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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007942

RESUMO

Human consumption and activity are damaging the global ecosystem and the resources on which we rely for health, well-being and survival. The COVID-19 crisis is yet another manifestation of the urgent need to transition to more sustainable societies, further exposing the weaknesses in health systems and the injustice in our societies. It also underlines that many of the factors leading to environmental degradation, ill health and social and health inequities are interlinked. The current situation provides an unprecedented opportunity to invest in initiatives that address these common factors and encourage people to live more healthily and sustainably. Such initiatives can generate the positive feedback loops needed to change the systems and structures that shape our lives. INHERIT (January 2016-December 2019), an ambitious, multisectoral and transnational research project that involved 18 organisations across Europe, funded by the European Commission, explored such solutions. It identified, defined and analysed promising inter-sectoral policies, practices and approaches to simultaneously promote environmental sustainability, protect and promote health and contribute to health equity (the INHERIT "triple-win") and that can encourage and enable people to live, move and consume more healthfully and sustainably. It also explored the facilitators and barriers to working across sectors and in public private cooperation. The insights were brought together in guidelines setting out how policy makers can help instigate and support local "triple-win" initiatives that influence behaviours as an approach to contributing to the change that is so urgently needed to stem environmental degradation and the interlinked threats to health and wellbeing. This article sets out this guidance, providing timely insights on how to "build back better" in the post pandemic era.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Estilo de Vida , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Infecções por Coronavirus , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral
3.
Lakartidningen ; 1172020 10 12.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051860

RESUMO

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its seventeen Sustainable Development Goals were adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015. It is a bold agenda for global social, environmental and economic development, with human health as a central theme. Even though substantial improvements in health have been achieved during the last decades, every year over 5 million children die, mostly from preventable causes, and 300 000 women die in conjunction with childbirth. Premature deaths from non-communicable diseases are increasing, and our ability to treat infections is under threat through widespread anti-microbial resistance. Climate change is recognized as the biggest threat to health in our time. When the world now starts to plan for how society and our health systems should be reorganized after the COVID-19 pandemic the 2030 Agenda could and should play a central role. In this context, Agenda 2030 provides an ambitious roadmap for development, with its emphasis on collaboration across borders and disciplines. The agenda is achievable but reaching its goals will require strong commitment at all levels and societal change on a large scale.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Saúde Global , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Mortalidade da Criança , Mudança Climática , Feminino , Humanos
4.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-10-23.
| PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52931

RESUMO

The Region of the Americas has prioritized the achievement of health equity—“the absence of avoidable or remediable differences among groups of people, whether these groups are defined socially, economically, demographically or geographically” (WHO)—both through regional agreements, such as the Sustainable Health Agenda for the Americas (2017), and by reporting progress toward the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (the Sustainable Development Goals) (2015). Public sector policy is the principal initial lever through which both national and local governments institute and finance actions toward accelerating the achievement of equity in health. This study assessed 32 national health plans to report on whether and how countries in the Region are integrating the achievement of health equity into strategic lines of action in the health sector. It provides a snapshot of approaches and advances, allowing for knowledge sharing among countries on options for attention to equity in health policy. It will also facilitate future monitoring of trends in the integration of health equity aims and approaches in policies. The study found that stated overall commitments to health equity are common, as are commitments toward the disaggregation of data and monitoring of inequalities, while other elements of health equity like, for example, the identification of populations in situations of vulnerability, receive less attention. While further study is needed on the implementation and impacts of approaches in specific programmatic actions, the study provides useful insights to inform efforts for a stronger framework for health equity action toward the Region’s goals for 2030.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Equidade no Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Monitoramento das Desigualdades em Saúde , Indicadores de Desigualdade em Saúde , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Infecções por Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Pandemias , América
5.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-10-08.
Não convencional em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52815

RESUMO

La tuberculosis es una de las diez causas principales de muerte en el mundo y representa todavía un importante problema de salud pública en la Región de las Américas. La Región ha avanzado en la prevención y el control de la enfermedad; sin embargo, al ritmo actual de descenso del número de muertes y de la incidencia no se alcanzarán las metas ni los hitos propuestos para poner fin a la epidemia. Por ello, es necesario acelerar los esfuerzos de los países para cumplirlas. Este informe sobre la Tuberculosis en las Américas presenta la situación de la tuberculosis en la Región, así como los avances logrados por los países en la prevención, el diagnóstico, el tratamiento y hacia la eliminación de la enfermedad en el marco de la Estrategia Fin de la TB, de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible y de los compromisos asumidos en la reunión de alto nivel sobre la tuberculosis celebrada por las Naciones Unidas en el 2018. El documento muestra y analiza datos epidemiológicos y programáticos de la situación de la tuberculosis en la Región, y en él se destacan la detección de casos, el tratamiento preventivo, los resultados del tratamiento, la tuberculosis farmacorresistente, la coinfección por la TB y el VIH, y los grupos en situación de vulnerabilidad, entre otros aspectos. Además, incluye un análisis sobre el financiamiento de la tuberculosis en la Región. Los autores esperan que este informe facilite la comprensión de la situación de la tuberculosis en la Región y sirva de ejemplo para realizar análisis similares en cada uno de los países, con miras a impulsar una mejor toma de decisiones hacia el fin de la tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Tuberculose , América , Saúde Pública , HIV , Objetivos de Desenvolvimento do Milênio , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Mortalidade
6.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2020-10-20. (OPAS-W/BRA/FPL/20-120).
em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-52902

RESUMO

Este documento descreve o plano para uma Década do Envelhecimento Saudável 2020-2030, que consistirá em 10 anos de colaboração combinada, catalítica e sustentada. As próprias pessoas idosas estarão no centro desse plano, que reunirá governos, a sociedade civil, agências internacionais, profissionais, a academia, a mídia e o setor privado para melhorar a vida das pessoas idosas, de suas famílias e de suas comunidades. Este é o segundo plano de ação da Estratégia Global sobre envelhecimento e saúde da OMS, construído com base no Plano de Ação Internacional sobre o Envelhecimento das Nações Unidas de Madri e alinhado com o cronograma da Agenda 2030 das Nações Unidas sobre Desenvolvimento Sustentável e com os Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável.


Assuntos
Idoso , Envelhecimento Saudável , Promoção da Saúde , Envelhecimento , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Objetivos de Desenvolvimento do Milênio
8.
Lancet ; 396(10255): 918-934, 2020 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891217

RESUMO

The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target 3.4 is to reduce premature mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) by a third by 2030 relative to 2015 levels, and to promote mental health and wellbeing. We used data on cause-specific mortality to characterise the risk and trends in NCD mortality in each country and evaluate combinations of reductions in NCD causes of death that can achieve SDG target 3.4. Among NCDs, ischaemic heart disease is responsible for the highest risk of premature death in more than half of all countries for women, and more than three-quarters for men. However, stroke, other cardiovascular diseases, and some cancers are associated with a similar risk, and in many countries, a higher risk of premature death than ischaemic heart disease. Although premature mortality from NCDs is declining in most countries, for most the pace of change is too slow to achieve SDG target 3.4. To investigate the options available to each country for achieving SDG target 3.4, we considered different scenarios, each representing a combination of fast (annual rate achieved by the tenth best performing percentile of all countries) and average (median of all countries) declines in risk of premature death from NCDs. Pathways analysis shows that every country has options for achieving SDG target 3.4. No country could achieve the target by addressing a single disease. In at least half the countries, achieving the target requires improvements in the rate of decline in at least five causes for women and in at least seven causes for men to the same rate achieved by the tenth best performing percentile of all countries. Tobacco and alcohol control and effective health-system interventions-including hypertension and diabetes treatment; primary and secondary cardiovascular disease prevention in high-risk individuals; low-dose inhaled corticosteroids and bronchodilators for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; treatment of acute cardiovascular diseases, diabetes complications, and exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and effective cancer screening and treatment-will reduce NCD causes of death necessary to achieve SDG target 3.4 in most countries.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Prematura/tendências , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Doença Crônica , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Prevenção Primária , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade
12.
Documento Oficial;359
Monografia em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52717

RESUMO

En el Plan Estratégico de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) se establece la orientación estratégica de la Organización, sobre la base de las prioridades colectivas de los Estados Miembros, y se especifican los resultados que deberán lograrse en el ámbito de la salud pública en el período 2020-2025. En el plan se fija el compromiso conjunto de los Estados Miembros de la OPS y la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana (la OSP o la Oficina) para los próximos seis años. Los Estados Miembros de la OPS han dejado en claro que el Plan Estratégico es el principal instrumento para ejecutar la Agenda de Salud Sostenible para las Américas 2018-2030 (ASSA2030) y, por lo tanto, para alcanzar los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) relacionados con la salud en la Región de las Américas. Las once metas de ASSA2030 constituyen los objetivos a nivel del impacto de este plan. Bajo el tema La equidad, el corazón de la salud, este plan procura catalizar los esfuerzos en los Estados Miembros para reducir las inequidades en materia de salud entre los países y los territorios y dentro de ellos, a fin de mejorar los resultados en materia de salud. En el plan se señalan medidas específicas para abordar la desigualdad en la salud, incluidas las recomendadas de la Comisión sobre Equidad y Desigualdades en Salud en las Américas, y se sigue la orientación de la Comisión de Alto Nivel para la Salud Universal. El enfoque que se adopta en este plan para abordar los determinantes de la salud incluye cuatro temas transversales clave: la equidad, el género, la etnicidad y los derechos humanos. Para abordar los determinantes sociales, en el Plan Estratégico no solo se hace hincapié en un enfoque multisectorial integrado, sino que además se aplican estrategias de salud pública basadas en la evidencia, como la promoción de la salud, el enfoque de atención primaria de salud y la protección social en la salud. Además de abordar directamente las prioridades regionales establecidas en la ASSA2030, este plan está en consonancia con el 13.o Programa General de Trabajo (13.º PGT) de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) y con otros mandatos regionales y mundiales en vigor durante el período de planificación.


Assuntos
Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde , Cooperação Técnica , Prioridades em Saúde , Equidade no Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Cobertura Universal de Saúde , Equidade em Saúde , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Fatores de Risco , Políticas e Cooperação em Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação , Doença Crônica , Cooperação Sul-Sul
13.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47780

RESUMO

A Aliança Mundial para a Amamentação (WABA, na sigla em inglês), selecionou o lema “Apoie a amamentação para um planeta mais saudável” para a Semana Mundial da Amamentação 2020. O tema busca enfocar o impacto da alimentação infantil no meio ambiente/mudanças climáticas e a necessidade de ser proteger, promover e apoiar a amamentação para a saúde do planeta e de sua população.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Promoção da Saúde , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Meio Ambiente
14.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47750

RESUMO

A Secretaria de Estado de Saúde (Susam) realizou a abertura da Semana Estadual de aleitamento Materno do Amazonas, transmitida pelo Centro de Mídias da Secretaria de Estado de Educação e Desporto (Seduc) para todos os municípios do estado, além do canal da Susam no YouTube e pelos aplicativos Mano e Zoom.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Promoção da Saúde , Meio Ambiente , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
15.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47751

RESUMO

O mês de agosto é conhecido como “Agosto Dourado” por ser dedicado ao incentivo à amamentação. Buscando incentivar essa prática, com informações e orientações necessárias, a Fundação de Saúde de Vitória da Conquista, juntamente com a Secretaria Municipal de Saúde, vai realizar uma programação especial durante o Agosto Dourado.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Promoção da Saúde , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Meio Ambiente
16.
Caracas; Observatorio Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación; ago. 2020. 144-167 p. (Observador del Conocimiento. Revista Especializada en Gestión Social del Conocimiento, 5, 2).
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1118165

RESUMO

Instalada la pandemia de la Covid-19 la gran expectativa colectiva gira en torno al retorno a la normalidad. En este ensayo se pone en entredicho el concepto de 'normalidad' en el contexto de los factores determinantes de la emergencia de los virus con altas tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad, evidenciando que el estado de 'normalidad pre-pandemia', al cual se aspira retornar, presenta indicadores socio-ambientales mucho más preocupantes y trágicos que aquellos que la mediática global nos suministra, de manera permanente y en tiempo real, sobre la Covid-19. Se presentan evidencias para argumentar que el principio sine qua non del crecimiento económico como motor determinante e insustituible del desarrollo, y más aún del modelo capitalista de desarrollo, es metabólicamente insostenible al demandar cantidades permanentemente incrementales de energía y bienes de la naturaleza en un planeta incapaz de sostener semejante pretensión. Las pandemias no son las únicas consecuencias fatales de la destrucción de la naturaleza y tampoco las más graves. Son síntomas de un modelo en crisis, que el desarrollo sustentable pretende aliviar sin avocarse al tratamiento de la patología que los origina. Por este motivo, se sostiene que es necesario construir una 'nueva normalidad', diferente a la 'normalidad pre-pandemia' por ser esta inviable, lo que implica evaluar los fundamentos del modelo. Se convoca a una impostergable reflexión, diversa e inclusiva, desde el seno de la comunidad científica, con el desprendimiento suficiente para admitir otras visiones y conocimientos que tienen mucho que aportar desde otras formas de coexistir con la naturaleza(AU)


Once Covid-19 pandemic established among us, the great collective expectation is about the return to normal pre-pandemic conditions. This assay questions the concept of 'normality' related to the context where high morbidity-mortality virus emerge out, showing that pre-pandemic normal conditions, have worst and overwhelming socio-environmental indicators than Covid-19 reports, daily supplied by global mass media in real time. We offer evidences that suggest that the sine qua non principle of economic growth, as indisputable driver of development, and even more, of the capitalist model, is metabolically unsustainable, due to the astonishing demands of energy and goods from nature, beyond its own capacity. Pandemics are not the only fatal consequences of ecological destruction, and by no means among the worst. They are just a symptom of the crisis of the development model, which the sustainable development pretends to relieve, ignoring the pathology that originated it. Due to this fact, we sustain that a new normal conditions is required to be created, truly different to pre-pandemic conditions, and that demands assessing the model's principles. We invite the scientific society for an urgent, inclusive and diverse reflection, willing to recognize other perspectives and knowledge, that could offer alternatives ways to coexist with nature(AU)


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Crescimento , Venezuela , Capitalismo , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238042, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841280

RESUMO

Long-term chemical fertilizer input causes soil organic matter losses, structural compaction, and changes in soil water and nutrient availability, which have been subdued in the most of dry farmland in China. The concept of "more efficiency with less fertilizer input" has been proposed and is urgently needed in current agriculture. Application of chemical fertilizer combined with organic manure (OM) could be a solution for soil protection and sustainable production of dry-land maize (Zea mays. L). Field research over three consecutive years on the Loess Plateau of China was conducted to evaluate the integrated effects of chemical fertilizer strategies and additional OM input on soil nutrients availability and water use in maize. The results showed that, after harvest, soil bulk density decreased significantly with OM application, concomitant with 11.9, 18.7 and 97.8% increases in topsoil total nitrogen, organic matter, and available phosphorus contents, respectively, compared with those under equal chemical NPK input. Water use in the 1.0-1.5 m soil profile was improved, therefore, the soil conditions were better for maize root growth, leaf area and shoot biomass of individual maize plants increased significantly with OM application. Optimized NPK strategies increased grain yield and water use efficiency by 18.5 and 20.6%, respectively, compared to only chemical NP input. Furthermore, additional OM input promoted yield and water use efficiency by 8.9 and 5.8%, respectively. Addition of OM promotes sustainable soil and maize grain productivity as well as friendly soil environmental management of dry land farming.


Assuntos
Esterco/análise , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos/farmacologia , Solo/química , Água/análise , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , China , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Zea mays/metabolismo
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(34): 20511-20519, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788353

RESUMO

Examining linkages among multiple sustainable development outcomes is key for understanding sustainability transitions. Yet rigorous evidence on social and environmental outcomes of sustainable development policies remains scarce. We conduct a national-level analysis of Brazil's flagship social protection program, Zero Hunger (ZH), which aims to reduce food insecurity and poverty. Using data from rural municipalities across Brazil and quasi-experimental causal inference techniques, we assess relationships between social protection investment and outcomes related to sustainable development goals (SDGs): "no poverty" (SDG 1), "zero hunger" (SDG 2), and "health and well being" (SDG 3). We also assess potential perverse outcomes arising from agricultural development impacting "climate action" (SDG 13) and "life on land" (SDG 15) via clearance of natural vegetation. Despite increasing daily per capita protein and kilocalorie production, summed ZH investment did not alleviate child malnutrition or infant mortality and negligibly influenced multidimensional poverty. Higher investment increased natural vegetation cover in some biomes but increased losses in the Cerrado and especially the Pampa. Effects varied substantially across subprograms. Conditional cash transfer (Bolsa Familia [BF]) was mainly associated with nonbeneficial impacts but increased protein production and improved educational participation in some states. The National Program to Strengthen Family Farming (PRONAF) was typically associated with increased food production (protein and calories), multidimensional poverty alleviation, and changes in natural vegetation. Our results inform policy development by highlighting successful elements of Brazil's ZH program, variable outcomes across divergent food security dimensions, and synergies and trade-offs between sustainable development goals, including environmental protection.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Política Pública , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Brasil , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/prevenção & controle , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Pobreza , Floresta Úmida
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