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1.
Am Surg ; 85(10): 1089-1093, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657300

RESUMO

Older adults undergoing nonelective surgery are at risk for geriatric events (GEs: delirium, dehydration, falls/fractures, failure to thrive, and pressure ulcers), but the impact of GEs on postoperative outcomes is unclear. Using the 2013 to 2014 National Inpatient Sample, we analyzed nonelective hospital admissions for five common operations (laparoscopic cholecystectomy, colectomy, soft tissue debridement, small bowel resection, and laparoscopic appendectomy) in older adults (aged ≥65 years) and a younger referent group (aged 55-64 years). Nationally weighted descriptive statistics were generated for GEs. Logistic regression controlling for patient, procedure, and hospital characteristics estimated the association of 1) age with GEs and 2) GEs with outcomes. Of 471,325 overall admissions, 64.7 per cent were aged ≥65 years. The rate of any GE in older adults was 26.9 per cent; GEs varied by age and procedure (P < 0.001). After adjustment, the probability of any GE increased with age category (P < 0.001); having any GE was associated with higher probability of all outcomes (P < 0.001): mortality (4.5% vs 0.8%), postoperative complications (61.7% vs 24.9%), prolonged length of stay (24.3% vs 7.9%), and skilled nursing facility discharge (46.6% vs 10.3%). In addition, there was a dose-response relationship between GEs and negative outcomes. GEs are prevalent in the nonelective surgery setting and associated with worse clinical outcomes. Quality improvement efforts should focus on addressing GEs.


Assuntos
Apendicectomia/efeitos adversos , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/efeitos adversos , Colectomia/efeitos adversos , Desbridamento/efeitos adversos , Intestino Delgado/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Apendicectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/estatística & dados numéricos , Colectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Desbridamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Desidratação/epidemiologia , Desidratação/etiologia , Delírio/epidemiologia , Delírio/etiologia , Insuficiência de Crescimento/epidemiologia , Insuficiência de Crescimento/etiologia , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Lesão por Pressão/epidemiologia , Lesão por Pressão/etiologia , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Results Probl Cell Differ ; 68: 231-249, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598859

RESUMO

The invertebrate phylum Tardigrada has received much attention for containing species adapted to the most challenging environmental conditions where an ability to survive complete desiccation or freezing in a cryptobiotic state is necessary for persistence. Although research on tardigrades has a long history, the last decade has seen a dramatic increase in molecular biological ("omics") studies, most of them with the aim to reveal the biochemical mechanisms behind desiccation tolerance of tardigrades. Several other aspects of tardigrade cell biology have been studied, and we review some of them, including karyology, embryology, the role of storage cells, and the question of whether tardigrades are eutelic animals. We also review some of the theories about how anhydrobiotic organisms are able to maintain cell integrity under dry conditions, and our current knowledge on the role of vitrification and DNA protection and repair. Many aspects of tardigrade stress tolerance have relevance for human medicine, and the first transfers of tardigrade stress genes to human cells have now appeared. We expect this field to develop rapidly in the coming years, as more genomic information becomes available. However, many basic cell biological aspects remain to be investigated, such as immunology, cell cycle kinetics, cell metabolism, and culturing of tardigrade cells. Such development will be necessary to allow tardigrades to move from a nonmodel organism position to a true model organism with interesting associations with the current models C. elegans and D. melanogaster.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais , Tardígrados/citologia , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Desidratação , Drosophila melanogaster
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 186, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565146

RESUMO

Introduction: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a leading cause of mortality in children in developing countries. Management of AGE consumes medical resources, including antibiotics and intra-venous fluids, but factors affecting resource utilization in the management of AGE are under-studied. We hope to identify clinical predictors of resource utilization in AGE. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients 1-60 months of age admitted to a tertiary hospital in Northern Ghana between January 2013 and December 2014 with an admitting diagnosis of AGE. We collected data on patient demographics, presenting symptoms, and subsequent management. Our primary outcome was prolonged hospital length of stay, defined as >4 days. Secondary outcomes included other measures of resource utilization, such as use of antibiotics, antimalarials and intravenous fluids. Demographic and clinical characteristics were compared between groups with Pearson chi square test for categorical variables and ANOVA for continuous variables. Multivariable logistic regression modeling for each outcome included all variables found to be significant in the bivariate analysis. Results: We reviewed charts for 473 patients admitted for AGE during this timeframe. 264 (56%) were male, median age was 12 months. 448 (95%) received antibiotics, 396 (84%) received antimalarials and 365 (77.2%) received intravenous fluids. 167 (35.3%) had prolonged LOS >4 days. Following multiple logistic regression analysis, clinical features associated with prolonged LOS included fever duration (OR 2.87, 95% CI 2.28-3.61 per 1-day increase), mild (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.12-5.08) or moderate (OR 3.13, 95% CI 1.57-6.21) dehydration (compared to none) and symptom duration (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01-1.27 per 1-day increase). Conclusion: Dehydration and duration of symptoms prior to presentation predict prolonged hospital LOS in young children with AGE in Northern Ghana.


Assuntos
Desidratação/terapia , Gastroenterite/terapia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Aguda , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Pré-Escolar , Desidratação/epidemiologia , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Hidratação/estatística & dados numéricos , Gana , Recursos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
4.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(8): 2639-2646, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418188

RESUMO

Drought and waterlogging are two main abiotic stresses for plants, with serious impacts on plant physiological activities. In this study, the vertical and canopy leaf images of young sandalwood were obtained by SLR camera, with leaf segmentation algorithm being used to extract leaves and color features. We examined the color change of sandalwood leaves and water content inversion in different angles under two stress conditions. The results showed that leaf brightness decreased while the green component increased in the early stage (the first six days) of drought stress. After that, the brightness began to increase and green component began to decrease. Under water stress, the brightness of leaves decreased and yellow component increased in the whole stress cycle. The changes of control group was similar to that of the drought group, but the inflection point appeared later. Under the range of 50% to 70% for water content of leaves, the value of R, G, B channel of color images would decrease with the increases of water content. When the water content of leaves was less than 40%, the R channel value was larger than the G channel value. When using the extreme learning machine to retrieve the water content index, the corrected color components improved the fitness and the prediction accuracy. The vertical image was more suitable for retrieving water content of leaves, with the error of determination coefficient and average absolute percentage being 0.8352 and 2.3%, respectively. The canopy images were more accurate in expressing the equivalent water thickness of blades, with the above indices of 0.7924 and 9.3%, respectively.


Assuntos
Secas , Santalum , Desidratação , Humanos , Folhas de Planta , Água
5.
Cas Lek Cesk ; 158(3-4): 141-146, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416322

RESUMO

Abundant drinking of fluids at any occasion became popular in wealthy society in last decades. It is referred to asserted beneficial health effects, but rationale of these recommendations is disputed in expert environment as hardly traceable and tenable. Authors of the article analyse theoretical issues as well as empiric literary evidence for the current popular recommendation. They find them unfounded and difficult to be defended and the risks of transitive hypo-hydration overestimated. Moreover, they alert true risks of water poisoning we meet not quite rarely in common practice.


Assuntos
Desidratação , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Ingestão de Líquidos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico
7.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 335, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drought is a serious causal factor of reduced crop yields than any other abiotic stresses. As one of the most widely distributed crops, maize plants frequently suffer from drought stress, which causes great losses in the final kernel yield. Drought stress response in plants showed tissue- and developmental stage-specific characteristics. RESULTS: In this study, the ears at the V9 stage, kernels and ear leaf at the 5DAP (days after pollination) stage of maize were used for morphological, physiological and comparative transcriptomics analysis to understand the different features of "sink" or "source" organs and the effects on kernel yield under drought stress conditions. The ABA-, NAC-mediate signaling pathway, osmotic protective substance synthesis and protein folding response were identified as common drought stress response in the three organs. Tissue-specific drought stress responses and the regulators were identified, they were highly correlated with growth, physiological adaptation and yield loss under drought stress. For ears, drought stress inhibited ear elongation, led to the abnormal differentiation of the paired spikelet, and auxin signaling involved in the regulation of cell division and growth and primordium development changes. In the kernels, reduced kernel size caused by drought stress was observed, and the obvious differences of auxin, BR and cytokine signaling transduction appeared, which indicated the modification in carbohydrate metabolism, cell differentiation and growth retardation. For the ear leaf, dramatically and synergistically reduced the expression of photosynthesis genes were observed when suffered from drought stress, the ABA- and NAC- mediate signaling pathway played important roles in the regulation of photosynthesis. CONCLUSIONS: Transcriptomic changes caused by drought were highly correlated with developmental and physiological adaptation, which was closely related to the final yield of maize, and a sketch of tissue- and developmental stage-specific responses to drought stress in maize was drafted.


Assuntos
Zea mays/fisiologia , Produção Agrícola , Desidratação , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/metabolismo
8.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(7): 950-956, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293260

RESUMO

Background: Accurate assessment of the degree of dehydration is essential in the management and fluid therapy of dehydrated children. The invasiveness of central venous pressure limits its routine clinical use. Fortunately, some studies have suggested that ultrasonographic measurement of inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter: aorta diameter ratio (IADR) is an objective method of assessing intravascular volume. Objectives: To determine the clinical usefulness of ultrasound measurement of IADR in assessment of children with dehydration. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study which compared dehydrated children to age- and sex-matched euvolemic healthy children as controls. The maximum anteroposterior diameter of the abdominal aorta (at peak systole) and maximum IVC diameter (in expiration) were measured. Results: A total of 120 subjects and 120 controls were evaluated. The mean age was 21.73 ± 20.89 months for subjects and 21.19 ± 22.13 months for control. The mean IADR for children with mild, moderate, and severe dehydration was 0.75 ± 0.07, 0.55 ± 0.07, and 0.33 ± 0.05, respectively. The mean IADR for controls was 0.99 ± 0.06. IADR had an inverse relationship with the degree of dehydration in the subjects. A cut-off point of 0.86, with a sensitivity and specificity of 96.7% in predicting dehydration, was derived, with the sensitivity and specificity increasing with increasing level of dehydration. Conclusion: IADR is sensitive and specific for assessing moderate and severe dehydration in Nigerian children.


Assuntos
Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Desidratação , Ultrassonografia , Veia Cava Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta/anatomia & histologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pressão Venosa Central , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Desidratação/diagnóstico , Desidratação/etiologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/complicações , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Nigéria , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 6049-6059, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The scarcity of irrigation water is severely affecting global crop production. In this context, biostimulants are increasingly used as alternatives means against abiotic stress conditions. In this study, phenolic compounds composition and bioactive properties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants grown under water stress conditions and biostimulants application were investigated. RESULTS: Sixteen individual phenolic compounds were detected in both pods and seeds with a notable difference in their compositional profile. A significant effect on phenolic compounds content and composition was also observed for the biostimulants tested. Regarding the antibacterial activity, pods of the second harvest and seed extracts showed significant efficacy against Bacillus cereus, especially in water-stressed plants, where all biostimulant treatments were more effective than positive controls. Moreover, all biostimulant treatments for seed extracts of water-stressed plants were more effective against Staphylococcus aureus compared with ampicillin, whereas streptomycin showed the best results. Extracts from pods of the second harvest from normally irrigated plants showed the best results against the fungi tested, except for Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium. Finally, no significant cytotoxic effects were detected. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the biostimulants tested increased total phenolic compounds content compared with control treatment, especially in pods of the first harvest and seeds of water-stressed plants. Moreover, bioactive properties showed a varied response in regard to irrigation and biostimulant treatment. Therefore, biostimulants can be considered as a useful means towards increasing phenolic compounds content, and they may also affect the antimicrobial properties of pods and seeds extracts. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Desidratação , Phaseolus/química , Phaseolus/fisiologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Água/metabolismo , Bacillus cereus/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus cereus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Phaseolus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Phaseolus/microbiologia , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico , Água/análise
10.
Waste Manag ; 93: 47-53, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235056

RESUMO

Urban expansion has led to the accumulation of sludge, and its disposal has to meet increasingly stringent requirements. Therefore, pyrolysis has become an alternative option. However, it was still unclear which part of the sludge could be pyrolyzed to generate the product with a higher heating value, and therefore we divided sludge into extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and cell phase and measured their heating values respectively. The obtained results showed that the high heating value (HHV) of the pyrolysis cell phase accounted for 85% of the sludge pyrolysis, and the addition of protein significantly increased the heating value of each component. Although the HHV of the pyrolysis cell phase increased by 1.8 MJ kg-1 for every 1% increase in protein, the HHV of the pyrolysis sludge and EPS increased by only 1.2 MJ kg-1. It is therefore suggested that EPS may contain substances that inhibit heat release. Properly increasing the cellular or protein components in the sludge could significantly increase the HHV produced by pyrolysis. Based on the measurement of fatty acids (FAs) and alcohol content and FTIR results, the addition of protein could increase the saturated FAs and accelerate the replacement of oxygen with nitrogen in the pyrolysis product, resulting in higher HHV. If the sludge was not dehydrated, more volatile compounds were carbonized and the HHV increased from 12 MJ kg-1 to 19 MJ kg-1. In short, since the HHV of the sludge was mainly derived from the cell phase, the HHV generation could be improved by increasing the cell phase or protein content without dehydration.


Assuntos
Desidratação , Esgotos , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Nitrogênio , Pirólise
11.
Planta ; 250(3): 857-871, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203447

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: This represents the first report deciphering the dehydration response of suspension-cultured cells of a crop species, highlighting unique and shared pathways, and adaptive mechanisms via profiling of 330 metabolites. Grasspea, being a hardy legume, is an ideal model system to study stress tolerance mechanisms in plants. In this study, we investigated the dehydration-responsive metabolome in grasspea suspension-cultured cells (SCCs) to identify the unique and shared metabolites crucial in imparting dehydration tolerance. To reveal the dehydration-induced metabolite signatures, SCCs of grasspea were exposed to 10% PEG, followed by metabolomic profiling. Chromatographic separation by HPLC coupled with MRM-MS led to the identification of 330 metabolites, designated dehydration-responsive metabolites (DRMs), which belonged to 28 varied functional classes. The metabolome was found to be constituted by carboxylic acids (17%), amino acids (13.5%), flavonoids (10.9%) and plant growth regulators (10%), among others. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed predominance of metabolites involved in phytohormone biosynthesis, secondary metabolism and osmotic adjustment. Exogenous application of DRMs, arbutin and acetylcholine, displayed improved physiological status in stress-resilient grasspea as well as hypersensitive pea, while administration of lauric acid imparted detrimental effects. This represents the first report on stress-induced metabolomic landscape of a crop species via a suspension culture system, which would provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of stress responses and adaptation in crop species.


Assuntos
Lathyrus/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ácidos Carboxílicos/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Desidratação , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Lathyrus/fisiologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/fisiologia , Metabolômica , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo
12.
Food Chem ; 295: 300-310, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174762

RESUMO

While fleshy fruit softening has long been mechanistically linked to cell wall disassembly, the importance of the fruit cuticle in water relations and firmness has been suggested through studies of the long-shelf life delayed fruit deterioration (dfd) tomato genotype. We tested the hypothesis that dynamic cuticle properties and composition affect tomato fruit transpiration and firmness and are influenced by environmental water availability, using dfd and two normally softening fruit cultivars, Ailsa Craig (AC) and M82, grown under control and water stress (WS) conditions. The effect of WS was also assessed following fruit detachment. WS increased fruit firmness, cuticle load, and the expression of cuticle biosynthetic genes, while reducing cuticle permeability and fruit transpiration rate in AC and M82, but not in dfd fruit. This study supports a direct relationship between fruit cuticle properties, transpiration and firmness, and provides insights into the adaptation of tomato genotypes to environments where water can be scarce.


Assuntos
Desidratação , Frutas/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Genótipo , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Transpiração Vegetal , Água/metabolismo
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 260, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drought is a major abiotic stress factor that influences the yield of crops. Basic leucine zipper motif (bZIP) transcription factors play an important regulatory role in plant drought stress responses. However, the functions of a number of bZIP transcription factors in rice are still unknown. RESULTS: In this study, a novel drought stress-related bZIP transcription factor, OsbZIP62, was identified in rice. This gene was selected from a transcriptome analysis of several typical rice varieties with different drought tolerances. OsbZIP62 expression was induced by drought, hydrogen peroxide, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Overexpression of OsbZIP62-VP64 (OsbZIP62V) enhanced the drought tolerance and oxidative stress tolerance of transgenic rice, while osbzip62 mutants exhibited the opposite phenotype. OsbZIP62-GFP was localized to the nucleus, and the N-terminal sequence (amino acids 1-68) was necessary for the transcriptional activation activity of OsbZIP62. RNA-seq analysis showed that the expression of many stress-related genes (e.g., OsGL1, OsNAC10, and DSM2) was upregulated in OsbZIP62V plants. Moreover, OsbZIP62 could bind to the promoters of several putative target genes and could interact with stress/ABA-activated protein kinases (SAPKs). CONCLUSIONS: OsbZIP62 is involved in ABA signalling pathways and positively regulates rice drought tolerance by regulating the expression of genes associated with stress, and this gene could be used for the genetic modification of crops with improved drought tolerance.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/fisiologia , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Desidratação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Oryza/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
14.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 141: 398-406, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228796

RESUMO

The fruticose epiphytic lichen Seirophora villosa, strictly associated with Juniperus shrublands in the Mediterranean basin, was used to investigate the role of hairiness on a lichen thallus, as a characteristic morphological trait. We evaluated the effect of hair removal on the physiological parameters of a set of samples, during desiccation and on exposure to different salt concentrations. Hairy thalli were less affected by salt, suggesting that during dehydration, the presence of hair protects the thallus from light irradiance, oxidative stresses and the lipid peroxidation generated by free radicals, and could offer passive, but selective, water control. Our results showed that hair could not only increase thallus surface and promote water absorption when availability is low, but could also repel the salt dissolved in water by activating a passive resistance mechanism, by preventing salt entering.


Assuntos
Clorofila A/química , Líquens/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Estresse Salino , Antioxidantes/química , Carotenoides/química , Clorófitas/fisiologia , Desidratação , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Malondialdeído/química , Região do Mediterrâneo , Fotossíntese , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Água/química
15.
Plant Sci ; 285: 68-78, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203895

RESUMO

The miR169 family, a large-scale microRNA gene family conserved in plants, is involved in stress responses, although how soybean miR169 functions in response to drought stress remains unclear. We show that gma-miR169c exerts a negative regulatory role in the response to drought stress by inhibiting the expression of its target gene, nuclear factor Y-A (NF-YA). A real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that gma-miR169c is widely expressed in soybean tissues and induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG), high salt, cold stress and abscisic acid (ABA). Histochemical ß-glucuronidase (GUS) staining showed that the gma-miR169c promoter drives GUS reporter gene expression in various transgenic Arabidopsis tissues, and the stress-induced pattern was confirmed in transgenic Arabidopsis and transgenic soybean hairy roots. Arabidopsis overexpressing gma-miR169c is more sensitive to drought stress, with reduced survival, accelerated leaf water loss, and shorter root length than wild-type plants. We identified a precise cleavage site for 10 gma-miR169c targets and found reduced transcript levels of the AtNFYA1 and AtNFYA5 transcription factors in gma-miR169c-overexpressing Arabidopsis and reduced expression of the stress response genes AtRD29A, AtRD22, AtGSTU25 and AtCOR15A. These results indicate that gma-miR169c plays a negative regulatory role in drought stress and is a candidate miRNA for improving plant drought adaptation.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/genética , Soja/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Desidratação , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Soja/fisiologia
16.
J Vet Sci ; 20(3): e18, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161736

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the effects of dehydration on echocardiographic indices in healthy cats: specifically, it aimed to assess the effects of volume depletion on diastolic function. Nine experimental cats were subjected to both a dehydration and placebo protocol separated by a 21-day washout period. Echocardiography was performed at baseline and on completion of each protocol. Results were compared between the two protocols. Volume depletion was induced by intravenous administration of furosemide. Volume depletion showed a significant association with increased interventricular septal and left ventricular free wall thickness at end-diastole, decreased left ventricular internal diameter at end-diastole, and left atrial diameter at end-systole. The peak early (E) and late (A) diastolic filling velocities, and the peak early diastolic velocities (E') were significantly decreased by dehydration. Volume depletion did not affect peak longitudinal strain rate during early diastole, E/A, or E/E'. Volume depletion significantly affected the echocardiographic diastolic indices and conventional echocardiographic parameters in healthy cats.


Assuntos
Gatos/fisiologia , Desidratação/enzimologia , Desidratação/patologia , Ecocardiografia , Animais , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Desidratação/induzido quimicamente , Diástole/fisiologia , Furosemida , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia
17.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 123: 10-14, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054535

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Returns to the emergency department (ED) for pain or dehydration after adenotonsillectomy (T&A) are frequent. Attempts to associate the specific pain regimens with these visits have been unrevealing, suggesting a need to assess for other potential factors associated with readmission. METHODS: A review of a 2:1 cohort matched by age, gender and payer status compared post-T&A patients who did not return ED for pain or dehydration within 21 days to those who returned. Factors investigated included patient demographics, comorbidities, medication regimen and the presence of postoperative telephone encounters. Patients returning to the ED were further assessed for rates of medication adherence. RESULTS: 7493 patients underwent T&A during the period. Of these, 144 (1.9%) returned for pain/dehydration. Comparison to 285 matched patients revealed an association between ED returns and Hispanic ethnicity (p < 0.001), Spanish language (p = 0.0002), and comorbid Down syndrome and ADHD (p = 0.011 in both). The incidence of parent telephone calls to the office was associated with ED returns (58.7 in the ED cohort, 28.4% in non-ED cohort, p < 0.0001). On multivariable analysis, Hispanic ethnicity and phone calls were associated with ED returns (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Only 64.0% of patients returning to the ED were adherent with postoperative pain regimens. CONCLUSIONS: While demographic factors may be associated with rate of ED returns for pain and dehydration, post-operative phone calls were most highly associated with returns. The majority of patients returning to the ED were non-adherent with recommended pain regimens, suggesting an opportunity to investigate medication adherence in all post-tonsillectomy patients.


Assuntos
Adenoidectomia/efeitos adversos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Desidratação/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Down/epidemiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Tonsilectomia/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Desidratação/etnologia , Desidratação/etiologia , Desidratação/terapia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Linguagem , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etnologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Readmissão do Paciente , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Telefone/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
J Athl Train ; 54(5): 541-549, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058540

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Little is known about how educating runners may correct common misconceptions surrounding heat safety and hydration strategies. OBJECTIVE: To investigate (1) beliefs and knowledge about heat safety and hydration strategies among recreational runners and (2) the effectiveness of an educational video in optimizing performance in the heat. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Survey. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2091 (25.1%) of 8319 runners registered for the 2017 Falmouth Road Race completed at least 1 of the 3 administered surveys. INTERVENTION(S): A 5.3-minute video and an 11-question survey regarding heat safety and hydration strategies were developed, validated, and implemented. The survey was e-mailed to registrants 9 weeks before the race (PRERACE), after they viewed the video (POSTEDU), and the afternoon of the race (POSTRACE). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The total score for responses to 2 multiple choice questions and nine 5-point (response range = strongly agree to strongly disagree) Likert-scale questions. RESULTS: The PRERACE results showed that more than 90% of respondents recognized the importance of staying hydrated beginning the day before the planned activity, correctly identified that dark color urine is not a sign of euhydration, and believed that dehydration may increase the risk for heat syncope. Conversely, fewer than 50% of respondents knew the number of days required to achieve heat acclimatization, the role of sweat-rate calculation in optimizing one's hydration strategy, or the risk of water intoxication from drinking too much water. An improvement in survey score from PRERACE to POSTEDU was observed (mean difference = 2.00; 95% confidence interval = 1.68, 2.33; P < .001) among runners who watched the video, and 73% of the improvement in their scores was retained from POSTEDU to POSTRACE (mean difference = -0.54; 95% confidence interval = -0.86, -0.21; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The video successfully shifted runners' beliefs and knowledge to enable them to better optimize their performance in the heat.


Assuntos
Desidratação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Alfabetização em Saúde/métodos , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Corrida , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Cultura , Desidratação/etiologia , Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Desidratação/psicologia , Ingestão de Líquidos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Corrida/educação , Corrida/fisiologia , Corrida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Água
20.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 390, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phytohormones are key regulators of plant growth, development, and signalling networks involved in responses to diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. Transcriptional reference maps of hormone responses have been reported for several model plant species such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, and Brachypodium distachyon. However, because of species differences and the complexity of the wheat genome, these transcriptome data are not appropriate reference material for wheat studies. RESULTS: We comprehensively analysed the transcriptomic responses in wheat spikes to seven phytohormones, including indole acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene (ET), cytokinin (CK), salicylic acid (SA), and methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA). A total of 3386 genes were differentially expressed at 24 h after the hormone treatments. Furthermore, 22.7% of these genes exhibited overlapping transcriptional responses for at least two hormones, implying there is crosstalk among phytohormones. We subsequently identified genes with expression levels that were significantly and differentially induced by a specific phytohormone (i.e., hormone-specific responses). The data for these hormone-responsive genes were then compared with the transcriptome data for wheat spikes exposed to biotic (Fusarium head blight) and abiotic (water deficit) stresses. CONCLUSION: Our data were used to develop a transcriptional reference map of hormone responses in wheat spikes.


Assuntos
Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Transcriptoma , Triticum/genética , Desidratação/genética , Desidratação/metabolismo , Flores/efeitos dos fármacos , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Fusarium , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia
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