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1.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 604-607, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018061

RESUMO

Beat-by-beat maternal and fetal heart couplings were reported to be evident throughout the fetal development. However, it is still unknown whether maternal-fetal heartbeat coupling parameters are associated with fetal development, and the potential interrelationships. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the associations of coupling parameters with fetal gestational age by multivariate regression models. Ten min abdominal lead-based maternal and fetal ECG signals were collected from 16 healthy pregnant women with healthy singleton pregnancies (19-32 weeks). Maternal and Fetal Heart Rate Variability (MHRV and FHRV) values as well as maternal-fetal heart rate coupling (strength, measured by A) parameters at various coupling ratios (associated with different Maternal:Fetal heartbeat ratios of 1:2, 1:3, 2:3, 2:4, 3:4, and 3:5) were calculated. Based on those features stepwise multivariate regression models were constructed by validating against the gold standard gestational age identified by crown-rump length from doppler echocardiogram. Among all models, the best model (Root Mean Square Error, RMSE=1.92) was found to be significantly (p<0.05) associated with mean fetal heart rate, mean maternal heart rate, standard deviation of maternal heart rate, λ[1:3], λ[2:3], λ[2:4]. Correlation coefficients and Bland Altman plots were constructed to statistically validate the results. The model developed based on coupling parameters only, showed the second-best performance (RMSE=2.50). Therefore, combining maternal and fetal heart rate variability parameters with maternal-fetal heart rate coupling values (rather than considering FHRV or MHRV parameters only) is found to be better associated with fetal development.Clinical relevance- This is a brief additional statement on why this might be of interest to practicing clinicians. Example: This establishes the anesthetic efficacy of 10% intraosseous injections with epinephrine to positively influence cardiovascular function.


Assuntos
Coração Fetal , Frequência Cardíaca Fetal , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Gravidez
2.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 20(1): 228, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, the disease caused by the highly infectious and transmissible coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, has quickly become a morbid global pandemic. Although the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is less clinically apparent, collecting high-quality biospecimens from infants, children, and adolescents in a standardized manner during the COVID-19 pandemic is essential to establish a biologic understanding of the disease in the pediatric population. This biorepository enables pediatric centers world-wide to collect samples uniformly to drive forward our understanding of COVID-19 by addressing specific pediatric and neonatal COVID-19-related questions. METHODS: A COVID-19 biospecimen collection study was implemented with strategic enrollment guidelines to include patients seen in urgent care clinics and hospital settings, neonates born to SARS-CoV-2 infected mothers, and asymptomatic children. The methodology described here, details the importance of establishing collaborations between the clinical and research teams to harmonize protocols for patient recruitment and sample collection, processing and storage. It also details modifications required for biobanking during a surge of the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Considerations and challenges facing enrollment of neonatal and pediatric cohorts are described. A roadmap is laid out for successful collection, processing, storage and database management of multiple pediatric samples such as blood, nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs, sputum, saliva, tracheal aspirates, stool, and urine. Using this methodology, we enrolled 327 participants, who provided a total of 972 biospecimens. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric biospecimens will be key in answering questions relating to viral transmission by children, differences between pediatric and adult viral susceptibility and immune responses, the impact of maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection on fetal development, and factors driving the Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children. The specimens in this biorepository will allow necessary comparative studies between children and adults, help determine the accuracy of current pediatric viral testing techniques, in addition to, understanding neonatal exposure to SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease abnormalities. The successful establishment of a pediatric biorepository is critical to provide insight into disease pathogenesis, and subsequently, develop future treatment and vaccination strategies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237700, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966295

RESUMO

The reduction of food intake during pregnancy is part of many cultural and religious traditions around the world. The impact of such practices on fetal growth and development are poorly understood. Here, we examined the patterns of diet intake among Maasai pregnant women and assessed their effect on newborn morphometrics. We recruited 141 mother-infant pairs from Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA) in Northern Tanzania and quantified dietary intake and changes in maternal diet during pregnancy. We obtained measurements of body weight (BW) and head circumference (HC) at birth. We found that Maasai women significantly reduced their dietary intake during the third trimester, going from an average of 1601 kcal/day during the first two trimesters to 799 kcal/day in the final trimester. The greatest proportion of nutrient reduction was in carbohydrates. Overall, 40% of HC Z-scores of the NCA sample were more than 2 standard deviations below the WHO standard. Nearly a third of neonates classify as low birth weight (< 2500g). HC was smaller relative to BW in this cohort than predicted using the WHO standard. This contrasts markedly to a Tanzanian birth cohort obtained at the same time in an urban context in which only 12% of infants exhibited low weight, only two individuals had HC Z-scores < 2 and HC's relative to birth weight were larger than predicted using the WHO standards. The surprising lack of head sparing in the NCA cohort suggests that the impact of third trimester malnutrition bears further investigation in both animal models and human populations, especially as low HC is negatively associated with long term health outcomes.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Restrição Calórica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Cabeça/embriologia , Cabeça/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Tanzânia
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22389, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991460

RESUMO

To investigate the molecular mechanisms of later metabolic health changes in large for gestational age (LGA) newborns by analyzing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation patterns in the placenta of LGA and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) newborns.A total of 6 placentas of LGA and 6 placentas of AGA newborns were enrolled as LGA group and AGA group. DNA methylation was analyzed using the Illumina Infinium Human MethylationEPIC BeadChip microarrays and verified via pyrosequencing and reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Functional enrichment analysis were constructed by gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis based on the differentially methylated regions between LGA and AGA groups.Clinical investigation showed that LGA newborns had significantly lower hemoglobin and blood glucose compared to AGA newborns. Birth weight was negatively correlated to hemoglobin and blood glucose. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis identified 17 244 methylation variable positions achieving genome-wide significance (adjusted P < .05). 34% methylation variable positions were located in the gene promoter region. A total of 117 differentially methylated regions were revealed by bump hunting analysis, which mapped to 107 genes. Function analysis showed 13 genes enriched in "adhesion and infection process, endocrine and other factor-regulated calcium reabsorption, calcium signaling pathway and transmembrane transport". Four genes linked to type II diabetes mellitus. Among the 13 genes, we selected GNAS and calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 G for independent verification of pyrosequencing, and the messenger ribonucleic acid levels of guanine nucleotide binding protein, calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 G, DECR1, and FK506 binding protein 11 were verified by reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.DNA methylation variation and gene expression differences in placental samples were associated with LGA newborns, which linking the effect of intrauterine environment to regulation of the offspring's gene expression. Furthermore, pathway analysis suggested that intrauterine environment affecting fetal growth might had a functional impact on multiple signaling pathways involved in fetal growth, metabolism, and inflammation. Further studies were required to understand the differences of methylation patterns.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Placenta/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
6.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 214, ago. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1103446

RESUMO

El término Origen Temprano de las Enfermedades del Adulto explica la aparición temprana de las condiciones anormales cardiovasculares y metabólicas en la vida adulta, mayor riesgo de morbilidad y muerte asociados a factores ambientales, especialmente nutricionales, que actúan en las primeras etapas de la vida. Estas respuestas programadas dependen de la naturaleza del estímulo o noxa, del tiempo de exposición y del momento de ocurrencia de la noxa, pudiendo un solo genotipo original varios fenotipos y estarían condicionadas por criterios críticos en los cuales se desarrollarían cambios a largo plazo pudiendo ser reversibles o no. La Programación Fetal explica que respuestas adaptativas embrionarias y fetales en un ambiente subóptimo genera consecuencias adversas permanentes. La desnutrición, así como la sobrenutrición fetal aumenta el riesgo de desarrollar alteraciones en el peso y composición corporal fetal, y posteriormente obesidad, síndrome metabólico, incremento en la adiposidad, alteración en el metabolismo de la glucosa y / o insulina, alteración del metabolismo lipídico, alteraciones hepáticas y de las cifras tensionales. La impronta genómica es esencial para el desarrollo y defectos en la misma puede originar alteraciones de la identidad parental transmisibles a las siguientes generaciones. Esta programación fetal puede ser explicada por la epigenética, definida como la serie de alteraciones hereditarias de la expresión genética a través de modificaciones del ADN y las histonas centrales sin cambios en la secuencia de ADN. Estas modificaciones epigenéticas alteran la estructura y condensación de la cromatina, afectando la expresión del genotipo y fenotipo. Este artículo desarrolla los aspectos involucrados en la Programación Fetal y los posibles mecanismos sobre la misma(AU)


The term Early Origin of Adult Diseases explains the early onset of abnormal cardiovascular and metabolic conditions in adult life, increased risk of morbidity and death associated with environmental factors, especially nutritional factors, that act in the early stages of life. These programmed responses depend on the nature of the stimulus or noxa, the time of exposure and the moment of occurrence of the noxa, with a single original genotype being able to have several phenotypes and would be conditioned by critical criteria in which long-term changes could develop, reversibles or not. Fetal Programming explains that embryonic and fetal adaptive responses in a suboptimal environment generate permanent adverse consequences. Fetal malnutrition as overnutrition increases the risk of developing alterations in fetal body weight and composition, and subsequently obesity, metabolic syndrome, increased adiposity, impaired glucose and / or insulin metabolism, impaired lipid metabolism, liver disorders and altered blood pressure. The genomic imprint is essential for development and defects in it can cause alterations of the parental identity and are transmitted to the following generations. This fetal programming can be explained by epigenetics, defined as the series of inherited alterations of genetic expression through modifications of DNA and central histones without changes in the DNA sequence. These epigenetic modifications alter the structure and condensation of chromatin, affecting the expression of the genotype and phenotype. This article develops the aspects involved in Fetal Programming and the possible mechanisms on it(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtornos da Nutrição Fetal , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Noxas , Doenças Nutricionais e Metabólicas , Composição Corporal , Hipotálamo/anatomia & histologia , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo
7.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1672, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733490

RESUMO

Pregnancy comprises a unique immunological condition, to allow fetal development and to protect the host from pathogenic infections. Viral infections during pregnancy can disrupt immunological tolerance and may generate deleterious effects on the fetus. Despite these possible links between pregnancy and infection-induced morbidity, it is unclear how pregnancy interferes with maternal response to some viral pathogens. In this context, the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) can induce the coronavirus diseases-2019 (COVID-19) in pregnant women. The potential risk of vertical transmission is unclear, babies born from COVID-19-positive mothers seems to have no serious clinical symptoms, the possible mechanisms are discussed, which highlights that checking the children's outcome and more research is warranted. In this review, we investigate the reports concerning viral infections and COVID-19 during pregnancy, to establish a correlation and possible implications of COVID-19 during pregnancy and neonatal's health.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Mães , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/sangue
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1265: 111-131, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761573

RESUMO

Amino acids are not only the building blocks of proteins, an indispensable component of cells, but also play versatile roles in regulating cell metabolism, proliferation, differentiation and growth by themselves or through their derivatives. At the whole body level, the bioavailability and metabolism of amino acids, interacting with other macronutrients, is critical for the physiological processes of reproduction including gametogenesis, fertilization, implantation, placentation, fetal growth and development. In fertilization and early pregnancy, histotroph in oviductal and uterine secretions provides nutrients and microenvironment for conceptus (embryo and extraembryonic membranes) development. These nutrients include select amino acids in histotroph (arginine, leucine and glutamine of particular interest) that stimulate conceptus growth and development, as well as interactions between maternal uterus and the conceptus, thus impacting maintenance of pregnancy, placental growth, development and functions, fetal growth and development, and consequential pregnancy outcomes. Gestational protein undernutrition causes fetal growth restriction and predisposes cardiovascular, metabolic diseases and others in offspring via multiple mechanisms, whereas the supplementation of glycine, leucine and taurine during pregnancy partially rescues growth restriction and beneficially modulates fetal programming. Thus, amino acids are essential for the fertility of humans and all animals.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Reprodução/fisiologia , Animais , Implantação do Embrião , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Humanos , Gravidez , Útero/metabolismo
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236968, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745140

RESUMO

Many circumstantial evidences from human and animal studies suggest that complement cascade dysregulation may play an important role in pregnancy associated complications including preeclampsia. Deletion of rodent specific complement inhibitor gene, Complement Receptor 1-related Gene/Protein y (Crry) produces embryonic lethal phenotype due to complement activation. It is not clear if decreased expression of Crry during pregnancy produces hypertensive phenotype. We downregulated Crry in placenta by injecting inducible lentivialshRNA vectors into uterine horn of pregnant C57BL/6 mice at the time of blastocyst hatching. Placenta specific downregulation of Crry without significant loss of embryos was achieved upon induction of shRNA using an optimal doxycycline dose at mid gestation. Crry downregulation resulted in placental complement deposition. Late-gestation measurements showed that fetal weights were reduced and blood pressure increased in pregnant mice upon downregulation of Crry suggesting a critical role for Crry in fetal growth and blood pressure regulation.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Placenta/metabolismo , Receptores de Complemento 3b/genética , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Ativação do Complemento/genética , Complemento C3/metabolismo , Inativadores do Complemento/farmacologia , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Placenta/fisiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Gravidez , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Receptores de Complemento/genética , Receptores de Complemento 3b/metabolismo
11.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(6): 403-413, 2020 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641203

RESUMO

Objective: To verify the health advisory for short-term exposure to phenol. Methods: The method of this validation experiment was the same as the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for toxicology experiments used to determine phenol drinking water equivalent level (DWEL). Pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered phenol in distilled water by gavage at daily doses of 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) from implantation (the 6th day post-mating) to the day prior to the scheduled caesarean section (the 20th day of pregnancy). The following information was recorded: general behavior; body weight; number of corpus luteum, live birth, fetus, stillbirth, and implantation; fetal gender; body weight; body length; tail length; and abnormalities and pathomorphological changes in the dams. Results: In the 60 mg/kg b.w. dose group, the mortality of pregnant rats increased with increasing doses, suggesting maternal toxicity. Fetal and placental weights decreased as phenol dose increased from 30 mg/kg b.w., and were significantly different compared those in the vehicle control group, which suggested developmental toxicity in the fetuses. However, the phenol-exposed groups showed no significant change in other parameters compared with the vehicle control group ( P > 0.05). Conclusion: Despite using the same method as the US EPA, a different NOEAL of 15 mg/(kg·d) was obtained in this study.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenol/toxicidade , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
13.
Nat Rev Endocrinol ; 16(9): 479-494, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601352

RESUMO

Pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction arise from disorders of placental development and have some shared mechanistic features. Initiation is often rooted in the maldevelopment of a maternal-placental blood supply capable of providing for the growth requirements of the fetus in later pregnancy, without exerting undue stress on maternal body systems. Here, we review normal development of a placental bed with a safe and adequate blood supply and a villous placenta-blood interface from which nutrients and oxygen can be extracted for the growing fetus. We consider disease mechanisms that are intrinsic to the maternal environment, the placenta or the interaction between the two. Systemic signalling from the endocrine placenta targets the maternal endothelium and multiple organs to adjust metabolism for an optimal pregnancy and later lactation. This signalling capacity is skewed when placental damage occurs and can deliver a dangerous pathogenic stimulus. We discuss the placental secretome including glycoproteins, microRNAs and extracellular vesicles as potential biomarkers of disease. Angiomodulatory mediators, currently the only effective biomarkers, are discussed alongside non-invasive imaging approaches to the prediction of disease risk. Identifying the signs of impending pathology early enough to intervene and ameliorate disease in later pregnancy remains a complex and challenging objective.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/fisiopatologia , Placentação/fisiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores , Decídua/fisiopatologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Endométrio/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Feto/irrigação sanguínea , Humanos , Placenta/irrigação sanguínea , Doenças Placentárias/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Transdução de Sinais , Trofoblastos/fisiologia
14.
Nat Rev Endocrinol ; 16(9): 519-533, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620937

RESUMO

Reproductive function adjusts in response to environmental conditions in order to optimize success. In humans, this plasticity includes age of pubertal onset, hormone levels and age at menopause. These reproductive characteristics vary across populations with distinct lifestyles and following specific childhood events, and point to a role for the early-life environment in shaping adult reproductive trajectories. Epigenetic mechanisms respond to external signals, exert long-term effects on gene expression and have been shown in animal and cellular studies to regulate normal reproductive function, strongly implicating their role in these adaptations. Moreover, human cohort data have revealed differential DNA methylation signatures in proxy tissues that are associated with reproductive phenotypic variation, although the cause-effect relationships are difficult to discern, calling for additional complementary approaches to establish functionality. In this Review, we summarize how adult reproductive function can be shaped by childhood events. We discuss why the influence of the childhood environment on adult reproductive function is an important consideration in understanding how reproduction is regulated and necessitates consideration by clinicians treating women with diverse life histories. The resolution of the molecular mechanisms responsible for human reproductive plasticity could also lead to new approaches for intervention by targeting these epigenetic modifications.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Meio Ambiente , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Reprodução/genética , Envelhecimento , Animais , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Fertilidade , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Progesterona/sangue , Puberdade/genética , Reprodução/fisiologia , Testosterona/sangue , Migrantes
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233179, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584813

RESUMO

Currently available fetal echocardiographic reference values are derived mainly from North American and European population studies, and there is a lack of reference z-score for fetal echocardiographic measurement in Asian populations. The aim of this study was to establish normal ranges of echocardiographic measurements and z-scores in healthy Asian fetuses. A total of 575 healthy pregnant Taiwanese with an estimated gestational age from 14 to 38 weeks were enrolled voluntarily for this observational study. Standard two-dimensional echocardiography was performed to obtain measurements of the cardiac chambers and great arteries of the developing fetuses. In contrast to past studies, our sample was more evenly distributed for estimated gestational age (p<0.001). We present percentile graphs for 13 fetal echocardiographic measurements from the knowledge of estimated gestational age, biparietal distance, head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length. Most cardiac structures and developmental markers had linear models as the best-fitting, except for transverse aortic isthmus by estimated gestational age and transverse ductus arteriosus by femur length. Our findings indicate that estimated gestational age was generally the best model for fetal heart development, while head circumferences could be used as an optimal developmental marker to predict left atrium, right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary annulus, and ductus arteriosus. Lastly, we developed nomograms for each of the 13 fetal heart measurements by each developmental markers. This is the first study providing echocardiographic reference ranges and nomograms for Asian fetuses. Computing z-scores from nomograms helps in standardizing comparisons and adds additional prognostic information to the diagnosis of congenital heart disease.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia/normas , Monitorização Fetal/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Coração Fetal/diagnóstico por imagem , Idade Gestacional , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Gravidez , Valores de Referência , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110884, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563952

RESUMO

Nanotoxicity to fetal brains after maternal oral exposures during pregnancy is often in question because nanoparticles have to cross multiple biological barriers such as intestinal barrier, maternal blood placental barrier (BPB) and fetal blood brain barrier (BBB). Here, we investigated this seemingly impossible passage for ZrO2 nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs) from maternal body to fetal brains using a pregnant mouse model. After three oral exposures to pregnant mice at late pregnancy (GD16, 17, 18), ZrO2 NPs were able to accumulate in fetal brains at GD19 via crossing the well-developed maternal BPB and fetal BBB. Moreover, ZrO2 NPs crossed the mature biological barriers with increasing the expression levels of caveolae, clathrin and arf6 proteins as well as decreasing the expression levels of the tight junction proteins claudin-5, occludin and ZO-1 in placenta and fetal brain. From this investigation, we speculated that the main mechanisms for such translocation were receptor-mediated endocytosis transcellular pathway and breakthrough of tight junctions paracellular pathway in mature maternal BPB and fetal BBB. These findings have important implications for other nanoparticles exposures during pregnancy and provide crucial information to safeguard fetal development from contamination of widely used nanoproducts.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Óxido de Zinco/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Endocitose , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Feto , Humanos , Exposição Materna , Camundongos , Ocludina/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235113, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574213

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Timely delivery of fetal growth restriction (FGR) is important in reducing stillbirth. However, targeted earlier delivery of FGR preferentially removes smaller babies from later gestations, thereby right-shifting the distribution of birthweights at term. This artificially increases the birthweight cutoffs defining the lower centiles and redefines normally grown babies as small by population-based birthweight centiles. Our objective was to compare updated Australian national population-based birthweight centile charts over time with the prescriptive INTERGROWTH-21st standard. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study of all singleton births ≥34 weeks' gestation in Victoria, Australia in five two-year epochs: 1983-84, 1993-94, 2003-04, 2013-14, and 2016-17. The birthweight cutoffs defining the 3rd and 10th centile from three Australian national population-based birthweight centile charts, for births in 1991-1994, in 1998-2007, and 2004-2013 respectively, were applied to each epoch to calculate the proportion of babies with birthweight <3rd and <10th centile. The same analysis was done using the INTERGROWTH-21st birthweight standard. To assess change over gestation, proportions were also calculated at preterm, early term and late term gestations. RESULTS: From 1983-84 to 2016-17, the proportion of babies with birthweight <3rd fell across all birthweight centile charts, from 3.1% to 1.7% using the oldest Australian chart, from 3.9% to 1.9% using the second oldest Australian chart, from 4.3% to 2.2% using the most recent Australian chart, and from 2.0% to 0.9% using the INTERGROWTH-21st standard. A similar effect was evident for the <10th centile. The effect was most obvious at term gestations. Updating the Australian population birthweight chart progressively right-shifted the birthweight distribution, changing the definition of small over time. The birthweight distribution of INTERGROWTH-21st was left-shifted compared to the Australian charts. CONCLUSIONS: Locally-derived population-based birthweight centiles are better for clinical audit of care but should not be updated. Prescriptive birthweight standards are less useful in defining 'small' due to their significant left-shift.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional/fisiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Vigilância da População/métodos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vitória/epidemiologia
19.
J Psychiatr Res ; 128: 1-4, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474140

RESUMO

Prenatal COVID-19 infection is anticipated by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control to affect fetal development similarly to other common respiratory coronaviruses through effects of the maternal inflammatory response on the fetus and placenta. Plasma choline levels were measured at 16 weeks gestation in 43 mothers who had contracted common respiratory viruses during the first 6-16 weeks of pregnancy and 53 mothers who had not. When their infants reached 3 months of age, mothers completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R), which assesses their infants' level of activity (Surgency), their fearfulness and sadness (Negativity), and their ability to maintain attention and bond to their parents and caretakers (Regulation). Infants of mothers who had contracted a moderately severe respiratory virus infection and had higher gestational choline serum levels (≥7.5 mM consistent with U.S. Food and Drug Administration dietary recommendations) had significantly increased development of their ability to maintain attention and to bond with their parents (Regulation), compared to infants whose mothers had contracted an infection but had lower choline levels (<7.5 mM). For infants of mothers with choline levels ≥7.5 µM, there was no effect of viral infection on infant IBQ-R Regulation, compared to infants of mothers who were not infected. Higher choline levels obtained through diet or supplements may protect fetal development and support infant early behavioral development even if the mother contracts a viral infection in early gestation when the brain is first being formed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Encéfalo , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Colina , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Comportamento do Lactente , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Adulto , Atenção , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Colina/administração & dosagem , Colina/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Lactente/psicologia , Masculino , Nootrópicos/administração & dosagem , Nootrópicos/sangue , Apego ao Objeto , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110726, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impaired in utero fetal growth trajectory may have long term health consequences of the newborns and increase risk of adulthood metabolic diseases. Prenatal exposure to air pollution has been linked to fetal development restriction; however, the impact of exposure to ambient air pollutants on the entire course of intrauterine fetal development has not been comprehensively investigated. METHODS: During 2015-2018, two cohorts of mother-infant dyads (N = 678 and 227) were recruited in Shanghai China, from which three categories of data were systematically collected: (1) daily exposure to six air pollutants during pregnancy, (2) fetal biometry in the 2nd (gestational week 24, [GW24]) and 3rd trimester (GW36), and (3) neonatal outcomes at birth. We investigated the impact of prenatal exposure to air pollutant mixture on the trajectory of fetal development during the course of gestation, adjusting for a broad set of potential confounds. RESULTS: Prenatal exposure to PM2.5, PM10, SO2 and O3 significantly reduced fetal biometry at GW24, where SO2 had the most potent effect. For every 10 µg/m3 increment increase of daily SO2 exposure during the 1st trimester shortened femur length by 2.20 mm (p = 6.7E-21) translating to 5.3% reduction from the average of the study cohort. Prenatal air pollution exposure also decreased fetal biometry at GW36 with attenuated effect size. Comparing to the lowest exposed quartile, fetus in the highest exposed quartile had 6.3% (p = 3.5E-5) and 2.1% (p = 2.4E-3) lower estimated intrauterine weight in GW24 and GW36, respectively; however, no difference in birth weight was observed, indicating a rapid catch-up growth in the 3rd trimester. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, for the first time, we demonstrated the impact of prenatal exposure to ambient air pollutants on the course of intrauterine fetal development. The altered growth trajectory and rapid catch-up growth in associated with high prenatal exposure may lead to long-term predisposition for adulthood metabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Material Particulado/química , Gravidez
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