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1.
Brain Nerve ; 73(3): 203-210, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678611

RESUMO

Multilingualism is merely a parametric variation in the faculty of natural language, and it is possible to simultaneously acquire multiple languages, including dialects, at any age. While acquisition of a native language, which occurs in synchrony with development of the brain, is a multiple-step process, second language acquisition is continuous. Here, we introduce the Cumulative-Enhancement model, which states that acquisition of one additional language is beneficial for the subsequent acquisition of another. We further discuss how syntax-related networks, including multiple language areas in the brain, become functional during the course of language acquisition.


Assuntos
Multilinguismo , Encéfalo , Mapeamento Encefálico , Humanos , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401547

RESUMO

Children from low-SES (socioeconomic status) and minority language immigrant families are at risk of vocabulary difficulties due to the less varied and complex language in the home environment. Children are less likely to be involved in home language activities (HLA) in interaction with adults in low-SES than in higher-SES families. However, few studies have investigated the HLA variability among low-SES, minority language bilingual immigrant families. This longitudinal study analyzes the frequency and duration of HLA and their predictive roles for expressive vocabulary acquisition in 70 equivalent low-SES monolingual and bilingual toddlers from minority contexts. HLA and vocabulary were assessed at 24 and 30 months in the majority language (Italian) and in total (majority+minority language) using parent and teacher reports. The frequency and duration of HLA in interaction with adults in total, but not in the majority language, at 24 months were similar for the two groups. These activities uniquely accounted for expressive vocabulary at 30 months, after accounting for total vocabulary at 24 months, in both groups. In conclusion, a minority-majority language context is not an additional risk factor for vocabulary acquisition if HLA is considered in interaction with adults in both languages. HLA are proximal environmental protective factors for vocabulary acquisition.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Idioma , Pobreza , Vocabulário , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Itália , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Multilinguismo , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(6): 720-726, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142596

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: The increase in the spectral information offered by the sound processing strategy HiRes 120 has led to great expectations for the pediatric population. Due to a shorter duration of auditory deprivation and higher neural plasticity, children could benefit more substantially from the spectral information of this sound processing strategy. Objective: To compare auditory and language skills in Brazilian children with cochlear implants using the HiRes and HiRes 120 sound processing strategies. Methods: Thirty children, aged 1-3 years, with congenital hearing loss, were divided into two groups, according to the signal processing strategy adjusted at the time of the cochlear implant activation. The assessed children were matched according to chronological age and the time of the cochlear implant use. The auditory and language skills were evaluated longitudinally through the Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale and Production Infant Scale Evaluation, carried out before surgery, and 3, 6 and 12 months after device implantation. The Mann-Whitney test was applied for the comparison between the two groups with a 5% significance level. Results: The findings indicated development of hearing and language skills in the first year of cochlear implant use; however, there was no statistically significant difference in the evolution of such skills due to the adjusted processing strategy in the activation of the cochlear implant electrodes. Conclusion: The development of auditory and language skills in the assessed children was similar during the entire study period, regardless of which signal processing strategy was used.


Resumo Introdução: O aumento das informações espectrais proporcionado pela estratégia de processamento de sinal HiRes 120 gera expectativas em relação à população pediátrica, uma vez que, devido ao curto período de privação sensorial e da maior plasticidade neural, as crianças poderiam se beneficiar de forma mais substancial das informações espectrais dessa estratégia de processamento de sinal. Objetivo: Comparar as habilidades auditivas e de linguagem em crianças usuárias de implante coclear, com a estratégia de processamento de sinal HiRes e HiRes 120. Método: Trinta crianças de um a três anos e com perda auditiva congênita foram divididas em dois grupos, de acordo com a estratégia de processamento de sinal ajustada no momento da ativação do implante coclear. As crianças avaliadas foram pareadas de acordo com a idade cronológica e o tempo de uso do implante coclear. As habilidades auditivas e de linguagem foram avaliadas, longitudinalmente, por meio do Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale e Production Infant Scale Evaluation, antes do implante coclear e com 3, 6 e 12 meses de uso do dispositivo. O teste estatístico de Mann-Whitney foi aplicado para comparar os resultados dos grupos, com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: Os achados indicaram desenvolvimento das habilidades auditivas e de linguagem no primeiro ano de uso do implante coclear, porém sem diferença estatisticamente significante na evolução de tais habilidades, em função da estratégia de processamento ajustada na ativação dos eletrodos do implante coclear. Conclusão: O desenvolvimento das habilidades auditivas e de linguagem das crianças avaliadas foi semelhante durante o período do presente estudo, independentemente da estratégia de processamento de sinal usada.


Assuntos
Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Percepção da Fala , Implantes Cocleares , Implante Coclear , Surdez/cirurgia , Brasil , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem
4.
Codas ; 32(5): e20190123, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053087

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To elaborate and show an innovative speech and language guidance program for smartphones, tablets, and computers, with technological support. The program aims to help parents of children at risk for language disorder in order to minimize the consequences of a developmental language disorder (DLD). METHOD: An app was developed to provide a dynamic interaction between the researcher and the families for at a distance intervention, aiming to reach the greatest number of children to promote language development in a broad, low-cost and effective way. RESULTS: The content was organized in video-lessons (theoretical orientations were carried out in the form of video-lessons, taught by the researcher), videos (documentaries and videos from YouTube), reports (reports linked to sites specializing in child development), complementary content (cultural and leisure activities to be done in family) and activities (activities to stimulate the skills worked on in each week's video lesson proposed in the application). CONCLUSION: We created a remote orientation program proposing an innovative, technological, and motivating therapeutic environment compatible with the reality of today's families.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Fonoterapia , Criança , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Pais , Fala
5.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 6111-6114, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019365

RESUMO

This study describes a fully automated method of expressive language assessment based on vocal responses of children to a sentence repetition task (SRT), a language test that taps into core language skills. Our proposed method automatically transcribes the vocal responses using a test-specific automatic speech recognition system. From the transcriptions, a regression model predicts the gold standard test scores provided by speech-language pathologists. Our preliminary experimental results on audio recordings of 104 children (43 with typical development and 61 with a neurodevelopmental disorder) verifies the feasibility of the proposed automatic method for predicting gold standard scores on this language test, with averaged mean absolute error of 6.52 (on a observed score range from 0 to 90 with a mean value of 49.56) between observed and predicted ratings.Clinical relevance-We describe the use of fully automatic voice-based scoring in language assessment including the clinical impact this development may have on the field of speech-language pathology. The automated test also creates a technological foundation for the computerization of a broad array of tests for voice-based language assessment.


Assuntos
Patologia da Fala e Linguagem , Voz , Criança , Humanos , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Testes de Linguagem
6.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Genetic testing is recommended for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Pathogenic yield varies by clinician and/or patient characteristics. Our objectives were to determine the pathogenic yield of genetic testing, the variability in rate of pathogenic results based on subject characteristics, and the percentage of pathogenic findings resulting in further medical recommendations in toddlers with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition diagnosis of ASD. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 500 toddlers, 18 to 36 months, diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition ASD (mean age: 25.8 months, 79% male). Subject demographics, medical and neuropsychological characteristics, and genetic test results were abstracted. Genetic results were divided into negative or normal, variants of unknown significance, and pathogenic. Subject characteristics were compared across results. Manual chart review determined if further recommendations were made after pathogenic results. RESULTS: Over half of subjects (59.8%, n = 299) completed genetic testing, and of those, 36 (12.0%) had pathogenic findings. There were no significant differences in Bayley Scales of Infant Development cognitive (P = .112), language (P = .898), or motor scores (P = .488) among children with negative or normal findings versus a variant of unknown significance versus pathogenic findings. Medical recommendations in response to the genetic finding were made for 72.2% of those with pathogenic results. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reinforce the importance of genetic testing for toddlers diagnosed with ASD given the 12% yield and lack of phenotypic differences between subjects with and without pathogenic findings. The majority of pathogenic results lead to further medical recommendations.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/genética , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos 13-15 , Cognição , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Proteína do X Frágil de Retardo Mental/genética , Deleção de Genes , Duplicação Gênica , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino , Análise em Microsséries , Mosaicismo , Destreza Motora , Mutação , Fenótipo , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(10): 880-890, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975063

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate differences in language ability and emotional-behavioral problems according to the severity of social communication impairments (SCI) and restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB) in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We grouped 113 children with ASD aged 3-12 years according to the severity of SCI and RRB, and investigated language differences and emotional-behavioral problems among the severity groups. If differences in language abilities between the groups were observed, they were further subdivided to examine possible predictors of both receptive and expressive language abilities. RESULTS: In cluster analyses using subdomains of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-revised, severe SCI individuals showed lower language ability than their milder counterparts, while RRB showed no differences. Receptive and expressive language in the severe SCI group was negatively predicted by social communication and social motivation, respectively. The severe RRB group showed significantly higher levels of anxiety/distress, somatic complaints, thought problems, attention problems, and aggressive behavior, while the severe SCI group was reported to be more withdrawn. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that the severity of SCI greatly affects language ability. In children with severe SCI, social communication and social motivation negatively predicted receptive language and expressive language, respectively. Children with severe RRB may have more emotional-behavioral problems that require active intervention.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/epidemiologia , Masculino , Comportamento Problema , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
8.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) have improved language outcomes when enrolled in early intervention (EI) before the age of 6 months. Little is understood about the long-term impact of EI on outcomes of kindergarten readiness (K-readiness). The study objective was to evaluate the impact of EI before the age of 6 months (early) versus after 6 months (later) on K-readiness in children who are D/HH. METHODS: In this study, we leveraged data from the Ohio Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Data Linkage Project, which linked records of 1746 infants identified with permanent hearing loss born from 2008 to 2014 across 3 Ohio state agencies; 417 had kindergarten records. The Kindergarten Readiness Assessment was used to identify children as ready for kindergarten; 385 had Kindergarten Readiness Assessment scores available. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the relationship between K-readiness and early EI entry while controlling for confounders (eg, hearing loss severity and disability status). RESULTS: Children who were D/HH and entered EI early (n = 222; 57.7% of the cohort) were more likely to demonstrate K-readiness compared with children who entered EI later (33.8% vs 20.9%; P = .005). Children who entered early had similar levels of K-readiness as all Ohio students (39.9%). After controlling for confounders, children who entered EI early were more likely to be ready for kindergarten compared with children who entered later (odds ratio: 2.02; 95% confidence interval 1.18-3.45). CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the sustained effects of early EI services on early educational outcomes among children who are D/HH. EI entry before the age of 6 months may establish healthy trajectories of early childhood development, reducing the risk for later academic struggles.


Assuntos
Correção de Deficiência Auditiva , Intervenção Médica Precoce/métodos , Transtornos da Audição , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Desempenho Acadêmico , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Surdez/reabilitação , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Ohio
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238976, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925930

RESUMO

The use of pictures as experimental stimuli is a frequent practice in psychological and educational research. In addition, picture-naming task allows the study of different cognitive processes such as perception, attention, memory and language. Line drawings have been widely used in research to date but it has begun to be highlighted the need for more ecological stimuli such as photographs. However, normative data of a photographic set has not been published yet for use with children. We present PicPsy, a new standardized bank of photographs and matched line drawing. We collected written picture-naming norms for name agreement, unknown responses, alternative names, familiarity and visual complexity. A total of 118 native Spanish-speaking children in grades 3-4 participated in the study. For comparison purposes, 89 adults were also included in the study. Child and adult performance was highly correlated, but we found significant age group differences in all variables examined except for visual complexity. Researchers and teachers could benefit from using the new standardized bank reported here which is published under public domain license. The data and materials for this research are available at the Open Science Framework, https://osf.io/nyf3t/.


Assuntos
Nomes , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/classificação , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Percepção de Forma/fisiologia , Humanos , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Traduções , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Redação
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(38): 23477-23483, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900940

RESUMO

We have long known that language is lateralized to the left hemisphere (LH) in most neurologically healthy adults. In contrast, findings on lateralization of function during development are more complex. As in adults, anatomical, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging studies in infants and children indicate LH lateralization for language. However, in very young children, lesions to either hemisphere are equally likely to result in language deficits, suggesting that language is distributed symmetrically early in life. We address this apparent contradiction by examining patterns of functional MRI (fMRI) language activation in children (ages 4 through 13) and adults (ages 18 through 29). In contrast to previous studies, we focus not on lateralization per se but rather on patterns of left-hemisphere (LH) and right-hemisphere (RH) activation across individual participants over age. Our analyses show significant activation not only in the LH language network but also in their RH homologs in all of the youngest children (ages 4 through 6). The proportion of participants showing significant RH activation decreases over age, with over 60% of adults lacking any significant RH activation. A whole-brain correlation analysis revealed an age-related decrease in language activation only in the RH homolog of Broca's area. This correlation was independent of task difficulty. We conclude that, while language is left-lateralized throughout life, the RH contribution to language processing is also strong early in life and decreases through childhood. Importantly, this early RH language activation may represent a developmental mechanism for recovery following early LH injury.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Área de Broca/diagnóstico por imagem , Área de Broca/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237702, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915785

RESUMO

Language input in childhood and literacy (and/or schooling) have been described as two key experiences impacting phonological processing. In this study, we assess phonological processing via a non-word repetition (NWR) group game, in adults and children living in two villages of an ethnic group where infants are rarely spoken to, and where literacy is variable. We found lower NWR scores than in previous work for both children (N = 17; aged 1-12 years) and adults (N = 13; aged 18-60 years), which is consistent with the hypothesis that there would be long-term effects on phonological processing of experiencing low levels of directed input in infancy. Additionally, we found some evidence that literacy and/or schooling increases NWR scores, although results should be interpreted with caution given the small sample size. These findings invite further investigations in similar communities, as current results are most compatible with phonological processing being influenced by aspects of language experience that vary greatly between and within populations.


Assuntos
Alfabetização/etnologia , Fonação , Percepção da Fala , Adulto , Bolívia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Povos Indígenas/psicologia , Lactente , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Alfabetização/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Rev. logop. foniatr. audiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 40(3): 110-117, jul.-sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194979

RESUMO

La prematuridad está asociada a riesgos en salud y neurodesarrollo, agravados por temores y desconocimiento de los padres para atender las necesidades del bebé. Por ello se requieren programas de atención temprana centrados en la familia y en entornos naturales, no disponibles en Ecuador. Este trabajo presenta la incidencia que puede presentar una intervención basada en rutinas (IBR) en la participación familiar para el desarrollo del lenguaje de sus bebés prematuros. Tres universidades internacionales y una organización no gubernamental que brinda servicio especializado, colaboraron en este estudio de casos que implementó durante 16 semanas la IBR con familias de bebés prematuros habitantes de sectores populares y usuarios de la ONG. Se recogieron datos cualicuantitativos pre- y postaplicación de la IBR. La ASQ-3 se aplicó para evaluar a los bebés y fortalecer el conocimiento de las familias sobre el desarrollo infantil. En una entrevista final, se analizan las percepciones de las madres sobre la incidencia de la intervención en participación familiar para el desarrollo del lenguaje de sus bebés. Los resultados evidencian cuantitativamente el avance de los bebés. Se destaca que las condiciones de desarrollo del bebé está mediada por las múltiples hospitalizaciones y poco conocimiento y temores de los padres sobre la condición de la prematuridad. Al finalizar, las familias manifiestan satisfacción con el proceso y reconocen el desarrollo del lenguaje de sus bebés como un resultado del incremento de la interacción familiar provocado por la IBR


Prematurity is associated with health and neurodevelopmental risks, aggravated by fears and lack of parental knowledge of their baby's needs. Therefore, early care programmes that focus on the family and natural environments, not available in Ecuador, are required. This paper presents the impact that a Routine Based Intervention (RBI) can have on family involvement in the development of their premature babies' language. Three international universities and a non-governmental organisation that provides specialist services collaborated in this case study, which implemented the IBR for 16 weeks with families of premature babies living in popular sectors and users of the NGO. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected pre- and post-implementation. The ASQ-3 was used to assess the babies and enhance the families' knowledge on child development. In a final interview, the mothers' perceptions of the impact of family involvement on their babies' language development were analysed. The results provide quantitative evidence of the babies' progress. It is noteworthy that the baby's developmental conditions were mediated by multiple hospitalisations and the parents' lack of knowledge about prematurity. At the end of the intervention, the families expressed their satisfaction with the process and recognised their babies' language development as a result of increased family interaction through the RBI


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Família , Relações Mãe-Filho , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Idade Materna
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0224956, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756591

RESUMO

Research on infant vocal development has provided notable insights into vocal interaction with caregivers, elucidating growth in foundations for language through parental elicitation and reaction to vocalizations. A role for infant vocalizations produced endogenously, potentially providing raw material for interaction and a basis for growth in the vocal capacity itself, has received less attention. We report that in laboratory recordings of infants and their parents, the bulk of infant speech-like vocalizations, or "protophones", were directed toward no one and instead appeared to be generated endogenously, mostly in exploration of vocal abilities. The tendency to predominantly produce protophones without directing them to others occurred both during periods when parents were instructed to interact with their infants and during periods when parents were occupied with an interviewer, with the infants in the room. The results emphasize the infant as an agent in vocal learning, even when not interacting socially and suggest an enhanced perspective on foundations for vocal language.


Assuntos
Fonética , Fala/fisiologia , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia , Cuidadores , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente , Idioma , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236787, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730322

RESUMO

The nature and timing of caregivers' speech provides an important foundation for infant attention and language development in the first year of life. Infant-directed speech is a key component of responsive parent-infant communication that is typically characterised by exaggerated intonation and positive affect. This study examines the effect of postnatal depression on the expression of positive vocal affect and pitch, the quantity of mothers' infant-directed speech input and the timing of vocal responses between mother and infant. Postnatal mothers currently experiencing symptoms of depression (n = 13) were matched to postnatal mothers who were not experiencing symptoms of depression (n = 13), and audio-recorded while playing with their 6-month-old infants. Compared with depressed mothers, non-depressed mothers used a higher mean pitch and pitch range, spoke more, gave faster verbal responses and were rated as expressing more positive valence in their voice. These preliminary findings indicate that mothers experiencing low mood use less infant-directed speech and less exaggerated pitch with prelinguistic infants. Postnatal depression is a major health issue that adversely impacts the parent and child. Early interventions for PND may benefit from identifying ways to support the timing of conversations and mothers' use of appropriate vocal pitch and infant-directed speech modifications. Further research is needed to confirm whether these strategies support early conversations.


Assuntos
Acústica , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Comportamento Materno , Canto/fisiologia , Fala , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Relações Mãe-Filho , Adulto Jovem
16.
Codas ; 32(3): e20180279, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578837

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To perform the construct validation of enunciative signs of language acquisition for children aged 3 to 12 months. METHOD: The study sample consisted of 94 mother-infant dyads for the analysis of Phase 1 (3-6 months) signs and 61 dyads for the analysis of Phase 2 (7-12 months) signs. Data collection was performed through analysis of the interaction between mothers and infants in play situation recorded in 15-min videos in the predicted phases, with attribution of value types of present or absent to each sign analyzed. The collected data were organized on a spreadsheet and then converted to computer applications for factor analysis. RESULTS: Factor analysis indicated the existence of two factors named "mother" and "infant" both for Phase 1 signs (explaining 71.9% of the variation) - with three signs relevant for the "infant" factor and one sign relevant for the "mother" factor, and for Phase 2 signs (explaining 74.4% of the variation) - with one sign relevant for the "infant" factor and one sign relevant for the "mother" factor. CONCLUSION: Construct validation showed that one "mother" factor and one "infant" factor were able to distinguish between at-risk and not-at-risk groups in both phases analyzed, which suggests that the absence of these signs may pose risks to language acquisition.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Idioma , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães
17.
Psico USF ; 25(2): 331-342, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, il
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1135721

RESUMO

Este trabajo tiene como objetivo verificar las diferencias de rendimiento académico del alumnado de segundo ciclo de Educación Infantil que pertenecen a un contexto multicultural en el que coexisten una lengua oficial (castellano) y un dialecto cultural (darija). La muestra la componen un total de 501 alumnos cristianos y musulmanes del tercer curso a los que se les aplicó un cuestionario que evalúa el grado de adquisición de los aspectos competenciales de las áreas de comunicación y lenguaje, social y motriz. Para el análisis del conjunto de los datos se utilizaron pruebas estadísticas descriptivas y de contraste de variables. Los resultados demuestran como la lengua materna es un factor principal de diferenciación en todas las áreas del desempeño académico en este periodo, destacando las dimensiones comunicativas. Estas diferencias tienen una relación directa con la adhesión identitaria de los musulmanes a un dialecto cultural. (AU)


Este trabalho tem como objetivo verificar as diferenças no desempenho acadêmico dos alunos em segundo ciclo de Educação Infantil pertencentes a um contexto multicultural em que coexistem uma língua oficial (castelhano) e um dialeto cultural (Darija). A amostra foi composta por um total de 501 estudantes cristãos e muçulmanos no terceiro ano em que foram aplicados um questionário que avalia o grau de aquisição de questões jurisdicionais nas áreas de comunicação e linguagem, social e motor. Para a análise do conjunto de dados, foram utilizados testes descritivos e de contraste das variáveis. Os resultados mostram como a língua materna é um importante fator de diferenciação em todas as áreas de desempenho acadêmico durante este período, com destaque para a dimensão de comunicação. Essas diferenças têm uma relação direta com a adesão dos muçulmanos a um dialeto cultural. (AU)


The objective of this work is to verify the differences in the academic performance of students in the second cycle of Early Childhood Education who belong to a multicultural context in which an official language (Castilian) and a cultural dialect (darija) coexist. The sample is made up of a total of 501 Christian and Muslim students of the third year who were given a questionnaire that assesses the degree of acquisition of the competence aspects of the areas of communication and language, social and motor. For the analysis of the data set, descriptive and contrast tests of variables were used. The results demonstrate how the mother tongue is a main factor of differentiation in all areas of academic performance in this period, highlighting the communicative dimensions. These differences have a direct relationship with the adherence of Muslims to a cultural dialect. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Educação Infantil/psicologia , Diversidade Cultural , Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Islamismo
18.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 207: 103079, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422417

RESUMO

While observing and producing gesture can enhance native language learning, research in foreign word learning is limited. English-speaking university students were verbally presented with Japanese verbs with their English translations in one of three conditions: no gesture, observing an instructor's iconic gestures, or observing and reproducing the instructor's gestures. Participants verbally recalled the words immediately following training and after a one-week delay. Both observing only as well as observing and reproducing gestures at encoding enhanced learning and were equally beneficial for both the short and longer term beyond verbal learning alone. Reproducing the instructor's gestures during learning increased the rate of spontaneous iconic gesture production during recall, though the effects of this spontaneous gesture production at test were inconsistent. Findings emphasise the importance of an instructor's gesture production during foreign language learning, and suggest that motor imagery plays a key role in the beneficial effects of gesture on learning.


Assuntos
Gestos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Verbal , Comunicação , Humanos , Japão , Idioma , Vocabulário
19.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232579, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374746

RESUMO

The present study examines the development of plot, evaluative and syntactic complexity in children's narratives and its relationship with gender, ToM, executive function and linguistic recursive ability. One hundred and five Turkish-speaking children distributed across 4 age groups (four-, five-, seven-eight-, and ten-eleven-year-olds) and 15 adults participated in (a) Elicitation of Narratives Task, (b) Emotional Stroop Task, (c) First- or Second-Order ToM Task (depending on their age), (d) Real-Apparent Emotion Task (four-year-olds), and (e) Comprehension of Complement Clauses Task. Among the three domains of complexity, only plot complexity was found to be related to gender and to develop significantly, in particular at 5 and 7 years of age. Evaluative complexity was low in children in all age groups and was not predicted by any factor. Syntactic complexity was predicted by executive function. These findings are discussed considering the cognitive, linguistic and sociocultural nature of narration.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Idioma , Narração , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Compreensão , Estudos Transversais , Cultura , Emoções , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Turquia
20.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 134: 110060, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361257

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Studies which targeted communication skills of children born following assisted reproductive technologies have reported contradictory results. Concerning the increasing rates of children born in these technologies and the importance of some factors as risk factors like birth weight, gestational age, and the number of children per birth in these procedures, studying speech and language skills is critical. So, the current study aimed to investigate the speech and language capabilities of Persian speaking children born following these procedures. METHODS: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in Babol city in 2016-2017 to investigate the receptive and expressive language and speech of Persian speaking children born in assisted reproductive technologies in the age range of 6-72 months. Parents of 78 children completed the Newsha Developmental Scale to assess language and speech skills. Then, the language and speech performance of the participants were compared in terms of gestational age, birth weight, number of children per birth, and sex in the current research and they are categorized as normal or having delay in language and speech development. RESULTS: The participants had statistically significant difference for the receptive language in terms of gestational age (χ2 (1) = 5.76, p = 0.01) and birth weight (χ2 (1) = 8.22, p = 0.004) but in terms of the number of children per birth (χ2 (1) = 7.11, p = 0.009) and sex (χ2 (1) = 0.037, p = 0.84) did not have statistically significant difference. The children did not show significant difference for the expressive language in terms of gestational age (χ2 (1) = 1.09, p = 0.29), birth weight (χ2 (1) = 0.34, p = 0.55), the number of children per birth (χ2 (1) = 1.58, p = 0.2), and sex (χ2 (1) = 0.037, p = 0.84). The participants of the present study did not have statistically significant difference in speech in terms of gestational age (χ2 (1) = 2.82, p = 0.09), the number of children per birth (χ2 (1) = 3.57, p = 0.06), and sex (χ2 (1) = 0.06, p = 0.79). They had significant difference in speech only in terms of birth weight (χ2 (1) = 4.13, p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Based on the results of the administration of the Newsha Developmental Scale as a screening tool, it seems that some factors like sex and number of children per birth do not affect speech and language performance of children born following ART. Another factor including gestational age and birth weight had effects on some domains. It is essential to design longitudinal studies to follow the speech and language performance of this population.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Fala , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prole de Múltiplos Nascimentos , Fatores Sexuais
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