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2.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579008

RESUMO

The 'Developmental Origins of Health and Diseases' hypothesis posits that prenatal maternal diet influences offspring growth and later life health outcomes. Dietary assessment has focused on selected nutrients. However, this approach does not consider the complex interactions between foods and nutrients. To provide a more comprehensive approach to public health, dietary indices have been developed to assess dietary quality, dietary inflammation and risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Thus far, their use in the context of placental development is limited and associations with offspring outcomes have been inconsistent. Although epidemiological studies have focused on the role of maternal diet on foetal programming, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Some evidence suggests these associations may be driven by placental and epigenetic changes. In this narrative review, we examine the current literature regarding relationships between key validated diet quality scores (Dietary Inflammatory Index [DII], Mediterranean diet [MD], Healthy Eating Index [HEI], Alternative Healthy Eating Index [AHEI], Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension [DASH], Glycaemic Index [GI] and Glycaemic Load [GL]) in pregnancy and birth and long-term offspring outcomes. We summarise findings, discuss potential underlying placental and epigenetic mechanisms, in particular DNA methylation, and highlight the need for further research and public health strategies that incorporate diet quality and epigenetics.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Placentação/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal/fisiologia , Adulto , Dieta Mediterrânea , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Gravidez
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 51, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422174

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to compare the unadjusted EPOPé M0 curve with the customized Gardosi curve in the diagnosis of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses in a sub-Saharan population. We compared the Gardosi et al. and EPOPé M0 classifications. Classification differences were analyzed according to patient characteristics and obstetric conditions. Data collected from FileMaker software were analyzed using SPSS 20.0 and R Studio software. The statistical tests were carried out according to applicability conditions. Alpha risk was set at 0.05. The Gardosi curve showed that the rate of SGA newborns was higher (31.4% versus 28.9%) and did not differ between overweight and normal-weight women. The rate of severe SGA in preterm infants was also higher (23.6 versus 19.7%). Diseases were more frequent in newborns classified as severe SGA by the customized growth curve. The customized curve is recommended for the sub-Saharan Africa population.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/diagnóstico , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/classificação , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371854

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between maternal insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentration and food consumption frequency and the birth parameters of the newborn. A total of 157 mother-newborn pairs participated in the study. The study showed that more frequent consumption of sweet and salty snacks as well as fruit and fruit or vegetable juices may promote greater weight gain in pregnancy and higher newborn birth weight. A significantly higher insulin concentration was found among overweight women according to body mass index (BMI), and a significantly lower concentration of IGF-1 was demonstrated among women ≥35 years of age. There was no significant correlation between the concentration of insulin and IGF-1 in the mother's blood plasma and the birth weight and length of the newborn. A significant relationship was only found between the concentration of IGF-1 in the mother's blood and the Ponderal index of the newborn. A woman's eating habits during pregnancy have a significant impact on the mother's health and on the proper growth and development of the foetus.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Estatura , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Insulina/sangue , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Polônia , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16093, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373470

RESUMO

Most published newborn growth references are based on conventional monitoring data that usually included both low- and high-risk pregnancies. We sought to develop a set of neonatal growth standards constructed from only a large sample of low-risk pregnancies. A total of 24,375 naturally conceived singleton live births with gestational ages of 24-42 weeks were collected in 69 hospitals in thirteen Chinese cities between 2015 and 2018. Unhealthy infants or those with high-risk mother were excluded. Smoothed percentile curves of six anthropometric indicators were established using the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale and Shape. The 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentile references for birth weight, length, head circumference, weight/length, body mass index, and ponderal index were calculated for neonates with gestational ages of 24-42 weeks. This set of neonatal growth standards with six anthropometric indicators can provide more tools for growth and nutrition assessment and body proportionality in neonatal clinical practice. These standards might also help to show the differences between growth curves based on low-risk and mixed low- and high-risk pregnancies.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Estatura/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Adulto , Antropometria/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cefalometria/normas , China , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Valores de Referência
6.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206490

RESUMO

Dietary content during pregnancy is important because it is necessary for the growth of the fetus. With the assumption that the nutritional status of the fetus can be monitored by measuring amino acid concentrations in the amniotic fluid, we investigated whether the habitual dietary intake of pregnant women affected the composition of the amniotic fluid and the significance of performing amniotic fluid analysis. The subjects were 34 mothers who delivered full-term babies by cesarean section. Three biological samples were collected from the mothers: blood, cord blood, and amniotic fluid. At the same time, the mothers' prenatal nutritional intake information was also recorded. When the amino acid contents of the samples were compared with the mothers' nutrient intake, many amino acids in the amniotic fluid were positively correlated with lipid intake, but not with protein intake. There was a negative correlation between lipid intake and carbohydrate intake, and the amino acid contents of the amniotic fluid were also negatively correlated with carbohydrate intake. The results of this study were consistent with those found in animal models, suggesting that the analysis of amniotic fluid may be a useful method to investigate the effects of habitual diet during human pregnancy on the fetus.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Líquido Amniótico/química , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Sangue Fetal/química , Adulto , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Avaliação Nutricional , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203717

RESUMO

It is well understood that sex differences exist between females and males even before they are born. These sex-dependent differences may contribute to altered growth and developmental outcomes for the fetus. Based on our initial observations in the human placenta, we hypothesised that the male prioritises growth pathways in order to maximise growth through to adulthood, thereby ensuring the greatest chance of reproductive success. However, this male-specific "evolutionary advantage" likely contributes to males being less adaptable to shifts in the in-utero environment, which then places them at a greater risk for intrauterine morbidities or mortality. Comparatively, females are more adaptable to changes in the in-utero environment at the cost of growth, which may reduce their risk of poor perinatal outcomes. The mechanisms that drive these sex-specific adaptations to a change in the in-utero environment remain unclear, but an increasing body of evidence within the field of developmental biology would suggest that alterations to placental function, as well as the feto-placental hormonal milieu, is an important contributing factor. Herein, we have addressed the current knowledge regarding sex-specific intrauterine growth differences and have examined how certain pregnancy complications may alter these female- and male-specific adaptations.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Placenta/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Androgênios/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299281

RESUMO

Placental development is modified in response to maternal nutrient restriction (NR), resulting in a spectrum of fetal growth rates. Pregnant sheep carrying singleton fetuses and fed either 100% (n = 8) or 50% (NR; n = 28) of their National Research Council (NRC) recommended intake from days 35-135 of pregnancy were used to elucidate placentome transcriptome alterations at both day 70 and day 135. NR fetuses were further designated into upper (NR NonSGA; n = 7) and lower quartiles (NR SGA; n = 7) based on day 135 fetal weight. At day 70 of pregnancy, there were 22 genes dysregulated between NR SGA and 100% NRC placentomes, 27 genes between NR NonSGA and 100% NRC placentomes, and 22 genes between NR SGA and NR NonSGA placentomes. These genes mediated molecular functions such as MHC class II protein binding, signaling receptor binding, and cytokine activity. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed significant overrepresentation of genes for natural-killer-cell-mediated cytotoxicity in NR SGA compared to 100% NRC placentomes, and alterations in nutrient utilization pathways between NR SGA and NR NonSGA placentomes at day 70. Results identify novel factors associated with impaired function in SGA placentomes and potential for placentomes from NR NonSGA pregnancies to adapt to nutritional hardship.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Dietoterapia/métodos , Feto/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Peso Fetal/fisiologia , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Placenta/patologia , Gravidez , Ovinos , Transcriptoma
9.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 321(3): R279-R294, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259046

RESUMO

Residence at high altitude is consistently associated with low birthweight among placental mammals. This reduction in birthweight influences long-term health trajectories for both the offspring and mother. However, the physiological processes that contribute to fetal growth restriction at altitude are still poorly understood, and thus our ability to safely intervene remains limited. One approach to identify the factors that mitigate altitude-dependent fetal growth restriction is to study populations that are protected from fetal growth restriction through evolutionary adaptations (e.g., high altitude-adapted populations). Here, we examine human gestational physiology at high altitude from a novel evolutionary perspective that focuses on patterns of physiological plasticity, allowing us to identify 1) the contribution of specific physiological systems to fetal growth restriction and 2) the mechanisms that confer protection in highland-adapted populations. Using this perspective, our review highlights two general findings: first, that the beneficial value of plasticity in maternal physiology is often dependent on factors more proximate to the fetus; and second, that our ability to understand the contributions of these proximate factors is currently limited by thin data from altitude-adapted populations. Expanding the comparative scope of studies on gestational physiology at high altitude and integrating studies of both maternal and fetal physiology are needed to clarify the mechanisms by which physiological responses to altitude contribute to fetal growth outcomes. The relevance of these questions to clinical, agricultural, and basic research combined with the breadth of the unknown highlight gestational physiology at high altitude as an exciting niche for continued work.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Altitude , Evolução Biológica , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Feto , Humanos , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez
10.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 321(3): R352-R363, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287074

RESUMO

Fetal skeletal muscle growth requires myoblast proliferation, differentiation, and fusion into myofibers in addition to protein accretion for fiber hypertrophy. Oxygen is an important regulator of this process. Therefore, we hypothesized that fetal anemic hypoxemia would inhibit skeletal muscle growth. Studies were performed in late-gestation fetal sheep that were bled to anemic and therefore hypoxemic conditions beginning at ∼125 days of gestation (term = 148 days) for 9 ± 0 days (n = 19) and compared with control fetuses (n = 16). A metabolic study was performed on gestational day ∼134 to measure fetal protein kinetic rates. Myoblast proliferation and myofiber area were determined in biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) muscles. mRNA expression of muscle regulatory factors was determined in BF. Fetal arterial hematocrit and oxygen content were 28% and 52% lower, respectively, in anemic fetuses. Fetal weight and whole body protein synthesis, breakdown, and accretion rates were not different between groups. Hindlimb length, however, was 7% shorter in anemic fetuses. TA and FDS muscles weighed less, and FDS myofiber area was smaller in anemic fetuses compared with controls. The percentage of Pax7+ myoblasts that expressed Ki67 was lower in BF and tended to be lower in FDS from anemic fetuses indicating reduced myoblast proliferation. There was less MYOD and MYF6 mRNA expression in anemic versus control BF consistent with reduced myoblast differentiation. These results indicate that fetal anemic hypoxemia reduced muscle growth. We speculate that fetal muscle growth may be improved by strategies that increase oxygen availability.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/metabolismo , Feto/metabolismo , Membro Posterior/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Muscular/fisiologia , Ovinos
11.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 135(14): 1767-1772, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313297

RESUMO

Fetal exposure to an unfavorable intrauterine environment programs an individual to have a greater susceptibility later in life to non-communicable diseases, such as coronary heart disease, but the molecular processes are poorly understood. An article in Clinical Science recently reported novel details on the effects of maternal nutrient reduction (MNR) on fetal heart development using a primate model that is about 94% genetically similar to humans and is also mostly monotocous. MNR adversely impacted fetal left ventricular (LV) mitochondria in a sex-dependent fashion with a greater effect on male fetuses, although mitochondrial transcripts increased more so in females. Increased expression for several respiratory chain and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase proteins were observed. However, fetal LV mitochondrial complex I and complex II/III activities were significantly decreased, likely contributing to a 73% decreased LV ATP content and increased LV lipid peroxidation. Moreover, MNR fetal LV mitochondria showed sparse and disarranged cristae. This study indicates that mitochondria are targets of the remodeling and imprinting processes in a sex-dependent manner. Mitochondrial ROS production and inadequate energy production add another layer of complexity. Altogether these observations raise the possibility that dysfunctional mitochondria in the fetus may contribute in turn to epigenetic memory of in utero stress in the adult. The role of mitoepigenetics and involvement of mitochondrial and genomic non-coding RNAs in mitochondrial functions and nuclei-mitochondria crosstalk with in utero stress awaits further investigation.


Assuntos
Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/metabolismo , Coração/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/fisiologia , Primatas/metabolismo
12.
Neuroimage ; 241: 118412, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298085

RESUMO

In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of fetal brain development, structural brain atlases usually serve as essential references for the fetal population. Individual images are usually normalized into a common or standard space for analysis. However, the existing fetal brain atlases are mostly based on MR images obtained from Caucasian populations and thus are not ideal for the characterization of the fetal Chinese population due to neuroanatomical differences related to genetic factors. In this paper, we use an unbiased template construction algorithm to create a set of age-specific Chinese fetal atlases between 21-35 weeks of gestation from 115 normal fetal brains. Based on the 4D spatiotemporal atlas, the morphological development patterns, e.g., cortical thickness, cortical surface area, sulcal and gyral patterns, were quantified. The fetal brain abnormalities were detected when referencing the age-specific template. Additionally, a direct comparison of the Chinese fetal atlases and Caucasian fetal atlases reveals dramatic anatomical differences, mainly in the medial frontal and temporal regions. After applying the Chinese and Caucasian fetal atlases separately to an independent Chinese fetal brain dataset, we find that the Chinese fetal atlases result in significantly higher accuracy than the Caucasian fetal atlases in guiding brain tissue segmentation. These results suggest that the Chinese fetal brain atlases are necessary for quantitative analysis of the typical and atypical development of the Chinese fetal population in the future. The atlases with their parcellations are now publicly available at https://github.com/DeepBMI/FBA-Chinese.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Atlas como Assunto , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Fatores Etários , China/epidemiologia , Feto , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
13.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 749, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140619

RESUMO

The uterus is the organ for embryo implantation and fetal development. Most current models of the uterus are centred around capturing its function during later stages of pregnancy to increase the survival in pre-term births. However, in vitro models focusing on the uterine tissue itself would allow modelling of pathologies including endometriosis and uterine cancers, and open new avenues to investigate embryo implantation and human development. Motivated by these key questions, we discuss how stem cell-based uteri may be engineered from constituent cell parts, either as advanced self-organising cultures, or by controlled assembly through microfluidic and print-based technologies.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Útero/citologia , Útero/fisiologia , Animais , Implantação do Embrião/fisiologia , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Placenta/fisiologia , Gravidez , Primatas , Tecidos Suporte
14.
Meat Sci ; 179: 108532, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965690

RESUMO

We evaluated maternal undernutrition effects induced by a lower natural pasture allowance (gestation days 30-143) on histological-biochemical and meat traits in muscles Semitendinosus, cranial Gluteobiceps and Supraspinatus from 200-day old male and female lambs. Maternal undernutrition increased oxidative and reduced glycolytic fibers in all muscles (P ≤ 0.01). Maternal undernutrition reduced the diameter of glycolytic fibers in the cranial Gluteobiceps of exclusively female lambs (P = 0.05) and reduced the diameter of oxidative fibers in the Supraspinatus of exclusively male lambs (P = 0.02). Maternal undernutrition increased lipid content in the Supraspinatus of females (P = 0.001), reduced lactate content (P = 0.03) and WB shear force (P = 0.02) in the Semitendinosus of females, and increased cooking losses in the Semitendinosus of males (P = 0.0069). In conclusion, gestational nutrient restriction induced fetal programming effects on muscle characteristics of lambs. Moreover, our study demonstrates that maternal undernutrition influences muscle and meat characteristics in a sex and muscle-dependent way.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Carne Vermelha/análise , Animais , Culinária , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Privação de Alimentos , Lipídeos/análise , Masculino , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/citologia , Músculo Esquelético , Gravidez , Resistência ao Cisalhamento , Carneiro Doméstico/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13563, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34013649

RESUMO

This prospective study was designed to investigate the effects of maternal temperament on uterine blood flow, fetal heart rate, gestational length, and fetal birth weight in a goat experimental model. Based on the arena test, behavioral testing related to fear-eliciting stimulus, goats were divided into nervous (n = 13) and calm (n = 11) groups. After mating, the perfusion of maternal uterine arteries (UTAs) and its related Doppler parameters, blood flow volume (BFV), time-averaged mean velocity (TAMEANV), acceleration (Acce), and resistance impedance (S/D), were evaluated biweekly from week two until the end of pregnancy. Fetal heart rate (FHR) was investigated during the pregnancy in addition to the gestation length (GL) and fetal birth weight (FBW). The UTA-BFV and TAMEANV, as well as Acce and S/D, were influenced by maternal temperament (p < .05). The FHR showed no significant changes between experimental animals of different temperaments (p = .81). Both GL and FBW were increased in calm rather than nervous goats (p < .05). These results indicated that the maternal nervous (temperament) have negative impacts on uterine artery Doppler indices, fetal growth, and gestational length in a goat experimental model.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Estatura , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Feto/embriologia , Feto/fisiologia , Cabras/fisiologia , Cabras/psicologia , Frequência Cardíaca Fetal , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Temperamento/fisiologia , Útero/irrigação sanguínea , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(9): 2646-2659, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999183

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Human and animal studies suggest that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-A) function may be programmed in utero; however, these findings are inconsistent. Given the powerful metabolic actions of cortisol, it is important to clarify the influence of early life on adult HPA-A function. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between fetal growth and HPA-A stress response to a psychosocial stressor in young adults. DESIGN: Multigenerational, prospective cohort study (the Raine Study) conducted between 1989 and 1991. SETTING: King Edward Memorial Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 917 participants aged 18 years from Gen2 of the Raine Study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Measures of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function before and after exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, an inverse linear relationship was observed between birthweight and plasma measures of (1) baseline cortisol (ß = -0.90%, 95% CI: -1.73 to -0.07; P = 0.03); (2) peak cortisol (ß = -0.78%, 95% CI -1.51 to -0.06; P = 0.03); (3) area under the curve with respect to ground (ß = -0.89%, 95% CI -1.60 to -0.18; P = 0.01); and (4) adrenal sensitivity (ß = -1.02, 95% CI: -1.85 to -0.18; P = 0.02). Similar results were demonstrated for percent optimal birthweight. No consistent quadratic relationships were identified. No associations were found between measures of fetal adiposity and HPA-A function at age 18 years, or fetal growth and HPA-A response pattern. Removal of anticipatory responders from the models substantially attenuated the observed relationships. CONCLUSION: We observed an inverse linear relationship between fetal growth and HPA-A function at age 18 years. This differs from the inverse parabolic relationship (inverted U curve) reported in adults of advanced age. Altered adrenal sensitivity may underlie this relationship.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/fisiologia , Adolescente , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Masculino , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11238, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34045628

RESUMO

This study aims to analyze, in a population of singletons, the potential confounding or modifying effect of noise on the relationship between fetal growth restriction (FGR) or small for gestational age (SGA) and environmental exposure to air pollution. All women with single pregnancies living in one of two medium-sized cities (Besançon, Dijon) and who delivered at a university hospital between 2005 and 2009 were included. FGR and SGA were obtained from medical records. Outdoor residential exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM10) was quantified at the mother's address at delivery over defined pregnancy periods; outdoor noise exposure was considered to be the annual average daily noise levels in the façade of building (LAeq,24 h). Adjusted odds ratios (ORa) were estimated by multivariable logistic regressions. Among the 8994 included pregnancies, 587 presented FGR and 918 presented SGA. In the two-exposure models, for SGA, the ORa for a 10-µg/m3 increase of PM10 during the two last months before delivery was 1.18, 95%CI 1.00-1.41 and for FGR, these ORa were for the first and the third trimesters, and the two last months before delivery: 0.77 (0.61-0.97), 1.38 (1.12-1.70), and 1.35 (1.11-1.66), respectively. Noise was not associated with SGA or FGR and did not confound the relationship between air pollution and SGA or FGR. These results are in favor of an association between PM10 exposure and fetal growth, independent of noise, particularly towards the end of pregnancy, and of a lack of association between noise and fetal growth.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Ruído , Adulto , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , França , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Exposição Materna , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(20)2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972435

RESUMO

During the second and third trimesters of human gestation, rapid neurodevelopment is underpinned by fundamental processes including neuronal migration, cellular organization, cortical layering, and myelination. In this time, white matter growth and maturation lay the foundation for an efficient network of structural connections. Detailed knowledge about this developmental trajectory in the healthy human fetal brain is limited, in part, due to the inherent challenges of acquiring high-quality MRI data from this population. Here, we use state-of-the-art high-resolution multishell motion-corrected diffusion-weighted MRI (dMRI), collected as part of the developing Human Connectome Project (dHCP), to characterize the in utero maturation of white matter microstructure in 113 fetuses aged 22 to 37 wk gestation. We define five major white matter bundles and characterize their microstructural features using both traditional diffusion tensor and multishell multitissue models. We found unique maturational trends in thalamocortical fibers compared with association tracts and identified different maturational trends within specific sections of the corpus callosum. While linear maturational increases in fractional anisotropy were seen in the splenium of the corpus callosum, complex nonlinear trends were seen in the majority of other white matter tracts, with an initial decrease in fractional anisotropy in early gestation followed by a later increase. The latter is of particular interest as it differs markedly from the trends previously described in ex utero preterm infants, suggesting that this normative fetal data can provide significant insights into the abnormalities in connectivity which underlie the neurodevelopmental impairments associated with preterm birth.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Corpo Caloso/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Tálamo/fisiologia , Substância Branca/fisiologia , Anisotropia , Córtex Cerebral/anatomia & histologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Conectoma , Corpo Caloso/anatomia & histologia , Corpo Caloso/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Feto , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Tálamo/anatomia & histologia , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem , Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Útero/fisiologia , Substância Branca/anatomia & histologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 135(11): 1445-1466, 2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008846

RESUMO

During Ramadan, many pregnant Muslim women fast between dawn and sunset. Although the impacts of prolonged maternal intermittent fasting (IF) on fetal growth and placental function are under-researched, reported effects include reduced placental weight and birth weight. In the present study, pregnant Wistar rats were used to model repeated cycles of IF on fetal development and placental function and to examine sex-specific effects. In the IF group, food was withdrawn daily from 17:00 to 09:00 over 21 days of gestation, while the control group received food ad libitum. Both groups had free water access. IF dams consumed less food, had significantly reduced weight compared with controls, with reduced plasma glucose and amino acids. Both fetal sexes were significantly lighter in the IF group with reduced fetal plasma amino acids. Placental weights and morphology were unchanged. The profile of placental metabolites was altered in the IF group with sex-specific responses evident. Transplacental flux of 14C-methylaminoisobutyric acid (14C-MeAIB), a system A amino acid transporter substrate, was significantly reduced in both fetal sexes in the IF group. Sodium-dependent 14C-MeAIB uptake into isolated placental plasma membrane vesicles was unchanged. The gene expression of system A transporter Slc38a1, Slc38a2 and Slc38a4 was up-regulated in IF male placentas only. No changes were observed in placental SNAT1 and SNAT2 protein expression. Maternal IF results in detrimental impacts on maternal physiology and fetal development with changes in the placental and fetal metabolite profiles. Reduced placental system A transporter activity may be responsible for fetal growth restriction in both sexes.


Assuntos
Sistema A de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Jejum , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Feto/metabolismo , Gravidez , Ratos Wistar
20.
PLoS Med ; 18(4): e1003611, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational hypertensive and acute hypotensive disorders are associated with maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, physiological blood pressure changes in pregnancy are insufficiently defined. We describe blood pressure changes across healthy pregnancies from the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century (INTERGROWTH-21st) Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study (FGLS) to produce international, gestational age-specific, smoothed centiles (third, 10th, 50th, 90th, and 97th) for blood pressure. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Secondary analysis of a prospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study (2009 to 2016) was conducted across 8 diverse urban areas in Brazil, China, India, Italy, Kenya, Oman, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America. We enrolled healthy women at low risk of pregnancy complications. We measured blood pressure using standardised methodology and validated equipment at enrolment at <14 weeks, then every 5 ± 1 weeks until delivery. We enrolled 4,607 (35%) women of 13,108 screened. The mean maternal age was 28·4 (standard deviation [SD] 3.9) years; 97% (4,204/4,321) of women were married or living with a partner, and 68% (2,955/4,321) were nulliparous. Their mean body mass index (BMI) was 23.3 (SD 3.0) kg/m2. Systolic blood pressure was lowest at 12 weeks: Median was 111.5 (95% CI 111.3 to 111.8) mmHg, rising to a median maximum of 119.6 (95% CI 118.9 to 120.3) mmHg at 40 weeks' gestation, a difference of 8.1 (95% CI 7.4 to 8.8) mmHg. Median diastolic blood pressure decreased from 12 weeks: 69.1 (95% CI 68.9 to 69.3) mmHg to a minimum of 68.5 (95% CI 68.3 to 68.7) mmHg at 19+5 weeks' gestation, a change of -0·6 (95% CI -0.8 to -0.4) mmHg. Diastolic blood pressure subsequently increased to a maximum of 76.3 (95% CI 75.9 to 76.8) mmHg at 40 weeks' gestation. Systolic blood pressure fell by >14 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure by >11 mmHg in fewer than 10% of women at any gestational age. Fewer than 10% of women increased their systolic blood pressure by >24 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure by >18 mmHg at any gestational age. The study's main limitations were the unavailability of prepregnancy blood pressure values and inability to explore circadian effects because time of day was not recorded for the blood pressure measurements. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide international, gestational age-specific centiles and limits of acceptable change to facilitate earlier recognition of deteriorating health in pregnant women. These centiles challenge the idea of a clinically significant midpregnancy drop in blood pressure.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Idade Gestacional , Adulto , Brasil , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Itália , Quênia , Estudos Longitudinais , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
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