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1.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228866, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069310

RESUMO

Episodic memory is the ability to learn, store and recall new information. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a crucial area engaged in this ability. Cognitive training has been demonstrated to improve episodic memory in adults and older subjects. However, there are no studies examining the effects of cognitive training on episodic memory encoding in typically developing children and adolescents. This study investigated the behavioral effects and neural correlates of semantic categorization strategy training in children and adolescents during verbal episodic memory encoding using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants with age range: 7-18 years were scanned before and after semantic categorization training during encoding of word lists. Results showed improved memory performance in adolescents, but not in children. Deactivation of the anterior medial PFC/anterior cingulate and higher activation of the right anterior and lateral orbital gyri, right frontal pole and right middle frontal gyrus activation were found after training in adolescents when compared to children. These findings suggest different maturational paths of brain regions, especially in the PFC, and deactivation of default mode network areas, which are involved in successful memory and executive processes in the developing brain.


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Semântica , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(6): 3248-3253, 2020 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992644

RESUMO

Adolescent changes in human brain function are not entirely understood. Here, we used multiecho functional MRI (fMRI) to measure developmental change in functional connectivity (FC) of resting-state oscillations between pairs of 330 cortical regions and 16 subcortical regions in 298 healthy adolescents scanned 520 times. Participants were aged 14 to 26 y and were scanned on 1 to 3 occasions at least 6 mo apart. We found 2 distinct modes of age-related change in FC: "conservative" and "disruptive." Conservative development was characteristic of primary cortex, which was strongly connected at 14 y and became even more connected in the period from 14 to 26 y. Disruptive development was characteristic of association cortex and subcortical regions, where connectivity was remodeled: connections that were weak at 14 y became stronger during adolescence, and connections that were strong at 14 y became weaker. These modes of development were quantified using the maturational index (MI), estimated as Spearman's correlation between edgewise baseline FC (at 14 y, [Formula: see text]) and adolescent change in FC ([Formula: see text]), at each region. Disruptive systems (with negative MI) were activated by social cognition and autobiographical memory tasks in prior fMRI data and significantly colocated with prior maps of aerobic glycolysis (AG), AG-related gene expression, postnatal cortical surface expansion, and adolescent shrinkage of cortical thickness. The presence of these 2 modes of development was robust to numerous sensitivity analyses. We conclude that human brain organization is disrupted during adolescence by remodeling of FC between association cortical and subcortical areas.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rede Nervosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Conectoma , Feminino , Movimentos da Cabeça/fisiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(1): 771-778, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874926

RESUMO

The protracted development of structural and functional brain connectivity within distributed association networks coincides with improvements in higher-order cognitive processes such as executive function. However, it remains unclear how white-matter architecture develops during youth to directly support coordinated neural activity. Here, we characterize the development of structure-function coupling using diffusion-weighted imaging and n-back functional MRI data in a sample of 727 individuals (ages 8 to 23 y). We found that spatial variability in structure-function coupling aligned with cortical hierarchies of functional specialization and evolutionary expansion. Furthermore, hierarchy-dependent age effects on structure-function coupling localized to transmodal cortex in both cross-sectional data and a subset of participants with longitudinal data (n = 294). Moreover, structure-function coupling in rostrolateral prefrontal cortex was associated with executive performance and partially mediated age-related improvements in executive function. Together, these findings delineate a critical dimension of adolescent brain development, whereby the coupling between structural and functional connectivity remodels to support functional specialization and cognition.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cognição/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Adolescente , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Conectoma , Estudos Transversais , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Análise Espacial , Adulto Jovem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835601

RESUMO

Growth and physical performance scores were studied around three years of attainment of peak height velocity (PHV). We aimed to estimate the age at peak velocity, or at peak rate, in physical performance tasks, and sex-differences when aligned by biological age. A total of 131 boys and 123 girls, 8 to 14 years of age were recruited from the Cariri region of Brazil. A mixed longitudinal design was used with four overlapping age cohorts: 8, 10, 12, and 14 years, followed for three years, with measurements performed at 6 month intervals. Height, 12 min run (12mR), handgrip strength (HG), standing long jump (SLJ), and shuttle run (SR) velocities were estimated using a non-smooth mathematical procedure. Age at PHV was 13.4 ± 1.6 years in boys compared with 12.2 ± 2.3 years in girls. Maximal velocity in SLJ was attained 6 and 3 months prior to PHV in boys and girls, respectively. For HG, peaks were attained 9 months after PHV in boys and 15 months after PHV in girls. Maximal velocity in 12mR was attained 6 months before PHV in boys and at PHV in girls, whereas a peak in SR occurred 12 months after PHV in both sexes. In conclusion, dynamic changes in physical performance relative to PHV appear similar in both sexes, although sex differences were evident in some motor tests.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Estatura/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Brasil , Criança , Feminino , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
5.
Pediatrics ; 144(6)2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740496

RESUMO

Adolescence is the transitional bridge between childhood and adulthood; it encompasses developmental milestones that are unique to this age group. Healthy cognitive, physical, sexual, and psychosocial development is both a right and a responsibility that must be guaranteed for all adolescents to successfully enter adulthood. There is consensus among national and international organizations that the unique needs of adolescents must be addressed and promoted to ensure the health of all adolescents. This policy statement outlines the special health challenges that adolescents face on their journey and transition to adulthood and provides recommendations for those who care for adolescents, their families, and the communities in which they live.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Política de Saúde , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde/fisiologia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Política de Saúde/tendências , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Pediatria/métodos , Pediatria/tendências , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 20(1): 520, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutritional factors including vitamin D, magnesium, and fat are known to affect bone mineral accrual. This study aimed to evaluate associations between dietary nutrient intakes (both macronutrients and micronutrients) and bone mineral density (BMD) in children and adolescents. METHODS: Data for this cross-sectional, population-based study were derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Participants aged from 8 to 19 years were included. The primary outcome was femoral neck BMD. RESULTS: Multivariate analyses revealed that for participants aged 8 to 11, daily sodium intake was significantly and positively associated with femoral neck BMD (B = 0.9 ×  10- 5, p = 0.031); in particular, subgroup analyses by sex found that in male participants aged 8-11, daily total cholesterol intake (B = 5.3 × 10- 5, p = 0.030) and calcium intake (B = - 2.0 × 10- 5, p < 0.05) were significantly associated with femoral neck BMD in a positive and negative manner, respectively, but neither were observed in female participants of this age group. In contrast, daily intakes of vitamin D and magnesium were significantly and positively associated with femoral neck BMD in female participants aged 8-11 (B = 246.8 × 10- 5 and 16.3 × 10- 5, p = 0.017 and 0.033, respectively). For participants aged 16 to 19, daily total fat intake was significantly and negatively associated with femoral neck BMD (B = - 58 × 10- 5, p = 0.048); further stratification by sex found that magnesium and sodium intakes were significantly and positively associated with femoral neck BMD only in females of this age group (B = 26.9 × 10- 5 and 2.1 × 10- 5, respectively; both p < 0.05). However, no significant associations between daily nutrient intakes and femoral neck BMD were identified in participants aged 12-15 before or after subgroup stratification. CONCLUSION: The study found that associations of specific nutrition-related variables with BMD of the femoral neck is dependent upon age and gender.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Colo do Fêmur/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Calcificação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Colo do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
7.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(10): 1661-1670, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of BMI with subsequent statural growth among children born in the era of the obesity epidemic. METHODS: Among 18,271 children from Belarus (n = 16,781, born 1996 to 1997) and the United States (n = 1,490, born 1999 to 2002), multivariable linear and ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze associations of BMI z score from infancy to adolescence with subsequent standardized length and height velocity, standing height and its components (trunk and leg lengths), and pubertal timing. RESULTS: The prevalence of early adolescent obesity was 6.2% in Belarus and 12.8% in the United States. In both Belarusian and US children, higher BMI z scores in infancy and childhood were associated with faster length and height velocity in early life, while higher BMI z scores during middle childhood were associated with slower length and height velocity during adolescence. Associations with greater standing height and trunk length and earlier pubertal development in adolescence were stronger for BMI z scores at middle childhood than BMI z scores at birth or infancy. CONCLUSIONS: These findings in both Belarus and the United States support the role of higher BMI in accelerating linear growth in early life (taller stature and longer trunk length) but earlier pubertal development and slower linear growth during adolescence.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Estatura/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Puberdade/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Puberdade Precoce/epidemiologia , República de Belarus/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(10): 1912-1923, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520234

RESUMO

Most empirical research examining youth's gender development measures felt pressure to conform to gender norms using a composite value of felt pressure from multiple sources; however, because of the different socialization processes at work from parents, peers, and the self, analyzing these sources separately may elucidate different effects on gender development. Thus, the purpose of this study was to (a) differentiate the effects of perceived gender socialization pressure from parents, peers, and the self on early adolescents' own- and other-gender typicality, and (b) to examine whether a bi-directional relation between gender typicality and felt pressure is evident when distinguished across sources. With a sample of 212 early adolescents (54% girls; Mage = 11.11 years), felt pressure was found to be distinguishable by socialization source: adolescents' perceptions of parents, peers, and their own pressures were distinct, and each contributed differently to gender development. Pressure from self and peers were both found to relate concurrently to typicality (i.e., positively to own-gender typicality, negatively to other-gender typicality); only pressure from the self was found to have a longitudinal effect on adolescents' developing gender identity (i.e., an increase in own-gender typicality). Interestingly, other-gender typicality did not elicit higher felt pressure; in fact, it was negatively related to later felt pressure from the self, suggesting that adolescents may be developing self-acceptance of their levels of gender typicality. The findings suggest that the development of gender identity may involve a complex interplay with various sources of socialization pressures (e.g., parent, peers, self), and may further shift in relation to the adolescent's own levels of gender typicality.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Grupo Associado , Infuência dos Pares , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Criança , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Socialização
9.
Dev Psychol ; 55(11): 2352-2364, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512894

RESUMO

The present study examined the intraindividual, longitudinal, cross-lagged associations between adolescents' perceptions of mothers' and fathers' psychologically controlling parenting and their self-regulation from ages 11-17. Using 7 waves of data involving 500 families and their adolescents (Mage = 11.29; SD = 1.01 at Wave 1), results indicated that adolescent-reported increases in mothers' and fathers' psychological control prospectively and uniquely predicted intraindividual decrements in their self-regulation, controlling for prior levels of self-regulation. Sex differences were largely absent except for one, where fathers' psychological control predicted adolescent females', but not males', declines in self-regulation, and where reverse associations manifested. Implications for intervention efforts are suggested for parents, educators, and practitioners, and future directions for research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar , Autonomia Pessoal , Autocontrole , Adolescente , Autoritarismo , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
10.
Dev Psychol ; 55(11): 2379-2388, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512898

RESUMO

There is limited research examining stability and change in attachment security in middle childhood. The current study addresses this gap using data from a 3-year longitudinal study. Specifically, we examined stability and change in secure base script knowledge during middle childhood using a sample of 157 children (Wave 1 mean age [Mage] = 10.91, standard deviation [SD] = 0.87) assessed at 1-year intervals across 4 waves. Secure base script knowledge was moderately stable over time, as script scores were significantly correlated between each wave. We also investigated the impact of life stress on change in secure base script knowledge within individuals across waves. The results demonstrated that daily hassles (minor and frequently occurring stressful life events) but not major (more severe and infrequent) stressful life events predicted change in script knowledge. Implications for attachment-based interventions and, more broadly, the stability of attachment security are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Relações Mãe-Filho , Apego ao Objeto , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
11.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 76(19): 1472-1480, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532503

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The changes in physiological functions as children grow and organ systems mature result in pharmacokinetic alterations throughout childhood. These alterations in children result in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs that are different from those seen in the typical adult diseased population. SUMMARY: Changes in gastrointestinal motility and gastric pH in neonates and infants affect the absorption rate and bioavailability of drugs. Skin absorption rate and extent can be altered by different skin structures and perfusion in young children. Intramuscular and rectal absorption become less predictable in children due to erratic absorption site perfusion and other factors. Children's body compositions also differ greatly from that in adults. Water-soluble drugs distribute more extensively in newborns due to larger water content than in older children and adults. Drug elimination and excretion are also affected in pediatric population due to differences in liver and renal function. Immature enzyme development and renal function result in reduced clearance of drugs in young children. There are limited pharmacokinetic data available for many drugs used in children. CONCLUSION: Considering the changes in pharmacokinetics in children can help pharmacists optimize the dosing and monitoring of drugs and do the best they can to help this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica/fisiologia , Farmacocinética , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Absorção Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Farmacêuticos , Absorção Cutânea/fisiologia
12.
Dev Psychol ; 55(11): 2263-2274, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403813

RESUMO

Children and adults often have difficulties comparing decimal magnitudes. Although individuals attempt to reconcile decimals with prior whole-number and fraction knowledge, conceptual and procedural differences between decimals and prior knowledge of whole numbers and fractions can lead to incorrect strategies. The dynamic strategy choice account has proposed that saliency, recency, prior knowledge, and other factors contribute to strategy use when reasoning about decimals. We experimentally tested this theory using a priming technique to manipulate the saliency of different strategies prior to completion of a decimal magnitude comparison task. We hypothesized that whole-number priming (practicing whole-number comparisons with feedback) would increase whole-number bias in decimal comparisons (treating decimals with more digits as larger in magnitude), whereas fraction priming would increase fraction bias (treating decimals with fewer digits as larger in magnitude). We also explored participants' performance in decimal comparisons after being primed by decimal comparisons with feedback. Sixth to eighth graders (N = 149) and adults (N = 175) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 priming conditions: whole-number, fraction, decimal, or a control (flanker) task. Participants first completed numerical magnitude comparisons according to their priming condition (or control task) with feedback, then all conditions completed decimal comparisons without feedback. In both children and adults, fraction priming significantly reduced whole-number bias compared with the control. Among children, fraction priming significantly increased fraction bias. Moreover, children's performance in the control and whole-number-priming conditions was characterized by strong whole-number bias, but in the decimal-priming condition, relatively brief feedback substantially improved decimal comparison performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Conceitos Matemáticos , Pensamento/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 56, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432913

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether scores in an adapted version of the self-assessment Pubertal Development Scale into Portuguese match those from the gold standard in pubertal development (Tanner scale). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with a convenience sample of 133 children and adolescents aged nine to 17 years (59 males; mean age of 13 years and six months, with standard deviation = 25 months). Youngsters completed the Pubertal Development Scale and were then examined by specialists in adolescent medicine. RESULTS: Exact absolute agreement of pubertal stages were modest, but significant associations between measures (correlation; intra-class correlation coefficients of consistency) showed that the Pubertal Development Scale adequately measures changes that map onto pubertal development determined by physical examination, on par with international publications. Furthermore, scores obtained from each Pubertal Development Scale question reflected adequate gonadal and adrenal events assessed by clinical ratings, mostly with medium/high effect sizes. Latent factors obtained from scores on all Pubertal Development Scale questions had excellent fit indices in Confirmatory Factor Analyses and correlated with Tanner staging. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that self-assessment of body changes by youngsters using the Portuguese version of the Pubertal Development Scale is useful when estimates of pubertal progression are sufficient, and exact agreement with clinical staging is not necessary. The Pubertal Development Scale is, therefore, a reliable instrument for use in large-scale studies in Brazil that aim at investigating adolescent health related to pubertal developmental. The translated version and scoring systems are provided.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tradução , Adolescente , Brasil , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autoavaliação
14.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 38: 100675, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279245

RESUMO

In the United States over one-third of the population, including children and adolescents, are overweight or obese. Despite the prevalence of obesity, few studies have examined how food cravings and the ability to regulate them change throughout development. Here, we addressed this gap in knowledge by examining structural brain and behavioral changes associated with regulation of craving across development. In a longitudinal design, individuals ages 6-26 completed two structural scans as well as a behavioral task where they used a cognitive regulatory strategy to decrease the appetitive value of foods. Behaviorally, we found that the ability to regulate craving improved with age. Neurally, improvements in regulatory ability were associated with cortical thinning in medial and lateral prefrontal cortex. We also found that models with cortical thickness measurements and age chosen by a lasso-based variable selection method could predict an individual's regulation behavior better than age and other behavioral factors alone. Additionally, when controlling for age, smaller ventral striatal volumes were associated with higher body mass index and predicted greater increases in weight two years later. Taken together, these results demonstrate a role for structural brain changes in supporting the ability to resist cravings for appetitive foods across development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Fissura/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/tendências , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
Child Dev ; 90(5): 1490-1502, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301064

RESUMO

In adolescence, the formation of personal identity and values may be intertwined, since values are among the main issues considered when building one's identity. This study examined how sociocognitive strategies used in the process of identity formation were related with adoption of prodiversity and proequality values, which are critically important for socially diverse contemporary societies. Participants were 916 adolescents (51.4% females, Mage  = 15.65, SDage  = 0.73 at baseline) involved in a three-wave longitudinal study with annual assessments. The results of cross-lagged analyses suggest that more rational and deliberate processing of self-relevant information is related to stronger adoption of prodiversity and proequality values over time. In turn, endorsement of prodiversity and proequality values is related to more rational and deliberate processing of self-relevant issues.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Autoimagem , Identificação Social , Adolescente , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
17.
Dev Psychol ; 55(10): 2181-2192, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282730

RESUMO

Little is known about adolescent applications of the virtues such as honesty, responsibility and courage across different cultural contexts. Using the Adolescent Intermediate Concepts Measure we analyze samples of adolescents (ages 12 to 20; N = 9,112) from 5 contexts: North Macedonia, Mexico, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Across samples, adolescents provide evidence of developmental growth in the ability to apply virtue concepts as assessed by responses to dilemma-based situations. Within these trends, participants found it easier to identify action choices that reflect the virtue concepts as compared to justifications for possible actions. Additionally, participants were better able to identify appropriate applications of the virtues as compared to inappropriate ones. Gender differences favoring females were noted across samples. Overall, similarities across settings were more striking than differences suggesting that there is value in viewing the virtues as a normative component of character development across the adolescent years. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Cultura , Virtudes , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , América do Norte , Fatores Sexuais , Taiwan , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
19.
Dev Psychol ; 55(10): 2090-2101, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343226

RESUMO

Complexity is one of the major demands of adolescents' future life as adults. To investigate adolescents' competence development in applying problem-solving strategies in complex environments, we conducted a 2-wave longitudinal study in a sample of Finnish adolescents (11-17 years old; N = 1,959 at Time 1 and N = 1,690 at Time 2, 3 years later). In this study, we aimed to: (a) determine the optimal number of strategy use profiles while solving complex problems, (b) determine the number of meaningful developmental paths for each profile, and (c) test the impact of reasoning abilities and learning-related motivational beliefs on the probability that an adolescent with a given strategy use profile will take a given developmental path. Using latent transition analysis, we found 4 meaningful strategy use profiles: Proficient Explorers, Rapid Learners, Emerging Explorers, and Low-Performing Explorers. Forty-three percent of the participants were classified as having the same strategy use profile in Time 1 and Time 2. The strategy use of 34% was assessed as having improved between Time 1 and Time 2, while that of 21% was assessed as having declined between Time 1 and Time 2. Verbal reasoning ability and learning-related motivational beliefs predicted whether the developmental path of Emerging Explorers' was more likely to remain stable, improve, or decline over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Resolução de Problemas , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos
20.
Br J Dev Psychol ; 37(4): 505-518, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162692

RESUMO

The present study examined what motives account for age-related decreases in selfish behaviour and whether these motives equally predict positive emotions when making a moral decision. The study was based on a sample of 190 children and adolescents (101 females) from three different age groups (childhood, early adolescence, and middle adolescence, M = 12.9 years, SD = 2.58). A decision-making task was used where participants chose between (1) maximizing their own self-interest versus (2) being prosocial, (3) being fair, or (4) appearing fair while avoiding the costs of actually being fair. Overall, prosociality and fairness were equally important motives for unselfish behaviour. At the same time, the importance of fairness motivation increased with age. Hypocrisy motivation was less frequent than expected by chance. Prosociality was most strongly and positively associated with self-rated happiness about the decision, whereas the opposite was found for individuals who were motivated by fairness. Overall, the study indicates that children's or adolescents' unselfish behaviour in decision-making tasks are driven by a variety of motives with diverse emotional implications. The relative importance of these motives changes over the course of development. STATEMENT OF CONTRIBUTION: What is already known on this subject? Older children behave less selfishly in resource allocation tasks. Prosocial behaviour is associated with positive emotions. What the present study adds? Unselfish behaviour is equally motivated by fairness and prosociality. Fairness motivation increases from childhood throughout adolescence. Decisions motivated by prosociality are experienced as more positive than decisions motivated by fairness.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Princípios Morais , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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