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4.
Nature ; 590(7844): 47-56, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536649

RESUMO

Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, found in trees, waste from agricultural crops and other biomass. The fibres that comprise cellulose can be broken down into building blocks, known as fibrillated cellulose, of varying, controllable dimensions that extend to the nanoscale. Fibrillated cellulose is harvested from renewable resources, so its sustainability potential combined with its other functional properties (mechanical, optical, thermal and fluidic, for example) gives this nanomaterial unique technological appeal. Here we explore the use of fibrillated cellulose in the fabrication of materials ranging from composites and macrofibres, to thin films, porous membranes and gels. We discuss research directions for the practical exploitation of these structures and the remaining challenges to overcome before fibrillated cellulose materials can reach their full potential. Finally, we highlight some key issues towards successful manufacturing scale-up of this family of materials.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/métodos , Biotecnologia/tendências , Celulose/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Géis/química , Humanos , Porosidade
5.
Nature ; 589(7843): 554-561, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33505037

RESUMO

Historically, human uses of land have transformed and fragmented ecosystems1,2, degraded biodiversity3,4, disrupted carbon and nitrogen cycles5,6 and added prodigious quantities of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere7,8. However, in contrast to fossil-fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, trends and drivers of GHG emissions from land management and land-use change (together referred to as 'land-use emissions') have not been as comprehensively and systematically assessed. Here we present country-, process-, GHG- and product-specific inventories of global land-use emissions from 1961 to 2017, we decompose key demographic, economic and technical drivers of emissions and we assess the uncertainties and the sensitivity of results to different accounting assumptions. Despite steady increases in population (+144 per cent) and agricultural production per capita (+58 per cent), as well as smaller increases in emissions per land area used (+8 per cent), decreases in land required per unit of agricultural production (-70 per cent) kept global annual land-use emissions relatively constant at about 11 gigatonnes CO2-equivalent until 2001. After 2001, driven by rising emissions per land area, emissions increased by 2.4 gigatonnes CO2-equivalent per decade to 14.6 gigatonnes CO2-equivalent in 2017 (about 25 per cent of total anthropogenic GHG emissions). Although emissions intensity decreased in all regions, large differences across regions persist over time. The three highest-emitting regions (Latin America, Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa) dominate global emissions growth from 1961 to 2017, driven by rapid and extensive growth of agricultural production and related land-use change. In addition, disproportionate emissions are related to certain products: beef and a few other red meats supply only 1 per cent of calories worldwide, but account for 25 per cent of all land-use emissions. Even where land-use change emissions are negligible or negative, total per capita CO2-equivalent land-use emissions remain near 0.5 tonnes per capita, suggesting the current frontier of mitigation efforts. Our results are consistent with existing knowledge-for example, on the role of population and economic growth and dietary choice-but provide additional insight into regional and sectoral trends.


Assuntos
Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Combustíveis Fósseis , Atividades Humanas , Internacionalidade , Metano/análise , Óxido Nitroso/análise , África ao Sul do Saara , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Produtos Agrícolas/provisão & distribução , Grão Comestível/provisão & distribução , Mapeamento Geográfico , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , América Latina , Esterco , Oryza , Carne Vermelha/provisão & distribução , Solo , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Madeira
7.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244318, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370312

RESUMO

Inefficiency in urban land use is one of the problems caused by rapid urbanization. The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) indicator 11.3.1 is designed to test urban land use efficiency. This study employed geospatial and statistical data to compute land use efficiencies from 1990 to 2015 with five 5-year and ten 15-year intervals in Wukang, center of Deqing County, China. A flowchart was designed to extract the built-up lands from multiple data sources. The produced built-up lands were demonstrated to provide good accuracy by constructing an error matrix between the extracted and manually interpreted built-up lands as classified and reference images, respectively. By using the model provided by UN metadata to calculate SDG 11.3.1, the land use efficiencies from 1990 to 2015 were identified in Wukang. Our results indicate that the land use efficiency in Deqing County center is lower than the average of cities around the world, primarily because our in-situ study focused on a county center with larger rural regions than urban areas. Over the long term, urban land use becomes denser as the population grows, which will have a positive impact on the sustainability of urban development. This work is helpful for the local government to balance urban land consumption and population growth.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia , Reforma Urbana/métodos , Urbanização/tendências , China , Cidades , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Crescimento Demográfico , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , População Urbana/tendências , Reforma Urbana/tendências
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5203, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060603

RESUMO

Ending all forms of hunger by 2030, as set forward in the UN-Sustainable Development Goal 2 (UN-SDG2), is a daunting but essential task, given the limited timeline ahead and the negative global health and socio-economic impact of hunger. Malnutrition or hidden hunger due to micronutrient deficiencies affects about one third of the world population and severely jeopardizes economic development. Staple crop biofortification through gene stacking, using a rational combination of conventional breeding and metabolic engineering strategies, should enable a leap forward within the coming decade. A number of specific actions and policy interventions are proposed to reach this goal.


Assuntos
Biofortificação/métodos , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Cruzamento , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Países em Desenvolvimento , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Alimentos Fortificados , Saúde Global , Humanos , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Micronutrientes , Minerais , Oryza , Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Formulação de Políticas , Provitaminas , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Nações Unidas , Vitaminas
9.
Nature ; 585(7826): 551-556, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908312

RESUMO

Increased efforts are required to prevent further losses to terrestrial biodiversity and the ecosystem services that it  provides1,2. Ambitious targets have been proposed, such as reversing the declining trends in biodiversity3; however, just feeding the growing human population will make this a challenge4. Here we use an ensemble of land-use and biodiversity models to assess whether-and how-humanity can reverse the declines in terrestrial biodiversity caused by habitat conversion, which is a major threat to biodiversity5. We show that immediate efforts, consistent with the broader sustainability agenda but of unprecedented ambition and coordination, could enable the provision of food for the growing human population while reversing the global terrestrial biodiversity trends caused by habitat conversion. If we decide to increase the extent of land under conservation management, restore degraded land and generalize landscape-level conservation planning, biodiversity trends from habitat conversion could become positive by the mid-twenty-first century on average across models (confidence interval, 2042-2061), but this was not the case for all models. Food prices could increase and, on average across models, almost half (confidence interval, 34-50%) of the future biodiversity losses could not be avoided. However, additionally tackling the drivers of land-use change could avoid conflict with affordable food provision and reduces the environmental effects of the food-provision system. Through further sustainable intensification and trade, reduced food waste and more plant-based human diets, more than two thirds of future biodiversity losses are avoided and the biodiversity trends from habitat conversion are reversed by 2050 for almost all of the models. Although limiting further loss will remain challenging in several biodiversity-rich regions, and other threats-such as climate change-must be addressed to truly reverse the declines in biodiversity, our results show that ambitious conservation efforts and food system transformation are central to an effective post-2020 biodiversity strategy.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Política Ambiental/tendências , Atividades Humanas/tendências , Dieta , Dieta Vegetariana/tendências , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238462, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886680

RESUMO

This study analyses the impact of environmental and economic factors consolidation on sustainable entrepreneurship over time. A model is proposed that analyses the relations between these factors and sustainable entrepreneurship over time with sustainable development goals performances and the continuation of the businesses index as variables. Using data from 50 countries, a quantitative method based on partial least squares was applied to validate the proposed model. Our findings showed positive and significant relations between environmental and economic factors with sustainable entrepreneurship over time. This implies that the countries which invest more efforts to consolidate their economic and environmental factors obtain higher durability rates for their sustainable entrepreneurship.


Assuntos
Economia/tendências , Contrato de Risco/economia , Contrato de Risco/tendências , Comércio , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Investimentos em Saúde , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Modelos Teóricos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238475, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877439

RESUMO

Regional resilience refers to the resilience of a country or region against the ecological environment, social economy, and other internal and external natural factors and human factors in the process of development. When this resilience is lower than a certain critical threshold, the country or region will be in a fragile state. The comprehensive embodiment of ecological resilience, social resilience, and economic resilience of a country or region is regional resilience. Due to the wide range of countries along "the Belt and Road", differences in natural background conditions and stages of economic and social development among different countries lead to different degrees of vulnerability, and the improvement of resilience is conducive to reducing vulnerability. At the same time, the research on the measurement and differentiation characteristics of regional resilience is of considerable significance to solve the weak foundation of environmental management and the lack of ability to deal with climate change of "the Belt and Road" countries. In this study, by using entropy weighting method and multi-index comprehensive evaluation method, 24 specific indicators are selected from three different dimensions: ecology, economy, and society, to construct a comprehensive evaluation index system about "the Belt and Road" countries resilience, and to evaluate the comprehensive resilience and spatial heterogeneity characteristics of China and 64 countries along "the Belt and Road", and use multiple linear regression analysis to identify the main influencing factors of comprehensive resilience and analyze its influencing mechanism. According to the research, the overall resilience level of "the Belt and Road" countries shows prominent differentiation characteristics of "extreme difference", the countries with low and low recovery status account for the vast majority; and the spatial differentiation characteristics of the levels of ecological resilience, economic resilience, and social resilience of countries along "the Belt and Road" are quite different. In countries with high levels of economic development, their comprehensive resilience is significantly higher than that of countries with low levels of economic development. There is no inevitable connection between a country's economic growth rate and its comprehensive resilience level. At the same time, the relationship between resource richness and comprehensive resilience of countries is not apparent, but for those countries that are over-dependent on resources, the level of resilience is generally below. There is a certain degree of correspondence between urbanization rate and comprehensive resilience, that is, the comprehensive resilience will increase with the increase of urbanization rate. When the urbanization rate rises to a certain level, the level of comprehensive resilience does not change much. In this study, it provides scientific guidance for enriching regional resilience and national sustainable development theory, solving the fragile ecological environment foundation of "the Belt and Road" countries, speeding up the transformation of economic growth mode and dealing with a series of social problems.


Assuntos
Ecologia/tendências , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , China , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Meio Social , Análise Espacial , Urbanização
14.
BMJ ; 370: m2322, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669369

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the health and environmental implications of adopting national food based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) at a national level and compared with global health and environmental targets. DESIGN: Modelling study. SETTING: 85 countries. PARTICIPANTS: Population of 85 countries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A graded coding method was developed and used to extract quantitative recommendations from 85 FBDGs. The health and environmental impacts of these guidelines were assessed by using a comparative risk assessment of deaths from chronic diseases and a set of country specific environmental footprints for greenhouse gas emissions, freshwater use, cropland use, and fertiliser application. For comparison, the impacts of adopting the global dietary recommendations of the World Health Organization and the EAT-Lancet Commission on Healthy Diets from Sustainable Food Systems were also analysed. Each guideline's health and sustainability implications were assessed by modelling its adoption at both the national level and globally, and comparing the impacts to global health and environmental targets, including the Action Agenda on Non-Communicable Diseases, the Paris Climate Agreement, the Aichi biodiversity targets related to land use, and the sustainable development goals and planetary boundaries related to freshwater use and fertiliser application. RESULTS: Adoption of national FBDGs was associated with reductions in premature mortality of 15% on average (95% uncertainty interval 13% to 16%) and mixed changes in environmental resource demand, including a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions of 13% on average (regional range -34% to 35%). When universally adopted globally, most of the national guidelines (83, 98%) were not compatible with at least one of the global health and environmental targets. About a third of the FBDGs (29, 34%) were incompatible with the agenda on non-communicable diseases, and most (57 to 74, 67% to 87%) were incompatible with the Paris Climate Agreement and other environmental targets. In comparison, adoption of the WHO recommendations was associated with similar health and environmental changes, whereas adoption of the EAT-Lancet recommendations was associated with 34% greater reductions in premature mortality, more than three times greater reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and general attainment of the global health and environmental targets. As an example, the FBDGs of the UK, US, and China were incompatible with the climate change, land use, freshwater, and nitrogen targets, and adopting guidelines in line with the EAT-Lancet recommendation could increase the number of avoided deaths from 78 000 (74 000 to 81 000) to 104 000 (96 000 to 112 000) in the UK, from 480 000 (445 000 to 516 000) to 585 000 (523 000 to 646 000) in the USA, and from 1 149 000 (1 095 000 to 1 204 000) to 1 802 000 (1 664 000 to 1 941 000) in China. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis suggests that national guidelines could be both healthier and more sustainable. Providing clearer advice on limiting in most contexts the consumption of animal source foods, in particular beef and dairy, was found to have the greatest potential for increasing the environmental sustainability of dietary guidelines, whereas increasing the intake of whole grains, fruits and vegetables, nuts and seeds, and legumes, reducing the intake of red and processed meat, and highlighting the importance of attaining balanced energy intake and weight levels were associated with most of the additional health benefits. The health results were based on observational data and assuming a causal relation between dietary risk factors and health outcomes. The certainty of evidence for these relations is mostly graded as moderate in existing meta-analyses.


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Política Nutricional/legislação & jurisprudência , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/legislação & jurisprudência , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Doença Crônica/mortalidade , Dieta/tendências , Dieta Saudável/normas , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Saúde Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Gases de Efeito Estufa/efeitos adversos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Política Nutricional/tendências , Medição de Risco , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Organização Mundial da Saúde/organização & administração
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234560, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542054

RESUMO

The Global Earth Overshoot Day, the date when all annually available natural resources are consumed, is set for July this year. For densely populated European countries like Germany or Switzerland, that specific day is due even earlier (May). To overcome such an unsustainable lifestyle, immediate actions are required, which includes substantial educational efforts. As the model of "Sustainable Development" is complex, appropriate pedagogical actions need to support cognitive learning, critical thinking and behavioural actions. Knowledge about individual conceptions in relation to the Environment, Nature and Ecological Footprints contributes to pre-conditions to succeed. To what extent present teaching methods influenced individual conceptions during the first UN-decade regarding those terms is illustrated by 464 Swiss-German university freshmen who participated in our paper-pencil test, which is based on four open questions. The term of Environment was perceived as the sum of biocentric, ecocentric and anthropocentric views. The participants often equated the term to Nature and associated it with positive feelings or emotions. Therefore, calm, joy and aesthetic appreciation were predominantly named. Regardless of the concept, humans were perceived as the Greatest Environmental Threat. In contrast, recommendations to reduce Environmental Footprints regarding mobility & transport, waste avoidance and consumption differ. Following a binary logistic regression analysis, the involvement of the Inclusion of Self Scale (INS) was used as an explanatory variable to detect patterns of those conceptions. Relating sustainable concepts, natural resources were frequently named exceeding saving water and energy or other association dealt with second-hand issues or regional/ seasonal usages. Such ideas are shaped by experiences and scientific expertise.


Assuntos
Estudantes/psicologia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Universidades , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências
18.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232014, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352971

RESUMO

Despite being one of the most common measures of development, the Human Development Index [HDI] has been much criticized for its consistency, data requirements, difficulty of interpretation and trade-offs between indicators. The 'Human Life Indicator' [HLI] has been proposed as a 'simple effective means' of measuring development and, more specifically, as a viable alternative to the HDI. Reducing inequalities within countries is a core component of the Sustainable Development Goals; yet sub-national HDIs are subject to the same criticisms as national level indices (potentially more so). Our goal in this paper is to demonstrate 'proof of concept' in terms of the systematic application of the HLI to measure development at the subnational level. Using life tables for the United States of America, we calculate, for the first time, HLIs for each state for the period 1959-2016. This country was chosen for the comparatively long run of available sub-national life tables. We also calculate the extent to which mortality is distributed across the life course-a further measure of inequality and the role of the social determinants of health. The HLI clearly shows how striking regional inequalities exist across the United States. We find that HLI and HDI for the most recent time period are strongly correlated. The analysis demonstrates that HLI represents an effective means of measuring development at the sub-national level. Compared to HDI, HLIs are characterized by simpler calculation and interpretation; fewer data requirements; less measurement error; more consistency over time; and no trade-offs between components. A current challenge of producing sub-national HLIs is the lack of comprehensive civil registration and vital statistics systems in many parts of the Global South from which sub-national life tables can be generated. However, as more and more countries develop these systems the potential to produce HLIs will inevitably increase.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Humano/fisiologia , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Carga Global da Doença/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global/normas , Humanos , Tábuas de Vida , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Estados Unidos
19.
Nature ; 580(7805): 636-639, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350468

RESUMO

Education is a key dimension of well-being and a crucial indicator of development1-4. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) prioritize progress in education, with a new focus on inequality5-7. Here we model the within-country distribution of years of schooling, and use this model to explore educational inequality since 1970 and to forecast progress towards the education-related 2030 SDG targets. We show that although the world is largely on track to achieve near-universal primary education by 2030, substantial challenges remain in the completion rates for secondary and tertiary education. Globally, the gender gap in schooling had nearly closed by 2018 but gender disparities remained acute in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and North Africa and the Middle East. It is predicted that, by 2030, females will have achieved significantly higher educational attainment than males in 18 countries. Inequality in education reached a peak globally in 2017 and is projected to decrease steadily up to 2030. The distributions and inequality metrics presented here represent a framework that can be used to track the progress of each country towards the SDG targets and the level of inequality over time. Reducing educational inequality is one way to promote a fairer distribution of human capital and the development of more equitable human societies.


Assuntos
Educação/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação/tendências , Previsões , Objetivos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Adolescente , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Educação/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
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