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2.
Nature ; 575(7781): 109-118, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695205

RESUMO

The current trajectory for crop yields is insufficient to nourish the world's population by 20501. Greater and more consistent crop production must be achieved against a backdrop of climatic stress that limits yields, owing to shifts in pests and pathogens, precipitation, heat-waves and other weather extremes. Here we consider the potential of plant sciences to address post-Green Revolution challenges in agriculture and explore emerging strategies for enhancing sustainable crop production and resilience in a changing climate. Accelerated crop improvement must leverage naturally evolved traits and transformative engineering driven by mechanistic understanding, to yield the resilient production systems that are needed to ensure future harvests.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Produção Agrícola/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Aquecimento Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Aclimatação/genética , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/virologia , Fertilizantes , Humanos , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/estatística & dados numéricos , Chuva
3.
PLoS Med ; 16(11): e1002975, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), adopted by all United Nations (UN) member states in 2015, established a set of bold and ambitious health-related targets to achieve by 2030. Understanding China's progress toward these targets is critical to improving population health for its 1.4 billion people. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used estimates from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2016, national surveys and surveillance data from China, and qualitative data. Twenty-eight of the 37 indicators included in the GBD Study 2016 were analyzed. We developed an attainment index of health-related SDGs, a scale of 0-100 based on the values of indicators. The projection model is adjusted based on the one developed by the GBD Study 2016 SDG collaborators. We found that China has achieved several health-related SDG targets, including decreasing neonatal and under-5 mortality rates and the maternal mortality ratios and reducing wasting and stunting for children. However, China may only achieve 12 out of the 28 health-related SDG targets by 2030. The number of target indicators achieved varies among provinces and municipalities. In 2016, among the seven measured health domains, China performed best in child nutrition and maternal and child health and reproductive health, with the attainment index scores of 93.0 and 91.8, respectively, followed by noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) (69.4), road injuries (63.6), infectious diseases (63.0), environmental health (62.9), and universal health coverage (UHC) (54.4). There are daunting challenges to achieve the targets for child overweight, infectious diseases, NCD risk factors, and environmental exposure factors. China will also have a formidable challenge in achieving UHC, particularly in ensuring access to essential healthcare for all and providing adequate financial protection. The attainment index of child nutrition is projected to drop to 80.5 by 2025 because of worsening child overweight. The index of NCD risk factors is projected to drop to 38.8 by 2025. Regional disparities are substantial, with eastern provinces generally performing better than central and western provinces. Sex disparities are clear, with men at higher risk of excess mortality than women. The primary limitations of this study are the limited data availability and quality for several indicators and the adoption of "business-as-usual" projection methods. CONCLUSION: The study found that China has made good progress in improving population health, but challenges lie ahead. China has substantially improved the health of children and women and will continue to make good progress, although geographic disparities remain a great challenge. Meanwhile, China faced challenges in NCDs, mental health, and some infectious diseases. Poor control of health risk factors and worsening environmental threats have posed difficulties in further health improvement. Meanwhile, an inefficient health system is a barrier to tackling these challenges among such a rapidly aging population. The eastern provinces are predicted to perform better than the central and western provinces, and women are predicted to be more likely than men to achieve these targets by 2030. In order to make good progress, China must take a series of concerted actions, including more investments in public goods and services for health and redressing the intracountry inequities.


Assuntos
Previsões/métodos , Carga Global da Doença/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde , Saúde Global , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Saúde da População/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sistemas , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde
5.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 244-250, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544401

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the integrated schistosomiasis control model in mountainous and hilly endemic regions, so as to provide insights into the development of the schistosomiasis elimination strategy. METHODS: Five hilly and mountainous areas endemic for schistosomiasis were selected as the integrated control demonstration areas in Sichuan Province from 2011 to 2015. According to the epidemic characteristics, economic levels and overall development planning of the demonstration areas, the goals, strategies and measures were developed, and the effectiveness of schistosomiasis control was evaluated following implementation of the integrated control. RESULTS: The support system of the integrated schistosomiasis control model was built in the integrated control demonstration areas in Sichuan Province from 2011 to 2015, and five ecological, industrialized and sustainable development models of integrated schistosomiasis control were developed, including integration of balancing rural and urban development, systematic ecological improvement, intensified ecological agriculture, scientific management and health education of schistosomiasis control and ecological ethnic circular economy. Since the implementation of the integrated schistosomiasis control model, the snail habitats were completely changed. Until 2015, 92.0% of all historical areas with snails were managed, the coverage of safe drinking water was 100.0%, and more than 95.0% of the livestock were fenced. The coverage of sanitary toilets increased by 93.0%, 96.8%, 78.8%, 87.1% and 82.0% from 2011 to 2015, respectively, and the farmers'mean yearly income increased by 32.7% in the demonstration areas. From 2011 to 2015, the seroprevalence of human Schistosoma japonicum infections reduced from 3.1% in 2011 to 1.6% in 2015 in the demonstration areas, and no egg-positives were identified. In addition, the number of fenced bovines reduced year by year, and no egg-positives were detected. The areas of snail habitats were 398.7, 108.2 hm2 and 52.9 hm2 in the demonstration areas from 2011 to 2013, with no infected snails found, and no snails were detected since 2014. The awareness of schistosomiasis control knowledge and percentage of correct behavior formation increased year by year among residents in the demonstration areas from 2011 to 2015. CONCLUSIONS: The five integrated schistosomiasis control models meet the needs of the current schistosomiasis control activities in mountainous and hilly endemic areas of Sichuan Province, and achieve the goals of controlling the sources of S. japonicum infections, economic development, social progress and improving the ecological environment, which provides new insights into schistosomiasis elimination in the country.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Esquistossomose , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Criação de Animais Domésticos/tendências , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Esquistossomose Japônica , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Caramujos/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências
8.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(9): 139, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451943

RESUMO

Exploitation of microbes, especially fungi, has the potential to help humankind meet the UN's sustainable development goals, help feed the worlds growing population and improve bioeconomies of poorer nations. The majority of the world's fungal genetic resources are held in collections in developed countries, primarily within the USA, Europe and Japan. Very little capacity exists in low to middle income countries, which are often rich in biodiversity but lack resources to be able to conserve and exploit their own microbial resources. In this paper we review the current challenges facing culture collections and the challenges of integrating new approaches, the worth of collaborative networks, and the importance of technology, taxonomy and data handling. We address the need to underpin research and development in developing countries through the need to build 'in country' infrastructure to address these challenges, whilst tackling the global challenges to meet the requirements of the research community through the impacts of legislation and the Nagoya protocol on access to biological resources.


Assuntos
Fungos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Biodiversidade , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/fisiologia , Disseminação de Informação , Internacionalidade
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 815, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2017, the G20 health ministers convened for the first time to discuss global health and issued a communiqué outlining their health priorities, as the BRICS and G7 have done for years. As these political clubs hold considerable political and economic influence, their respective global health agendas may influence both global health priorities and the priorities of other countries and actors. METHODS: Given the rising salience of global health in global summitry, we analyzed the health ministerial communiqués issued by the BRICS, G7 and G20 after the SDGs were adopted in 2015. We compared the stated health priorities of the BRICS, G7 and G20 against one another and against the targets of SDG 3 on health, using a traffic light system to assess the quality of their commitments. RESULTS: With regard to the SDG 3 targets, the BRICS, G7 and G20 priorities overlapped in their focus on emergency preparedness and universal health coverage, but diverged in areas of environmental pollution, mental health, and maternal and child health. Health issues with considerable associated burdens of disease, including substance use, road traffic injuries and sexual health, were missing from the agendas of all three political clubs. In terms of SDG 3 principles and ways of working, the BRICS, G7 and G20 varied in their emphasis on human rights, equity and engagement with non-state actors, but all expressed their explicit commitment to Agenda 2030. CONCLUSIONS: The leadership of BRICS, G7 and G20 on global health is welcome. However, their relatively narrow focus on the potential impact of ill-health primarily in relation to the economy and trade may not be sufficiently comprehensive to achieve the Agenda 2030 vision of promoting health equity and leaving no-one behind. Recommendations for the BRICS, G7 and G20 based on this analysis include: 1) expanding focus to the neglected SDG 3 health targets; 2) placing greater emphasis on upstream determinants of health; 3) greater commitment to equity and leaving no-one behind; 4) adopting explicit commitments to rights-based approaches; and 5) making commitments that are of higher quality and which include time-bound quantitative targets and clear accountability mechanisms.


Assuntos
Saúde Global/tendências , Metas , Equidade em Saúde/tendências , Prioridades em Saúde/tendências , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Prioridades em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos
13.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218855, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237924

RESUMO

Sustainable development goals are used as a guidance for strategies development on local, regional and national levels. The importance of including young people in this complex process is recognized in all relevant documents (i.e. Agenda 21), however it is not an easy task to elicit opinions and preferences from the youth. Furthermore, the assessment of the sustainable development goals itself presents a challenge for the noisy data and nonlinear relationships in data. Popular approach is fuzzy set models where expert knowledge is presented with comprehensible rules; however expert knowledge elicitation takes a long time too. Several studies proposed an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system approach that combines the fuzzy set theory to model expert knowledge with neural networks for inferring rules and membership functions from data to assess the sustainable development performance. We base our assumptions that ANFIS can be used to predict the importance of sustainable development pillars from the demographic data of young people. For this purpose, we have conducted an online survey on sustainable development goals opinions and importance of young people in Serbia. The sample of 386 respondents has been split into a training sample of 300 instances (to generate membership functions and fuzzy rules) and a testing sample of 86 instances to predict the importance of the three pillars. We have conducted a trace-driven simulation test to validate the results of the proposed ANFIS model. Results of the study provided insights into how the young people in Serbia assess the importance of sustainable development goals. Secondly, the results suggest that ANFIS can be applied to predict values of importance of the three sustainable development pillars with the relative error of Rel Err < 5%. It must be noted that the considered model could be further improved by using training samples with more data.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Simulação por Computador , Tomada de Decisões , Política Ambiental/economia , Política Ambiental/tendências , Feminino , Previsões , Lógica Fuzzy , Humanos , Masculino , Sérvia , Responsabilidade Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia , Análise de Sistemas , Adulto Jovem
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(7): 435, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201540

RESUMO

Serious environmental problems have accompanied remarkable global economic growth for decades. To assist managers in the semiconductor industry with economic and environmental management, this study executes DuPont analysis to examine economic impacts from the effective implementation of sustainability initiatives. We propose a two-stage process including economic development efficiency and environmental protection efficiency through the dynamic data envelopment analysis (DDEA) to reflect the characteristics of eco-efficiency. Through DuPont analysis, the main finding shows the potential improvement in firms' return on equity (ROE) by efficiently utilizing assets to generate sales quickly.Relative to economic development efficiency, the firms show lower scores and higher standard deviations in the environmental protection ability, thus denoting a large gap in the level of environmental protection production technology. The findings in this study reveal that the financial foundations and sustainable development of industries should be improved simultaneously even though specific levels of semiconductor industrial eco-efficiency improvement vary among companies in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Indústrias/tendências , Semicondutores/tendências , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Comércio , Eficiência , Monitoramento Ambiental/economia , Taiwan
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(19): 19294-19304, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073836

RESUMO

In this modern era, the importance of information and communication technology (ICT) cannot be ignored for sustainable human development. However, Pakistan has experienced a considerable gap between ICT economic growth and human development. In this regard, this study has modeled the relationship between ICT, economic growth, and the human development index (HDI) considering urbanization, foreign direct investment (FDI), and trade for the period from 1990 to 2014. An autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) and vector error correction model (VECM) approaches are used to analyze the data. The empirical results reveal that ICT promote human development index. Along with, economic growth has a positive and significant impact on human development. Besides, urbanization, trade, and FDI discourage human development in Pakistan. Finally, bidirectional causality is detected between the aforementioned variables. Recommendations to policymakers regarding the productive role of FDI and trade are provided.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Tecnologia da Informação/economia , Modelos Teóricos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Investimentos em Saúde/economia , Paquistão , Qualidade de Vida , Energia Renovável/economia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Urbanização/tendências
18.
WHO South East Asia J Public Health ; 8(1): 10-17, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950424

RESUMO

Universal health coverage (UHC) is one of the targets within the Sustainable Development Goals that the Member States of the United Nations have pledged to achieve by 2030. Target 3.8 has two monitoring indicators: 3.8.1 for coverage of essential health services, for which a compound index from 16 tracer indicators has recently been developed; and 3.8.2 for catastrophic expenditure on health. The global baseline monitoring of these two indicators in 2017 shows that the progress in many low- and middle-income countries is unlikely to be on track and achieved by 2030. The monitoring and evaluation mechanism for UHC progress is a crucial function to hold governments accountable and guide countries along their paths towards UHC. This paper outlines key monitoring and evaluation tools that Thailand uses to track UHC progress; compares the strengths and limitations of each tool; and discusses monitoring gaps and enabling factors related to development of the tools. Thailand uses several data sources to monitor three UHC dimensions: population coverage; service coverage; and financial risk protection. The four key sources are: (i) national surveys; (ii) health facility and administrative data; (iii) specific disease registries; and (iv) research. Each source provides different advantages and is used concurrently to complement the others. Despite initially being developed to track progress for national health priorities, these tools are able to monitor most of the global UHC indicators. Key enabling factors of Thai monitoring systems are a supportive infrastructure and information system; a policy requirement for routine patient data records; ownership and commitment of the key responsible organizations; multisectoral collaboration; and sustainable in-country capacities. The areas for improvement are monitoring in the non-Thai population; tracking access to essential medicines; and maximizing the use of collected data. Lessons learnt from the Thai experience could be useful for other low- and middle-income countries in developing their UHC monitoring platforms.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Tailândia , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/normas
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