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1.
Environ Pollut ; 316(Pt 2): 120738, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36435282

RESUMO

Pollution associated to marine plastic litter is raising increasing concerns due to its potential harmful effects on human health, biota, and coastal ecosystems. However, limited information is available on the degradation behavior of plastics, especially biodegradable ones, in dune habitats. Moreover, the effects of plastics on dune plant growth and ability to withstand environmental stresses and invasion by non-native plants have been largely neglected. This is a particularly relevant issue since biological invasions are major threats to dune ecosystems. In this 18-month study, we examined the degradation behavior of two plastic bags, non-biodegradable (NBP) or biodegradable/compostable (BP), in the dune environment by visual observations and analytical techniques. Concomitantly, we investigated the individual and combined effects of bag type and sand burial (no burial vs. partial burial) on the performance of a native dune plant (Thinopyrum junceum) and an invasive plant (Carpobrotus sp.) and on their interaction. NBP did not show relevant degradation signs over the experimental period as expected. BP exhibited gradual surface modifications and changes in chemical functionality and were almost disintegrated after 18 months. Bags and burial reduced independently T. junceum survival and growth, and most plants died within 8 months of plastic exposure. Bags and burial did not affect Carpobrotus survival. However, burial decreased Carpobrotus growth while NBP increased it. Both plastics increased Carpobrotus competitive ability, and no T. junceum plants survived to co-occurrent Carpobrotus, BP, and burial. These findings indicate that removing all littered plastics from beach-dune systems not only is critical to reduce plastic pollution but also to prevent further spread of invasive species in coastal dunes.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Areia , Humanos , Ecossistema , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Espécies Introduzidas
2.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 2): 114620, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273595

RESUMO

Immensely expanding world population and narrowing arable land for agriculture is a mighty concern faced by the planet at present. One of the major reasons for decline in arable lands is the increased soil salinity, making it unfavourable for crop cultivation. Utilisation of these saline land for agriculture is possible with suitable invention for improving the soil quality. Biofertizers manufactured out of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria is one such innovation. In the present study, Bacillus licheniformis NJ04 strain was isolated and studied for its halotolerance and other effective plant growth promoting traits. The NJ04 strain was able to tolerate salt up to 10% and highlighted remarkable antifungal activity against common fungal phytopathogens. The preliminary seed germination test in Solanum lycopersicum seeds revealed a significant increase in root length (16.29 ± 0.91 cm) and shoot length (9.66 ± 0.11 cm) of treated plants as compared with the control plants and thereby shows its possible use as a green bioinoculant in agriculture and an ideal candidate to compete with salt stress.


Assuntos
Bacillus licheniformis , Lycopersicon esculentum , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Raízes de Plantas
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158888, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36165908

RESUMO

The union of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) and rhizosphere confers a series of functions beneficial to plant. However, the lack of an opearable in situ method limits the further understanding on the mechanism. In this study, a weak electric field was designed to regulate rhizospheric microflora in a constructed root-splitting reactor. Compared with the control, the aboveground and underground biomass of rice seedling increased by 17 % and 18 % (p < 0.05) respectively under the exist of weak electric field of 0.14 V/cm. The joint action of rhizosphere and PGPB displayed the detoxification ability in the condition of soluble petroleum hydrocarbons, where the height, stem diameter, biomass and root vigor of the plant was increased by 58 %, 32 %, 43 % and 48 % respectively than the control. The selective reproduction of endophytes and ectophytes (denitrifying, auxin-producing, hydrocarbon-degrading and electroactive bacteria) was observed under applied weak electric field, which enhanced the nitrogen utilization, cellular metabolic activity and resistance to toxic organics of plant. This was further confirmed by the up-regulated OTUs related to the hydrocarbon degradation function, tryptophan metabolism and metabolism of nicotinate and nicotinamide. Moreover, the weak electric field also enhanced the transfer ability of partial endophytes grown in the root to improve plant stress resistance. The results in this work inspired an exercisable method for in situ enrichment of PGPB in the rhizosphere to cope with food crisis and provided a new way to deal with sudden environmental events.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes do Solo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Rizosfera , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Endófitos/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Microbiologia do Solo
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(49): e2212881119, 2022 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36454754

RESUMO

Membrane properties are emerging as important cues for the spatiotemporal regulation of hormone signaling. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) evokes multiple biological responses by activating G protein-coupled receptors in mammals. In this study, we demonstrated that LPA derived from the mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases GPAT1 and GPAT2 is a critical lipid-based cue for auxin-controlled embryogenesis and plant growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. LPA levels decreased, and the polarity of the auxin efflux carrier PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1) at the plasma membrane (PM) was defective in the gpat1 gpat2 mutant. As a consequence of distribution defects, instructive auxin gradients and embryonic and postembryonic development are severely compromised. Further cellular and genetic analyses revealed that LPA binds directly to PIN1, facilitating the vesicular trafficking of PIN1 and polar auxin transport. Our data support a model in which LPA provides a lipid landmark that specifies membrane identity and cell polarity, revealing an unrecognized aspect of phospholipid patterns connecting hormone signaling with development.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Animais , Lisofosfolipídeos , Arabidopsis/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Mamíferos
5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7398, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36456572

RESUMO

Alpine plants have evolved a tight seasonal cycle of growth and senescence to cope with a short growing season. The potential growing season length (GSL) is increasing because of climate warming, possibly prolonging plant growth above- and belowground. We tested whether growth dynamics in typical alpine grassland are altered when the natural GSL (2-3 months) is experimentally advanced and thus, prolonged by 2-4 months. Additional summer months did not extend the growing period, as canopy browning started 34-41 days after the start of the season, even when GSL was more than doubled. Less than 10% of roots were produced during the added months, suggesting that root growth was as conservative as leaf growth. Few species showed a weak second greening under prolonged GSL, but not the dominant sedge. A longer growing season under future climate may therefore not extend growth in this widespread alpine community, but will foster species that follow a less strict phenology.


Assuntos
Clima , Pradaria , Estações do Ano , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Adaptação Psicológica
6.
Curr Microbiol ; 80(1): 22, 2022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36460904

RESUMO

Seed coating is an alternative delivery system for beneficial plant microorganisms into the soil. Although seed coats are widely used for the application of agrochemicals, the incorporation of beneficial microorganisms has not been explored deeply and their survival on seeds while in storage is unknown. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of the coating process on microbial survival and on plant growth promotion. Two coating formulations were designed, and assessed by two coating processes: rotating drum and fluidized bed. The rotating drum process resulted in more uniform coatings than in the fluidized bed process. In addition, with this coating technique, lower viability losses over time were observed. The rotatory drum prototype containing a biopolymer and a clay mineral derivate (P90) showed the best behavior at the three temperatures evaluated, with superior viabilities compared to the other prototypes and the lowest loss of viability after 12 months. The formulation of this coating prototype may preserve the viability of Trichoderma koningiopsis Th003 up to 15 months at 8 °C, 9 months at 18 °C, and 3 months at 28 °C, which are very promising shelf-life results. Regarding the effect of seed coating on plant growth, prototypes showed higher yields > 16% than the control, comparable to the conventional use of Tricotec® WG, which may reduce the number of applications and water consumption for dissolution of the inoculant. The results demonstrated that the formulation composition, as well as the coating process may impact the microbial survival on seeds.


Assuntos
Hypocreales , Oryza , Sementes , Desenvolvimento Vegetal
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362412

RESUMO

Transmembrane proteins participate in various physiological activities in plants, including signal transduction, substance transport, and energy conversion. Although more than 20% of gene products are predicted to be transmembrane proteins in the genome era, due to the complexity of transmembrane domains they are difficult to reliably identify in the predicted protein, and they may have different overall three-dimensional structures. Therefore, it is challenging to study their biological function. In this review, we describe the typical structures of transmembrane proteins and their roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. We propose a model illustrating the roles of transmembrane proteins during plant growth and response to various stresses, which will provide important references for crop breeding.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Desenvolvimento Vegetal
8.
Biomolecules ; 12(11)2022 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36358933

RESUMO

Halophytes are plant species widely distributed in saline habitats, such as beaches, postindustrial wastelands, irrigated lands, salt flats, and others. Excessive salt level, known to limit plant growth, is not harmful to halophytes, which have developed a variety of defense mechanisms allowing them to colonize harsh environments. Plants under stress are known to respond with several morpho-anatomical adaptations, but also to enhance the production of secondary metabolites to better cope with difficult conditions. Owing to these adaptations, halophytes are an interesting group of undemanding plants with a high potential for application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Therefore, this review aims to present the characteristics of halophytes, describe changes in their gene expression, and discuss their synthesized metabolites of pharmacognostic and pharmacological significance. Lobularia maritima is characterized as a widely spread halophyte that has been shown to exhibit various pharmacological properties in vitro and in vivo. It is concluded that halophytes may become important sources of natural products for the treatment of various ailments and for supplementing the human diet with necessary non-nutrients and minerals. However, extensive studies are needed to deepen the knowledge of their biological potential in vivo, so that they can be introduced to the pharmaceutical and food industries.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal , Humanos , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/genética , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Desenvolvimento Vegetal
9.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 248: 114292, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36399992

RESUMO

With a growing economy, the living standard of people has improved which has led to increased use of urban motor vehicles globally. Consequently, the concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has increased in the ambient air, becoming a major pollutant in urban areas. Plant leaves can absorb, adsorb and fix nitrogen oxides to some extent. Interestingly, NO2 has been recognized as a positive/negative regulator of plant growth. To comprehensively understand the effect of NO2-induced pollution on plants, Bougainvillea spectabilis seedlings were fumigated with different concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) for a short period in the current study. Further, the induced morphological, physiological, and biochemical changes were measured in the treated as well as untreated seedlings. NO2 exposure caused yellow-brown spotting on the leaf blades in B. spectabilis, which could be the symptoms of oxidative damage. Our findings also reflected the changes in antioxidant enzyme activity and peroxidation of membrane lipids. In addition, the levels of osmotic regulatory substances were also found to be altered to different degrees. In addition, the activities of nitrogen metabolism-related enzymes varied, mainly affecting amino acid metabolism. Overall, the current study would provide a theoretical and scientific basis for selecting and allocating plants in NO2-contaminated areas to manage the pollutants level.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Nyctaginaceae , Humanos , Plântula , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Folhas de Planta , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Antioxidantes
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430578

RESUMO

Appropriate nucleo-cytoplasmic partitioning of proteins is a vital regulatory mechanism in phytohormone signaling and plant development. However, how this is achieved remains incompletely understood. The Karyopherin (KAP) superfamily is critical for separating the biological processes in the nucleus from those in the cytoplasm. The KAP superfamily is divided into Importin α (IMPα) and Importin ß (IMPß) families and includes the core components in mediating nucleocytoplasmic transport. Recent reports suggest the KAPs play crucial regulatory roles in Arabidopsis development and stress response by regulating the nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of members in hormone signaling. However, the KAP members and their associated molecular mechanisms are still poorly understood in maize. Therefore, we first identified seven IMPα and twenty-seven IMPß genes in the maize genome and described their evolution traits and the recognition rules for substrates with nuclear localization signals (NLSs) or nuclear export signals (NESs) in plants. Next, we searched for the protein interaction partners of the ZmKAPs and selected the ones with Arabidopsis orthologs functioning in auxin biosynthesis, transport, and signaling to predict their potential function. Finally, we found that several ZmKAPs share similar expression patterns with their interacting proteins, implying their function in root development. Overall, this article focuses on the Karyopherin superfamily in maize and starts with this entry point by systematically comprehending the KAP-mediated nucleo-cytoplasmic transport process in plants, and then predicts the function of the ZmKAPs during maize development, with a perspective on a closely associated regulatory mechanism between the nucleo-cytoplasmic transport and the phytohormone network.


Assuntos
Carioferinas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Humanos , alfa Carioferinas/genética , beta Carioferinas/metabolismo , Carioferinas/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19639, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36385165

RESUMO

Banana (Musa acuminata) is an important fruit crop and source of income for various countries, including Malaysia. To date, current agrochemical practice has become a disputable issue due to its detrimental effect on the environment. λ-carrageenan, a natural polysaccharide extracted from edible red seaweed, has been claimed to be a potential plant growth stimulator. Hence, the present study investigates the effects of λ-carrageenan on plant growth using Musa acuminata cv. Berangan (AAA). Vegetative growth such as plant height, root length, pseudostem diameter, and fresh weight was improved significantly in λ-carrageenan-treated banana plants at an optimum concentration of 750 ppm. Enhancement of root structure was also observed in optimum λ-carrageenan treatment, facilitating nutrients uptake in banana plants. Further biochemical assays and gene expression analysis revealed that the increment in growth performance was consistent with the increase of chlorophyll content, protein content, and phenolic content, suggesting that λ-carrageenan increases photosynthesis rate, protein biosynthesis, and secondary metabolites biosynthesis which eventually stimulate growth. Besides, λ-carrageenan at optimum concentration also increased catalase and peroxidase activities, which led to a significant reduction in hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde, maintaining cellular homeostasis in banana plants. Altogether, λ-carrageenan at optimum concentration improves the growth of banana plants via inducing metabolic processes, enhancing nutrient uptake, and regulation of cell homeostasis. Further investigations are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of λ-carrageenan on banana plants under field conditions.


Assuntos
Musa , Musa/genética , Carragenina/farmacologia , Carragenina/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Nutrientes , Homeostase
12.
Curr Opin Plant Biol ; 70: 102309, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36344376

RESUMO

Activation of immunity by exogenous signals or mutations leading to autoimmunity has long been associated with decreased plant growth, known as the growth-defense tradeoff. Originally thought to be a redirection of metabolic resources towards defense and away from growth, recent studies have demonstrated that growth and defense can be uncoupled, indicating that metabolic regulation is not solely responsible for the growth-defense tradeoff. Immunity activation has effects on plant development beyond the reduction of plant biomass, including changes in plant architecture. Phytohormone signaling pathways, and crosstalk between these pathways, are responsible for regulating plant growth and development, and plant defense responses. Here we review the hormonal regulation of transcription factors that play roles in both defense and development, with a focus on their effects on plant architecture, and suggest the targeting of these transcription factors to increase plant immunity and change plant growth and form for enhancement of agronomical traits.


Assuntos
Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plantas/metabolismo
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430962

RESUMO

The GARP genes are plant-specific transcription factors (TFs) and play key roles in regulating plant development and abiotic stress resistance. However, few systematic analyses of GARPs have been reported in allotetraploid rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) yet. In the present study, a total of 146 BnaGARP members were identified from the rapeseed genome based on the sequence signature. The BnaGARP TFs were divided into five subfamilies: ARR, GLK, NIGT1/HRS1/HHO, KAN, and PHL subfamilies, and the members within the same subfamilies shared similar exon-intron structures and conserved motif configuration. Analyses of the Ka/Ks ratios indicated that the GARP family principally underwent purifying selection. Several cis-acting regulatory elements, essential for plant growth and diverse biotic and abiotic stresses, were identified in the promoter regions of BnaGARPs. Further, 29 putative miRNAs were identified to be targeting BnaGARPs. Differential expression of BnaGARPs under low nitrate, ammonium toxicity, limited phosphate, deficient boron, salt stress, and cadmium toxicity conditions indicated their potential involvement in diverse nutrient stress responses. Notably, BnaA9.HHO1 and BnaA1.HHO5 were simultaneously transcriptionally responsive to these nutrient stresses in both hoots and roots, which indicated that BnaA9.HHO1 and BnaA1.HHO5 might play a core role in regulating rapeseed resistance to nutrient stresses. Therefore, this study would enrich our understanding of molecular characteristics of the rapeseed GARPs and will provide valuable candidate genes for further in-depth study of the GARP-mediated nutrient stress resistance in rapeseed.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Brassica rapa , Brassica napus/genética , Brassica rapa/genética , Nutrientes , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Família
14.
Postepy Biochem ; 68(3): 310-320, 2022 09 30.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36317991

RESUMO

ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins are integral parts of regulatory pathways under the control of small RNA (sRNA) that are fundamental for the proper functioning of eukaryotic cells. AGOs, as highly specialized platforms binding specific sRNA, coordinate gene silencing through interaction with other protein factors (forming the RNA-induced silencing complex, RISC), contributing to endonucleolytic cleavage of the target mRNA and/or influencing the translation process. The increasing number of evidence confirms the participation of AGO proteins in several other cellular processes, such as i.e.: transcription regulation, sequestration, RNA-dependent methylation of DNA, repair of DNA damages, synthesis of siRNA independent of DCL (DICER-like) proteins, or co-transcriptional regulation of MIRNA genes expression and intron splicing. Particular plant species are characterized by the presence of a different number of AGO proteins, in many cases of yet unknown regulatory and/or biological function. This review article covers the current knowledge about the functions of AGOs in cell biology and plant development.


Assuntos
Proteínas Argonauta , MicroRNAs , Proteínas Argonauta/genética , Proteínas Argonauta/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Inativação Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
15.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(23): 7963-7972, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326839

RESUMO

Immobilization of microorganisms in biodegradable polymeric matrices constitutes a promising technology for plant growth promoting to overcome the challenging conditions of the rhizosphere. Previously, we demonstrated that beads prepared from blends of chitosan/starch of analytical grades ionically cross-linked are useful carriers for Azospirillum brasilense and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The aims of this work were to study A. brasilense Az39 and P. fluorescens ZME4 immobilization in industrial quality beads produced with a blend of chitosan/starch, to assess bacterial survival during long-term storage and biofilm distribution in the beads. We also proposed to analyze the consortia root colonization and its performance as plant growth-promoting bioinoculants compared to liquid counterpart. Our results revealed that A. brasilense Az39 and P. fluorescens ZME4 can coexist in industrial grade chitosan/starch beads, and this mixed immobilization benefits the survival rates of both species, even for more than a year under shelf storage. Confocal laser scanning microscopy with fluorescent dyed strains showed that both species remain mainly in different locations inside and over the beads. Additionally, maize seed treatment with beads-loaded bacteria resulted in growth promotion of roots in a similar manner than traditional liquid-based inoculation. The evidence collected here demonstrate that low-cost chitosan/starch beads are a suitable carrier for bacteria consortia and could be a reliable alternative to liquid inoculation in agronomic practices with additional benefits for industrial management. KEY POINTS: • Mixed immobilization increases bacterial survival in chitosan/starch industrial beads • Beads increase competence of bacteria in rhizosphere of maize • Inoculation mediated by beads promotes plant growth of maize.


Assuntos
Azospirillum brasilense , Quitosana , Amido , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Rizosfera , Raízes de Plantas
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361686

RESUMO

C2H2 zinc finger protein (C2H2-ZFP) plays an important role in regulating plant growth, development, and response to abiotic stress. To date, there have been no analyses of the C2H2-ZFP family in desiccation-tolerant moss. In this study, we identified 57 BaZFP transcripts across the Bryum argenteum (B. argenteum) transcriptome. The BaZFP proteins were phylogenetically divided into four groups (I-IV). Additionally, we studied the BaZFP1 gene, which is a nuclear C2H2-ZFP and acts as a positive regulator of growth and development in both moss and Arabidopsis thaliana. The complete coding sequence of the BaZFP1 gene was isolated from B. argenteum cDNA, which showed a high expression level in a dehydration-rehydration treatment process. The overexpression of the BaZFP1 gene in the Physcomitrium patens and B. argenteum promoted differentiation and growth of gametophytes. Heterologous expression in Arabidopsis regulated the whole growth and development cycle. In addition, we quantitatively analyzed the genes related to growth and development in transgenic moss and Arabidopsis, including HLS1, HY5, ANT, LFY, FT, EIN3, MUS, APB4, SEC6, and STM1, and found that their expression levels changed significantly. This study may pave the way for substantial insights into the role of C2H2-ZFPs in plants as well as suggest appropriate candidate genes for crop breeding.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Briófitas , Bryopsida , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Briófitas/metabolismo , Dessecação , Melhoramento Vegetal , Bryopsida/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
17.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 115(12): 1437-1453, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369407

RESUMO

Plants are subject to a variety of abiotic stresses contributed to yield losses of up to 50%, posing a significant challenge to global food production. To cope with drought stress, of 205 bacterial cultures investigated for moisture stress tolerant potential, 16 cultures showed promising results in improving the majority of plant growth ameliorating activities under water stress and non-stress conditions. Growth kinetics and plant growth ameliorating activities declined significantly with the increase in water stress level. Most of the isolates tolerant to water stress were Streptomyces and Pseudomonas species. Of these, four strains with the best results were selected for growing tomato under water stress conditions. The imposition of water stress severely inhibited the growth of tomato plants. However, bacterial strains alleviated the stress and enhanced plant growth performance. Antioxidant activity showed a promising result of protection from reactive oxygen species produced in plants because of water stress. Plants treated with bioinoculants also exhibited a substantial decline in lipid peroxidation. Water stress significantly reduced the yield of tomato. However, bioinoculants treated plants demonstrated significantly higher yields than untreated plants. Nutrient uptake and fruit quality also improved in the treated plants. Experiments point to the scope of developing a microbial formulation to alleviate water stress in higher plants.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Streptomyces , Desidratação , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Frutas
19.
J Microbiol Methods ; 202: 106589, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191691

RESUMO

Bacterial consortia, comprising plant growth promoting (PGP) rhizobacteria, are known to outcompete their impacts on plant attributes compared to their individual application. However, tracking of individual bacterial strains post application as consortium, remains challenging. The primary goal of this study was to develop an efficient method of tracking bioinoculants by generating spontaneous mutants of three different bacterial strains in an established consortium, using antibiotic-based screening, followed by their enumeration after application in Cajanus cajan. Mutants were generated for consortium members, viz. Azotobacter chroococcum (A), Priestia megaterium (formerly Bacillus megaterium) (B), and Pseudomonas sp. (P), against streptomycin, kanamycin and rifampicin, respectively. Those mutants having similar growth rates and PGP properties as compared to wild type bacterial strains were selected to test their efficacy in plant growth promotion. Selected mutant strains were applied as mono, dual and triple cultures to C. cajan grown hydroponically. Enumeration of mutant bacterial strains was carried out to check their viability. Bacterial colonization on roots was also analyzed. The application of triple (mutant) inoculants improved plant growth attributes significantly in comparison to mono and dual culture treatments and control. Cell enumeration revealed that the abundance of each bacterial strain increased till the 5th day of treatment. No significant change was observed later in their abundance for any treatment. The triple culture treatment showed greater abundance of bacterial mutant strains in comparison to mono- or dual cultures. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first mutant-based study to have reported the successful tracking and enumeration of bacterial consortium members, post their application in C. cajan.


Assuntos
Bacillus megaterium , Cajanus , Cajanus/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal
20.
Planta ; 256(6): 103, 2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36307739

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Manipulation of autophagic pathway represents a tremendous opportunity for designing climate-smart crops with improved yield and better adaptability to changing environment. For exploiting autophagy to its full potential, identification and comprehensive characterization of adapters/receptor complex and elucidation of its regulatory network in crop plants is highly warranted.  Autophagy is a major intracellular trafficking pathway in eukaryotes involved in vacuolar degradation of cytoplasmic constituents, mis-folded proteins, and defective organelles. Under optimum conditions, autophagy operates at a basal level to maintain cellular homeostasis, but under stressed conditions, it is induced further to provide temporal stress relief. Our understanding of this highly dynamic process has evolved exponentially in the past few years with special reference to several plant-specific roles of autophagy. Here, we review the most recent advances in the field of autophagy in plants and discuss its potential implications in designing crops with improved stress and disease-tolerance, enhanced yield potential, and improved capabilities for producing metabolites of high economic value. We also assess the current knowledge gaps and the possible strategies to develop a robust module for biotechnological application of autophagy to enhance bioeconomy and sustainability of agriculture.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Vacúolos , Produtos Agrícolas/genética
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