most of the tested pesticides displayed lower toxicities to the embryonic stage compared with other life stages of zebrafish. Synergistic effects were monitored from two binary mixtures of LCY in combination with MAL or CHL and ternary mixture of MAL + CHL + LCY. The expressions of 16 genes involved in oxidative stress, immunity system, cell apoptosis and endocrine disruption at the mRNA level revealed that embryonic zebrafish were influenced by the individual or mixture pesticides. The expressions of Tnf, P53, TRα, Crh and Cyp19a exerted greater variations upon exposure to pesticide mixtures compared with their individual compounds. Collectively, the transcriptional responses of these genes might afford early warning biomarkers for identifying pollutant exposure, and the data acquired from this study provided valuable insights into the comprehensive toxicity of pesticide mixtures to zebrafish.


Assuntos
Misturas Complexas/toxicidade , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Animais , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Interações de Medicamentos , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/efeitos dos fármacos , Malation/toxicidade , Nitrilos/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
19.
Chemosphere ; 240: 124819, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563723

RESUMO

The sea cucumbers are common members of marine benthic communities, widespread distributed, easily available and handled. Nevertheless, no data are available on embryo toxicity assays using sea cucumbers, despite some of these species could fully meet the requirements for model test organisms. Holothuria polii is a key species in soft sediments and seagrass meadows; the aim of the present study was the standardization of a new embryo bioassay with this species, as an ecologically relevant test to evaluate the effects of environmental stressors. Sequential experiments were carried out, allowing to define the test acceptability, and a minimum sample size of 240 embryos. Temperature of 26 °C, salinity at 36‰ and a density of 60 eggs/ml were identified as optimum experimental conditions for performing the bioassay. The EC50 calculated for Cd2+ and Cu2+ in dose-response experiments indicated a good sensitivity of H. polii, with comparable values with those obtained in embryo toxicity bioassays of other marine invertebrates. An Integrative Toxicity Index (ITI) was calculated by integrating the frequency of abnormal embryos with the severity of observed abnormalities. The index allows to better discriminate different levels of toxicity, appearing particularly relevant for validating the usefulness of H. polii in embryo assays and ecotoxicological studies on environmental quality.


Assuntos
Bioensaio/métodos , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Pepinos-do-Mar/química , Pepinos-do-Mar/embriologia , Animais
20.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124754, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726531

RESUMO

We conducted the ecological risk assessment in an urban stream by using multiple-level approaches ranging from community level, chemical analyses in water and sediments, physiological assays of DNA biomarkers, embryonic development tests, and gene-level marker analyses of cyp1a, c-Fos, CRH, transgenic fli1:GFP and HuC:eGFP in zebrafish (Danio rerio). In water, the chemical perturbations based on nutrients (N,P), organic matter, ionic contents and metals identified in downstream zone. Analogous corroborations verified in sediment samples having hazardous metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, As, Cd). The chemical contaminations reflected significant damages in fish DNA, based on tDNA, tail length (TL), and tail extent moment (TEM). Zebrafish embryonic development experiments significantly enlightened the chemical contaminants in downstream compared to those in control and reference conditions. Hatching and survival rates rigorously declined in downstream region. Embryonic development delayed and followed by death in the downstream substantiated by the above-mentioned findings. Similar were the findings on heart rate and pigmentation largely affected in the contaminated zone. Pollutants in urban stream reflected significantly at the gene level, and were corroborated through experiments using transgenic zebrafish strains that were influenced by pollutants during the process of occurrence. In conclusion, these studies illuminate the community to gene-level ecological health assessment that could be useful for ecological risk assessments of urban streams and rivers. Further, the gene-level biomarkers and transgenic zebrafish experiments combination propose the procedures could be effectively used as sensitive and efficient biomarkers of ecological health and risk assessment in urban streams from community to gene-level assessments.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Compostos Orgânicos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecologia , Metais Pesados/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Medição de Risco , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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