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1.
Dev Psychol ; 57(6): 913-926, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424009

RESUMO

An understanding of harm is central to social and cognitive development, but harm largely has been conceptualized as physical damage or injury. Less research focuses on children's judgments of harm to others' internal well-being (emotional harms). We asked 5- to 10-year-old children (N = 456, 50% girls, 50% boys; primarily tested in Central New York, with socioeconomic diversity, but limited racial/ethnic or linguistic diversity) to compare emotional and physical harms. In Experiment 1, children compared simple harms (intended and completed) and then scenarios in which the perpetrator's intention did not match the outcome (intended emotional harm, but caused physical harm, or vice-versa). Assessments of the severity of emotional (vs. physical) harm increased with age and depended on the perpetrator's intentions. In Experiment 2, children saw emotional and physical harms that were: Simple (intended and completed); Incomplete (intended, but not completed); or Accidental (not intended, but completed). Children evaluated physical and emotional harms in isolation and then compared the two. Judgments of the relative severity of emotional harm increased with age, but only when intentions and outcomes were both present. This reflected an increase with age in children's perceptions that emotional harm was hurtful, whereas perceptions of physical harm were relatively stable across development. With age, children also increasingly associated emotional harms with longer-term impacts (being remembered and reoccurring). These findings suggest reasoning about the severity, underlying intentions, and duration of emotional harm shifts with age. The results hold implications for moral development, law and psychology, and emotional-harm-related interventions including those addressing bullying. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Bullying , Emoções , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Julgamento , Masculino , Desenvolvimento Moral
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(15)2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876754

RESUMO

Military personnel in industrialized societies often develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during combat. It is unclear whether combat-related PTSD is a universal evolutionary response to danger or a culture-specific syndrome of industrialized societies. We interviewed 218 Turkana pastoralist warriors in Kenya, who engage in lethal cattle raids, about their combat experiences and PTSD symptoms. Turkana in our sample had a high prevalence of PTSD symptoms, but Turkana with high symptom severity had lower prevalence of depression-like symptoms than American service members with high symptom severity. Symptoms that facilitate responding to danger were better predicted by combat exposure, whereas depressive symptoms were better predicted by exposure to combat-related moral violations. The findings suggest that some PTSD symptoms stem from an evolved response to danger, while depressive PTSD symptoms may be caused by culturally specific moral norm violations.


Assuntos
Povos Indígenas/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etnologia , Adulto , Evolução Biológica , Comparação Transcultural , Humanos , Quênia , Desenvolvimento Moral , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas
3.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 140, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whereas experience and cognitive maturity drives moral judgement development in most young adults, medical students show slowing, regression, or segmentation in moral development during their clinical years of training. The aim of this study was to explore the moral development of medical students during clinical training. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of medical students from three clinical years of training were interviewed in groups or individually at an Australian medical school in 2018. Thematic analysis identified three themes which were then mapped against the stages and dimensions of Self-authorship Theory. RESULTS: Thirty five medical students from years 3-5 participated in 11 interviews and 6 focus groups. Students shared the impacts of their clinical experiences as they identified with their seniors and increasingly understood the clinical context. Their accounts revealed themes of early confusion followed by defensiveness characterised by desensitization and justification. As students approached graduation, some were planning how they would make moral choices in their future practice. These themes were mapped to the stages of self-authorship: External Formulas, Crossroads and Self-authorship. CONCLUSIONS: Medical students recognise, reconcile and understand moral decisions within clinical settings to successfully reach or approach self-authorship. Curriculum and support during clinical training should match and support this progress.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Currículo , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Moral , Princípios Morais , Adulto Jovem
4.
An. psicol ; 37(1): 61-68, ene.-abr. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-200651

RESUMO

El objetivo del presente trabajo fue incrementar el desarrollo moral en alumnos adultos con discapacidad intelectual, a través de un programa predeportivo y de valores. El programa se llevó a cabo a lo largo de un cuatrimestre de un título dirigido a la inserción sociolaboral de personas con discapacidad intelectual. Participaron 37 alumnos de ambos sexos, de tres promociones consecutivas (n1 = 11; n2 = 12; n3 = 14), entre los 19 y los 37 años (M = 24.49 ± 4.22). Se utilizó la versión española del Moral Competence Test (MCT), que mide los dos componentes del desarrollo moral: la competencia moral y las orientaciones o preferencias morales. Se planificó un diseño cuasiexperimental de cohorte de ciclo institucional recurrente, implicando a tres cohortes evaluadas en tres años consecutivos. Además, para asegurar la equivalencia de los grupos se realizó un estudio acerca de la influencia de variables sociodemográficas y clínicas en el cambio de la competencia moral del alumnado, a través de un diseño ex post facto prospectivo de grupo único. Los resultados mostraron un aumento del desarrollo moral, en sus dos componentes, con significación estadística en el estadio 4 de las orientaciones o preferencias morales


The aim of this study was to increase moral development of the students with intellectual disabilities, through an intervention with values learning and adapted sports. The program was developed in a training course for Social and Labor insertion of People with Intellectual Disability. The sample consisted of 37 students of three consecutive promotions (n1 = 11; n2 = 12; n3 = 14), aged from 19 to 37 years (M = 24.49 ± 4.22). Instrument used was the Spanish version of the Moral Competence Test adapted to intellectual disability (MCT) which measures the two components of moral development through two scores: moral competence and moral orientations/preferences. A quasi-experimental recurrent institutional cycle cohort design was planned. This design involved three cohorts, evaluated in three consecutive years. In addition, to ensure the equivalence of the groups, a study was carried out on the influence of sociodemographic and clinical variables in the change of students' moral competence, through a prospective ex post facto single group design. The results showed an improvement in two components of moral development, with statistically significant differences in stage 4 of moral orienta-tions/preferences


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Moral , Esportes/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Transversais , Aprendizagem , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Testes Neuropsicológicos
5.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 52(3): 515-532, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748274

RESUMO

Auto-aggressive behaviour, especially treatment refractory suicidality in adolescents with psychiatric disorders, may be challenging to clinicians. In search of therapeutic possibilities, we have integrated current opinions regarding causality and interdependency of suicidality and auto-aggressive behaviour across disorders within the HiTOP framework. We propose a developmental model regarding these unsettling behaviours in youths that may help to guide future directions for research and interventions. We argue that the interdependent development of biologic factors, attachment, moral reasoning and emotion regulation in an overprotective environment may lead to social anxiety and later during development to emotion dysregulation and severe internalizing behaviour disorders. To optimize treatment efficacy for both internalizing and externalizing behaviour, we emphasize the importance transdiagnostic interventions, such as addressing non-compliance, restoration of trust between parents and their child, and limitation of avoidance behaviour. These may be seen as higher order interventions within the HiTOP framework.


Assuntos
Regulação Emocional , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Moral , Apego ao Objeto , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Mecanismos de Defesa , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Terapia do Comportamento Dialético , Emoções , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Mentalização , Modelos Psicológicos , Motivação , Psicoterapia , Transtornos Somatoformes/psicologia , Transtornos Somatoformes/terapia
6.
Estud. Psicol. (Campinas, Online) ; 38: e180041, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1133858

RESUMO

How do individuals react to statements that condone acts of corruption and violence? This article contributes to the understanding of how people respond to discourses related to antisocial practices by examining how (1) information about the person who made the statement, and (2) the use of additional information as justification for the antisocial statement affect individuals' agreement with this type of discourse. Relying on moral disengagement theory, we present an experimental study conducted with 487 high school students that assesses the level of agreement with statements made by Brazilian politicians that illustrate different mechanisms of moral disengagement. While overall results indicate low levels of agreement with these statements, comparisons across experimental groups suggest that providing case-based arguments as justification increases agreement with statements in favor of violence but reduces agreement with statements that condone acts of corruption.


Como indivíduos reagem a declarações que aceitam atos de corrupção e violência? Este artigo contribui para a compreensão de como indivíduos respondem a discursos de práticas antissociais ao examinar como (1) a informação sobre o emissor da frase e (2) o uso de dados adicionais como justificativa para a afirmação antissocial afetam sua concordância com este tipo de discurso. Utilizando-se da teoria de desengajamento moral, apresenta-se um estudo experimental conduzido com 487 estudantes de Ensino Médio, o qual avalia o grau de concordância com declarações feitas por políticos brasileiros que representam diferentes tipos de desengajamento moral. Enquanto os resultados gerais apontam um nível baixo de concordância com as declarações, as comparações entre os grupos experimentais sugerem que o uso de argumentos baseados em casos como justificação aumenta a concordância com afirmações em favor de violência, mas reduz a concordância com afirmações que aceitam atos de corrupção.


Assuntos
Política , Psicologia Social , Adolescente , Cognição , Desenvolvimento Moral
7.
Psicol. esc. educ ; 25: e223346, 2021. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1287670

RESUMO

O bullying é um dos principais problemas enfrentados por crianças e adolescentes nas escolas. Este estudo teve por objetivo examinar evidências disponíveis na literatura sobre o efeito do desengajamento moral no envolvimento de estudantes em situações de bullying. Para tanto, foi realizada revisão sistemática com metanálise e consulta a oito bases de dados. As publicações elegíveis foram analisadas por meio da análise conceitual e do pacote estatístico Metafor. O estudo foi registrado na base PROSPERO. No total, 15 artigos foram incluídos na revisão. Os dados evidenciam que o desengajamento moral é um forte preditor para o comportamento de bullying (OR 0,27; IC95%: 0,18, 0,35) e estudantes propensos a se desengajarem moralmente podem praticar mais bullying quando comparados com estudantes com maior engajamento moral. Conclui-se que fatores cognitivos relacionados ao desengajamento moral devem ser incluídos na discussão do fenômeno, bem como ser considerados nas propostas de intervenção antibullying.


El bullying es uno de los principales problemas enfrentados por niños y adolescentes en las escuelas. En este estudio se tuvo por objetivo examinar evidencias disponibles en la literatura sobre el efecto del no compromiso moral en el envolvimiento de estudiantes en situaciones de bullying. Para tanto, se realizó revisión sistemática con metaanálisis y consulta a ocho bases de datos. Las publicaciones elegibles se analizaron por intermedio del análisis conceptual y del paquete estadístico Metafor. El estudio fue registrado en la base PROSPERO. En total, 15 artículos se incluyeron en la revisión. Los datos evidencian que el no compromiso moral es un fuerte predictor para el comportamiento de bullying (OR 0.27; IC95%: 0.18, 0.35) y estudiantes propensos a no comprometerse moralmente pueden practicar más bullying cuando comparados con estudiantes con más compromiso moral. Se concluye que factores cognitivos relacionados a la falta de compromiso moral deben ser incluidos en la discusión del fenómeno, así como ser considerados en las propuestas de intervención antibullying.


Bullying is one of the main problems faced by children and adolescents in schools. This study aimed to examine evidence available in the literature on the effect of moral disengagement on the involvement of students in situations of bullying. To this end, a systematic review was carried out with meta-analysis and consultation of eight databases. Eligible publications were analyzed using conceptual analysis and the Metafor statistical package. The study was registered on the PROSPERO database. In total, 15 articles were included in the review. The data show that moral disengagement is a strong predictor for bullying behavior (OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.35) and students prone to morally disengage can practice more bullying when compared to students with greater moral engagement. It is concluded that cognitive factors related to moral disengagement must be included in the discussion of the phenomenon, as well as be considered in the anti-bullying intervention proposals.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento Moral , Bullying
8.
Nurs Ethics ; 28(5): 791-808, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325340

RESUMO

Moral sensitivity is known to be the starting point for moral competence and even is a core concept in the curricula for bachelor's-level nursing students in the Netherlands. While the development of moral sensitivity in nursing is commonly agreed to be important, there is no clear understanding of how to develop moral sensitivity through nursing education and what components of nursing education contribute to moral sensitivity. Studies on educational interventions could build knowledge about what works in developing moral sensitivity and how to achieve this outcome. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore if and how educational interventions contribute to the development of moral sensitivity in nursing students. A scoping review was conducted. Four electronic databases were searched: CINAHL, PubMed, MEDLINE and SpringerLink. Articles that were not about formal or initial nursing education and that had no link to moral development or moral sensitivity were excluded. After the final selection on educational interventions, 10 articles out of the initial 964 resources were included in the review. Three different but related dimensions of moral sensitivity emerged from the literature: (1) raising moral awareness, (2) providing the ability to frame and name ethical issues and (3) improving moral reasoning ability. Half of the studies used quantitative measures to evaluate the educational intervention, in particular the Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire; the other half used diverse qualitative evaluation methods. None of the studies presented teaching methods that included all three dimensions of moral sensitivity. Moral awareness of self appears to be more loosely connected to the other two dimensions, which raises the question of whether it can be seen as a prerequisite for them. To encompass all dimensions of moral sensitivity, a mix of quantitative and qualitative measures seems most appropriate to study that topic.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Educação em Enfermagem , Ética em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Currículo , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Moral , Princípios Morais
9.
J Sport Exerc Psychol ; 43(2): 125-139, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271509

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The authors aimed to develop a moral intervention and to determine whether it was more effective in preventing doping than an educational (i.e., knowledge-based) intervention; their primary outcome was doping likelihood, and the secondary outcomes were moral identity, moral disengagement, moral atmosphere, and anticipated guilt. METHODS: Eligible athletes (N = 303) in the United Kingdom and Greece took part in the study. The authors randomly assigned 33 clubs to either the moral or the educational intervention. They measured outcomes pre- and postintervention and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. RESULTS: Athletes in both interventions in both countries reported lower doping likelihood and moral disengagement and higher guilt from pre- to postintervention. These effects were maintained at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. There were no effects on moral identity or moral atmosphere. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to disseminating information about doping, doping prevention programs should include content that focuses on moral variables.


Assuntos
Atletas/educação , Doping nos Esportes/prevenção & controle , Culpa , Princípios Morais , Adolescente , Atletas/psicologia , Doping nos Esportes/psicologia , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Desenvolvimento Moral , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nurse Educ Today ; 95: 104601, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The nurse accompanies individuals throughout their lives and, when in the hospital environment, provides care to those who face illness or injury. Nurses witness numerous situations involving ethical dilemmas that require a prompt and effective response based on ethical and moral principles. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine whether bioethics education in nursing influences the level of moral competence and opinion of nursing students about three ethical dilemmas. METHODS: A longitudinal study was conducted through the application of the MCTxt (Moral Competence Test extended) questionnaire, composed of three ethical dilemmas (worker, doctor and judge), on two separate occasions (before and after students completed the Bioethics and Nursing Ethics curricular unit, which covered a total of 32 h). PARTICIPANTS: 122 s-year students from a Portuguese nursing school. RESULTS: Nursing students showed a moral competence stagnation (1.2-point difference between the two assessments), although this did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.268). Regarding performance for each of the dilemmas, students showed an increase in performance for the worker's and judge's dilemmas and a sharp decrease in performance for the doctor's dilemma. CONCLUSIONS: The support of students by morally competent teachers and monitors, the development of methods that provide the development of critical judgement and decision-making ability, and the increase of hours for the Bioethics course unit seem crucial factors to develop nursing students' moral competence.


Assuntos
Bioética , Ética em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Desenvolvimento Moral , Princípios Morais
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(42): 26158-26169, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008885

RESUMO

To explain why an action is wrong, we sometimes say, "What if everybody did that?" In other words, even if a single person's behavior is harmless, that behavior may be wrong if it would be harmful once universalized. We formalize the process of universalization in a computational model, test its quantitative predictions in studies of human moral judgment, and distinguish it from alternative models. We show that adults spontaneously make moral judgments consistent with the logic of universalization, and report comparable patterns of judgment in children. We conclude that, alongside other well-characterized mechanisms of moral judgment, such as outcome-based and rule-based thinking, the logic of universalizing holds an important place in our moral minds.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Julgamento/fisiologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Desenvolvimento Moral , Princípios Morais , Percepção Social , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(44): 27719-27730, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055212

RESUMO

Moral behavior requires learning how our actions help or harm others. Theoretical accounts of learning propose a key division between "model-free" algorithms that cache outcome values in actions and "model-based" algorithms that map actions to outcomes. Here, we tested the engagement of these mechanisms and their neural basis as participants learned to avoid painful electric shocks for themselves and a stranger. We found that model-free decision making was prioritized when learning to avoid harming others compared to oneself. Model-free prediction errors for others relative to self were tracked in the thalamus/caudate. At the time of choice, neural activity consistent with model-free moral learning was observed in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC), and switching after harming others was associated with stronger connectivity between sgACC and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Finally, model-free moral learning varied with individual differences in moral judgment. Our findings suggest moral learning favors efficiency over flexibility and is underpinned by specific neural mechanisms.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Moral , Adolescente , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Princípios Morais , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Arch Dis Child ; 105(12): 1192-1196, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868266

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There has been little formal exploration of how young people see their role in the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN/SETTING: Focus-group discussion with 15 Children's Hospital Young People's Forum members (23/5) to explore their perspective on the impact of COVID-19 on both their lives and those of their community, on school closures, and the role they wished to play in society's recovery from the pandemic. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim using NVivo Software and analysed using an inductive thematic analysis approach. OUTCOME: Four major themes identified: (1) Awareness of pandemic's impact on others: participants showed mature awareness of the effects on broader society, especially the elderly, socially disadvantaged and parents. (2) Perceived impact on their own lives: principal concerns were the educational and practical repercussions of school closures and social isolation, including effects on educational prospects. (3) Views about school reopening: young people understood the broader rationale for school reopening and were generally positive about it, but expressed concerned about their safety and that of others. (4) Communication issues: a need for clear, concise, understandable information readily accessible for young people was expressed. Up to now, they felt passive recipients rather than participants. CONCLUSION: Young people were concerned about their future, their family and broader society, consistent with a high level of moral development. They want to be active participants in social recovery, including concepts around return to school but require appropriate information and a means by which their voices can be heard. The alternative suggested roles as pawns or pathfinders were discounted.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Desenvolvimento Moral , Crescimento Psicológico Pós-Traumático/ética , Funcionamento Psicossocial , Retorno à Escola , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Educação à Distância , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Percepção Social/ética , Percepção Social/psicologia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238110, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866162

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Defining Issues Test (DIT) aimed to measure one's moral judgment development in terms of moral reasoning. The Neo-Kohlbergian approach, which is an elaboration of Kohlbergian theory, focuses on the continuous development of postconventional moral reasoning, which constitutes the theoretical basis of the DIT. However, very few studies have directly tested the internal structure of the DIT, which would indicate its construct validity. OBJECTIVES: Using the DIT-2, a later revision of the DIT, we examined whether a bi-factor model or 3-factor CFA model showed a better model fit. The Neo-Kohlbergian theory of moral judgment development, which constitutes the theoretical basis for the DIT-2, proposes that moral judgment development occurs continuously and that it can be better explained with a soft-stage model. Given these assertions, we assumed that the bi-factor model, which considers the Schema-General Moral Judgment (SGMJ), might be more consistent with Neo-Kohlbergian theory. METHODS: We analyzed a large dataset collected from undergraduate students. We performed confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) via weighted least squares. A 3-factor CFA based on the DIT-2 manual and a bi-factor model were compared for model fit. The three factors in the 3-factor CFA were labeled as moral development schemas in Neo-Kohlbergian theory (i.e., personal interests, maintaining norms, and postconventional schemas). The bi-factor model included the SGMJ in addition to the three factors. RESULTS: In general, the bi-factor model showed a better model fit compared with the 3-factor CFA model although both models reported acceptable model fit indices. CONCLUSION: We found that the DIT-2 scale is a valid measure of the internal structure of moral reasoning development using both CFA and bi-factor models. In addition, we conclude that the soft-stage model, posited by the Neo-Kohlbergian approach to moral judgment development, can be better supported with the bi-factor model that was tested in the present study.


Assuntos
Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Masculino , Desenvolvimento Moral , Princípios Morais , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 26(5): 2511-2526, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632786

RESUMO

Empirical studies have suggested that language-capable robots have the persuasive power to shape the shared moral norms based on how they respond to human norm violations. This persuasive power presents cause for concern, but also the opportunity to persuade humans to cultivate their own moral development. We argue that a truly socially integrated and morally competent robot must be willing to communicate its objection to humans' proposed violations of shared norms by using strategies such as blame-laden rebukes, even if doing so may violate other standing norms, such as politeness. By drawing on Confucian ethics, we argue that a robot's ability to employ blame-laden moral rebukes to respond to unethical human requests is crucial for cultivating a flourishing "moral ecology" of human-robot interaction. Such positive moral ecology allows human teammates to develop their own moral reflection skills and grow their own virtues. Furthermore, this ability can and should be considered as one criterion for assessing artificial moral agency. Finally, this paper discusses potential implications of the Confucian theories for designing socially integrated and morally competent robots.


Assuntos
Robótica , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Moral , Princípios Morais , Virtudes
18.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 73(2): e20190268, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to identify and summarize how the moral experiences of children with medical complexity are being expressed within the Brazilian health-related literature and discuss research gaps and directions for future research. METHODS: A scoping review was performed using the methodological framework of Arksey and O'Malley and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR). Systematic searches were conducted on Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, and Embase databases. Articles were included if using qualitative methodologies, having children as participants, and published in Brazil. RESULTS: In total, 6,360 articles were retrieved from databases. Sixteen studies were selected for the analysis. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: The studies were not primarily focused on children's moral experiences. Yet, the studies demonstrate morally relevant accounts concerning children's capacity to reason and interpret their lived experiences, expressing deep concerns about isolation, suffering, future aspirations, and feelings of normality.


Assuntos
Crianças com Deficiência/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Moral , Adaptação Psicológica , Brasil , Criança , Humanos
19.
Anat Sci Educ ; 13(4): 467-474, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515966

RESUMO

Activities related to body donation programs, such as donor memorial ceremonies, provide the opportunity to complement student training, especially with regard to the ethical and humanistic elements involved in medical training. This study sought to assess the impact of a ceremony in honor of the body donors has on ethical and humanistic attitudes in medical students. Medical students were surveyed about their perceptions of changes in themselves, respect for donors and donor families, and their relationship with patients. The effect of the students' contact with the family of the donor was analyzed in students who had contact with the cadaver in the dissection room and had either participated or not participated in the donor memorial ceremony. A total of 370 questionnaires were answered by first-, second-, and third-year medical students at the Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto Alegre in 2017. The students who participated in the ceremony presented more positive responses in relation to commitment to their studies, reflection on death, and positive development of empathy when compared to those who did not attend the ceremony. Most of the students that attended the ceremony suggested the event led to an improvement in the doctor-patient relationship. These results suggest that cadaver dissection with accompanied memorial ceremony involving contact with donor families is an effective means of fostering ethical and humanistic attitudes among medical students from the beginning of the course.


Assuntos
Anatomia/educação , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Humanismo , Relações Médico-Paciente/ética , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adolescente , Atitude , Brasil , Cadáver , Comportamento Ritualístico , Currículo , Dissecação/ética , Dissecação/psicologia , Ética Médica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desenvolvimento Moral , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Doadores de Tecidos/ética , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/ética , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sex Abuse ; 32(8): 986-1011, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551009

RESUMO

The main purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the predictive ability of impulsivity and moral reasoning on offending specialization/versatility. The latter was measured using the diversity index which calculates the amount of variation within an individual's criminal history. The sample consisted of 88 individuals convicted of sexual offenses incarcerated in a Portuguese prison. Group comparisons and multiple linear regression analyses on untransformed and corrected versions of the diversity index were conducted. Overall, the different versions of the diversity index presented disparate results. Individuals were found to be generally alike, but those convicted of rape tended to be more versatile than those who molested extrafamilial children. Moral reasoning was the strongest predictor of offending specialization/versatility, while impulsivity was mostly not statistically significant. A better understanding of these predictors' roles on offending specialization/versatility, as it relates to recidivism, is important to tailor successful interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Impulsivo , Princípios Morais , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desenvolvimento Moral , Portugal/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros/classificação , Delitos Sexuais/classificação
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