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1.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(10): 1225-1233, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999201

RESUMO

This article describes our stereoselective and site-selective chemical methods for exploiting cationic heterocycles as electron-withdrawing groups (EWGs). We envisioned that the phosphoramide N-H proton of a pyridyl phosphoramide 3 would be activated by the cationic pyridinium moiety that is formed upon protonation. The resulting imide-like N-H proton and the acidic pyridinium proton of the pyridinium phosphoramide 3⋅HX cooperate together, making 3⋅HX a highly acidic dual Brønsted acid. The catalytic ability of 3⋅HX was demonstrated in the development of the first asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction between 1-amide dienes and maleimides. Focusing on the activation of N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) because of its structural similarity to maleimides, the enantioselective bromolactonization of trisubstituted olefinic acids was accomplished utilizing pyridyl phosphoramide 3f as a Brønsted base catalyst bearing an acidic N-H proton. Lastly, our strategy for the site-selective acylation of polyol compounds is described. In our system, a pyridine aldoxime ester 10, used as a mild acylating reagent, was activated by a catalytic amount of Lewis acid via the inductive effect of the cationic pyridinium moiety. The resulting metal complex preferentially attracted the alcohol with a Lewis basic site, thereby facilitating selective acylation via a template effect. This metal-template-driven strategy allowed for the site-selective acylation of diverse α-hydroxyamides, including unprotected N-glycolyl aminosugars.


Assuntos
Cátions/química , Cátions/síntese química , Química Orgânica/métodos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Elétrons , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos/síntese química , Acilação , Amidas/química , Catálise , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Reação de Cicloadição , Ésteres/química , Compostos de Pralidoxima/química , Estereoisomerismo
2.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(10): 1243-1249, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999203

RESUMO

Here the author describes the tumor-selective delivery of a fluorescence photosensitizing agent and an antitumor agent, based on the polymer effect of an N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) based copolymer, by utilizing the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect seen in solid tumors. Firstly, the tumor distribution of the photosensitizer, zinc-protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), was significantly increased by conjugation with the HPMA polymer (P-ZnPP). The P-ZnPP suppressed tumor growth by local generation of cytotoxic singlet oxygen, and the tumor tissue was visualized by fluorescence upon light irradiation. Subsequently, a two-step mechanism for tumor selectivity was observed for the cytotoxic anthracycline, pirarubicin (THP), which conjugated the HPMA-based copolymer via a hydrazone bond (P-THP). The EPR-dependent accumulation of P-THP and the tumor-selective release of THP in the tumor tissues led to highly tumor-selective toxicity. Rapid cell uptake of THP compared to other anthracyclines, and deeper P-THP penetration of the tumor cell spheroid were attributed to the superior antitumor activity of P-THP. The molecular weight of P-THP affected its antitumor activity; oligomeric P-THP derivatives with higher molecular weights, DP-THP and SP-THP, showed even higher antitumor activity. P-THP was effective for both implanted tumor and autochthonous tumor models. These results indicate that nano-sized anticancer drugs based on polymer effect are promising clinical therapeutics.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes , Polímeros , Protoporfirinas , Animais , Antraciclinas/química , Antraciclinas/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/análogos & derivados , Doxorrubicina/química , Doxorrubicina/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Metacrilatos/química , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Peso Molecular , Neoplasias/patologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/metabolismo , Protoporfirinas/química , Protoporfirinas/metabolismo
3.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(10): 1259-1268, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999205

RESUMO

RNA interference (RNAi) is the standard method of suppressing gene expression because of its target specificity, potency, and ability to silence the expression of virtually any gene. Using 21-mer small interfering RNA (siRNA) is the general approach for inducing RNAi, as siRNA can be easily prepared using a DNA/RNA synthesizer. Synthetic siRNA can be chemically modified to increase the potency of RNAi activity and abrogate innate immune stimulation. However, designing chemically modified siRNA requires substantial experimentation. A practical method for understanding the interaction of siRNA and RNAi-related proteins and how modifications affect RNA-protein interactions is therefore needed. Plasmid DNA (pDNA) expressing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) can also be used to induce RNAi. pDNA produces numerous shRNAs that induce RNAi with potent and longterm RNAi activity, even if only one pDNA molecule is delivered to the nucleus. However, this approach has some drawbacks with regard to its therapeutic application, such as a low pDNA transfection efficiency due to its huge molecular size and innate immune responses induced by extra genes, such as CpG motifs. To overcome these issues with RNAi inducers (siRNA and pDNA), our group developed some chemical approaches using chemically modified oligonucleotides. This article focuses on our two original approaches. The first involves the groove modification of siRNA duplexes to understand siRNA-protein interactions using 7-bromo-7-deazaadenosine and 3-bromo-3-deazaadenosine as chemical probes, while the second involves the generation of RNAi medicine using chemically modified DNA, known as an intelligent shRNA expression device (iRed).


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/síntese química , DNA , Imunidade Inata , Oligonucleotídeos/química , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , RNA Interferente Pequeno/química , Terapêutica com RNAi , Tubercidina/química
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238150, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866159

RESUMO

Immunogenicity is an important concern for therapeutic antibodies during drug development. By analyzing co-crystal structures of idiotypic antibodies and their antibodies, we found that anti-idiotypic antibodies usually bind the Complementarity Determining Regions (CDR) of idiotypic antibodies. Sequence and structural features were identified for distinguishing immunogenic antibodies from non-immunogenic antibodies. For example, non-immunogenic antibodies have a significantly larger cavity volume at the CDR region and a more hydrophobic CDR-H3 loop than immunogenic antibodies. Antibodies containing no Gly at the turn of CDR-H2 loop are often immunogenic. We integrated these features together with a machine learning platform to Predict Immunogenicity for humanized and full human THerapeutic Antibodies (PITHA). This method achieved an accuracy of 83% in leave-one-out experiment for 29 therapeutic antibodies with available crystal structures. The accuracy decreased to 65% for 23 test antibodies with modeled structures, because their crystal structures were not available, and the prediction was made with modeled structures. The server of this method is accessible at http://mabmedicine.com/PITHA.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Cristalografia por Raios X/métodos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Conformação Proteica
6.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(8): e1008106, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797079

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance is rising and we urgently need to gain a better quantitative understanding of how antibiotics act, which in turn would also speed up the development of new antibiotics. Here, we describe a computational model (COMBAT-COmputational Model of Bacterial Antibiotic Target-binding) that can quantitatively predict antibiotic dose-response relationships. Our goal is dual: We address a fundamental biological question and investigate how drug-target binding shapes antibiotic action. We also create a tool that can predict antibiotic efficacy a priori. COMBAT requires measurable biochemical parameters of drug-target interaction and can be directly fitted to time-kill curves. As a proof-of-concept, we first investigate the utility of COMBAT with antibiotics belonging to the widely used quinolone class. COMBAT can predict antibiotic efficacy in clinical isolates for quinolones from drug affinity (R2>0.9). To further challenge our approach, we also do the reverse: estimate the magnitude of changes in drug-target binding based on antibiotic dose-response curves. We overexpress target molecules to infer changes in antibiotic-target binding from changes in antimicrobial efficacy of ciprofloxacin with 92-94% accuracy. To test the generality of our approach, we use the beta-lactam ampicillin to predict target molecule occupancy at MIC from antimicrobial action with 90% accuracy. Finally, we apply COMBAT to predict antibiotic concentrations that can select for resistance due to novel resistance mutations. Using ciprofloxacin and ampicillin as well defined test cases, our work demonstrates that drug-target binding is a major predictor of bacterial responses to antibiotics. This is surprising because antibiotic action involves many additional effects downstream of drug-target binding. In addition, COMBAT provides a framework to inform optimal antibiotic dose levels that maximize efficacy and minimize the rise of resistant mutants.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Quinolonas , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Modelos Biológicos , Quinolonas/administração & dosagem , Quinolonas/química , Quinolonas/metabolismo , Quinolonas/farmacologia
7.
Cancer Treat Rev ; 89: 102061, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738737

RESUMO

Renal cell cancer (RCC) is the third most diagnosed genitourinary malignancy in the world. Nearly a half of the diagnoses and 60% of related deaths occur in low-middle income countries (LMs), where prognosis is generally poor. We conducted a systematic research of ClinicalTrials.gov, searching RCC ongoing studies for adult patients. We included 205 trials in the final analysis. The enrolling centers were mainly distributed in high-income settings (88.9%). We estimated 94.6% of the trial population was enrolled in only five countries and none in LMs. Clinical drug development for RCC is driven by early phase studies, mainly assessing small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immunotherapy or the combination. Sixty percent of the trials were industry sponsored. Only a minority of the trials were in the early setting of care, adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy. Disparities in drug development in LMs mirror a common underestimation of the value of research among the national priorities in cancer health planning, resulting in poor ethnic diversity and inclusiveness. This commonly results in incomplete knowledge of activity and safety of medicines across different ethnic groups, with consequences on priorities for cancer interventions and estimates of benefit in LMs patients. The use of RCC as a case study for inclusiveness suggests poor inclusion of non- Caucasian populations in the trials, especially trials testing new immunotherapy and targeted agents where RCC drug development is more pronounced, resulting in issues of generalizability in other ethnic groups when these compounds are approved with no ethnic restrictions or specifications.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Seleção de Pacientes , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237254, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853204

RESUMO

Although many novel phase I designs have been developed in recent years, few studies have discussed how to incorporate external information into dose-finding designs. In this paper, we first propose a new method for developing a phase I design, Bayesian optimal interval design (BOIN)[Liu S et al. (2015), Yuan Y et al. (2016)], for formally incorporating historical information. An algorithm to automatically generate parameters for prior set-up is introduced. Second, we propose a method to relax the fixed boundaries of the BOIN design to be adaptive, such that the accumulative information can be used more appropriately. This modified design is called adaptive BOIN (aBOIN). Simulation studies to examine performances of the aBOIN design in small and large sample sizes revealed comparable performances for the aBOIN and original BOIN designs for small sample sizes. However, aBOIN outperformed BOIN in moderate sample sizes. Simulation results also showed that when historical trials are conducted in settings similar to those for the current trial, their performance can be significantly improved. This approach can be applied directly to pediatric cancer trials, since all phase I trials in children are followed by similar efficient adult trials in the current drug development paradigm. However, when information is weak, operating characteristics are compromised.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Adulto , Algoritmos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto/métodos , Simulação por Computador , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Tamanho da Amostra , Fenômenos Toxicológicos/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(Suppl 4): 248, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying drug-target interaction is a key element in drug discovery. In silico prediction of drug-target interaction can speed up the process of identifying unknown interactions between drugs and target proteins. In recent studies, handcrafted features, similarity metrics and machine learning methods have been proposed for predicting drug-target interactions. However, these methods cannot fully learn the underlying relations between drugs and targets. In this paper, we propose anew framework for drug-target interaction prediction that learns latent features from drug-target interaction network. RESULTS: We present a framework to utilize the network topology and identify interacting and non-interacting drug-target pairs. We model the problem as a semi-bipartite graph in which we are able to use drug-drug and protein-protein similarity in a drug-protein network. We have then used a graph labeling method for vertex ordering in our graph embedding process. Finally, we employed deep neural network to learn the complex pattern of interacting pairs from embedded graphs. We show our approach is able to learn sophisticated drug-target topological features and outperforms other state-of-the-art approaches. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed learning model on semi-bipartite graph model, can integrate drug-drug and protein-protein similarities which are semantically different than drug-protein information in a drug-target interaction network. We show our model can determine interaction likelihood for each drug-target pair and outperform other heuristics.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo/normas , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Algoritmos , Humanos
10.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 86: 106738, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683296

RESUMO

The beginning of 2020 was marked as the emergence of a COVID-19 outbreak caused by a new coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Currently, there is no vaccine or approved treatment for this infectious virus so the invention of an efficient vaccine is certainly a high priority. Some studies have employed several techniques to facilitate the combination of the immunoinformatics approach and comparative genomic approach in order to determine the potential peptides for designing the T-cell epitope-based peptide vaccine using the 2019-nCoV envelope protein as a target. Via screening the bioimmunoinformatic SARS-CoV2 derived B-cell and T-cell epitopes within the basic immunogenic of SARS-CoV2 proteins, we presented a set of inferred B-cell and T-cell epitopes from the spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins with high antigenicity and without allergenic property or toxic effects. Our findings provide a screened set of epitopes that can be introduced as potential targets for developing peptide vaccines against the SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/imunologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Biologia Computacional , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico
11.
Nat Rev Drug Discov ; 19(7): 447-462, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612262

RESUMO

A large number of mouse models have been engineered, characterized and used to advance biomedical research in Alzheimer disease (AD). Early models simply damaged the rodent brain through toxins or lesions. Later, the spread of genetic engineering technology enabled investigators to develop models of familial AD by overexpressing human genes such as those encoding amyloid precursor protein (APP) or presenilins (PSEN1 or PSEN2) carrying mutations linked to early-onset AD. Recently, more complex models have sought to explore the impact of multiple genetic risk factors in the context of different biological challenges. Although none of these models has proven to be a fully faithful reproduction of the human disease, models remain essential as tools to improve our understanding of AD biology, conduct thorough pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analyses, discover translatable biomarkers and evaluate specific therapeutic approaches. To realize the full potential of animal models as new technologies and knowledge become available, it is critical to define an optimal strategy for their use. Here, we review progress and challenges in the use of AD mouse models, highlight emerging scientific innovations in model development, and introduce a conceptual framework for use of preclinical models for therapeutic development.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação , Fatores de Risco
12.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 883: 173348, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634438

RESUMO

The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in over 7,273,958 cases with almost over 413,372 deaths worldwide as per the WHO situational report 143 on COVID-19. There are no known treatment regimens with proven efficacy and vaccines thus far, posing an unprecedented challenge to identify effective drugs and vaccines for prevention and treatment. The urgency for its prevention and cure has resulted in an increased number of proposed treatment options. The high rate and volume of emerging clinical trials on therapies for COVID-19 need to be compared and evaluated to provide scientific evidence for effective medical options. Other emerging non-conventional drug discovery techniques such as bioinformatics and cheminformatics, structure-based drug design, network-based methods for prediction of drug-target interactions, artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) and phage technique could provide alternative routes to discovering potent Anti-SARS-CoV2 drugs. While drugs are being repurposed and discovered for COVID-19, novel drug delivery systems will be paramount for efficient delivery and avoidance of possible drug resistance. This review describes the proposed drug targets for therapy, and outcomes of clinical trials that have been reported. It also identifies the adopted treatment modalities that are showing promise, and those that have failed as drug candidates. It further highlights various emerging therapies and future strategies for the treatment of COVID-19 and delivery of Anti-SARS-CoV2 drugs.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234432, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516350

RESUMO

The fraction retention non-inferiority hypothesis is often measured for the ratio of the effects of a new treatment to those of the control in medical research. However, the fraction retention non-inferiority test that the new treatment maintains the efficacy of control can be affected by the nuisance parameters. Herein, a heuristic procedure for testing the fraction retention non-inferiority hypothesis is proposed based on the generalized p-value (GPV) under normality assumption and heteroskedasticity. Through the simulation study, it is demonstrated that, the performance of the GPV-based method not only adequately controls the type I error rate at the nominal level but also is uniformly more powerful than the ratio test, Rothmann's and Wang's tests, the comparable extant methods. Finally, we illustrate the proposed method by employing a real example.


Assuntos
Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Modelos Estatísticos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Resultado do Tratamento , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Capecitabina/uso terapêutico , Simulação por Computador , Estudos de Equivalência como Asunto , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(8): e198-e203, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479747

RESUMO

COVID-19 poses an extraordinary threat to global public health and an effective vaccine could provide a key means of overcoming this crisis. Human challenge studies involve the intentional infection of research participants and can accelerate or improve vaccine development by rapidly providing estimates of vaccine safety and efficacy. Human challenge studies of low virulence coronaviruses have been done in the past and human challenge studies with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 have been proposed. These studies of coronaviruses could provide considerable benefits to public health; for instance, by improving and accelerating vaccine development. However, human challenge studies of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in particular might be controversial, in part, for ethical reasons. The ethical issues raised by such studies thus warrant early consideration involving, for example, broad consultation with the community. This Personal View provides preliminary analyses of relevant ethical considerations regarding human challenge studies of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, including the potential benefits to public health and to participants, the risks and uncertainty for participants, and the third-party risks (ie, to research staff and the wider community). We argue that these human challenge studies can reasonably be considered ethically acceptable insofar as such studies are accepted internationally and by the communities in which they are done, can realistically be expected to accelerate or improve vaccine development, have considerable potential to directly benefit participants, are designed to limit and minimise risks to participants, and are done with strict infection control measures to limit and reduce third-party risks.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/ética , Experimentação Humana/ética , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos
18.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(5): 172, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533366

RESUMO

Dissolution testing and solubility determinations in different biorelevant media have gained considerable interest in the pharmaceutical industry from early-stage development of new products to forecasting bioequivalence. Among all biorelevant fluids, the preparation of fed-state simulated gastric fluid (FeSSGF) and handling of samples from dissolution/solubility testing in FeSSGF is considered to be relatively challenging. Challenges include maintaining the stability of FeSSGF medium upon sampling, filtration, and mitigating analytical interference of excipients and milk components. To overcome these challenges, standard and uniform working practices are required that are not only helpful in preparation of stable FeSSGF but also serve as a harmonizing guide for the collection of dissolution/solubility samples and their subsequent processing (i.e., handling and assay). The optimization of sample preparation methodology is crucial to reduce method-related variance by ensuring specificity, robustness, and reproducibility with acceptable recovery of the analytes. The sample preparation methodology includes a combination of techniques including filtration, solvent treatment, and centrifugation to remove the interfering media-related components and excipients from the analyte. The analytes of interest were chromatographically separated from the interfering analytes to quantify the drug concentration using the new high-performance liquid chromatography methods with ultraviolet detection. The methods developed allow rapid sample preparation, acceptable specificity, reproducible recoveries (greater than 95% of label claim), and quantification of study drugs (ibuprofen and ketoconazole). The sample preparation technique and method considerations provided here for ibuprofen and ketoconazole can serve as a starting point for solubility and dissolution testing of other small molecules in FeSSGF.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Ácido Gástrico/metabolismo , Ibuprofeno/metabolismo , Cetoconazol/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ibuprofeno/química , Cetoconazol/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Solubilidade , Comprimidos
19.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(5): 174, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548786

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a foremost type of cancer problem in which asialoglycoprotein receptors are overexpressed. In this study, asialoglycoprotein receptor-targeted nanoformulation (galactose-conjugated TPGS micelles) loaded with docetaxel (DTX) was developed to achieve its site-specific delivery for HCC therapy. The pharmaceutical characteristics like shape morphology, average particle size and zeta potential, drug entrapment efficiency, and in vitro release kinetics of developed system were evaluated. DTX-loaded galactosylated TPGS (DTX-TPGS-Gal) micelles and TPGS micelles (DTX-TPGS) were having 58.76 ± 1.82% and 54.76 ± 1.42% entrapment of the DTX, respectively. In vitro drug release behavior from micelles was controlled release. Cytotoxicitiy (IC50) of DTX-TPGS-Gal formulation on HepG2 cell lines was significantly (p ≤ 0.01) lower (6.3 ± 0.86 µg/ml) than DTX-TPGS (9.06 ± 0.82 µg/ml) and plain DTX (16.06 ± 0.98 µg/ml) indicating higher efficacy of targeted formulation. Further, in vivo biodistribution studies in animal model showed maximum drug accumulation at target site, i.e., the liver in the case of DTX-TPGS-Gal as compared with non-targeted one. It is concluded from the findings that TPGS-Gal micelles can be utilized for targeted drug delivery of cytotoxic drugs towards HCC with minimized side effects. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Docetaxel/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Galactose/química , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Vitamina E/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Docetaxel/farmacocinética , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Galactose/administração & dosagem , Galactose/farmacocinética , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Distribuição Tecidual/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Tecidual/fisiologia , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Vitamina E/farmacocinética
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