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1.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113857, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626946

RESUMO

A new type of binder was developed by grafting casein and ß-glucan to investigate its effect on tailings erosion and plant growth. 6% casein and 2% ß-glucan were recommended as the best ratio of the new biopolymer binder, which had the best effect on the soil utilization of iron tailings. The infrared analysis of the new binder demonstrated that casein and ß-glucan reacted adequately as raw materials. The results of physichemical properties and loss prevention of iron tailings showed that the binder-treated soils demonstrated lower erodibility compared with untreated iron tailings. The particle size of the tailings was increased after the addition of the binder. In treated soil, the content of soil organic matter increased significantly, which provided sufficient nutrients for the plants growing. Compared with natural tailings without binder, plant height, fresh weight, chlorophyll content, and enzyme activity (POD and SOD) were also significantly increased. This study overcame the current defects of biopolymer in soil improvement and provided an environmentally friendly method to prevent the loss of iron tailings and promote its soil utilization efficiency.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Biopolímeros , Ferro/análise , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150079, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525721

RESUMO

Characterizing the relationship between vegetation phenology and urbanization indicators is essential to understand the impacts of human activities on urban ecosystems. In this study, we explored the response of vegetation phenology to urbanization in Beijing (China) during 2001-2018, using impervious surface area (ISA) and the information of urban-rural gradients (i.e., concentric rings from the urban core to surrounding rural areas) as the urbanization indicators. We found the change rates of vegetation phenology in urban areas are 1.3 and 1.1 days per year for start of season (SOS) and end of season (EOS), respectively, about three times faster than that in forest. Moreover, we found a divergent response of SOS with the increase of ISA, which differs from previous results with advanced SOS in the urban environment than surrounding rural areas. This might be attributed to the mixed land cover types and the thermal environment caused by the urban heat island in the urban environment. Similarly, a divergent pattern of phenological indicators along the urban-rural gradient shows a non-linear response of vegetation phenology to urbanization. These findings provide new insights into the complicated interactions between vegetation phenology and urban environments. High-resolution weather data are required to support process-based vegetation phenology models in the future, particularly under different global urbanization and climate change scenarios.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Urbanização , Pequim , China , Cidades , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150251, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798756

RESUMO

Sustainable biomaterials such as natural fibers and biochars have been increasingly used in green infrastructures such as landfill covers for its dual-advantages of climate change mitigation and waste management. The existing studies did not systematically discuss the comparison on how biochar (stable carbon) and fiber (likely degradable), influence plant growth and water retention abilities in unsaturated soils. Also, the effect of photochemistry in the amended soils has rarely been investigated. This study addresses the limitations of previous investigations by exploring plant parameters such as photochemical yield, stomatal conductance, root area index, and unsaturated soil hydraulic parameters, including soil water retention curves (SWRC) of amended soils. Pot experiments were conducted in an environmentally controlled greenhouse. Two biochars from different plant-based feedstocks (Eichhornia crassipes, Prosopis juliflora) and one natural fiber (coir pith fiber) were mixed with soil at 5% and 10% application rate (by weight). Grass species of Axonopus compressus was planted to study the effects of different amendment materials and its corresponding plant responses during an applied drought period. The test results show that biochar amended soils increased the shoot growth by up to 100-200%. The stomatal conductance of the grass leaves increased by 54%-101% during the drought period for both biochars and coir amended soil. Furthermore, at low suction, the coir had a high water retention capacity than the biochars, explaining the observed higher stomatal conductance values. Importantly, it was discovered that the plant photochemical quantum yield responses associated with plant wilting was found to vary between 1500 and 1800 kPa for all the soil treatments. The study concludes with a newly developed mathematical expression based on the measurements of plant parameters and soil suction. The new equation could be used to optimize the irrigation frequency in order to apply any informed measures to maintain green infrastructures.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Carvão Vegetal , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Água
4.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(9): 3005-3019, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622613

RESUMO

Formins are widely distributed in eukaryotes such as fungi, plants and animals. They play crucial roles in regulating the polymerization of actin, coordinating the synergistic interactions between actin and microtubules, and determining cell growth and morphology. Unlike formins from fungi and animals, plant formins have been evolved into two plant-specific types. Generally, type Ⅱ formins are believed to regulate the polarized growth of cells, and type Ⅰ formins may regulate the cell expansion and division processes. Recent studies on the function of plant formins suggest it is inappropriate to classify the function of formins purely based on their structures. This review summarizes the domain organization of formins and their corresponding functions, as well as the underpinning mechanisms. Furthermore, the unsolved or unexplored issues along with future perspectives on plant formins are proposed and discussed.


Assuntos
Forminas , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos , Células Vegetais , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Actinas , Plantas
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639010

RESUMO

Chloroplasts of higher plants are semi-autonomous organelles that perform photosynthesis and produce hormones and metabolites. They play crucial roles in plant growth and development. Although many seedling-lethal nuclear genes or regulators required for chloroplast development have been characterized, the understanding of chloroplast development is still limited. Using a genetic screen, we isolated a mutant named ell1, with etiolated leaves and a seedling-lethal phenotype. Analysis by BN-PAGE and transmission electron microscopy revealed drastic morphological defects of chloroplasts in ell1 mutants. Genetic mapping of the mutant gene revealed a single mutation (G-to-A) at the 5' splice site of intron 5 in CRS1, resulting in an exon skipping in CRS1, indicating that this mutation in CRS1 is responsible for the observed phenotype, which was further confirmed by genetic analysis. The incorrectly spliced CRS1 failed to mediate the splicing of atpF intron. Moreover, the quantitative analysis suggested that ZmCRS1 may participate in chloroplast transcription to regulate the development of chloroplast. Taken together, these findings improve our understanding of the ZmCRS1 protein and shed new light on the regulation of chloroplast development in maize.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/genética , Éxons , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Splicing de RNA , Zea mays/genética , Cloroplastos/ultraestrutura , Clonagem Molecular , Genes de Plantas , Mutação , Fenótipo , Fotossíntese/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639024

RESUMO

With no lysine (K) (WNK) kinases comprise a family of serine/threonine kinases belonging to an evolutionary branch of the eukaryotic kinome. These special kinases contain a unique active site and are found in a wide range of eukaryotes. The model plant Arabidopsis has been reported to have 11 WNK members, of which WNK8 functions as a negative regulator of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. Here, we found that the expression of WNK8 is post-transcriptionally regulated through an upstream open reading frame (uORF) found in its 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR). This uORF has been predicted to encode a conserved peptide named CPuORF58 in both monocotyledons and dicotyledons. The analysis of the published ribosome footprinting studies and the study of the frameshift CPuORF58 peptide with altered repression capability suggested that this uORF causes ribosome stalling. Plants transformed with the native WNK8 promoter driving WNK8 expression were comparable with wild-type plants, whereas the plants transformed with a similar construct with mutated CPuORF58 start codon were less sensitive to ABA. In addition, WNK8 and its downstream target RACK1 were found to synergistically coordinate ABA signaling rather than antagonistically modulating glucose response and flowering in plants. Collectively, these results suggest that the WNK8 expression must be tightly regulated to fulfill the demands of ABA response in plants.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Germinação/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sintenia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639068

RESUMO

Polygalacturonase (PG, EC 3.2.1.15) is a crucial enzyme for pectin degradation and is involved in various developmental processes such as fruit ripening, pollen development, cell expansion, and organ abscission. However, information on the PG gene family in the maize (Zea mays L.) genome and the specific members involved in maize anther development are still lacking. In this study, we identified 55 PG family genes from the maize genome and further characterized their evolutionary relationship and expression patterns. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ZmPGs are grouped into six Clades, and gene structures of the same Clade are highly conserved, suggesting their functional conservation. The ZmPGs are randomly distributed across maize chromosomes, and collinearity analysis showed that many ZmPGs might be derived from tandem duplications and segmental duplications, and these genes are under purifying selection. Furthermore, gene expression analysis provided insights into possible functional divergence among ZmPGs. Based on the RNA-seq data analysis, we found that many ZmPGs are expressed in various tissues while 18 ZmPGs are highly expressed in maize anther, and their detailed expression profiles in different anther developmental stages were further investigated by using RT-qPCR analysis. These results provide valuable information for further functional characterization and application of the ZmPGs in maize.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Poligalacturonase/genética , Zea mays/genética , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Sequência Conservada , Duplicação Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genômica/métodos , Família Multigênica , Mutação , Especificidade de Órgãos , Filogenia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Seleção Genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Zea mays/classificação
8.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(23): 8629-8645, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34698898

RESUMO

Microbial plant biostimulants (MPBs) are capable of improving the productivity and quality of crops by activating plant physiological and molecular processes, representing an efficient tool in sustainable agriculture. Through phytohormone production, MPBs are capable of regulating plant physiological processes, increasing the productivity and quality of crops, in addition to being an efficient alternative in the industrial production of phytohormones. Bacillus is a bacterial genus with various species on the market being used as biopesticides, due to their ability to produce antimicrobial, nematicidal and insecticidal compounds. The capability of Bacillus species to protect plants against pests and/or pathogens also entails the triggering or increase of plant defense responses. Furthermore, a relevant number of species from the genus Bacillus provoke plant growth promotion by different mechanisms such as increasing the tolerance of their host plants under abiotic stress conditions or improving plant nutrition. In several cases, the plant response is mediated by the bacterial production of phytohormones. In the present work, all studies from recent decades where the production of phytohormones by Bacillus species are reported, highlighting their role in host plants and the mechanisms by which they are capable of increasing plant growth, promoting their development, and improving their response to different stresses. KEY POINTS: • Different Bacillus-species are known as agricultural biopesticides. • Bacillus role as biostimulants is being increasingly addressed. • Bacillus represents a good source of phytohormones of agricultural interest.


Assuntos
Bacillus , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal
9.
J Plant Res ; 134(6): 1155-1158, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613490

RESUMO

Plant cell walls have multiple functions, including determining cell shape and size, cell-cell adhesion, controlling cell differentiation and growth, and promoting abiotic and biotic stress tolerance. This virtual issue introduces the physiological functions of cell walls in growth and environmental responses. The articles detail research on (1) embryogenesis and seed development, (2) vegetative growth, (3) reproductive growth, and (4) environmental responses. These articles, published in the Journal of Plant Research, will provide valuable information for future research on the function and dynamics of cell walls at various growth stages, and in response to environmental factors.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plantas , Parede Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Sementes , Estresse Fisiológico
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 483, 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Light quality significantly affects plant growth and development, photosynthesis, and carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) is a widely cultivated and economically important fruit crop worldwide. However, there are still few studies on the effects of different light qualities on the growth and development of apple seedlings. RESULTS: In this study, we explored the effects of blue and red light treatments on the growth and development, photosynthetic characteristics, leaf chloroplast ultrastructure, and carbon and nitrogen metabolism of apple seedlings. Blue light significantly inhibited apple plant growth and leaf extension, but it promoted the development of leaf tissue structures and chloroplasts and positively affected leaf stomatal conductance, the transpiration rate, and photosynthetic efficiency. The red light treatment promoted apple plant growth and root development, but it resulted in loosely organized leaf palisade tissues and low chlorophyll contents. The blue and red light treatments enhanced the accumulation of ammonium nitrogen in apple seedlings. Moreover, the blue light treatment significantly promoted nitrogen metabolism. Additionally, an RNA-seq analysis revealed that both blue light and red light can significantly up-regulate the expression of genes related to carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Blue light can also promote amino acid synthesis and flavonoid metabolism, whereas red light can induce plant hormone signal transduction. The expression of a gene encoding a bHLH transcription factor (MYC2-like) was significantly up-regulated in response to blue light, implying it may be important for blue light-mediated plant development. CONCLUSIONS: Considered together, blue and red light have important effects on apple growth, carbon and nitrogen metabolism. These findings may be useful for determining the ideal light conditions for apple cultivation to maximize fruit yield and quality.


Assuntos
Adaptação Ocular/fisiologia , Cloroplastos/ultraestrutura , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/genética , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/fisiologia , Transcriptoma , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fotossíntese/genética
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 485, 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: GROWTH-REGULATING FACTORs (GRFs), a type of plant-specific transcription factors, play important roles in regulating plant growth and development. Although GRF gene family has been identified in various plant species, a genome-wide analysis of this family in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) has not been reported yet. RESULTS: Here we identified 15 GRF genes in lettuce and performed comprehensive analysis of them, including chromosomal locations, gene structures, and conserved motifs. Through phylogenic analysis, we divided LsaGRFs into six groups. Transactivation assays and subcellular localization of LsaGRF5 showed that this protein is likely to act as a transcriptional factor in the cell nucleus. Furthermore, transgenic lettuce lines overexpressing LsaGRF5 exhibited larger leaves, while smaller leaves were observed in LsaMIR396a overexpression lines, in which LsaGRF5 was down-regulated. CONCLUSIONS: These results in lettuce provide insight into the molecular mechanism of GRF gene family in regulating leaf growth and development and foundational information for genetic improvement of the lettuce variations specialized in leaf character.


Assuntos
Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alface/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/genética , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/genética , China , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Filogenia , Fatores de Transcrição
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638870

RESUMO

Agriculture in the 21st century is facing multiple challenges, such as those related to soil fertility, climatic fluctuations, environmental degradation, urbanization, and the increase in food demand for the increasing world population. In the meanwhile, the scientific community is facing key challenges in increasing crop production from the existing land base. In this regard, traditional farming has witnessed enhanced per acre crop yields due to irregular and injudicious use of agrochemicals, including pesticides and synthetic fertilizers, but at a substantial environmental cost. Another major concern in modern agriculture is that crop pests are developing pesticide resistance. Therefore, the future of sustainable crop production requires the use of alternative strategies that can enhance crop yields in an environmentally sound manner. The application of rhizobacteria, specifically, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), as an alternative to chemical pesticides has gained much attention from the scientific community. These rhizobacteria harbor a number of mechanisms through which they promote plant growth, control plant pests, and induce resistance to various abiotic stresses. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the mechanisms of rhizobacteria involved in plant growth promotion, biocontrol of pests, and bioremediation of contaminated soils. It also focuses on the effects of PGPR inoculation on plant growth survival under environmental stress. Furthermore, the pros and cons of rhizobacterial application along with future directions for the sustainable use of rhizobacteria in agriculture are discussed in depth.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Raízes de Plantas , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Produção Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Estresse Fisiológico
13.
Am J Bot ; 108(10): 1824-1837, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655479

RESUMO

Plant development and the timing of developmental events (phenology) are tightly coupled with plant fitness. A variety of internal and external factors determine the timing and fitness consequences of these life-history transitions. Microbes interact with plants throughout their life history and impact host phenology. This review summarizes current mechanistic and theoretical knowledge surrounding microbe-driven changes in plant phenology. Overall, there are examples of microbes impacting every phenological transition. While most studies have focused on flowering time, microbial effects remain important for host survival and fitness across all phenological phases. Microbe-mediated changes in nutrient acquisition and phytohormone signaling can release plants from stressful conditions and alter plant stress responses inducing shifts in developmental events. The frequency and direction of phenological effects appear to be partly determined by the lifestyle and the underlying nature of a plant-microbe interaction (i.e., mutualistic or pathogenic), in addition to the taxonomic group of the microbe (fungi vs. bacteria). Finally, we highlight biases, gaps in knowledge, and future directions. This biotic source of plasticity for plant adaptation will serve an important role in sustaining plant biodiversity and managing agriculture under the pressures of climate change.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Plantas , Biodiversidade , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Estações do Ano , Simbiose
14.
Planta ; 254(4): 66, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491441

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Advances in nanotechnology make it an important tool for improving agricultural production. Strong evidence supports the role of nanomaterials as nutrients or nanocarriers for the controlled release of fertilizers to improve plant growth. Scientific research shows that nanotechnology applied in plant sciences is smart technology. Excessive application of mineral fertilizers has produced a harmful impact on the ecosystem. Furthermore, the projected increase in the human population by 2050 has led to the search for alternatives to ensure food security. Nanotechnology is a promising strategy to enhance crop productivity while minimizing fertilizer inputs. Nanofertilizers can contribute to the slow and sustainable release of nutrients to improve the efficiency of nutrient use in plants. Nanomaterial properties (i.e., size, morphology and charge) and plant physiology are crucial factors that influence the impact on plant growth. An important body of scientific research highlights the role of carbon nanomaterials, metal nanoparticles and metal oxide nanoparticles to improve plant development through the modulation of physiological and metabolic processes. Modulating nutrient concentrations, photosynthesis processes and antioxidant enzyme activities have led to increases in shoot length, root development, photosynthetic pigments and fruit yield. In parallel, nanocarriers (nanoclays, nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite, mesoporous silica and chitosan) have been shown to be an important tool for the controlled and sustainable release of conventional fertilizers to improve plant nutrition; however, the technical advances in nanofertilizers need to be accompanied by modernization of the regulations and legal frameworks to allow wider commercialization of these elements. Nanofertilizers are a promising strategy to improve plant development and nutrition, but their application in sustainable agriculture remains a great challenge. The present review summarizes the current advance of research into nanofertilizers, and their future prospects.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Agricultura , Fertilizantes/análise , Nanotecnologia
15.
Planta ; 254(4): 75, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533620

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Brassinosteroid (BR) synthesis genes in different cotton species was comprehensively identified, and the participation of GhCPD-3 in the BR synthesis signaling pathway for regulating plant development was verified. Brassinosteroid is a natural steroidal phytohormone that plays fundamental roles in plant growth and development. In cotton, detailed characterization and functional validation of BR biosynthesis genes remain rare. Here, 16, 8 and 9 BR biosynthesis genes were identified in Gossypium hirsutum, Gossypium raimondii and Gossypium arboreum, respectively, and their phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, conserved motifs of the encoded proteins, chromosomal locations were determined and a synteny analysis was performed. Gossypium hirsutum and Arabidopsis BR biosynthesis genes closely clustered in the phylogenetic tree and fragment duplication was likely the primary cause promoting gene family expansion in G. hirsutum. Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) enrichment analysis showed their relevance as BR biosynthesis genes. GhCPD-3 was highly expressed in roots and stems and the loci of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were significantly associated with these traits.Ectopic overexpression of GhCPD-3 in the cpd91 Arabidopsis mutant rescued the mutant phenotype by increasing plant height and leaf size in comparison to those of cpd91 and WT plants. Moreover, overexpressed GhCPD-3 in cpd91 mutants showed greater hypocotyl and root lengths than those of cpd91 and WT plants under light and dark conditions, respectively, indicating that BR actively promotes hypocotyl and root growth. Similar to CPD (CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC DWARF), GhCPD-3 restores BR biosynthesis thereby mediating plant growth and development.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Gossypium , Gossypium/genética , Gossypium/metabolismo , Filogenia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575855

RESUMO

DNA methylation and demethylation precisely and effectively modulate gene expression during plant growth and development and in response to stress. However, expression profiles of genes involved in DNA methylation and demethylation during plant development and their responses to phytohormone treatments remain largely unknown. We characterized the spatiotemporal expression patterns of genes involved in de novo methylation, methyl maintenance, and active demethylation in roots, shoots, and reproductive organs using ß-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter lines. Promoters of DNA demethylases were generally more highly active at the mature root tissues, whereas the promoters of genes involved in DNA methylation were more highly active at fast-growing root tissues. The promoter activity also implies that methylation status in shoot apex, leaf primordia, floral organs, and developing embryos is under tight equilibrium through the activity of genes involved in DNA methylation and demethylation. The promoter activity of DNA methylation and demethylation-related genes in response to various phytohormone treatments revealed that phytohormones can alter DNA methylation status in specific and redundant ways. Overall, our results illustrate that DNA methylation and demethylation pathways act synergistically and antagonistically in various tissues and in response to phytohormone treatments and point to the existence of hormone-linked methylome regulation mechanisms that may contribute to tissue differentiation and development.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas , Genes Reporter , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502449

RESUMO

As an essential nutrient, copper (Cu) scarcity causes a decrease in agricultural production. Cu deficiency responses include the induction of several microRNAs, known as Cu-miRNAs, which are responsible for degrading mRNAs from abundant and dispensable cuproproteins to economize copper when scarce. Cu-miRNAs, such as miR398 and miR408 are conserved, as well as the signal transduction pathway to induce them under Cu deficiency. The Arabidopsis thaliana SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) family member SPL7 binds to the cis-regulatory motifs present in the promoter regions of genes expressed under Cu deficiency, including Cu-miRNAs. The expression of several other SPL transcription factor family members is regulated by miR156. This regulatory miR156-SPL module plays a crucial role in developmental phase transitions while integrating internal and external cues. Here, we show that Cu deficiency also affects miR156 expression and that SPL3 overexpressing plants, resistant to miR156 regulation, show a severe decrease in SPL7-mediated Cu deficiency responses. These include the expression of Cu-miRNAs and their targets and is probably due to competition between SPL7 and miR156-regulated SPL3 in binding to cis-regulatory elements in Cu-miRNA promoters. Thus, the conserved SPL7-mediated Cu-miRNA pathway could generally be affected by the miR156-SPL module, thereby underscoring the integration of the Cu-miRNA pathway with developmental and environmental stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cobre/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Estresse Fisiológico
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502157

RESUMO

In flowering plants, seeds serve as organs of both propagation and dispersal. The developing seed passes through several consecutive stages, following a conserved general outline. The overall time needed for a seed to develop, however, may vary both within and between plant species, and these temporal developmental properties remain poorly understood. In the present paper, we summarize the existing data for seed development alterations in dicot plants. For genetic mutations, the reported cases were grouped in respect of the key processes distorted in the mutant specimens. Similar phenotypes arising from the environmental influence, either biotic or abiotic, were also considered. Based on these data, we suggest several general trends of timing alterations and how respective mechanisms might add to the ecological plasticity of the families considered. We also propose that the developmental timing alterations may be perceived as an evolutionary substrate for heterochronic events. Given the current lack of plausible models describing timing control in plant seeds, the presented suggestions might provide certain insights for future studies in this field.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Magnoliopsida/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/genética , Proliferação de Células , Metabolismo Energético , Meio Ambiente , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Sementes/anatomia & histologia
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502129

RESUMO

Size control is a fundamental question in biology, showing incremental complexity in plants, whose cells possess a rigid cell wall. The phytohormone auxin is a vital growth regulator with central importance for differential growth control. Our results indicate that auxin-reliant growth programs affect the molecular complexity of xyloglucans, the major type of cell wall hemicellulose in eudicots. Auxin-dependent induction and repression of growth coincide with reduced and enhanced molecular complexity of xyloglucans, respectively. In agreement with a proposed function in growth control, genetic interference with xyloglucan side decorations distinctly modulates auxin-dependent differential growth rates. Our work proposes that auxin-dependent growth programs have a spatially defined effect on xyloglucan's molecular structure, which in turn affects cell wall mechanics and specifies differential, gravitropic hypocotyl growth.


Assuntos
Glucanos/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Xilanos/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Imunofluorescência , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glucanos/química , Ervilhas/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Xilanos/química
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5350, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504089

RESUMO

Relationships between biodiversity and multiple ecosystem functions (that is, ecosystem multifunctionality) are context-dependent. Both plant and soil microbial diversity have been reported to regulate ecosystem multifunctionality, but how their relative importance varies along environmental gradients remains poorly understood. Here, we relate plant and microbial diversity to soil multifunctionality across 130 dryland sites along a 4,000 km aridity gradient in northern China. Our results show a strong positive association between plant species richness and soil multifunctionality in less arid regions, whereas microbial diversity, in particular of fungi, is positively associated with multifunctionality in more arid regions. This shift in the relationships between plant or microbial diversity and soil multifunctionality occur at an aridity level of ∼0.8, the boundary between semiarid and arid climates, which is predicted to advance geographically ∼28% by the end of the current century. Our study highlights that biodiversity loss of plants and soil microorganisms may have especially strong consequences under low and high aridity conditions, respectively, which calls for climate-specific biodiversity conservation strategies to mitigate the effects of aridification.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Clima Desértico , Fungos/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plantas/metabolismo , Solo/química , China , Ecossistema , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Geografia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Modelos Teóricos , Plantas/classificação , Microbiologia do Solo , Especificidade da Espécie , Água/metabolismo
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