Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 5.684
Filtrar
1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7634, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538170

RESUMO

Adolescence is a key life phase for developing well-adjusted social behaviour. An essential component of well-adjusted social behaviour is the ability to update our beliefs about the trustworthiness of others based on gathered information. Here, we examined how adolescents (n = 157, 10-24 years) sequentially sampled information about the trustworthiness of peers and how they used this information to update their beliefs about others' trustworthiness. Our Bayesian computational modelling approach revealed an adolescence-emergent increase in uncertainty of prior beliefs about others' trustworthiness. As a consequence, early to mid-adolescents (ages 10-16) gradually relied less on their prior beliefs and more on the gathered evidence when deciding to sample more information, and when deciding to trust. We propose that these age-related differences could be adaptive to the rapidly changing social environment of early and mid-adolescents. Together, these findings contribute to the understanding of adolescent social development by revealing adolescent-emergent flexibility in prior beliefs about others that drives adolescents' information sampling and trust decisions.


Assuntos
Comportamento Social , Confiança , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Humanos , Incerteza
2.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 233, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internalizing disorders, such as anxiety and depressive disorders, are common mental disorders in young people, but a detailed understanding of the symptom continuity from childhood to adolescence that additionally includes a variety of neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD) symptoms is lacking. We therefore aimed to assess the extent to which parent-reported anxiety, depression, and NDD symptoms in childhood predict parent-reported internalizing symptoms in adolescence. METHODS: We used the nation-wide population-based Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden, comprising 4492 twins born in Sweden between 1998 and 2003 that were assessed at age 9, and then again at age 15. Linear regression in a structural equation modelling framework was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Overall, our results indicate that 15.9% of the variance in internalizing symptoms at age 15 can be predicted by anxiety, depression, and NDD symptoms at age 9. Anxiety and NDD symptoms in childhood predicted the largest amount of internalizing symptoms in adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent internalizing symptoms are modestly affected by childhood symptoms of anxiety, depression, and NDDs, suggesting that they may represent different constructs across age. Future studies should further empirically investigate differences in etiology and trajectories of childhood versus adolescent internalizing symptoms.


Assuntos
Depressão , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Criança , Depressão/diagnóstico , Humanos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35270229

RESUMO

The coronavirus pandemic has severely impacted children's and adolescents' lives due to policies and regulations implemented to slow the virus from spreading, which led to a loss of routine, structure, academic support, and social contacts. Literature also reports a lack of outdoor activity, inappropriate diet, and disruption of sleeping habits as affecting children's and adolescents' lifestyles and well-being. Remarkably, these consequent psychological, behavioral, and emotional changes can compromise their self-esteem, sense of self-efficacy, and self-concept, affecting their immune systems. These maladaptive coping strategies and associated effects may emerge as a failure to access some of the sources of support that might help them cope. Facing this crisis, we aimed at promoting well-being, growth, and the positive development of Portuguese adolescents through an intervention focused on positive coping strategies. We developed "Adolescer in time of COVID-19-A good practices Guide for adolescents in social distancing" as a digital document to be quickly disseminated online, answering the emergent needs of Portuguese youth between 13 and 18 years old during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this article, we present the rationale and process of construction of this intervention while living within a quarantine period, considering the restrictive measures adopted at the time.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1649, 2022 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347142

RESUMO

The relationship between social media use and life satisfaction changes across adolescent development. Our analyses of two UK datasets comprising 84,011 participants (10-80 years old) find that the cross-sectional relationship between self-reported estimates of social media use and life satisfaction ratings is most negative in younger adolescents. Furthermore, sex differences in this relationship are only present during this time. Longitudinal analyses of 17,409 participants (10-21 years old) suggest distinct developmental windows of sensitivity to social media in adolescence, when higher estimated social media use predicts a decrease in life satisfaction ratings one year later (and vice-versa: lower estimated social media use predicts an increase in life satisfaction ratings). These windows occur at different ages for males (14-15 and 19 years old) and females (11-13 and 19 years old). Decreases in life satisfaction ratings also predicted subsequent increases in estimated social media use, however, these were not associated with age or sex.


Assuntos
Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5311, 2022 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35351941

RESUMO

Adolescent development is not only shaped by the mere passing of time and accumulating experience, but it also depends on pubertal timing and the cascade of maturational processes orchestrated by gonadal hormones. Although individual variability in puberty onset confounds adolescent studies, it has not been efficiently controlled for. Here we introduce ultrasonic bone age assessment to estimate biological maturity and disentangle the independent effects of chronological and biological age on adolescent cognitive abilities. Comparing cognitive performance of female participants with different skeletal maturity we uncover the impact of biological age on both IQ and specific abilities. We find that biological age has a selective effect on abilities: more mature individuals within the same age group have higher working memory capacity and processing speed, while those with higher chronological age have better verbal abilities, independently of their maturity. Based on our findings, bone age is a promising biomarker of adolescent maturity.


Assuntos
Cognição , Ultrassom , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Puberdade
7.
8.
Dev Psychol ; 58(3): 485-492, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35286107

RESUMO

Exposure to ozone is a well-documented risk factor for negative physical health outcomes but has been considered less frequently in the context of socioemotional health. We examined whether levels of neighborhood ozone predicted trajectories of depressive symptoms over a four-year period in 213 adolescents (ages 9-13 years at baseline; 57% female; 53% of minority race/ethnicity). Participants self-reported depressive and other types of psychopathology symptoms up to 3 times, and their home addresses were used to compute ozone levels in their census tract. Possible confounding variables, including personal, family, and neighborhood characteristics, were also assessed. We found that higher ozone predicted steeper increases in depressive symptoms across adolescent development, a pattern that was not observed for other forms of psychopathology symptoms. These findings underscore the importance of considering ozone exposure in understanding trajectories of depressive symptoms across adolescence. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Ozônio , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Criança , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Brasília; CONITEC; fev. 2022.
Não convencional em Português | BRISA/RedTESA, BRISA/RedTESA | ID: biblio-1369036

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO: A OI é uma doença genética caracterizada por fragilidade óssea e fraturas recorrentes por mínimo trauma, além de deformidades de ossos longos e, nos casos mais graves, consequente incapacidade funcional para deambulação. Além do tratamento medicamentoso para aumentar densidade mineral óssea, cirurgias ortopédicas com inserção de dispositivos intramedulares são indicadas para corrigir as deformidades e estabilizar as fraturas. Entre estes dispositivos implantáveis disponíveis estão: fios (Kirschner ou Steinmann) e hastes (flexíveis ou extensíveis). Com o objetivo de alinhar os ossos longos prevenindo e corrigindo curvaturas que propiciem fraturas, a escolha por haste extensível, também chamada telescópica, para criança ou adolescente ainda em fase de crescimento se justifica por sua capacidade de se estender, acompanhando o crescimento ósseo e, possivelmente, reduzindo o número de revisões cirúrgicas para substituição do implante. Contudo, apesar da evolução das hastes extensíveis ao longo dos anos, chegando ao atual modelo Fassier Duval (FD), complicações pós-operatórias podem ocorrer e demandar revisão cirúrgica, assim como ocorre com as hastes e os dispositivos não extensíveis. TECNOLOGIA: Hastes intramedulares telescópicas (extensíveis). PERGUNTA: O uso de hastes intramedulares telescópicas (extensíveis, tipo Fassier Duval) é seguro e eficaz para correção de deformidades ósseas, redução das incidências de fraturas, revisões e complicações cirúrgicas, além de incremento dos resultados de


Assuntos
Criança , Adolescente , Dispositivos de Fixação Ortopédica , Aparelhos Ortopédicos , Osteogênese Imperfeita/fisiopatologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Fixação de Fratura/métodos , Sistema Único de Saúde , Brasil , Análise Custo-Benefício/economia
10.
Nat Immunol ; 23(2): 177-185, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35105983

RESUMO

Children and adolescents exhibit a broad range of clinical outcomes from SARS-CoV-2 infection, with the majority having minimal to mild symptoms. Additionally, some succumb to a severe hyperinflammatory post-infectious complication called multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), predominantly affecting previously healthy individuals. Studies characterizing the immunological differences associated with these clinical outcomes have identified pathways important for host immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and innate modulators of disease severity. In this Review, we delineate the immunological mechanisms underlying the spectrum of pediatric immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection in comparison with that of adults.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/imunologia , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Doenças Assintomáticas , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Comorbidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/virologia
11.
J Res Adolesc ; 32(1): 295-301, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35195316

RESUMO

The special issue brings together scholarship that expands our understanding of the adverse effects of interpersonal, online, and vicarious racial discrimination on Black adolescents' psychosocial well-being and sociocultural factors (e.g., racial socialization and positive racial identity) that mitigate these effects. It also focuses attention on ways that adolescents' behavior and characteristics shape racial socialization. Some of the critical tasks that lie ahead include elevating a developmental perspective, documenting developmental pathways, directly assessing proximal mediating processes, giving more attention to the robustness and replicability of findings, and expanding levels of analyses and outcomes to include both macro-structural indicators and indicators of physiological and neuropsychological functioning.


Assuntos
Racismo , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Humanos , Racismo/psicologia , Identificação Social , Socialização
12.
San Salvador; MINSAL; feb. 28, 2022. 121 p. ilus, graf.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1362244

RESUMO

Los presentes lineamientos tienen por finalidad, estandarizar los procedimientos técnicos que orientan el conjunto de prestaciones que el personal de salud de la Redes Integrales e Integradas de Salud (RIIS) brindarán, de manera efectiva, eficiente y con calidad, a fin de favorecer el crecimiento y desarrollo de las niñas, niños y adolescentes( NNA), además de contribuir al ejercicio y disfrute pleno de los derechos y al cumplimiento de las obligaciones del SNIS, para la conservación o la recuperación de la salud de las niñas, niños y adolescentes; establecidos en la Ley de Protección Integral de la Niñez y Adolescencia (LEPINA).


The purpose of these guidelines is to standardize the technical procedures that guide the set of benefits that the health personnel of the Comprehensive and Integrated Health Networks (RIIS) will provide, effectively, efficiently and with quality, in order to promote growth. and development of children and adolescents (NNA), in addition to contributing to the exercise and full enjoyment of the rights and compliance with the obligations of the SNIS, for the conservation or recovery of the health of children and adolescents; established in the Law for the Comprehensive Protection of Children and Adolescents (LEPINA)


Assuntos
Criança , Defesa da Criança e do Adolescente , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Proteção , Convênios
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1674, 2022 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35102227

RESUMO

The numerous multistable phenomena in vision, hearing and touch attest that the inner workings of perception are prone to instability. We investigated a visual example-binocular rivalry-with an accurate no-report paradigm, and uncovered developmental and maturational lifespan trajectories that were specific for age and sex. To interpret these trajectories, we hypothesized that conflicting objectives of visual perception-such as stability of appearance, sensitivity to visual detail, and exploration of fundamental alternatives-change in relative importance over the lifespan. Computational modelling of our empirical results allowed us to estimate this putative development of stability, sensitivity, and exploration over the lifespan. Our results confirmed prior findings of developmental psychology and appear to quantify important aspects of neurocognitive phenotype. Additionally, we report atypical function of binocular rivalry in autism spectrum disorder and borderline personality disorder. Our computational approach offers new ways of quantifying neurocognitive phenotypes both in development and in dysfunction.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Visão Ocular , Vias Visuais/fisiologia , Percepção Visual , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Criança , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Longevidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Caracteres Sexuais , Visão Binocular , Adulto Jovem
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1879, 2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35115566

RESUMO

To compare growth patterns during infancy, childhood and adolescence in children with unilateral and bilateral cerebral palsy (CP) phenotype and to assess the association with gross motor impairment, dysphagia and gestational age. We retrospectively studied 389 children with CP from a single center population in Munich, Germany. 1536 measurements of height and weight were tabulated and z-scored from 6 to 180 months of age. Generalized linear mixed model were used to examine the association between growth, GMFCS, dysphagia and gestational age by CP phenotype. Children with unilateral CP tend to grow similarly to their typically developed peers. In the main effect model, bilateral CP phenotype was significantly associated with decreased mean z-scores for height (ß [95% CI] - 0.953 [- 1.145, - 0.761], p < 0.001), weight (- 0.999 [- 1.176, - 0.807], p < 0.001) and BMI (ß [95% CI] - 0.437 [- 0.799, - 0.075]), compared with unilateral CP phenotype. This association remained significant in the interaction models. The height-for-age z-scores, weight-for-age decreased z-scores and BMI-for-age z-scores of children with bilateral CP and GMFCS III-V or dysphagia decreased more significantly than those of children with unilateral CP. Preterm birth was not significantly associated with decreased growth in height, weight and BMI. Reduced growth in children with bilateral CP was strongly associated with moderate to severe impairment in gross motor function (GMFCS III-V) and dysphagia.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Paralisia Cerebral/complicações , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Deglutição , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Atividade Motora , Transtornos Motores/etiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Paralisia Cerebral/diagnóstico , Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Deglutição/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Idade Gestacional , Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Crescimento/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Transtornos Motores/diagnóstico , Transtornos Motores/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Ganho de Peso
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1936, 2022 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35121796

RESUMO

The Down syndrome (DS) phenotype is usually characterized by relative strengths in non-verbal skills and deficits in verbal processing, but high interindividual variability has been registered in the syndrome. The goal of this study was to explore the cognitive profile, considering verbal and non-verbal intelligence, of children and adolescents with DS, also taking into account interindividual variability. We particularly aimed to investigate whether this variability means that we should envisage more than one cognitive profile in this population. The correlation between cognitive profile and medical conditions, parents' education levels and developmental milestones was also explored. Seventy-two children/adolescents with DS, aged 7-16 years, were assessed with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-III. Age-equivalent scores were adopted, and Verbal and Non-Verbal indices were obtained for each individual. The cognitive profile of the group as a whole was characterized by similar scores in the verbal and non-verbal domain. Cluster analysis revealed three different profiles, however: one group, with the lowest scores, had the typical profile associated with DS (with higher non-verbal than verbal intelligence); one, with intermediate scores, had greater verbal than non-verbal intelligence; and one, with the highest scores, fared equally well in the verbal and non-verbal domain. Three cognitive profiles emerged, suggesting that educational support for children and adolescents with DS may need to be more specific.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Comportamento Infantil , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Cognição , Síndrome de Down/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Mental/psicologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Variação Biológica da População , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Síndrome de Down/diagnóstico , Educação de Pessoa com Deficiência Intelectual , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência , Masculino , Comportamento Verbal , Vocabulário
16.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 71(1): 2-22, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35023818

RESUMO

Personality models play an important role for the etiological understanding of abnormal development in clinical settings. In this selective review, relevant personality models are presented and, in particular, their developmental dynamics and adaptability over the life span, starting in childhood, are considered in detail. The focus is on the developmental psychopathological perspective of processes of ego-resiliency and self-regulation between the poles of disposition and social environment. This is particularly obvious in the discussion of developmental path models of personality dysfunction with experiences of abuse or disorganized attachment in the child's history. Psychopathologically, an ongoing impairment of self-regulation often results in stable patterns of maladaptation, which leads in the case of purely symptomatic treatment usually only to temporary behavioral modifications. On the other hand, the changeability of pathological personality traits through the use of targeted intervention approaches will favour of a positive outcome and contradicts a deterministic stability of personality characteristics. For future research perspectives in developmental psychopathology, various theoretical personality constructs are discussed and linked to clinical observations.


Assuntos
Psiquiatria do Adolescente , Personalidade , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Criança , Família , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Personalidade , Psicopatologia
18.
J Youth Adolesc ; 51(5): 915-926, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35066708

RESUMO

Social withdrawal is often presented as overall negative, with a focus on loneliness and peer exclusion. However, social withdrawal is also a part of normative adolescent development, which indicates that groups of adolescents potentially experience social withdrawal differently from one another. This study investigated whether different groups of adolescents experienced social withdrawal in daily life as positive versus negative, using experience sampling data from a large-scale study on mental health in general population adolescents aged 11 to 20 (n = 1913, MAge = 13.8, SDAge = 1.9, 63% female) from the Flemish region in Belgium. Two social withdrawal clusters were identified using model-based cluster analysis: one cluster characterized by high levels of positive affect and one cluster characterized by high levels of negative affect, loneliness and exclusion. Logistic regression showed that boys had 66% decreased odds of belonging to the negative cluster. These results show that daily-life social withdrawal experiences are heterogeneous in adolescence, which strengthens the view that, both in research and clinical practice, social withdrawal should not be seen as necessarily maladaptive.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Solidão , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Solidão/psicologia , Masculino , Grupo Associado
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35055696

RESUMO

Leisure time is considered an important context for adolescent development. The purpose of this article is to investigate what contributes to the frequency of adolescents' participation in structured leisure activities (SLA). Participants were aged 14-21 years (M = 18.87, SD = 1.23) and 44.8% of participants were female. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted. Results indicate that boys and adolescents who perceive the context of participation in SLA as safe, are externally or intrinsically motivated, and perceive that participation has contributed to their identity development and experiences of initiative, as well as their experiences of stress, are more likely to participate frequently in SLA. On the other hand, these findings indicate that girls and adolescents who are unmotivated to participate in SLA and who experience negative peer influences while participating in SLA are less likely to frequently participate in SLA. It can be concluded that it is important to think much more broadly than just the setting of the activities themselves when promoting young people's participation in SLA. Some of the features of SLA that promote positive youth development are presented in this paper.


Assuntos
Atividades de Lazer , Motivação , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 81, 2022 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996964

RESUMO

The graded association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and physical fitness is evident, but little is known about the mechanism underlying this association. This study investigated the role of early-life activities as mediators of the longitudinal relationship between early-life SES and health-related physical fitness in 168 adolescents (51.2% boys; final mean age: 12.4 years old). In Wave 1 (2011-12), their parents completed questionnaires about family socioeconomic status (SES), parent-child activities, and child screen time. In Wave 2 (2014-15), participants' physical activity levels were assessed through parent proxy-reports. In Wave 3 (2018-19), a direct assessment of handgrip strength, standing long-jump, and 6-min walk test (6MWT) performance was conducted. After controlling for demographic factors, results of mediation analyses revealed that (a) Wave 1 SES predicted Wave 3 long-jump and 6MWT performance; (b) child physical activity level in Wave 2 mediated the relation between Wave 1 SES and standing long-jump performance in Wave 3; and (c) recreational parent-child activities and child screen time in wave 1 mediated the relation between Wave 1 SES and 6MWT performance in Wave 3. Our findings suggest that the type and frequency of early-life activities play a role in the graded association between childhood SES and physical fitness in adolescence.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Aptidão Física , Classe Social , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Análise de Mediação , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...