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2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(32): e2123553119, 2022 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914174

RESUMO

Fossils and artifacts from Herto, Ethiopia, include the most complete child and adult crania of early Homo sapiens. The endocranial cavities of the Herto individuals show that by 160,000 y ago, brain size, inferred from endocranial size, was similar to that seen in modern human populations. However, endocranial shape differed from ours. This gave rise to the hypothesis that the brain itself evolved substantially during the past ∼200,000 y, possibly in tandem with the transition from Middle to Upper Paleolithic techno-cultures. However, it remains unclear whether evolutionary changes in endocranial shape mostly reflect changes in brain morphology rather than changes related to interaction with maxillofacial morphology. To discriminate between these effects, we make use of the ontogenetic fact that brain growth nearly ceases by the time the first permanent molars fully erupt, but the face and cranial base continue to grow until adulthood. Here we use morphometric data derived from digitally restored immature and adult H. sapiens fossils from Herto, Qafzeh, and Skhul (HQS) to track endocranial development in early H. sapiens. Until the completion of brain growth, endocasts of HQS children were similar in shape to those of modern human children. The similarly shaped endocasts of fossil and modern children indicate that our brains did not evolve substantially over the past 200,000 y. Differences between the endocranial shapes of modern and fossil H. sapiens adults developed only with continuing facial and basicranial growth, possibly reflecting substantial differences in masticatory and/or respiratory function.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , Desenvolvimento Humano , Crânio , Adulto , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Criança , Etiópia , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
MedUNAB ; 25(2): 290-290, 2022/08/01.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395813

RESUMO

Actualmente la aceleración de la economía, la sociedad y la tecnología, ha generado grandes problemáticas, lo que nos hace adentrar en discusiones bioéticas. Considerando la relación que hemos tenido a lo largo del tiempo con el planeta, su ecosistema y las consecuencias que hoy en día podemos apreciar, me surge la idea de un "enfoque ecocéntrico" para esta obra, siendo este el equilibrio entre especies y ecosistema, donde cada especie está ligada al bienestar de las demás, tanto individuos humanos como no humanos. En la pintura, creada con la técnica de óleo sobre lienzo, se puede observar cada individuo, en una relación de igualdad, cada detalle ha sido pensado de manera única, los colores y contrastes le dan un efecto surrealista que con este texto el lector podrá entender.


Assuntos
Arte , Ciência , Bioética , Ecossistema , Desenvolvimento Humano
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 4): 156491, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35667422

RESUMO

Human Development Index (HDI) and Environmental Performance Index (EPI) are the widely adopted indicators for measuring the sustainable development in socio-economy and environment, respectively. Sustainable development emphasizes the reduction of environmental stress, when improving human welfare and regional equity, and seeks a balance between human development and environmental-ecological cost. It is necessary to link HDI and EPI to assess the socio-ecological sustainability with an integrative manner. An Environmental Human Index (EHI) by combining HDI and EPI is developed by a formula of EHI = (EPI/100)/(1 - HDI) for identifying combined rankings at international and provincial levels. The EHI for China in the decade (2006-2016) was examined. Results indicated that the EHI shows high feasibility in regional sustainable development evaluation. China places 92nd in the EHI, rising from a baseline score of 1.275 in 2006 to a score of 1.937 in 2016, which approximately account for a quarter of the developed countries. Although remarkable progress in human development has been achieved in China, a large range of EPI differences between China and developed countries implied weak environmental performance that should be improved. Results of correlation analysis reflect pressures of intensified urbanization and rapid economic growth on the environment. The EHI scores shown geographic regional differences at the provincial level that reflect development variation in China, eastern coastal region with strong EHI scores, and, the Northwest and Southwest China with low EHI. Finding suitable solutions for solving environmental issues and protecting ecosystem health is crucial to maintain sound, green, and long-term development with social and economic sustainability to achieve SDGs.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Ecossistema , Desenvolvimento Humano , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Humanos , Urbanização
5.
Investig. desar ; 30(1): 69-98, ene.-jun. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1385962

RESUMO

RESUMEN Este artículo analiza 17 municipios pertenecientes al estado de Oaxaca (México) durante el período 2000-2018, con el objetivo de conocer la relación entre el desarrollo humano y la participación electoral a nivel local. Utiliza una metodología cuantitativa a través del diseño de una base de datos con información documental de instituciones gubernamentales y no gubernamentales. La hipótesis que se plantea es que el desarrollo humano tiene un impacto positivo y significativo en la participación electoral de los municipios de estudio. Para su comprobación se aplican métodos de estadística descriptiva y regresión, y se obtuvo una asociación positiva entre las variables analizadas. Información valiosa para las instituciones del Estado encargadas de consolidar la democracia y credibilidad del sistema político mexicano; así como para actores políticos cuyo objetivo es ocupar puestos públicos de elección popular, para el diseño de estrategias que tengan por objetivo el incentivar la participación ciudadana, como elemento clave para afianzar sus proyectos.


ABSTRACT The article analyzes 17 municipalities belonging to the state of Oaxaca, Mexico, during the 2000-2018period, with the aim of knowing the relationship between human development and electoral participation at the local level. It uses a quantitative methodology, through the design of a database with documentary information from governmental and non-governmental institutions. The hypothesis that arises is that human development has a positive and significant impact on the electoral participation of the municipalities. For its verification, descriptive statistics and regression methods are applied, obtaining a positive association between the analyzed variables. This is valuable information for the State institutions in charge of consolidating the democracy and credibility of the Mexican political system, as well as for political actors whose objective is to occupy public positions of popular election, to design strategies that aim to encourage citizen participation, as a key element to strengthen their projects.


Assuntos
Humanos , Participação da Comunidade , Sistemas Políticos , Política , Estado , Democracia , Cidadania , Desenvolvimento Humano
6.
Av. psicol. latinoam ; 40(1): 1-15, ene.-abr. 2022. ilus, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1367251

RESUMO

A prática da horticultura para benefício terapêutico é utilizada nas abordagens clínicas, que demonstram a melhoria da qualidade de vida e a redução dos índices de estresse biológico, como uma modalidade de Reabilitação Baseada na Comunidade (rbc). Este documento avalia a implementação de um projeto de economia solidária no contexto de um grupo de reabilitação para pessoas com dependência química. Trata-se de um estudo de avaliação qualitativa da implementação de tecnologias sociais (quintais produtivos), baseado no método da inserção ecológica, em um grupo de reabilitação e pre-venção terciária a dependência química de um Centro de Atenção Psicossocial no Brasil. Os participantes foram quinze pessoas, das quais doze eram do sexo masculino e três do sexo feminino, com idades entre 30 e 60 anos. Foi realizada análise documental dos prontuários do serviço, diário de campo, fotografias e filmagens das oficinas, reuniões, visitas domiciliares, visitas técnicas e dos mutirões. Os dados foram analisados seguindo os critérios da Avaliação Multicultural: Dimensionamento Dinâmico Individual e Contextual. Os resultados indi-caram que a implementação dos quintais produtivos fortaleceu os vínculos familiares e institucionais, por meio da rede de apoio construída em torno do projeto. Concluise que os quintais produtivos são eficientes para a geração de renda, segurança alimentar e nutricional e ações de ressocialização como uma estratégia terapêutica complementar de RBC.


Horticulture for therapeutic benefit is used in clinical approaches has, demonstrated improvements in the quality of life and the reduction of biological stress indexes, as a modality of Community-Based Rehabilita-tion (cbr). This paper evaluates the implementation of a solidarity economy project in the context of a rehabili-tation group for people with chemical dependency. This was a qualitative evaluation study of the implementation of social technologies (productive backyards), based on the ecological engagement method in a rehabilitation and tertiary prevention group of chemical dependency of a psychosocial care center in Brazil. The participants were fifteen people, twelve of whom were male and three female, aged between 30 and 60 years. Documental analyses of the records of the service, field diary, and photographs and filming of the workshops, meetings, home visits, technical visits, and community meetings were performed. The data were analyzed following the criteria of the Multicultural Evaluation: Dynamic Individual and Contextual Dimensioning. The results indicated that the implementation of the productive gardens strengthened family and institutional links through the support network built around the project. It is concluded that the productive backyards are efficient for income generation, food and nutritional security, and resocialization actions as a complementary thera-peutic strategy of CBR


La práctica de la horticultura para el beneficio terapéutico se utiliza en enfoques clínicos que demuestran la mejora de la calidad de vida y la reducción de los índices de estrés biológico, como una modalidad de rehabilitación basada en la comunidad (rbc). Este trabajo evalúa la implementación de un proyecto de economía solidaria en el contexto de un grupo de rehabilitación para personas con dependencia química. Se trata de un estudio de evaluación cualitativa de la implementación de tecnologías sociales (patios productivos), basado en el método de inserción ecológica en un grupo de rehabilitación y prevención terciaria de la dependencia química de un centro de atención psicosocial en Brasil. Participaron 15 personas, 12 de las cuales eran hombres y 3 mujeres, con edades comprendidas entre los 30 y los 60 años. Se realizó un análisis documental de los registros del servicio, el diario de campo, las fotografías y la filmación de los talleres, las reuniones, las visitas domiciliarias, las visitas técnicas y las reuniones comunitarias. Los datos se analizaron siguiendo los criterios de la Evaluación multicultural: dimensionamiento dinámico individual y contextual. Los resultados indicaron que la puesta en marcha de los huertos productivos fortaleció los vínculos familiares e institucionales, a través de la red de apoyo construida en torno al proyecto. Se concluye que los patios productivos son eficientes para la generación de ingresos, la seguridad alimentaria y nutricional y acciones de resocialización como estrategia terapéutica complementaria de la RBC


Assuntos
Humanos , Horticultura Terapêutica , Qualidade de Vida , Reabilitação , Brasil , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Projetos , Desenvolvimento Humano
7.
J Integr Neurosci ; 21(1): 10, 2022 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35164446

RESUMO

We investigated the role of age and gender in cognitive estimation abilities. Participants completed two online tasks, where different categories of estimation were assessed (speed estimation by time and distance, and auditory estimation). Data from a total of 18886 participants (9911 females) with ages between 18 and 65 years old were gathered. Results showed variations in the estimation capacity as a function of age, with a slow but progressive decline. Estimates of duration and sound seemed to be more affected by age than estimates of speed and movement. Overall, male participants showed a better performance on both auditory and visual estimation tasks compared to females.


Assuntos
Função Executiva/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Pensamento/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Integr Neurosci ; 21(1): 28, 2022 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35164464

RESUMO

Converging evidence from biopsychosocial research in humans and animals demonstrates that chronic sensory stimulation (via excessive screen exposure) affects brain development increasing the risk of cognitive, emotional, and behavioural disorders in adolescents and young adults. Emerging evidence suggests that some of these effects are similar to those seen in adults with symptoms of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in the early stages of dementia, including impaired concentration, orientation, acquisition of recent memories (anterograde amnesia), recall of past memories (retrograde amnesia), social functioning, and self-care. Excessive screen time is known to alter gray matter and white volumes in the brain, increase the risk of mental disorders, and impair acquisition of memories and learning which are known risk factors for dementia. Chronic sensory overstimulation (i.e., excessive screen time) during brain development increases the risk of accelerated neurodegeneration in adulthood (i.e., amnesia, early onset dementia). This relationship is affected by several mediating/moderating factors (e.g., IQ decline, learning impairments and mental illness). We hypothesize that excessive screen exposure during critical periods of development in Generation Z will lead to mild cognitive impairments in early to middle adulthood resulting in substantially increased rates of early onset dementia in later adulthood. We predict that from 2060 to 2100, the rates of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) will increase significantly, far above the Centres for Disease Control (CDC) projected estimates of a two-fold increase, to upwards of a four-to-six-fold increase. The CDC estimates are based entirely on factors related to the age, sex, race and ethnicity of individuals born before 1950 who did not have access to mobile digital technology during critical periods of brain development. Compared to previous generations, the average 17-19-year-old spends approximately 6 hours a day on mobile digital devices (MDD) (smartphones, tablets, and laptop computers) whereas individuals born before 1950 at the same age spent zero. Our estimates include the documented effects of excessive screen time on individuals born after 1980, Millennials and Generation Z, who will be the majority of individuals ≥65 years old. An estimated 4-to-6-fold increase in rates of ADRD post-2060 will result in widespread societal and economic distress and the complete collapse of already overburdened healthcare systems in developed countries. Preventative measures must be set in place immediately including investments and interventions in public education, social policy, laws, and healthcare.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/etiologia , Amnésia/etiologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Tempo de Tela , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(2)2022 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35055176

RESUMO

Cytokines and their receptors have a vital function in regulating various processes such as immune function, inflammation, haematopoiesis, cell growth and differentiation. The interaction between a cytokine and its specific receptor triggers intracellular signalling cascades that lead to altered gene expression in the target cell and consequent changes in its proliferation, differentiation, or activation. In this review, we highlight the role of the soluble type I cytokine receptor CRLF1 (cytokine receptor-like factor-1) and the Interleukin (IL)-6 cytokine CLCF1 (cardiotrophin-like cytokine factor 1) during development in physiological and pathological conditions with particular emphasis on Crisponi/cold-induced sweating syndrome (CS/CISS) and discuss new insights, challenges and possibilities arising from recent studies.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Hiperidrose/genética , Receptores de Citocinas/metabolismo , Trismo/congênito , Animais , Morte Súbita , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Facies , Desenvolvimento Humano , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais , Trismo/genética
10.
Neuroimage ; 249: 118871, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995797

RESUMO

Convolutional neural networks (CNN) can accurately predict chronological age in healthy individuals from structural MRI brain scans. Potentially, these models could be applied during routine clinical examinations to detect deviations from healthy ageing, including early-stage neurodegeneration. This could have important implications for patient care, drug development, and optimising MRI data collection. However, existing brain-age models are typically optimised for scans which are not part of routine examinations (e.g., volumetric T1-weighted scans), generalise poorly (e.g., to data from different scanner vendors and hospitals etc.), or rely on computationally expensive pre-processing steps which limit real-time clinical utility. Here, we sought to develop a brain-age framework suitable for use during routine clinical head MRI examinations. Using a deep learning-based neuroradiology report classifier, we generated a dataset of 23,302 'radiologically normal for age' head MRI examinations from two large UK hospitals for model training and testing (age range = 18-95 years), and demonstrate fast (< 5 s), accurate (mean absolute error [MAE] < 4 years) age prediction from clinical-grade, minimally processed axial T2-weighted and axial diffusion-weighted scans, with generalisability between hospitals and scanner vendors (Δ MAE < 1 year). The clinical relevance of these brain-age predictions was tested using 228 patients whose MRIs were reported independently by neuroradiologists as showing atrophy 'excessive for age'. These patients had systematically higher brain-predicted age than chronological age (mean predicted age difference = +5.89 years, 'radiologically normal for age' mean predicted age difference = +0.05 years, p < 0.0001). Our brain-age framework demonstrates feasibility for use as a screening tool during routine hospital examinations to automatically detect older-appearing brains in real-time, with relevance for clinical decision-making and optimising patient pathways.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Desenvolvimento Humano , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroimagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/patologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Aprendizado Profundo , Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem/métodos , Neuroimagem/normas , Adulto Jovem
11.
Memorandum ; 39: 1-18, 20220127.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1410549

RESUMO

A presente contribuição busca mostrar a formação ­acadêmica e humana ­recebida por de Edith Stein nos anos de seus estudos universitários apontando sua importância para o que viria a desenvolver depois em obra e na própria existência da filósofa. Inicialmente, se esclarece o que Stein entende por formação. Em seguida, através da escuta empática do que ela mesma relata em escritos autobiográficos e cartas a amigos e colegas, mostra-se o vínculo entre as experiências vividas nas duas cidades onde estudou e os temas enfrentados nas obras redigidas nos anos imediatamente sucessivos à aprovação de sua tese, que voltariam também nas obras mais maduras em várias passagens.


The present contribution is intended to demonstrate the importance of Edith Stein's education, both humanistic and academic, received during her years of university study, for the development of her work and her very existence as a philosopher. Through the empathic listening of what she herself recounts in autobiographical notes and written letters to friends and colleagues, I seek to show the connection between the lived experiences in the two cities where she advances her academic studies and the themes dealt within written papers in the years immediately following her academic studies, which, on several occasions, will return even in her more mature production. All of this after having first clarified what Stein herself understood by education.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Humano
12.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 43(1): 452-469, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570244

RESUMO

Age has a major effect on brain volume. However, the normative studies available are constrained by small sample sizes, restricted age coverage and significant methodological variability. These limitations introduce inconsistencies and may obscure or distort the lifespan trajectories of brain morphometry. In response, we capitalized on the resources of the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium to examine age-related trajectories inferred from cross-sectional measures of the ventricles, the basal ganglia (caudate, putamen, pallidum, and nucleus accumbens), the thalamus, hippocampus and amygdala using magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from 18,605 individuals aged 3-90 years. All subcortical structure volumes were at their maximum value early in life. The volume of the basal ganglia showed a monotonic negative association with age thereafter; there was no significant association between age and the volumes of the thalamus, amygdala and the hippocampus (with some degree of decline in thalamus) until the sixth decade of life after which they also showed a steep negative association with age. The lateral ventricles showed continuous enlargement throughout the lifespan. Age was positively associated with inter-individual variability in the hippocampus and amygdala and the lateral ventricles. These results were robust to potential confounders and could be used to examine the functional significance of deviations from typical age-related morphometric patterns.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/anatomia & histologia , Corpo Estriado/anatomia & histologia , Hipocampo/anatomia & histologia , Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Neuroimagem , Tálamo/anatomia & histologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Corpo Estriado/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
13.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 43(1): 470-499, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044802

RESUMO

For many traits, males show greater variability than females, with possible implications for understanding sex differences in health and disease. Here, the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Consortium presents the largest-ever mega-analysis of sex differences in variability of brain structure, based on international data spanning nine decades of life. Subcortical volumes, cortical surface area and cortical thickness were assessed in MRI data of 16,683 healthy individuals 1-90 years old (47% females). We observed significant patterns of greater male than female between-subject variance for all subcortical volumetric measures, all cortical surface area measures, and 60% of cortical thickness measures. This pattern was stable across the lifespan for 50% of the subcortical structures, 70% of the regional area measures, and nearly all regions for thickness. Our findings that these sex differences are present in childhood implicate early life genetic or gene-environment interaction mechanisms. The findings highlight the importance of individual differences within the sexes, that may underpin sex-specific vulnerability to disorders.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica da População/fisiologia , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroimagem , Caracteres Sexuais , Espessura Cortical do Cérebro , Córtex Cerebral/anatomia & histologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 43(1): 431-451, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595143

RESUMO

Delineating the association of age and cortical thickness in healthy individuals is critical given the association of cortical thickness with cognition and behavior. Previous research has shown that robust estimates of the association between age and brain morphometry require large-scale studies. In response, we used cross-sectional data from 17,075 individuals aged 3-90 years from the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium to infer age-related changes in cortical thickness. We used fractional polynomial (FP) regression to quantify the association between age and cortical thickness, and we computed normalized growth centiles using the parametric Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method. Interindividual variability was estimated using meta-analysis and one-way analysis of variance. For most regions, their highest cortical thickness value was observed in childhood. Age and cortical thickness showed a negative association; the slope was steeper up to the third decade of life and more gradual thereafter; notable exceptions to this general pattern were entorhinal, temporopolar, and anterior cingulate cortices. Interindividual variability was largest in temporal and frontal regions across the lifespan. Age and its FP combinations explained up to 59% variance in cortical thickness. These results may form the basis of further investigation on normative deviation in cortical thickness and its significance for behavioral and cognitive outcomes.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/anatomia & histologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Neuroimagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Neuroimage ; 246: 118765, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34875380

RESUMO

Medial frontal theta-band oscillations are a robust marker of action-outcome monitoring. In a large developmental sample (n = 432, 9-16 years), we examined whether phase and non-phase locked medial frontal theta power were related to inhibitory control among children and adolescents. Our results showed that the well-established increase in medial frontal theta power during inhibitory control was captured largely by non-phase locked dynamics, which partially mediated the positive effect of age on task performance. A person-centered approach also revealed latent classes of individuals based on their multivariate theta power dynamics (phase locked/non-phase locked, GO/NOGO). The class of individuals showing low phase locked and high non-phase locked medial frontal theta were significantly older, had better inhibitory control, scored higher on measures of general cognitive function, and were more efficient in their behavioural responses. The functional significance of phase and non-phase locked theta dynamics, and their potential changes, could have important implications for action-outcome monitoring and cognitive function in both typical and atypical development, as well as related psychopathology .


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 63(1): 4-6, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34931700

RESUMO

Professor Sir Michael Rutter died on 23 October 2021. He had made an unparalleled and profound contribution to the science underpinning our understanding of the origins and development of psychopathology in children and young people. The unique combination of reforming motivations, intellectual curiosity and commitment to hypothesis-driven science that made this possible are discussed in the editorial for this issue (Sonuga-Barke, Fearon & Scott, 2022). I have recently compiled a systematic and comprehensive Digest of his life's work - 546 journal papers and 52 books published [https://doi.org/10.13056/acamh.13072]. This Editorial Perspective will summarise some highlights of the main areas of his many scientific achievements.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Humano , Psicopatologia , Adolescente , Criança , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Psicopatologia/história
17.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 77(1): 104-117, 2022 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329440

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Age-related differences in cognition are typically assessed by comparing groups of older to younger participants, but little is known about the continuous trajectory of cognitive changes across age, or when a shift to older adulthood occurs. We examined the pattern of mean age differences and variability on episodic memory and executive function measures over the adult life span, in a more fine-grained way than past group or life-span comparisons. METHOD: We used a sample of over 40,000 people aged 18-90 who completed psychometrically validated online tests measuring episodic memory and executive functions (the Cogniciti Brain Health Assessment). RESULTS: Cognitive performance declined gradually over adulthood, and rapidly later in life on spatial working memory, processing speed, facilitation (but not interference), associative recognition, and set shifting. Both polynomial and segmented regression fit the data well, indicating a nonlinear pattern. Segmented regression revealed a shift from gradual to rapid decline that occurred in the early 60s. Variability between people (interindividual variability or diversity) and variability within a person across tasks (intraindividual variability or dispersion) also increased gradually until the 60s, and rapidly after. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a single general factor (of variance shared between tasks) offered a good fit for performance across tasks. DISCUSSION: Life-span cognitive performance shows a nonlinear pattern, with gradual decline over early and mid-adulthood, followed by a transition in the 60s to notably accelerated, but more variable, decline. Some people show less decline than others, and some cognitive abilities show less within-person decline than others.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Variação Biológica da População/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 42: e235202, 2022. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1360636

RESUMO

Este trabalho propõe uma discussão teórica sobre o desenvolvimento positivo por meio do esporte, com foco na aprendizagem de "competências de vida", que recebem uma atenção crescente na educação do século XXI, e pretende discutir e integrar diferentes modelos existentes com base na teoria social cognitiva (TSC) de Albert Bandura. Para isso, foi descrito o modelo heurístico de Gould e Carson, traçando comparativos com modelos teóricos posteriores. São apresentados aspectos da TSC que possibilitam a percepção de uma unidade teórica entre os diversos modelos, o que pode facilitar e aprofundar a compreensão do fenômeno. Conclui-se que os benefícios do esporte ao desenvolvimento humano não são automáticos e dependem de múltiplos fatores, especialmente dos aspectos cognitivos e relacionais associados a essas práticas. Esses fatores devem ser o foco das intervenções para que as vivências esportivas sejam, de fato, promotoras de um desenvolvimento positivo. A TSC permite integrar os diferentes modelos e pode servir de base para o planejamento de intervenções e pesquisas que promovam a aprendizagem de competências de vida nos esportes.(AU)


This paper proposes a theoretical discussion about positive development by using sport, focusing on "life skills" learning, which receive a growing attention on 21th century education, and aimed to discuss and integrate different existing models based on Albert Bandura's social cognitive theory (SCT). For this, we described the heuristic model of Gould and Carson, drawing comparisons with later theoretical models. We present aspects of SCT that enable to perceive a theoretical unity between the different models, which can facilitate and deepen the understanding of the phenomenon. We concluded that the benefits of sports to human development are not automatic and depend on multiple factors, especially cognitive and relational aspects associated to these practices. These factors should be the focus of interventions, so that the sports experiences may really result in positive development. The SCT allows the integration of different models and can serve as a basis for planning interventions and research that promote the learning of life skills by using sport.(AU)


Este trabajo propone discutir sobre el desarrollo positivo a través del deporte, con foco en el aprendizaje de "competencias de vida", que han sido tema creciente en la educación del siglo XXI, así como pretende discutir e integrar diferentes modelos existentes basados en la teoría social cognitiva (TSC) de Albert Bandura. Para ello, se describió el modelo heurístico de Gould y Carson, haciendo comparaciones con modelos teóricos posteriores. Se presentan aspectos de la TSC de Albert Bandura, que permitan percibir una unidad teórica entre los diferentes modelos, lo que puede facilitar y profundizar la comprensión del fenómeno. Se concluye que los beneficios del deporte al desarrollo humano no son automáticos y dependen de múltiples factores, especialmente los aspectos cognitivos y relacionales asociados a estas prácticas. Estos factores deben ser foco de intervenciones para que las vivencias deportivas sean, de hecho, positivas. La TSC permite integrar los diferentes modelos y puede servir de base para la planificación de intervenciones e investigaciones que promuevan el aprendizaje de competencias de vida en los deportes.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Aprendizado Social , Psicologia do Esporte , Desenvolvimento Humano , Autoimagem , Criança , Adolescente , Esforço Físico , Resiliência Psicológica , Psicologia Positiva
19.
Licere (Online) ; 24(2): 666-685, 20210630.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291523

RESUMO

As novas tecnologias e a automação geram transformações no mundo do trabalho, passando do trabalho material para o trabalho imaterial. Neste contexto, espaços e tempos de trabalho e lazer perdem as fronteiras, gerando uma hibridação, em que os Territórios Criativos assumem protagonismo. Os Territórios Criativos são espaços de inovações, em que há um compartilhamento nas formas de pensar, sentir e agir das pessoas, instituições e empresas. Neste contexto, o lazer nos Territórios Criativos, nas suas manifestações de turismo, esporte e artes, contribui na dinamicidade do território, promovendo espaços e tempos de desenvolvimento humano, social e econômico. O turismo assume, portanto, uma possibilidade de educação experiencial, que ultrapassa a perspectiva de turismo do ver, pelo turismo do viver, e da educação do aprender, para a educação do compartilhar. Compartilhar experiências, culturas e conhecimentos nos tempos de viagens fortalecem a criatividade, as relações socioculturais e novas formas do fazer educação.


New technologies and automation make transformation in the working world, going from material labor to immaterial labor. In this context, workplace, work time and leisure lose its boundaries, making a hybridization, in which creative territories make an important role. Creative Territories are innovative spaces, in which there is a shared way of thinking, feeling, acting by people, institutions and companies. In this context, creative territories in leisure, in its manifestation of tourism, sport and arts, contributes to territory dynamic, providing time and space to human development socially and economically. Therefore, tourism make a possibility to experiential education, which surpasses the expectation from tourism of seeing to tourism of living, as well as, from education of learning to education of sharing. Sharing experiences, cultures and knowledge in times where travel strengthens creativity, sociocultural relationships and new ways of making education.


Assuntos
Atividades de Lazer , Desenvolvimento Humano
20.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362654

RESUMO

Este artigo aborda a Educação Física no período de distanciamento social e a inclusão escolar. Caracteriza-se por um estudo qualitativo descritivo exploratório que tem por objetivo compreender como é contemplado o ensino remoto da Educação Física para os alunos com deficiência. Foi realizada uma pesquisa com 43 docentes através de envio de questionário. Constatam-se alterações e adaptações no currículo e nas aulas, dificuldades de acesso a tecnologias e a diminuição do contato entre professores e alunos. Entende-se que a manutenção do vínculo/aprendizagens, a capacitação docente e o reconhecimento deste trabalho são demandas importantes neste processo. Ressalta-se que as diferenças devem estar presentes nos contextos escolares, potencializando o desenvolvimento humano (AU).


This article addresses Physical Education in the period of so-cial distance and school inclusion. It is characterized by a qualitative des-criptive exploratory study that aims to understand how remote teaching of Physical Education is contemplated for disabled students. A survey was conducted with 43 teachers by sending a questionnaire. There are changes and adaptations in the curriculum and classes, difficulties in ac-cessing technologies and decreased contact between teachers and stu-dents. It is understood that maintaining the bond / learning, teacher trai-ning and recognition of this work are important demands in this process. It is emphasized that differences must be present in school contexts, enhancing human development (AU).


Este artículo aborda la Educación Física en el período de dis-tancia social y la inclusión escolar. És un estudio exploratorio descriptivo cualitativo, con la intención de comprender cómo se contempla la en-señanza a distancia de Educación Física para los estudiantes discapa-citados. Se realizó una encuesta a 43 profesores mediante el envío de un cuestionario. Hay cambios y adaptaciones en el plan de estudios y las clases, dificultades para acceder a las tecnologías y menor contac-to entre profesores y alumnos. Se entiende que mantener el vínculo/aprendizaje, la formación docente y el reconocimiento de este trabajo son demandas importantes en este proceso. Se enfatiza que las diferen-cias deben estar presentes en los contextos escolares, potenciando el desarrollo humano (AU).


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação Física e Treinamento , Inclusão Escolar , Distanciamento Físico , Desenvolvimento Humano , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Aprendizagem
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