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2.
Neuroimage ; 237: 118186, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020019

RESUMO

The ability to enhance motivated performance through incentives is crucial to guide and ultimately optimise the outcome of goal-directed behaviour. It remains largely unclear how motivated behaviour and performance develops particularly across adolescence. Here, we used computational fMRI to assess how response speed and its underlying neural circuitry are modulated by reward and loss in a monetary incentive delay paradigm. We demonstrate that maturational fine-tuning of functional coupling within the cortico-striatal incentive circuitry from adolescence to adulthood facilitates the ability to enhance performance selectively for higher subjective values. Additionally, during feedback, we found developmental sex differences of striatal representations of reward prediction errors in an exploratory analysis. Our findings suggest that a reduced capacity to utilise subjective value for motivated behaviour in adolescence is rooted in immature information processing in the incentive system. This indicates that the neurocircuitry for coordination of incentivised, motivated cognitive control acts as a bottleneck for behavioural adjustments in adolescence.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Corpo Estriado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Neuroimagem Funcional , Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recompensa , Adolescente , Adulto , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Corpo Estriado/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
3.
Neuroimage ; 236: 118067, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878377

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with unknown brain etiology. Our knowledge to date about structural brain development across the lifespan in ASD comes mainly from cross-sectional studies, thereby limiting our understanding of true age effects within individuals with the disorder that can only be gained through longitudinal research. The present study describes FreeSurfer-derived volumetric findings from a longitudinal dataset consisting of 607 T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans collected from 105 male individuals with ASD (349 MRIs) and 125 typically developing male controls (258 MRIs). Participants were six to forty-five years of age at their first scan, and were scanned up to 5 times over a period of 16 years (average inter-scan interval of 3.7 years). Atypical age-related volumetric trajectories in ASD included enlarged gray matter volume in early childhood that approached levels of the control group by late childhood, an age-related increase in ventricle volume resulting in enlarged ventricles by early adulthood and reduced corpus callosum age-related volumetric increase resulting in smaller corpus callosum volume in adulthood. Larger corpus callosum volume was related to a lower (better) ADOS score at the most recent study visit for the participants with ASD. These longitudinal findings expand our knowledge of volumetric brain-based abnormalities in males with ASD, and highlight the need to continue to examine brain structure across the lifespan and well into adulthood.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Ventrículos Cerebrais , Corpo Caloso , Substância Cinzenta , Desenvolvimento Humano , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos Cerebrais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ventrículos Cerebrais/patologia , Criança , Corpo Caloso/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpo Caloso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Corpo Caloso/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
Neuroimage ; 235: 117974, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766753

RESUMO

In the last few years, a significant amount of work has aimed to characterize maturational trajectories of cortical development. The role of pericortical microstructure putatively characterized as the gray-white matter contrast (GWC) at the pericortical gray-white matter boundary and its relationship to more traditional morphological measures of cortical morphometry has emerged as a means to examine finer grained neuroanatomical underpinnings of cortical changes. In this work, we characterize the GWC developmental trajectories in a representative sample (n = 394) of children and adolescents (~4 to ~22 years of age), with repeated scans (1-3 scans per subject, total scans n = 819). We tested whether linear, quadratic, or cubic trajectories of contrast development best described changes in GWC. A best-fit model was identified vertex-wise across the whole cortex via the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). GWC across nearly the whole brain was found to significantly change with age. Cubic trajectories were likeliest for 63% of vertices, quadratic trajectories were likeliest for 20% of vertices, and linear trajectories were likeliest for 16% of vertices. A main effect of sex was observed in some regions, where males had a higher GWC than females. However, no sex by age interactions were found on GWC. In summary, our results suggest a progressive decrease in GWC at the pericortical boundary throughout childhood and adolescence. This work contributes to efforts seeking to characterize typical, healthy brain development and, by extension, can help elucidate aberrant developmental trajectories.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral , Substância Cinzenta , Desenvolvimento Humano , Substância Branca , Adolescente , Adulto , Córtex Cerebral/anatomia & histologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/anatomia & histologia , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Substância Branca/anatomia & histologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Neurophysiol ; 125(4): 1382-1395, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689490

RESUMO

Performing a goal-directed movement consists of a chain of complex preparatory mechanisms. Such planning especially requires integration (or binding) of various action features, a process that has been conceptualized in the "theory of event coding." Theoretical considerations and empirical research suggest that these processes are subject to developmental effects from adolescence to adulthood. The aim of the present study was to investigate age-related modulations in action feature binding processes and to shed light on underlying neurophysiological development from preadolescence to early adulthood. We examined a group of healthy participants (n = 61) between 10 and 30 yr of age, who performed a task that requires a series of bimanual response selections in an embedded paradigm. For an in-depth analysis of the underlying neural correlates, we applied EEG signal decomposition together with source localization analyses. Behavioral results across the whole group did not show binding effects in reaction times but in intraindividual response variability. From age 10 to 30 yr, there was a decrease in reaction times and reaction time variability but no age-related effect in action file binding. The latter were corroborated by Bayesian data analyses. On the brain level, the developmental effects on response selection were associated with activation modulations in the superior parietal cortex (BA7). The results show that mechanisms of action execution and speed, but not those of action feature binding, are subject to age-related changes between the age of 10 and 30 yr.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Different aspects of an action need to be integrated to allow smooth unfolding of behavior. We examine developmental effects in these processes and show that mechanisms of action execution and speed, but not those of action feature binding, are subject to age-related changes between the age of 10 and 30 yr.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 76(1): 88-97, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896862

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Personality traits have been related to concurrent memory performance. Most studies, however, have focused on personality as a predictor of memory; comparatively less is known about whether memory is related to personality development across adulthood. Using 4 samples, the present study tests whether memory level and change are related to personality change in adulthood. METHOD: Participants were drawn from 2 waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study Graduates (WLSG; N = 3,232, mean age = 64.28, SD = 0.65) and Wisconsin Longitudinal Study Siblings (WLSS; N = 1,570, mean age = 63.52, SD = 6.69) samples, the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS; N = 1,901, mean age = 55.43, SD = 10.98), and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS; N = 6,038, mean age = 65.47, SD = 8.28). Immediate and delayed recall and the 5 major personality traits were assessed at baseline and follow-up. RESULTS: There was heterogeneity in the associations across samples. A meta-analysis of latent change in the four samples indicated that lower baseline memory performance was related to an increase in neuroticism (B = -0.002; 95% CI = -0.004, -0.0008) and a decrease in agreeableness (B = 0.004; 95% CI = 0.002, 0.007) and conscientiousness (B = 0.005; 95% CI = 0.0008, 0.010). In addition, declines in memory were related to steeper declines in extraversion (B = 0.06; 95% CI = 0.003, 0.11), openness (B = 0.04; 95% CI = 0.007, 0.069), and conscientiousness (B = 0.05; 95% CI = 0.019, 0.09). DISCUSSION: The present study indicates that poor memory and declines in memory over time are related to maladaptive personality change. These associations, however, were small and inconsistent across samples.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Idoso , Extroversão Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroticismo , Desenvolvimento da Personalidade , Estados Unidos
8.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 76(1): 20-30, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674127

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Life experiences are thought to prompt changes in personality. However, existing studies find few replicable mean-level changes in personality following life events. The focus on mean-level change may obscure other types of personality change that are not routinely studied in the context of life events. These are variability in response, structural, and ipsative change. METHODS: The current proposal examines whether major life events (e.g., divorce and job loss) affect these 3 understudied types of personality trait change using 3 waves of Big Five trait data in a large-scale, representative longitudinal study (German Socioeconomic Panel Study, N = 16,368). Structural equation models compare those who had an event to their prior self and a control group who did not experience the event. RESULTS: Life events were found to have mostly null or small effects on variability in response, structural, and ipsative change. Across 2 types of tests for variability in response, few replications occurred. The only consistent effect across 3 types of change was for mental health events, which served to increase variance in all Big Five traits and increase consistency in ipsative profiles. DISCUSSION: Life events tend not to affect these novel metrics of personality trait change. The one exception of mental health events is consistent with previous literature on mean-level change. Overall, life events do not appear to by major catalysts of personality change, regardless of how change is defined.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Personalidade/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Individualidade , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desenvolvimento da Personalidade
9.
Gastroenterology ; 160(2): 507-523, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307030

RESUMO

The human gut microbiome is a collection of bacteria, protozoa, fungi, and viruses that coexist in our bodies and are essential in protective, metabolic, and physiologic functions of human health. Gut dysbiosis has traditionally been linked to increased risk of infection, but imbalances within the intestinal microbial community structure that correlate with untoward inflammatory responses are increasingly recognized as being involved in disease processes that affect many organ systems in the body. Furthermore, it is becoming more apparent that the connection between gut dysbiosis and age-related diseases may lie in how the gut microbiome communicates with both the intestinal mucosa and the systemic immune system, given that these networks have a common interconnection to frailty. We therefore discuss recent advances in our understanding of the important role the microbiome plays in aging and how this knowledge opens the door for potential novel therapeutics aimed at shaping a less dysbiotic microbiome to prevent or treat age-related diseases.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Fragilidade/fisiopatologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Idoso , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Disbiose/fisiopatologia , Fragilidade/microbiologia , Saúde , Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Humanos
11.
Behav Brain Res ; 397: 112888, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882284

RESUMO

This review aims to establish the cognitive processing of patients with attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) across age. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on children and adult populations were conducted, thus delineating deficits that could have been maintained and ameliorated across age. This allowed for the examination of the correlation between patterns of brain activation and the corresponding development of functional heterogeneity in ADHD. A systematic literature search of fMRI studies on ADHD was conducted using the PubMed and Scopus electronic databases based on PRISMA guidelines. References and citations were verified in Scopus database. The present study has identified 14 studies on children, 16 studies on adults, and one study on both populations of ADHD consisting of 1371 participants. Functional heterogeneity is present in ADHD across age, which can manifest either as different brain activation patterns, intra-subject variability, or both. This is shown in the increased role of the frontal regions and the specialized network in adults with ADHD from inefficient non-specific activation in childhood. Functional heterogeneity may manifest when delayed maturation is insufficient to normalize frontal lobe functions.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Corpo Estriado/fisiopatologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Criança , Corpo Estriado/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpo Estriado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Food Nutr Bull ; 41(1_suppl): S50-S58, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33172290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The design of the original nutrition supplementation trial that was conducted from 1969 to 1977 in 4 villages in rural Guatemala to evaluate the benefits of improving nutrition during pregnancy and early childhood, combined with several follow-up studies, provides unique data to examine the effects of improving nutrition on the next generation. OBJECTIVE: This article provides a summary of the key findings from the INCAP Longitudinal Study on the intergenerational effects of improving nutrition on the growth and well-being of the next generation. METHODS: The key outcomes include offspring birth size as well as attained size and body composition through age 11 years. The sample sizes varied from approximately 200 to 800 depending on the timing of the follow-up studies and data collection protocols. The effects of parental birth size, maternal linear growth from birth through adulthood, and exposure to the nutrition intervention, that is, Atole versus Fresco during critical periods from prenatal through age 15 years, have been examined using complex models and approaches. RESULTS: Overall, these publications demonstrate clear improvements in the growth of the next generation. Effects were seen primarily for maternal exposure to Atole and were larger for boys compared to girls. Stunting during early childhood among girls was also a significant predictor of offspring birth size, and younger age at first pregnancy (<20 years) was associated with an increased risk of stunting in the offspring. CONCLUSIONS: These studies have contributed significantly to our understanding of the importance of investing in nutrition, especially during early childhood for future generations.


Assuntos
Efeito de Coortes , Suplementos Nutricionais , Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Criança , Ciências da Nutrição Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Características da Família , Feminino , Seguimentos , Guatemala , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
13.
Pediatr Neurol ; 112: 34-43, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perinatal stroke often leads to lifelong motor impairment. Two common subtypes differ in timing, location, and mechanism of injury: periventricular venous infarcts (PVI) are fetal white matter lesions while most arterial ischemic strokes (AIS) are cortical injuries acquired near term birth. Both alter motor system development and primary motor cortex (M1) plasticity, often with retained ipsilateral corticospinal fibers from the non-lesioned motor cortex (M1'). METHODS: Task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to define patterns of motor cortex activity during paretic and unaffected hand movement. Peak coordinates of M1, M1', and the supplementary motor area in the lesioned and intact hemispheres were compared to age-matched controls. Correlations between displacements and clinical motor function were explored. RESULTS: Forty-nine participants included 14 PVI (12.59 ± 3.7 years), 13 AIS (14.91 ± 3.9 years), and 22 controls (13.91 ± 3.4 years). AIS displayed the greatest M1 displacement from controls in the lesioned hemisphere while PVI locations approximated controls. Peak M1' activations were displaced from the canonical hand knob in both PVI and AIS. Extent of M1 and M1' displacement were correlated (r = 0.50, P = 0.025) but were not associated with motor function. Supplementary motor area activity elicited by paretic tapping was displaced in AIS compared to controls (P = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Motor network components may be displaced in both hemispheres after perinatal stroke, particularly in AIS and those with ipsilateral control of the affected limb. Modest correlations with clinical function may support that more complex models of developmental plasticity are needed to inform targets for individualized neuromodulatory therapies in children with perinatal stroke.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Potencial Evocado Motor/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Córtex Motor/fisiopatologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Paresia/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Extremidade Superior/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Paralisia Cerebral/etiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Paresia/etiologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Adulto Jovem
14.
Epileptic Disord ; 22(5): 571-581, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985986

RESUMO

This study describes the intellectual development of 75 children and adolescents who underwent hemispherotomy. Furthermore, we aimed to reveal predicting factors on pre- and postsurgical development with a focus on the role of aetiology. We analysed presurgical and six-month postsurgical developmental and intellectual data of 75 patients (age range: 0.87-19.78 years) and divided them into two groups: a not severely impaired group in which outcome of intellectual functioning was reported based on FSIQ score, and a severely impaired group (not testable by IQ tests) in which intellectual developmental outcome was described based on developmental quotients instead. In the not severely impaired group (n = 31), the preoperative level of intellectual functioning was a strong predictor of postoperative intellectual outcome; for 22/31 (71%) patients, postoperative FSIQ and its subscales were similar to preoperative levels. Improvements were observed for FSIQ in five patients, only for Verbal IQ in one patient and only for Performance IQ in one further patient; significant losses occurred in two patients, only for Performance IQ in both. In the severely impaired group, 30/40 (75%) patients showed further development after surgery, nine (23%) patients had the same results as before surgery, and one (2%) patient showed regression. Longer duration of presurgical epilepsy was related to a marginally lower presurgical developmental level, and good seizure outcome was a predictor of better postoperative development. For all patients, early age at seizure onset and early lesion origin correlated with poorer presurgical intellectual development. Although an entire hemisphere was disconnected, most patients exhibited ongoing development after hemispherotomy or had at least the same preoperative intellectual status; deterioration was rare.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/cirurgia , Hemisferectomia , Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Inteligência/fisiologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia/patologia , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 62(12): 1423-1428, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767385

RESUMO

AIM: To determine IQ at 26 to 30 years in very-low-birthweight (VLBW) adults compared with term-born controls; and to examine the stability of IQ in VLBW individuals between 7 to 8 years and 26 to 30 years, identify perinatal and social predictors of IQ, and assess the contribution of brain volume to IQ. METHOD: At 26 to 30 years, 229 VLBW adults (71% survivors of prospectively enrolled national cohort) and 100 term-born controls were tested on the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. For VLBW, IQ at 7 to 8 years, perinatal and social data were extracted from the data set, and 150 adults underwent volumetric cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). RESULTS: At 26 to 30 years, the mean adjusted difference between VLBW and controls for total IQ was 9.4 (95% CI 6.5-12.4) points. In VLBW individuals the correlation between IQ scores at 7 to 8 years and 26 to 30 years was 0.78. On multiple regression analysis, parental education was the strongest predictor of verbal and total IQ at both ages. Birthweight was a strong predictor of perceptual and total IQ. In VLBW individuals with MRI scans, the addition of brain volume as a variable increased the variance explained for perceptual and total IQ. INTERPRETATION: VLBW adults have mean IQ scores 9 to 11 points below controls. Parental education and birthweight are the strongest predictors of IQ.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/fisiologia , Inteligência/fisiologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Escalas de Wechsler
16.
Neuroimage ; 221: 117122, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634596

RESUMO

Structural neural network architecture patterns in the human brain could be related to individual differences in phenotype, behavior, genetic determinants, and clinical outcomes from neuropsychiatric disorders. Recent studies have indicated that a personalized neural (brain) fingerprint can be identified from structural brain connectomes. However, the accuracy, reproducibility and translational potential of personalized fingerprints in terms of cognition is not yet fully determined. In this study, we introduce a dynamic connectome modeling approach to identify a critical set of white matter subnetworks that can be used as a personalized fingerprint. Several individual variable assessments were performed that demonstrate the accuracy and practicality of personalized fingerprint, specifically predicting the identity and IQ of middle age adults, and the developmental quotient in toddlers. Our findings suggest the fingerprint found by our dynamic modeling approach is sufficient for differentiation between individuals, and is also capable of predicting general intellectual ability across human development.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Inteligência/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Rede Nervosa/anatomia & histologia , Neuroimagem , Substância Branca/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Idoso , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 46(10): 1105-1117, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718153

RESUMO

The brain's ability to integrate information from the different senses is essential for decreasing sensory uncertainty and ultimately limiting errors. Temporal correspondence is one of the key processes that determines whether information from different senses will be integrated and is influenced by both experience- and task-dependent mechanisms in adults. Here we investigated the development of both task- and experience-dependent temporal mechanisms by testing 7-8-year-old children, 10-11-year-old children, and adults in two tasks (simultaneity judgment, temporal order judgment) using audiovisual stimuli with differing degrees of association based on prior experience (low for beep-flash vs. high for face-voice). By fitting an independent channels model to the data, we found that while the experience-dependent mechanism of audiovisual simultaneity perception is already adult-like in 10-11-year-old children, the task-dependent mechanism is still not. These results indicate that differing maturation rates of experience-dependent and task-dependent mechanisms underlie the development of multisensory integration. Understanding this development has important implications for clinical and educational interventions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
Span J Psychol ; 23: e27, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677605

RESUMO

This study searched for sociodemographic influences on visual memory and visuoconstructive ability in healthy and clinical samples evaluated with Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT) in two studies. In Study 1, we searched for changes related to age in children, adolescents, adults and elderly on the performance of the BVRT. In Study 2, we investigated the relations among age, years of education and intellectual quotient (IQ) on the performance of the BVRT using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Participants were 624 individuals aged between six and 89 years old (M = 25.40; SD = 22.34) from the normatization and evidence validity studies at Brazil. We used a sociodemographic questionnaire, BVRT and IQ measure was estimated. Study 1 has shown a performance similar to the developmental graphics with a U-inverted pattern in relation to age: An increase of the visual memory ability in the children and adolescent groups as age increases, a tendency of a decrease in the performance in the adult group that intensifies in the elderly group. Study 2 found that the model for the BVRT performance tested by SEM denoted satisfactory goodness-of-fit indexes, χ2/gl = 2.67, p < .001; CFI = .92; TLI = .93; RMSEA = .004, 90% CI = [.03, .05];WLSMV = 1.79, and corroborated the theoretical assumption. The SEM model confirmed in this study highlight the strong role of years of education in the prediction of BVRT scores.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Inteligência/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Retenção Psicológica/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Testes de Memória e Aprendizagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
19.
Neuroimage ; 221: 117202, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730958

RESUMO

There are vast individual differences in reading achievement between students. Besides structural and functional variability in domain-specific brain regions, these differences may partially be explained by the organization of domain-general functional brain networks. In the current study we used resting-state functional MRI data from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC; N = 553; ages 8-22) to examine the relation between performance on a well-validated reading assessment task, the Wide Range Achievement Word Reading Test (WRAT-Reading) and patterns of functional connectivity. We focused specifically on functional connectivity within and between networks associated with cognitive control, and investigated whether the relationship with academic test performance was mediated by cognitive control abilities. We show that individuals with higher scores on the WRAT-Reading, have stronger lateralization in frontoparietal networks, increased functional connectivity between dorsal striatum and the dorsal attention network, and reduced functional connectivity between dorsal and ventral striatum. The relationship between functional connectivity and reading performance was mediated by cognitive control abilities (i.e., performance on a composite measure of executive function and complex cognition), but not by abilities in other domains, demonstrating the specificity of our findings. Finally, there were no significant interactions with age, suggesting that the observed brain-behavior relationships stay relatively stable over the course of development. Our findings provide important insights into the functional significance of inter-individual variability in the network architecture of the developing brain, showing that functional connectivity in domain-general control networks is relevant to academic achievement in the reading domain.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Conectoma , Corpo Estriado/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Leitura , Adolescente , Adulto , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Corpo Estriado/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
20.
Top Cogn Sci ; 12(3): 843-858, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729673

RESUMO

Learning and processing natural language requires the ability to track syntactic relationships between words and phrases in a sentence, which are often separated by intervening material. These nonadjacent dependencies can be studied using artificial grammar learning paradigms and structured sequence processing tasks. These approaches have been used to demonstrate that human adults, infants and some nonhuman animals are able to detect and learn dependencies between nonadjacent elements within a sequence. However, learning nonadjacent dependencies appears to be more cognitively demanding than detecting dependencies between adjacent elements, and only occurs in certain circumstances. In this review, we discuss different types of nonadjacent dependencies in language and in artificial grammar learning experiments, and how these differences might impact learning. We summarize different types of perceptual cues that facilitate learning, by highlighting the relationship between dependent elements bringing them closer together either physically, attentionally, or perceptually. Finally, we review artificial grammar learning experiments in human adults, infants, and nonhuman animals, and discuss how similarities and differences observed across these groups can provide insights into how language is learned across development and how these language-related abilities might have evolved.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Desenvolvimento Humano , Idioma , Aprendizagem , Linguística , Adulto , Animais , Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Aprendizagem/fisiologia
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