Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 9.530
Filtrar
1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1334: 81-111, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476746

RESUMO

This chapter discusses the history of the Museum of Anatomy at the University of Glasgow in the context of a planned themed display on obstetrics and pregnancy, centred around human female reproductive anatomy, to support a showcase of Plaster Casts made and used by William Hunter. This exhibition aims to enhance the audience's experience with an educational display of historical specimens as well as anatomical artwork and medical models. It is anticipated that the resultant exhibition will include a series of visualisations and diagrams for use within the collection display to support the audience's understanding of the biological processes involved in reproduction, foetal development and women's experiences of childbirth. The chapter considers historical and contemporary methods of visualising embryos, as well as the developing discourse around menstruation, the gendered body and the lack of diverse representation in gynaecological images, and reflects on some of the historical, scientific, situational and societal considerations needed to achieve an inclusive and accessible exhibition. It also reflects on the artist's role in the embryonic development of this exhibition. The artworks in this chapter and the more that are planned should guide viewers with intentionally inclusive visual content. The project requires considerable further development and discussion with the team of experts involved. It is hoped that this intervention will broaden the impact of the collections in this space and provide opportunities to improve audience engagement by creating content that reflects and includes the voices of society in its creation.


Assuntos
Museus , Parto , Biologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Humanos , Gravidez
2.
Theriogenology ; 175: 123-133, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544011

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to monitor maternal-fetal ecobiometric parameters during physiological pregnancy in goats using ultrasound to predict gestational age by establishing mathematical equations. Twenty-five Saanen goats were included in the study. Assessments were performed weekly from the 21st day of pregnancy until parturition. The abdominal, thoracic, biparietal, and eye socket diameters; distance from the neck to snout; crown-rump, humerus, radius-ulna, metacarpal, femur, tibia, metatarsal, and placentome lengths; kidney height and length; and heart area were measured. Heart rate was obtained using the pulsed Doppler mode. The variables were correlated with gestational age using Spearman's test, and the adjustment of these variables to simple and multiple regression models was done to determine the mathematical formulas for calculating the gestational age. The highest obtained coefficients of determination (R2) were for humerus length (96.2), heart area (95.6), and distance from the neck to the snout (95.3). Only the placentome length and fetal heart rate presented low determination coefficients (R2 = 54.3, R2 = 45.0). The results indicated significant correlations between measures of maternal-fetal structures and gestational age, and can be used as reference values for detection of abnormalities during fetal development.


Assuntos
Cabras , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Animais , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Feto , Idade Gestacional , Gravidez , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/veterinária
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445282

RESUMO

Cannabis use during pregnancy has continued to rise, particularly in developed countries, as a result of the trend towards legalization and lack of consistent, evidence-based knowledge on the matter. While there is conflicting data regarding whether cannabis use during pregnancy leads to adverse outcomes such as stillbirth, preterm birth, low birthweight, or increased admission to neonatal intensive care units, investigations into long-term effects on the offspring's health are limited. Historically, studies have focused on the neurobehavioral effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on the offspring. The effects of cannabis on other physiological aspects of the developing fetus have received less attention. Importantly, our knowledge about cannabinoid signaling in the placenta is also limited. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is present at early stages of development and represents a potential target for exogenous cannabinoids in utero. The ECS is expressed in a broad range of tissues and influences a spectrum of cellular functions. The aim of this review is to explore the current evidence surrounding the effects of prenatal exposure to cannabinoids and the role of the ECS in the placenta and the developing fetus.


Assuntos
Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Abuso de Maconha/metabolismo , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Placenta/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo
4.
Neuroscience ; 473: 66-80, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425158

RESUMO

The placenta is the primary source of serotonin (5-HT) for fetal development, programming fetal neural wiring in humans and other mammals. The fluctuation in maternal 5-HT affects fetal neurogenesis with life-long consequences, however, its mechanisms have not been well known. The chicken embryo, independent of maternal neurohormonal influence, may offer an ideal model for studying the mechanisms of prenatal 5-HT exposure altering postnatal physiological homeostasis and behavioral exhibition. To investigate the fine-tuning of 5-HT to the early embryonic neurodevelopment, 10 µg and 20 µg 5-HT were secretively injected to chicken embryos before incubation. 5-HT exposure mainly affected the neural development in the pons and midbrain, altered the serotoninergic and dopaminergic (DAergic) neuronal morphology, nucleus distribution, and their metabolisms and related gene expressions. The comprehensive effect of 5-HT exposure was not dosage-dependent but the working pathways differed, 10 µg 5-HT exposure reduced 5-HT turnover rate, increased 5-HT 1a receptor expression, and facilitated the ventral tegmental area neuronal development; while 20 µg 5-HT exposure increased the serotoninergic and DAergic neurotransmission and enhanced serotoninergic regulation to the hypothalamus. These findings indicate that the 5-HT exposure effect can be achieved via different paths by modifying the embryonic serotonergic (5-HTergic) and DAergic systems and altering fetal 5-HTergic influence on the thalamocortical circuit and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. These results may offer a novel sight for understanding the function of 5-HT during neurodevelopment and raise the possibility for using selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors to regulate emotional and mental wellness during early pregnancy and possible risks of complications for babies.


Assuntos
Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Serotonina , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Humanos , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal
5.
Science ; 373(6558)2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446580

RESUMO

The immune system has evolved in the face of microbial exposure. How maternal infection experienced at distinct developmental stages shapes the offspring immune system remains poorly understood. Here, we show that during pregnancy, maternally restricted infection can have permanent and tissue-specific impacts on offspring immunity. Mechanistically, maternal interleukin-6 produced in response to infection can directly impose epigenetic changes on fetal intestinal epithelial stem cells, leading to long-lasting impacts on intestinal immune homeostasis. As a result, offspring of previously infected dams develop enhanced protective immunity to gut infection and increased inflammation in the context of colitis. Thus, maternal infection can be coopted by the fetus to promote long-term, tissue-specific fitness, a phenomenon that may come at the cost of predisposition to inflammatory disorders.


Assuntos
Colite/imunologia , Imunidade , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Intestinos/imunologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Infecções por Yersinia pseudotuberculosis/imunologia , Animais , Candidíase/imunologia , Cromatina/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Epigenoma , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Interleucina-6/sangue , Interleucina-6/farmacologia , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Mucosa Intestinal/embriologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Intestinos/embriologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Camundongos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Salmonelose Animal/imunologia , Células-Tronco/imunologia , Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia
6.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444981

RESUMO

AIMS: This systematic review examines the association between maternal lifestyle, diet and physical activity, and epigenetic changes in the offspring. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using multiple science databases: PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library, on 10 March 2021. RCT and Cohort studies in English or Scandinavian languages were included. Exposure variables included diet, lifestyle, meal patterns or physical activity. Studies using dietary supplements as exposure variables were excluded. Outcome variables included were DNA methylation, microRNA or histone changes in placenta, cord blood or offspring. Two independent authors screened, read and extracted data from the included papers. The Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials (RoB2) and The Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) Cohort Study Checklist were used to assess risk of bias in the included studies. A qualitative approach was employed due to heterogeneity of exposures and results of the studies. RESULTS: 16 studies and 3617 participants were included in the final analysis. The exposure variables included physical activity, carbohydrate, low glycemic index diet, added sugar, fat, Mediterranean diet and pro-inflammatory diet. The outcome variables identified were differences in DNA methylation and microRNA. Most studies described epigenetic changes in either placenta or cord blood. Genes reported to be methylated were GR, HSD2, IGF-2, PLAG1, MEG-3, H19 and RXRA. However, not all studies found epigenetic changes strong enough to pass multiple testing, and the study quality varied. CONCLUSION: Despite the variable quality of the included studies, the results in this review suggest that there may be an association between the mother's lifestyle, diet and level of physical activity during pregnancy and epigenetic changes in the offspring.


Assuntos
Dieta , Epigênese Genética , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Estilo de Vida , Gestantes , Metilação de DNA , Epigenômica , Feminino , Genes , Histonas , Humanos , MicroRNAs , Mães , Gravidez
7.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445051

RESUMO

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with reduced placental amino acid transport (AAT). However, it remains to be established if changes in AAT contribute to restricted fetal growth. We hypothesized that reduced in vivo placental AAT precedes the development of IUGR in baboons with maternal nutrient restriction (MNR). Baboons were fed either a control (ad libitum) or MNR diet (70% of control diet) from gestational day (GD) 30. At GD 140, in vivo transplacental AA transport was measured by infusing nine (13)C- or (2)H-labeled essential amino acids (EAAs) as a bolus into the maternal circulation at cesarean section. A fetal vein-to-maternal artery mole percent excess ratio for each EAA was measured. Microvillous plasma membrane (MVM) system A and system L transport activity were determined. Fetal and placental weights were not significantly different between MNR and control. In vivo, the fetal vein-to-maternal artery mole percent excess ratio was significantly decreased for tryptophan in MNR. MVM system A and system L activity was markedly reduced in MNR. Reduction of in vivo placental amino acid transport precedes fetal growth restriction in the non-human primate, suggesting that reduced placental amino acid transfer may contribute to IUGR.


Assuntos
Sistema A de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Sistema L de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etiologia , Troca Materno-Fetal , Placenta/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/metabolismo , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/fisiopatologia , Idade Gestacional , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Papio , Gravidez
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5095, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429407

RESUMO

Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) contributes to poor birth outcomes, in part through disrupted placental functions, which may be reflected in the placental epigenome. Here we present a meta-analysis of the associations between MSDP and placental DNA methylation (DNAm) and between DNAm and birth outcomes within the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics (PACE) consortium (N = 1700, 344 with MSDP). We identify 443 CpGs that are associated with MSDP, of which 142 associated with birth outcomes, 40 associated with gene expression, and 13 CpGs are associated with all three. Only two CpGs have consistent associations from a prior meta-analysis of cord blood DNAm, demonstrating substantial tissue-specific responses to MSDP. The placental MSDP-associated CpGs are enriched for environmental response genes, growth-factor signaling, and inflammation, which play important roles in placental function. We demonstrate links between placental DNAm, MSDP and poor birth outcomes, which may better inform the mechanisms through which MSDP impacts placental function and fetal growth.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Placenta/metabolismo , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Motivos de Nucleotídeos , Gravidez , Tabaco
9.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371854

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between maternal insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration and food consumption frequency and the birth parameters of the newborn. A total of 157 mother-newborn pairs participated in the study. The study showed that more frequent consumption of sweet and salty snacks as well as fruit and fruit or vegetable juices may promote greater weight gain in pregnancy and higher newborn birth weight. A significantly higher insulin concentration was found among overweight women according to body mass index (BMI), and a significantly lower concentration of IGF-1 was demonstrated among women ≥35 years of age. There was no significant correlation between the concentration of insulin and IGF-1 in the mother's blood plasma and the birth weight and length of the newborn. A significant relationship was only found between the concentration of IGF-1 in the mother's blood and the Ponderal index of the newborn. A woman's eating habits during pregnancy have a significant impact on the mother's health and on the proper growth and development of the foetus.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Estatura , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Insulina/sangue , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Polônia , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
10.
Toxicol Lett ; 351: 78-88, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454011

RESUMO

We previously found that prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induced adrenal dysplasia in offspring, which was related to intrauterine maternal glucocorticoid overexposure. This study investigated the intergenerational genetic effect and sex differences of PEE-induced changes in the synthetic function of adrenal corticosterone in offspring, and to clarify the intrauterine origin programming mechanism. Wistar pregnant rats were gavaged with ethanol (4 g/kg bw/d) from gestation day (GD) 9-20, and F1 generation was born naturally. The F1 generation female rats in the PEE group were mated with normal male rats to produce F2 generation. Serum and adrenal glands of fetal rats and F1/F2 adult rats were collected at GD20 and postnatal week 28. PEE increased the serum corticosterone level, while diminishing the expression of adrenal steroid synthases of fetal rats. Moreover, PEE enhanced the mRNA expression of GR and HDAC1, but inhibited the mRNA expression of SF1 and reduced the H3K9ac level of P450scc in the fetal adrenal gland. In PEE adult offspring of F1 and F2 generation the serum corticosterone level, the H3K9ac level of P450scc and its expression were decreased in males but were increased in females. In NCI-H295R cells, cortisol reduced the production of endogenous cortisol, down-regulated SF1, and up-regulated HDAC1 expression by activating GR, and decreased H3K9ac level and expression of P450scc. In conclusion, PEE could induce adrenal dysplasia in offspring with sex differences and intergenerational genetic effects, and the adrenal insufficiency in male offspring was related to the induction of low functional genetic programming of P450scc by intrauterine high corticosterone through the GR/SF1/HDAC1 pathway.


Assuntos
Glândulas Suprarrenais/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândulas Suprarrenais/metabolismo , Corticosterona/biossíntese , Etanol/toxicidade , Glândulas Suprarrenais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos
11.
Toxicol Lett ; 351: 65-77, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454012

RESUMO

Phthalates are plasticizers widely found in the environment. They are potential endocrine disruptors. Bis(2-butoxyethyl) phthalate (BBOP) is a unique phthalate that contains oxygen atoms in the carbon backbone. Little is known about its reproductive and developmental toxicity. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of BBOP on fetal Leydig cell development after in utero exposure to rats. Sprague Dawley pregnant dams were randomly allocated into 6 groups, and were gavaged with BBOP (0, 10, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight/day) from gestational day (GD) 14-21. Seven of the 8 dams in the 1000 mg/kg BBOP group died before giving birth. Twelve of the 20 dams in the 500 mg/kg BBOP group had whole litter loss. BBOP significantly reduced the body weight of dams and male offspring and serum testosterone level and anogenital distance of male fetus on GD 21 at 500 mg/kg. BBOP markedly increased fetal Leydig cell proliferation and number at 500 mg/kg while inducing their abnormal aggregation at 250 and 500 mg/kg. BBOP down-regulated the expression of Lhcgr, Scarb1, Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp17a1, Hsd17b3, Insl3, and Nr5a1 at various doses while up-regulating the expression of Sertoli cell gene Fshr and Sox9. The phosphorylation of AKT1, AKT2, and ERK1/2 was also markedly reduced by BBOP. In conclusion, BBOP in utero exposure can disrupt fetal Leydig cell development, possibly via the mechanism that may include inhibiting the phosphorylation of AKT1, AKT2, and ERK1/2.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Animais , Enzima de Clivagem da Cadeia Lateral do Colesterol/genética , Enzima de Clivagem da Cadeia Lateral do Colesterol/metabolismo , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/genética , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Feto , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Estrutura Molecular , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 51, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422174

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to compare the unadjusted EPOPé M0 curve with the customized Gardosi curve in the diagnosis of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses in a sub-Saharan population. We compared the Gardosi et al. and EPOPé M0 classifications. Classification differences were analyzed according to patient characteristics and obstetric conditions. Data collected from FileMaker software were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 and R Studio software. The statistical tests were carried out according to applicability conditions. Alpha risk was set at 0.05. The Gardosi curve showed that the rate of SGA newborns was higher (31.4% versus 28.9%) and did not differ between overweight and normal-weight women. The rate of severe SGA in preterm infants was also higher (23.6 versus 19.7%). Diseases were more frequent in newborns classified as severe SGA by the customized growth curve. The customized curve is recommended for the sub-Saharan Africa population.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/diagnóstico , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/classificação , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445488

RESUMO

Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can have immediate and long-lasting toxic and teratogenic effects on an individual's development and health. As a toxicant, alcohol can lead to a variety of physical and neurological anomalies in the fetus that can lead to behavioral and other impairments which may last a lifetime. Recent studies have focused on identifying mechanisms that mediate the immediate teratogenic effects of alcohol on fetal development and mechanisms that facilitate the persistent toxic effects of alcohol on health and predisposition to disease later in life. This review focuses on the contribution of epigenetic modifications and intercellular transporters like extracellular vesicles to the toxicity of PAE and to immediate and long-term consequences on an individual's health and risk of disease.


Assuntos
Etanol/toxicidade , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Teratogênese/genética , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Vesículas Extracelulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Vesículas Extracelulares/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Gravidez
14.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371934

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC), is increasingly hypothesized to be a factor contributing to changes in fetal growth velocity. BPA exposure may be environmental, occupational, and/or dietary, with canned foods and plastic bottles contributing significantly. Our systematic review aims to evaluate the current literature and to investigate the role of BPA in abnormal fetal growth patterns. A search was conducted in the PubMed and Cochrane databases. A total of 25 articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in this systematic review. Eleven of them failed to show a clear relationship between BPA and abnormal fetal growth. The majority of the remaining studies (9/14) found an inverse association of BPA with indicators of fetal growth, whereas three studies suggested increased fetal growth, and two studies produced contradictory findings. Of note, both of the studies that collected a sample (amniotic fluid) directly reflecting BPA concentration in the fetus during the first half of pregnancy revealed an inverse association with birth weight. In conclusion, there is mounting evidence that combined exposure to BPA from dietary and non-dietary sources during pregnancy may contribute to abnormal fetal growth; a tendency towards fetal growth restriction was shown, especially when exposure occurs during the first half.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/induzido quimicamente , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Animais , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/fisiopatologia , Contaminação de Alimentos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
15.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48277

RESUMO

Estudo liderado por cientistas da Faculdade de Saúde Pública da USP criou uma medida inovadora para avaliar os desfechos da saúde materno-infantil. A partir do estudo Dias potenciais de gravidez perdidos (DPGP): uma medida inovadora da idade gestacional (IG) para avaliar intervenções e resultados de saúde materno-infantil, os pesquisadores fundamentam o entendimento de que cada dia de gestação, inferior a 40 semanas (ou 280 dias) completas, impacta negativamente na saúde dos bebês.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Idade Gestacional , Nascimento a Termo , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Fatores de Risco
16.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 321(3): R279-R294, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259046

RESUMO

Residence at high altitude is consistently associated with low birthweight among placental mammals. This reduction in birthweight influences long-term health trajectories for both the offspring and mother. However, the physiological processes that contribute to fetal growth restriction at altitude are still poorly understood, and thus our ability to safely intervene remains limited. One approach to identify the factors that mitigate altitude-dependent fetal growth restriction is to study populations that are protected from fetal growth restriction through evolutionary adaptations (e.g., high altitude-adapted populations). Here, we examine human gestational physiology at high altitude from a novel evolutionary perspective that focuses on patterns of physiological plasticity, allowing us to identify 1) the contribution of specific physiological systems to fetal growth restriction and 2) the mechanisms that confer protection in highland-adapted populations. Using this perspective, our review highlights two general findings: first, that the beneficial value of plasticity in maternal physiology is often dependent on factors more proximate to the fetus; and second, that our ability to understand the contributions of these proximate factors is currently limited by thin data from altitude-adapted populations. Expanding the comparative scope of studies on gestational physiology at high altitude and integrating studies of both maternal and fetal physiology are needed to clarify the mechanisms by which physiological responses to altitude contribute to fetal growth outcomes. The relevance of these questions to clinical, agricultural, and basic research combined with the breadth of the unknown highlight gestational physiology at high altitude as an exciting niche for continued work.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Altitude , Evolução Biológica , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Feto , Humanos , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez
17.
Nat Genet ; 53(8): 1135-1142, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282336

RESUMO

Birth weight is a common measure of fetal growth that is associated with a range of health outcomes. It is directly affected by the fetal genome and indirectly by the maternal genome. We performed genome-wide association studies on birth weight in the genomes of the child and parents and further analyzed birth length and ponderal index, yielding a total of 243 fetal growth variants. We clustered those variants based on the effects of transmitted and nontransmitted alleles on birth weight. Out of 141 clustered variants, 22 were consistent with parent-of-origin-specific effects. We further used haplotype-specific polygenic risk scores to directly test the relationship between adult traits and birth weight. Our results indicate that the maternal genome contributes to increased birth weight through blood-glucose-raising alleles while blood-pressure-raising alleles reduce birth weight largely through the fetal genome.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Adulto , Glicemia/genética , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Estatura/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Haplótipos , Humanos , Islândia , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
18.
Res Vet Sci ; 139: 11-17, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229106

RESUMO

To determine if Cu injection during late gestation can affect fetal and postnatal growth, hematology and immune function of progeny, 70 multiparous pregnant Angus cows, at 219 ± 15 d of gestation, were ranked by BW and BCS and randomly assigned to one of two treatments: Cu + (n = 35) in total 160 mg of Cu were administered subcutaneously in two moments (80 mg per moment) at 64 ± 15 d and 54 ± 15 d prepartum; and Cu- (n = 35), in total of 16 ml of sterile NaCl solution (9 g / l) were administered subcutaneously in two moments (8 ml per moment) at 64 ± 15 d and 54 ± 15 d prepartum. Calves from both treatments were weaned at 260 ± 15 d of age, male calves were separated from female calves and stockered on natural pastures until 690 ± 15 d of age, then placed into a feedlot for 104 d before slaughter. At the beginning of the experiment, cows Cu serum concentration was similar (P = 0.34) between treatments and these reflected a severe Cu deficiency (Cu + = 24.2 ± 1.5 µg/dl; Cu- = 22.2 ± 1.4 µg/dl). At calving, Cu serum concentration was greater (P < 0.01) in Cu + cows than Cu- cows. Copper serum concentration in calves from Cu + cows was greater at birth (P = 0.02) and 75 ± 15 d of age (P < 0.01) and tended (P = 0.07) to be greater at 160 ± 15 d of age compared to calves from Cu- cows. Calf BW at birth did not differ (P > 0.10) between treatments, however, calf BW adjusted at 75 d of age tended to be greater (P = 0.10) in calves from Cu + cows compared to calves from Cu- cows. Calf ADG from birth to 75 d of age was greater (P = 0.04) in calves from Cu + cows compared to calves from Cu- cows. Calf hematological parameters and titers of neutralizing antibodies against BHV-1 after primary and secondary vaccination against respiratory diseases did not differ (P > 0.10) between treatments. During finishing period, steers BW, 12th rib fat thickness and LM area were not affected (P > 0.10) by treatments. In summary, inorganic Cu injection during late gestation in Cu deficient beef cows allows to increase Cu serum concentration in calves from birth to 160 d of age. This event was associated with an increase in ADG and a tendency to increase BW during the first 75 days of life. After 75 days of age, any effect on the offspring performance was not observed.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Cobre , Suplementos Nutricionais , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Parto , Gravidez
19.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 321(3): R352-R363, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287074

RESUMO

Fetal skeletal muscle growth requires myoblast proliferation, differentiation, and fusion into myofibers in addition to protein accretion for fiber hypertrophy. Oxygen is an important regulator of this process. Therefore, we hypothesized that fetal anemic hypoxemia would inhibit skeletal muscle growth. Studies were performed in late-gestation fetal sheep that were bled to anemic and therefore hypoxemic conditions beginning at ∼125 days of gestation (term = 148 days) for 9 ± 0 days (n = 19) and compared with control fetuses (n = 16). A metabolic study was performed on gestational day ∼134 to measure fetal protein kinetic rates. Myoblast proliferation and myofiber area were determined in biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) muscles. mRNA expression of muscle regulatory factors was determined in BF. Fetal arterial hematocrit and oxygen content were 28% and 52% lower, respectively, in anemic fetuses. Fetal weight and whole body protein synthesis, breakdown, and accretion rates were not different between groups. Hindlimb length, however, was 7% shorter in anemic fetuses. TA and FDS muscles weighed less, and FDS myofiber area was smaller in anemic fetuses compared with controls. The percentage of Pax7+ myoblasts that expressed Ki67 was lower in BF and tended to be lower in FDS from anemic fetuses indicating reduced myoblast proliferation. There was less MYOD and MYF6 mRNA expression in anemic versus control BF consistent with reduced myoblast differentiation. These results indicate that fetal anemic hypoxemia reduced muscle growth. We speculate that fetal muscle growth may be improved by strategies that increase oxygen availability.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/metabolismo , Feto/metabolismo , Membro Posterior/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Muscular/fisiologia , Ovinos
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203717

RESUMO

It is well understood that sex differences exist between females and males even before they are born. These sex-dependent differences may contribute to altered growth and developmental outcomes for the fetus. Based on our initial observations in the human placenta, we hypothesised that the male prioritises growth pathways in order to maximise growth through to adulthood, thereby ensuring the greatest chance of reproductive success. However, this male-specific "evolutionary advantage" likely contributes to males being less adaptable to shifts in the in-utero environment, which then places them at a greater risk for intrauterine morbidities or mortality. Comparatively, females are more adaptable to changes in the in-utero environment at the cost of growth, which may reduce their risk of poor perinatal outcomes. The mechanisms that drive these sex-specific adaptations to a change in the in-utero environment remain unclear, but an increasing body of evidence within the field of developmental biology would suggest that alterations to placental function, as well as the feto-placental hormonal milieu, is an important contributing factor. Herein, we have addressed the current knowledge regarding sex-specific intrauterine growth differences and have examined how certain pregnancy complications may alter these female- and male-specific adaptations.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Placenta/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Androgênios/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...