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2.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(6): 2288-2308, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35658517

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Measuring the growth of young children's vocabulary is important for researchers seeking to understand language learning as well as for clinicians aiming to identify early deficits. The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs) are parent report instruments that offer a reliable and valid method for measuring early productive and receptive vocabulary across a number of languages. CDI forms typically include hundreds of words, however, and so the burden of completion is significant. We address this limitation by building on previous work using item response theory (IRT) models to create computer adaptive test (CAT) versions of the CDIs. We created CDI-CATs for both comprehension and production vocabulary, for both American English and Mexican Spanish. METHOD: Using a data set of 7,633 English-speaking children ages 12-36 months and 1,692 Spanish-speaking children ages 12-30 months, across three CDI forms (Words & Gestures, Words & Sentences, and CDI-III), we found that a 2-parameter logistic IRT model fits well for a majority of the 680 pooled vocabulary items. We conducted CAT simulations on this data set, assessing simulated tests of varying length (25-400 items). RESULTS: Even very short CATs recovered participant abilities very well with little bias across ages. An empirical validation study with N = 204 children ages 15-36 months showed a correlation of r = .92 between language ability estimated from full CDI versus CDI-CAT forms. CONCLUSION: We provide our item bank along with fitted parameters and other details, offer recommendations for how to construct CDI-CATs in new languages, and suggest when this type of assessment may or may not be appropriate.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Testes de Linguagem , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Internet , Idioma , Vocabulário
3.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0267898, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35648744

RESUMO

There are still debates about timing and effectiveness of cochlear implants (CI) in pediatric subjects with significant residual hearing who do not belong to traditional indication of CI. In this study, we aimed to investigate the outcomes of CI, specifically on improvement of pronunciation, among hearing-impaired children already with a substantial degree of language skills as evaluated by Categories of Auditory Perception (CAP) scores or sentence score. Our cohort comprised pediatric CI recipients from July 2018 through October 2020. Among them, cases with CAP scores of 5 or 6 preoperatively were defined as "borderline cases". We investigated prevalence and etiologies, and compared speech evaluation data preoperatively and postoperatively at three time points (3, 6 and 9-12 months after implantation). Among 86 pediatric CI recipients, 13 subjects (15.12%) had language development that reached CAP scores of 5 or 6 before implantation. Postoperative speech evaluation data 6 months after implantation revealed significant improvement of pronunciation (Urimal Test of Articulation and Phonation scores: UTAP), Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS) and word perception scores, but not of CAP and sentence perception scores. Notably, the significant improvement of pronunciation based on UTAP scores outstripped that of other speech parameters and this continued steadily up to one-year postoperatively. The result of the study serves as evidence for what to expect from cochlear implantation in hearing-impaired children who have already achieved a substantial degree of language development in terms of CAP scores or sentence perception scores, preoperatively.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear , Implantes Cocleares , Auxiliares de Audição , Percepção da Fala , Criança , Audição , Humanos , Lactente , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem
4.
Cogn Sci ; 46(6): e13146, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35665531

RESUMO

Gender associations have been a long-standing research topic in psychological and social sciences. Although it is known that children learn aspects of gender associations at a young age, it is not well understood how they might emerge through the course of development. We investigate whether gender associations, such as the association of dresses with women and bulldozers with men, are reflected in the linguistic communication of young children from ages 1-5. Drawing on recent methods from machine learning, we use word embeddings derived from large text corpora including news articles and web pages as a proxy for gender associations in society, and we compare those with the gender associations of words uttered by caretakers and children in children's linguistic environment. We quantify gender associations in childhood language through gender probability, which measures the extent to which word usage frequencies in speech to and by girls and boys are gender-skewed. By analyzing 4,875 natural conversations between children and their caretakers in North America, we find that frequency patterns in word usage of both caretakers and children correlate strongly with the gender associations captured in word embeddings through the course of development. We discover that these correlations diminish from the 1970s to the 1990s. Our work suggests that early linguistic communication and social changes may jointly contribute to the formation of gender associations in childhood.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Idioma , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Linguística , Masculino , Fala
5.
Cogn Sci ; 46(6): e13147, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35665953

RESUMO

The present paper addresses the study of non-arbitrariness in language within a deep learning framework. We present a set of experiments aimed at assessing the pervasiveness of different forms of non-arbitrary phonological patterns across a set of typologically distant languages. Different sequence-processing neural networks are trained in a set of languages to associate the phonetic vectorization of a set of words to their sensory (Experiment 1), semantic (Experiment 2), and word-class representations (Experiment 3). The models are then tested, without further training, in a set of novel instances in a language belonging to a different language family, and their performance is compared with a randomized baseline. We show that the three cross-domain mappings can be successfully transferred across languages and language families, suggesting that the phonological structure of the lexicon is pervaded with language-invariant cues about the words' meaning and their syntactic classes.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Idioma , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Fonética , Semântica
6.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(1): 79, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Addressing socioeconomic inequalities in early child development (ECD) is key to reducing the intergenerational transmission of health inequalities. Yet, little is known about how socioeconomic inequalities in ECD develop over the course of childhood. Our study aimed to describe how inequalities in ECD by maternal education develop from infancy to middle childhood. METHODS: We used data from Generation R, a prospective population-based cohort study in The Netherlands. Language skills were measured at ages 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 years, using the Minnesota Child Development Inventory. Socioemotional (i.e. internalizing and externalizing) problems were measured at ages 1.5, 3, 5 and 9 years using the Child Behavior Checklist. We estimated inequalities in language skills and socioemotional problems across the above-mentioned ages, using linear mixed models with standardized scores at each wave. We used maternal education as indicator of socioeconomic position. RESULTS: Children of less educated mothers had more reported internalizing (B = 0.72, 95%CI = 0.51;0.95) and externalizing (B = 0.25, 95%CI = 0.10;0.40) problems at age 1.5 years, but better (caregiver reported) language skills at 1 year (B = 0.50, 95%CI = 0.36;0.64) than children of high educated mothers. Inequalities in internalizing and externalizing problems decreased over time. Inequalities in language scores reversed at age 2, and by the time children were 4 years old, children of less educated mothers had substantially lower language skills than children of high educated mothers (B = -0.38, 95%CI = -0.61;-0.15). CONCLUSIONS: Trajectories of socioeconomic inequality in ECD differ by developmental domain: whereas inequalities in socioemotional development decreased over time, inequalities increased for language development. Children of less educated mothers are at a language disadvantage even before entering primary education, providing further evidence that early interventions are needed.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Mães , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mães/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
J Neurodev Disord ; 14(1): 38, 2022 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35715727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Late talking (LT) in toddlers is a risk factor for language weakness that may interfere with the development of using language to regulate behavior and emotion and contribute to the development of behavior problems from early childhood. This study examined the temporal stability of parent-reported behavior problems among Mandarin-speaking LT toddlers from ages 2 to 4 in Taiwan. METHODS: Thirty-one LT and 31 typical language development (TLD) toddlers were assessed for their vocabulary production at age 2 with the Words and Sentences Forms of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Developmental Inventories Toddler Form (Taiwan version). Additionally, participants' receptive and expressive language abilities were assessed using the receptive and expressive language subscales of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. At age 4, the Child Language Disorder Scale-Revised was applied and included the two core subtests for auditory comprehension and expressive communication. At ages 2 and 4 years, behavior problems were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist. RESULTS: There was a higher percentage of participants with persistent behavior problems among LT toddlers than among TLD toddlers. Moreover, toddlers with larger vocabularies were less likely to develop withdrawal behaviors by preschool age. CONCLUSIONS: This study supported the temporal stability of parent-reported behavior problems among LT toddlers across early childhood. Early identification of and intervention for behavior problems associated with LT in toddlerhood is essential to alleviate their behavior problems later in preschool years.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/etiologia , Pais , Vocabulário
8.
PLoS Biol ; 20(5): e3001630, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522717

RESUMO

Humans communicate with small children in unusual and highly conspicuous ways (child-directed communication (CDC)), which enhance social bonding and facilitate language acquisition. CDC-like inputs are also reported for some vocally learning animals, suggesting similar functions in facilitating communicative competence. However, adult great apes, our closest living relatives, rarely signal to their infants, implicating communication surrounding the infant as the main input for infant great apes and early humans. Given cross-cultural variation in the amount and structure of CDC, we suggest that child-surrounding communication (CSC) provides essential compensatory input when CDC is less prevalent-a paramount topic for future studies.


Assuntos
Hominidae , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Comunicação Animal , Animais , Comunicação , Humanos , Lactente , Aprendizagem
10.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(6): 2258-2271, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35583982

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study explores whether the quality of parent-child interaction is associated with language abilities cross-sectionally and longitudinally up to preschool-age among children with developmental language disorder (DLD). METHOD: Participants were 97 monolingual children with DLD and their parents from the Helsinki Longitudinal SLI study, HelSLI (baseline, age in years;months, M = 4;3, SD = 0;10), of which 71 pairs were followed longitudinally (age in years;months, M = 6;6, SD = 0;5). Video recordings from three play sessions were scored for child, parent, and dyadic behavior using Erickson's sensitivity scale protocol and mutually responsive orientation at baseline. Children's expressive and receptive language and language reasoning ability were assessed at baseline, and expressive and receptive language were assessed at follow-up. RESULTS: At baseline, engaged child behavior, parent's supportive guidance, and fluent and attuned dyadic behavior were associated with better receptive language ability, and engaged child behavior and dyadic synchrony were positively associated with language reasoning ability in 3- to 6-year-olds. The child's positive engagement and fluent and attuned dyadic behavior at baseline were associated with better expressive and receptive language abilities at follow-up in 6- to 7-year-olds, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Fluent and attuned dyadic behavior is associated with better receptive language ability in preschool-age children. Parent behavior alone was not associated with language ability. A connected and mutually attuned parent-child relationship could be a protective factor for language development for children with DLD.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Terapia da Linguagem/métodos , Relações Pais-Filho
11.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(6): 2309-2326, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617450

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Children with autism are found to have delayed and heterogeneous gesture abilities. It is important to understand the growth of gesture abilities and the underlying factors affecting its growth. Addressing these issues can help to design effective intervention programs. METHOD: Thirty-five Chinese-speaking preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder (M age = 4.89 years, SD = 0.91; four girls) participated in four play sessions with their parents over 9 months. Their child-based factors including autism severity, intellectual functioning, and expressive language abilities were assessed. The gestures (deictic, iconic, and conventional) of the children and their parents were coded. Growth curve analyses were conducted to examine individual growth trajectories and the roles of child-based factors and parental input in shaping the children's gesture development. RESULTS: Child-based factors and parental input predicted gesture development differently. Parents' gestures positively predicted their children's gestures of the same type. Autism severity negatively predicted iconic and conventional gestures. Overall growth was found in deictic rather than iconic and conventional gestures. Subgroup variation was also found. Specifically, children with better expressive language ability showed a decrease in deictic gestures. An increase in iconic and conventional gestures was found in children with more severe autism and those with poorer expressive language ability and intellectual functioning, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Different types of gestures may have different growth trajectories and be predicted by different child-based factors. Particular attention should be given to children who never produced iconic gestures, which is more challenging and may not develop over a short period, and hence require direct instruction.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Pré-Escolar , China , Feminino , Gestos , Humanos , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Pais
12.
Infancy ; 27(4): 682-699, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526265

RESUMO

Although prior research has independently linked vocabulary development with toddlers' media usage, parental mental state talk (MST), and parent-child conversational turn-taking (CTT), these variables have not been investigated within the same study. In this study, we focus on associations between these variables and 2-year-old's (N = 87) vocabulary. Child vocabulary and digital media use were measured through online questionnaires. We took a multimethod approach to measure parents' child-directed talk. First, we used a home sound environment recording (Language ENvironment Analysis technology) to estimate parents' talk (CTT). Second, parents narrated a picture book, the Frog story, to assess the parent's MST. There was a negative association between how much children watched video content and their vocabulary. However, parents reported that they frequently co-viewed and engaged with the child and media. The negative association first displayed between the amount of video content viewed and the child's developing vocabulary was fully mediated by the parents' qualitative and quantitative talk as measured by MST and CCT, respectively. We propose that the parent relative level of MST and CTT also occurs when parents engage with the child during media use.


Assuntos
Relações Pais-Filho , Vocabulário , Humanos , Internet , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Pais
13.
Infancy ; 27(4): 780-808, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35575583

RESUMO

Parental scaffolding such as looking at and showing objects has long been considered to be helpful for early attention and language development. However, relatively little is known about how parental social multimodal cues work alone or together in guiding an infant's attention toward the referent items. The present study aims to document the dynamics of social referential input during an interactive play session and specify the different types of social cues in directing infant attention. Forty-three parent-infant dyads (infants aged from 5.0 to 18.0 months) in the U.S. completed a short play session recorded by head-mounted camera with eye-trackers. The present findings suggest that joint attention between parent and infant toward the same referent item often co-occurred with other referential input. Infants were more likely to maintain sustained attention to an object under the circumstance that the parent looked at the same item and named it explicitly. This was not the case when parent object looking accompanied other utterances, like "Look!" or the child's name. The present study highlights the importance of multimodal referential input, which sets up enriched opportunities for children to become sensitive to social input and develop sustained attention for further learning.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Fixação Ocular , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Pais
14.
Brain Lang ; 230: 105129, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35576737

RESUMO

Previous research has suggested that top-down sensory prediction facilitates, and may be necessary for, efficient transmission of information in the brain. Here we related infants' vocabulary development to the top-down sensory prediction indexed by occipital cortex activation to the unexpected absence of a visual stimulus previously paired with an auditory stimulus. The magnitude of the neural response to the unexpected omission of a visual stimulus was assessed at the age of 6 months with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and vocabulary scores were obtained using the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (MCDI) when infants reached the age of 12 months and 18 months, respectively. Results indicated significant positive correlations between this predictive neural signal at 6 months and MCDI expressive vocabulary scores at 12 and 18 months. These findings provide additional and robust support for the hypothesis that top-down prediction at the neural level plays a key role in infants' language development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Vocabulário , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Humanos , Lactente , Lobo Occipital/diagnóstico por imagem
15.
Pediatrics ; 149(6)2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35607935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Infants with profound hearing loss are typically considered for cochlear implantation. Many insurance providers deny implantation to children with developmental impairments because they have limited potential to acquire verbal communication. We took advantage of differing insurance coverage restrictions to compare outcomes after cochlear implantation or continued hearing aid use. METHODS: Young children with deafness were identified prospectively from 2 different states, Texas and California, and followed longitudinally for an average of 2 years. Children in cohort 1 (n = 138) had normal cognition and adaptive behavior and underwent cochlear implantation. Children in cohorts 2 (n = 37) and 3 (n = 29) had low cognition and low adaptive behavior. Those in cohort 2 underwent cochlear implantation, whereas those in cohort 3 were treated with hearing aids. RESULTS: Cohorts did not substantially differ in demographic characteristics. Using cohort 2 as the reference, children in cohort 1 showed more rapid gains in cognitive, adaptive function, language, and auditory skills (estimated coefficients, 0.166 to 0.403; P ≤ .001), whereas children in cohort 3 showed slower gains (-0.119 to -0.243; P ≤ .04). Children in cohort 3 also had greater increases in stress within the parent-child system (1.328; P = .02), whereas cohorts 1 and 2 were not different. CONCLUSIONS: Cochlear implantation benefits children with deafness and developmental delays. This finding has health policy implications not only for private insurers but also for large, statewide, publicly administered programs. Cognitive and adaptive skills should not be used as a "litmus test" for pediatric cochlear implantation.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear , Implantes Cocleares , Surdez , Auxiliares de Audição , Percepção da Fala , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surdez/psicologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/cirurgia , Humanos , Lactente , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem
16.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 221: 105449, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35550281

RESUMO

Children's early language knowledge-typically assessed using standardized word comprehension tests or through parental reports-has been positively linked to a variety of later outcomes, from reasoning tests to academic performance to income and health. To better understand the mechanisms behind these links, we examined whether knowledge of certain "seed words"-words with high inductive potential-is positively associated with inductive reasoning. This hypothesis stems from prior work on the effects of language on categorization suggesting that certain words may be important for helping people to deploy categorical hypotheses. Using a longitudinal design, we assessed 36 2- to 4-year-old children's knowledge of 333 words of varying levels of generality (e.g., toy vs. pinwheel, number vs. five). We predicted that adjusting for overall vocabulary, knowledge of more general words (e.g., toy, number) would predict children's performance on inductive reasoning tasks administered 6 months later (i.e., a subset of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales for Early Childhood-Fifth Edition [SB-5] and Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities [WJ] concept formation tasks). This prediction was confirmed for one of the measures of inductive reasoning (i.e., the SB-5 but not the WJ) and notably for the task considered to be less reliant on language. Although our experimental design demonstrates only a correlational relationship between seed word knowledge and inductive reasoning ability, our results are consistent with the possibility that early knowledge of certain seed words facilitates performance on putatively nonverbal reasoning tasks.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Vocabulário , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Testes de Linguagem
17.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 221: 105444, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35580387

RESUMO

The consonant bias is evidenced by a greater reliance on consonants over vowels in lexical processing. Although attested during adulthood for most Roman and Germanic languages (e.g., French, Italian, English, Dutch), evidence on its development suggests that the native input modulates its trajectory. French and Italian learners exhibit an early switch from a higher reliance on vowels at 5 and 6 months of age to a consonant bias by the end of the first year. This study investigated the developmental trajectory of this bias in a third Romance language unexplored so far-Spanish. In a central visual fixation procedure, infants aged 5, 8½, and 12 months were tested in a word recognition task. In Experiment 1, infants preferred listening to frequent words (e.g., leche, milk) over nonwords (e.g., machi) at all ages. Experiment 2 assessed infants' listening times to consonant and vowel alterations of the words used in Experiment 1. Here, 5-month-olds preferred listening to consonant alterations, whereas 12-month-olds preferred listening to vowel alterations, suggesting that 5-month-olds' recognition performance was more affected by a vowel alteration (e.g., leche →lache), whereas 12-month-olds' recognition performance was more affected by a consonant alteration (e.g., leche →keche). These findings replicate previous findings in Italian and French and generalize them to a third Romance language (Spanish). As such, they support the idea that specific factors common to Romance languages might be driving an early consonant bias in lexical processing.


Assuntos
Idioma , Percepção da Fala , Adulto , Humanos , Lactente , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Aprendizagem , Fonética
18.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 221: 105427, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523079

RESUMO

Science achievement gaps are a persistent social issue and are largely explained by individual differences in science knowledge before formal schooling. We were interested in whether children's science vocabulary relates to these differences in science knowledge. This experiment examined whether children's science vocabulary predicted their science knowledge above and beyond general vocabulary size and demographic variables. Children aged 3 to 11 years (N = 91; 59 boys) participated in-person at a laboratory within a large university in a mid-size city in the midwestern United States. The tasks that the children completed assessed general receptive vocabulary, science productive vocabulary, general science knowledge, and conceptions of science as a practice. We found that science vocabulary was the strongest predictor of science knowledge above and beyond other factors, indicating that science vocabulary production may predict individual differences in science knowledge specifically when achievement gaps emerge (ß = .28). In addition, children who produced more of certain types of science words, such as size and physical property words, depicted more science equipment and language elements in their drawings of scientists. These findings suggest that learning new words may be related to conceptual development in science and that examining early science vocabulary is a key step toward fully understanding science knowledge gaps.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Vocabulário , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Humanos , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino
19.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268504, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35613107

RESUMO

Age of acquisition (AoA) is presumed to reflect the age or relative order in which words are learned, but is often measured using adult ratings or adult-reported observations and might thus reflect more about the adult language than about the acquisition process. Objective AoA estimates are often limited to words whose referents can be shown in pictures. We created a corpus-derived AoA estimate based on first word occurrences in a longitudinal corpus of child English, and evaluated its reliability and validity against other measures of AoA. Then we used these different measures as concurrent predictors of adult lexical decision times. Our results showed adequate reliability and good relations with other AoA measures, especially with parent-reported AoA (r = 0.56). Corpus AoA did not predict unique variance in lexical decision times, while adult AoA ratings and parent-reported AoA did. We argue that this pattern is due to two factors. First, the adult AoA ratings and parent-reported AoA are confounded with adult memory, lexical processing and reading difficulty variables. Second, the adult AoA ratings are related to actual age of acquisition only for words acquired during later preschool and school age. Our analyses support the utility of corpus-derived AoA estimates as an objective measure of acquisition age, especially for early-acquired words.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Idioma , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Leitura , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Vocabulário
20.
Cogn Sci ; 46(5): e13133, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35613353

RESUMO

Sign languages use multiple articulators and iconicity in the visual modality which allow linguistic units to be organized not only linearly but also simultaneously. Recent research has shown that users of an established sign language such as LIS (Italian Sign Language) use simultaneous and iconic constructions as a modality-specific resource to achieve communicative efficiency when they are required to encode informationally rich events. However, it remains to be explored whether the use of such simultaneous and iconic constructions recruited for communicative efficiency can be employed even without a linguistic system (i.e., in silent gesture) or whether they are specific to linguistic patterning (i.e., in LIS). In the present study, we conducted the same experiment as in Slonimska et al. with 23 Italian speakers using silent gesture and compared the results of the two studies. The findings showed that while simultaneity was afforded by the visual modality to some extent, its use in silent gesture was nevertheless less frequent and qualitatively different than when used within a linguistic system. Thus, the use of simultaneous and iconic constructions for communicative efficiency constitutes an emergent property of sign languages. The present study highlights the importance of studying modality-specific resources and their use for linguistic expression in order to promote a more thorough understanding of the language faculty and its modality-specific adaptive capabilities.


Assuntos
Gestos , Línguas de Sinais , Humanos , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Linguística
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