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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22641, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019489

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Rotavirus is routinely diagnosed by the detection of antigens or the viral genome. However, these tests have limitations, in that they do not detect all rotavirus strains. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a case of a 27-month-old girl who was hospitalized for 4 days with severe gastroenteritis, including high fever, vomiting, diarrhea, mild dehydration, and periumbilical pain. Notably, the patient previously received the Rotarix vaccine. DIAGNOSES: The laboratory tests were negative for rotavirus, astrovirus, adenovirus, and norovirus as well as common diarrhea-causing bacteria. Human-bovine recombinant rotavirus was detected by MinION sequencing. INTERVENTIONS: To investigate the cause agents from the unexplained severe gastroenteritis infant, the stool sample was prepared by random amplification for Nanopore MinION sequencing. OUTCOMES: Treatment through the administration of ORS solution and galtase powder with probiotics was successful after the diagnosis of unusual rotavirus infection. LESSONS: This case report is the first detection of an unusual human-bovine recombinant rotavirus in an idiopathic gastroenteritis using Nanopore MinION sequencing.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/virologia , Sequenciamento por Nanoporos/métodos , Infecções por Rotavirus/diagnóstico , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/efeitos adversos , Rotavirus/genética , Dor Abdominal , Doença Aguda , Pré-Escolar , Desidratação/etiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Hidratação/métodos , Gastroenterite/patologia , Gastroenterite/terapia , Humanos , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/complicações , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos , Vômito/etiologia
2.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 22(1): 63, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial native T1 and T2 relaxation time mapping are sensitive to pathological increase of myocardial water content (e.g. myocardial edema). However, the influence of physiological hydration changes as a possible confounder of relaxation time assessment has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, whether changes in myocardial water content due to dehydration and hydration might alter myocardial relaxation times in healthy subjects. METHODS: A total of 36 cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) scans were performed in 12 healthy subjects (5 men, 25.8 ± 3.2 years). Subjects underwent three successive CMR scans: (1) baseline scan, (2) dehydration scan after 12 h of fasting (no food or water), (3) hydration scan after hydration. CMR scans were performed for the assessment of myocardial native T1 and T2 relaxation times and cardiac function. For multiple comparisons, repeated measures ANOVA or the Friedman test was used. RESULTS: There was no change in systolic blood pressure or left ventricular ejection fraction between CMR scans (P > 0.05, respectively). T1 relaxation times were significantly reduced with dehydration (987 ± 27 ms [baseline] vs. 968 ± 29 ms [dehydration] vs. 986 ± 28 ms [hydration]; P = 0.006). Similar results were observed for T2 relaxation times (52.9 ± 1.8 ms [baseline] vs. 51.5 ± 2.0 ms [dehydration] vs. 52.2 ± 1.9 ms [hydration]; P = 0.020). CONCLUSIONS: Dehydration may lead to significant alterations in relaxation times and thereby may influence precise, repeatable and comparable assessment of native T1 and T2 relaxation times. Hydration status should be recognized as new potential confounder of native T1 and T2 relaxation time assessment in clinical routine.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Adulto , Desidratação , Diástole , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Coração/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 739: 140343, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758968

RESUMO

Changes in leaf carbon and nitrogen isotope composition (δ13C and δ15N values) and the accumulation of epicuticular lipids have been associated with plant responses to water stress. We investigated their potential use as indicators of early plant water deficit in two grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars, Chasselas and Pinot noir, that were field-grown under well-watered and water-deficient conditions. We tested the hypothesis that the bulk δ13C and δ15N values and the concentrations of epicuticular fatty acids may change in leaves of similar age with the soil water availability. For this purpose, leaves were sampled at the same position in the canopy at different times (phenological stages) during the 2014 growing season. Bulk dry matter of young leaves from flowering to veraison had higher δ13C values, higher total nitrogen content, and lower δ15N values than old leaves. In both cultivars, δ15N values were strongly correlated with plant water deficiency, demonstrating their integration of the plant water stress response. δ13C values recorded the water deficiency only in those plants that had not received foliar organic fertilization. The soil water deficiency triggered the accumulation of C>26 fatty acids in the cuticular waxes. The compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of fatty acids from old leaves showed an increase in δ13C among the C16-C22 chains, including stress signaling linoleic and linolenic acids. Our results provide evidence for leaf 13C-enrichment, 15N-depletion, and enhanced FA-chain elongation and epicuticular accumulation in the grapevine response to water stress. The leaf δ13C and δ15N values, and the concentration of epicuticular fatty acids can be used as reliable and sensitive indicators of plant water deficit even when the level of water stress is low to moderate. They could also be used, particularly the more cost-efficient δ13C and δ15N measurements, for periodic biogeochemical mapping of the plant water availability at the vineyard and regional scale.


Assuntos
Carbono , Nitrogênio , Isótopos de Carbono , Desidratação , Fazendas , Humanos , Lipídeos , Isótopos de Nitrogênio , Folhas de Planta , Água
4.
Am J Bot ; 107(8): 1122-1135, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779767

RESUMO

PREMISE: Water stored in the xylem of woody plants is important for supporting the transpiration stream under prolonged drought, yet the source of stored water within the xylem during drought remains unclear. Insights into xylem water utilization during drought will uncover the adaptation strategies of the test species to stress. METHODS: To fill the existing knowledge gap, we excised twigs of Abies firma (Japanese fir, conifer), Cercidiphyllum japonicum (katsura tree, diffuse-porous) and Quercus serrata (konara oak, ring-porous) to quantify interspecific variation of water transfer in xylem corresponding with increasing cumulative water release (CWR) using micro x-ray computed tomography and cryo-SEM. RESULTS: For all species studied, the main components of water storage within the operating range of water potential were not living cells but cavitation release and capillaries. Abies firma maintained water in the earlywood-like cells, for possible maintenance of the transpiration stream. Cercidiphyllum japonicum maintained water in its vessels over 200 kg m-3 of CWR, while Q. serrata lost most of its water in vessels with increasing CWR up to 100 kg m-3 . Cercidiphyllum japonicum exhibited a higher water storage capacity than Q. serrata. Under high CWR, narrow conduits stored xylem water in C. japonicum and imperforate tracheary elements in Q. serrata. CONCLUSIONS: Among the species examined, increasing CWR appears to indicate differential utilization of stored water in relation to variation of xylem structure, thereby providing insight into the interspecific responses of tree species to drought.


Assuntos
Árvores , Água , Desidratação , Secas , Humanos , Xilema
5.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 20(10): 904-910, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827223

RESUMO

AIM: While the heat during the summer season may dehydrate the elderly, little is known about the seasonal variation in dehydration. This study aimed to investigate the seasonal variation in hydration status among the community-dwelling elderly in Japan. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data collected after an overnight fast of adults aged ≥65 years who had no advanced kidney disease and underwent an annual health checkup at Nihon University Hospital between January and December 2019. Participants were classified according to their checkup date, whether summer (n = 265) or not summer (n = 638). The not summer group was subdivided into spring (n = 235), autumn (n = 213) and winter (n = 190). RESULTS: Among the four seasons, the spring group showed the highest levels of plasma osmolality (306.1 ± 3.9 mOsm/L), urine specific gravity (1.0172 ± 0.0058) and prevalence rates of urine specific gravity ≥1.020 (34.0%). However, seasonal differences were clinically mild, and >90% of participants showed plasma osmolality ≥300 mOsm/L, indicating dehydration, in all four seasons. The summer group showed lower urine specific gravity levels (1.0150 ± 0.0062 vs. 1.0165 ± 0.0064, P < 0.001) and prevalence rates of urine specific gravity ≥1.020 (22.6% vs. 30.4%, P = 0.023) than did the not summer group. The summer season was associated with low urine specific gravity levels even after adjusting for the multiple linear regression model. CONCLUSION: Japanese elderly after overnight fast are more dehydrated during the spring rather than the summer. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 904-910.


Assuntos
Desidratação/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Concentração Osmolar , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235557, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756564

RESUMO

AIM: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has recently been implicated in thirst in rodent models. The mechanisms for this are currently uncertain, and it is unclear whether hydration status can alter FGF21 concentrations, potentially providing an additional mechanism by which hypohydration induces thirst. The aim of this study is therefore to understand whether hydration status can alter circulating FGF21 in humans. METHODS: Using a heat tent and fluid restriction, we induced hypohydration (1.9% body mass loss) in 16 healthy participants (n = 8 men), and compared their glycaemic regulation to a rehydration protocol (heat tent and fluid replacement) in a randomised crossover design. RESULTS: After the hypohydration procedure, urine specific gravity, urine and serum osmolality, and plasma copeptin (as a marker for arginine vasopressin) increased as expected, with no change after the rehydration protocol. In the fasted state, the median paired difference in plasma FGF21 concentrations from the rehydrated to hypohydrated trial arm was -37 (interquartile range -125, 10) pg∙mL-1(P = 0.278), with average concentrations being 458 ± 462 pg∙mL-1 after hypohydration and 467 ± 438 pg∙mL-1 after rehydration; mean difference -9 ± 173 pg∙mL-1. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, these are the first causal data in humans investigating hydration and FGF21, demonstrating that an acute bout of hypohydration does not impact fasted plasma FGF21 concentrations. These data may suggest that whilst previous research has found FGF21 administration can induce thirst and drinking behaviours, a physiological state implicated in increased thirst (hypohydration) does not appear to impact plasma FGF21 concentrations in humans.


Assuntos
Desidratação/sangue , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/sangue , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Desidratação/terapia , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Hidratação , Humanos , Masculino , Sede , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236348, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735560

RESUMO

Vocal folds are a viscoelastic multilayered structure responsible for voice production. Vocal fold epithelial damage may weaken the protection of deeper layers of lamina propria and thyroarytenoid muscle and impair voice production. Systemic dehydration can adversely affect vocal function by creating suboptimal biomechanical conditions for vocal fold vibration. However, the molecular pathobiology of systemically dehydrated vocal folds is poorly understood. We used an in vivo rabbit model to investigate the complete gene expression profile of systemically dehydrated vocal folds. The RNA-Seq based transcriptome revealed 203 differentially expressed (DE) vocal fold genes due to systemic dehydration. Interestingly, function enrichment analysis showed downregulation of genes involved in cell adhesion, cell junction, inflammation, and upregulation of genes involved in cell proliferation. RT-qPCR validation was performed for a subset of DE genes and confirmed the downregulation of DSG1, CDH3, NECTIN1, SDC1, S100A9, SPINK5, ECM1, IL1A, and IL36A genes. In addition, the upregulation of the transcription factor NR4A3 gene involved in epithelial cell proliferation was validated. Taken together, these results suggest an alteration of the vocal fold epithelial barrier independent of inflammation, which could indicate a disruption and remodeling of the epithelial barrier integrity. This transcriptome provides a first global picture of the molecular changes in vocal fold tissue in response to systemic dehydration. The alterations observed at the transcriptional level help to understand the pathobiology of dehydration in voice function and highlight the benefits of hydration in voice therapy.


Assuntos
Desidratação/genética , Músculos Laríngeos/metabolismo , Prega Vocal/metabolismo , Distúrbios da Voz/genética , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Adesão Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Desidratação/metabolismo , Desidratação/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Junções Intercelulares/genética , Músculos Laríngeos/patologia , Membrana Mucosa/metabolismo , Membrana Mucosa/patologia , Coelhos , Prega Vocal/patologia , Distúrbios da Voz/patologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237572, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833979

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the current evidence for subcutaneous hydration and medication infusions from systematic reviews and to assess their methodological quality. INTRODUCTION: Peripheral intravascular cannula/catheter insertion is a common invasive procedure for administering fluids and medications. Venous depletion is a growing concern for several patient populations. Subcutaneous access for the administration of isotonic solutions and medications is an alternative; however, vascular access assessment and planning guidelines rarely consider this route. METHODS: Systematic review of systematic reviews (PROSPERO CRD42018046504). We searched 6 databases published in English language from 1990 to June 2020, identifying subcutaneous infusions an alternate route for fluids or medication. Methodological quality was evaluated using AMSTAR 2 criteria and data for mechanisms of infusion and outcomes related to effectiveness, safety, efficiency and acceptability extracted. The Johanna Briggs Institute's grades of recommendation informed the strength of recommendation. RESULTS: The search yielded 1042 potential systematic reviews; 922 were excluded through abstract and duplicate screen. Of the remaining articles, 94 were excluded, and 26 were included. Overall, evidence is strong for recommending subcutaneous hydration infusions for older adults, weak for pediatric patients and inconclusive for palliative patients. There is strong evidence for 10 medications; weak evidence supporting 28 medications; however, there are eight medications with inconclusive evidence to make a recommendation and four medications not appropriate for subcutaneous delivery. CONCLUSION: Subcutaneous access should be considered alongside intravenous therapy for hydration in older adults, and several medications. There are additional benefits in terms of ease of use and cost-effectiveness of this mode. Inclusion of subcutaneous access in clinical guidelines may promote uptake of this route to help preserve vessel health of vulnerable patients. Further high-quality research is needed to inform subcutaneous infusion therapy in a variety of populations (including pediatrics and palliative care) and medications and clarifying the mechanism of delivery.


Assuntos
Desidratação/terapia , Hidratação/métodos , Hipodermóclise/métodos , Humanos , Infusões Subcutâneas
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237834, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853269

RESUMO

Water deficit is one of the major limitations to food production worldwide and most climate change scenarios predict an aggravation of the situation. To face the expected increase in drought stress in the coming years, breeders are working to elucidate the genetic control of barley growth and productivity traits under water deficit. Barley is known as a relatively drought tolerant crop and genetic variability was observed for drought tolerance traits. The objectives of the present study were the quantification of morphological and physiological responses in a collection of 209 spring barley genotypes to drought stress, and the genetic analysis by genome-wide association study to find quantitative trait loci (QTL) and the allele contributions for each of the investigated traits. In six pot experiments, 209 spring barley genotypes were grown under a well-watered and water-limited regime. Stress phases were initiated individually for each genotype at the beginning of tillering and spiking for the vegetative- and the generative stage experiments, respectively, and terminated when the transpiration rates of stress treatments reached 10% of the well-watered control. After the stress phase, a total of 42 productivity related traits such as the dry matter of plant organs, tiller number, leaf length, leaf area, amount of water soluble carbohydrates in the stems, proline content in leaves and osmotic adjustment of corresponding well-watered and stressed plants were analysed, and QTL analyses were performed to find marker-trait associations. Significant water deficit effects were observed for almost all traits and significant genotype x treatment interactions (GxT) were observed for 37 phenotypic traits. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) revealed 77 significant loci associated with 16 phenotypic traits during the vegetative stage experiment and a total of 85 significant loci associated with 13 phenotypic traits during the generative stage experiment for traits such as leaf area, number of green leaves, grain yield, harvest index and stem length. For traits with significant GxT interactions, genotypic differences for relative values were analysed using one way ANOVA. More than 110 loci for GxT interaction were found for 17 phenotypic traits explaining in many cases more than 50% of the genetic variance.


Assuntos
Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/fisiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Estações do Ano , Água , Adaptação Fisiológica , Análise de Variância , Biomassa , Desidratação , Secas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Hordeum/anatomia & histologia , Padrões de Herança/genética , Fenótipo , Análise de Regressão
10.
Gene ; 761: 145039, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777527

RESUMO

The wood frog (Rana sylvatica) can tolerate full body freezing in winter. As a protective response, wood frogs dehydrate their cells and accumulate large quantities of glucose as an intracellular cryoprotectant. Freezing causes ischemia since blood delivery to organs is interrupted. Fascinatingly, wood frogs can tolerate dehydration, extreme hyperglycemia, and anoxia independently of freezing. In response to low oxygen levels, wood frogs strategically reduce their metabolic rates and allocate the finite amount of intracellular fuel available to pro-survival processes while reducing or interrupting all others. In this study, the involvement of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein in activating RAGE (AGE receptor) were investigated. The results show that freezing, anoxia and dehydration induced the expression of total HMGB1 and its acetylation in the heart. RAGE levels were induced in response to all stress conditions, which resulted in differential regulation of the ETS1 transcription factor. While the nuclear localization of total ETS1 was not affected, the DNA binding activity of total and its active form increased in response to freezing and dehydration but not in response to anoxia. Current results indicate that ETS1 acts as a transcriptional activator for peroxiredoxin 1 in response to freezing but acts as a transcriptional repressor of several nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes in response to all stresses. Altogether, current results show that the HMGB1/RAGE axis may activate ETS1 and that this activation could result in both transcriptional activation and/or repression in a stress-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Ranidae/metabolismo , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Animais , Desidratação/metabolismo , Congelamento , Glucose/metabolismo , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/fisiologia , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Proteína HMGB1/fisiologia , Coração/fisiologia , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ranidae/genética , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e21092, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629741

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Univentricular dextrocardia is a rare congenital heart disease that usually presents cyanotic manifestations from childhood. Due to the sustained dysfunction of blood oxygenation, it is very difficult to keep an asymptomatic survival. Herein, we described an interesting case of univentricular dextrocardia who suffered from initial symptoms in his middle age. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 54-year-old male patient with numbness and tingling of limbs was admitted to hospital due to the secondary manifestations of congenital heart disease. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed as univentricular dextrocardia with pulmonary hypertension and secondary erythrocytosis based on computed tomography (CT) scan, echocardiography, and laboratory examinations. INTERVENTIONS: Intravenous hydration therapy with normal saline successfully eliminated his hyperviscosity associated symptoms. In view of socio-economic reasons, this patient refused surgical evaluation and further medical interventions. OUTCOMES: During 18-month follow up, he received no drug except for regular water intake. Fortunately, his life quality was satisfactory, and no other symptoms emerged except for mild numbness of limbs. LESSONS: In univentricular dextrocardia, it is possible to keep a long-term asymptomatic period due to the slow progress of pathophysiology. In this population, regular cardiac function evaluation and avoiding dehydration may help improve the quality of life.


Assuntos
Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Dextrocardia/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias Congênitas/complicações , Assistência ao Convalescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Dextrocardia/fisiopatologia , Dextrocardia/terapia , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Policitemia/etiologia , Policitemia/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234648, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645027

RESUMO

Adaptation of weeds to water stress could result in the broader distribution, and make weed control task increasingly difficult. Therefore, a clear understanding of the biology of weeds under water stress could assist in the development of sustainable weed management strategies. Avena fatua (wild oat) and A. ludoviciana (sterile oat) are problematic weeds in Australian winter crops. The objectives of this study were to determine the growth and reproductive behaviour of A. fatua and A. ludoviciana at different soil moisture levels [20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% water holding capacity (WHC)]. Results revealed that A. fatua did not survive and failed to produce seeds at 20 and 40% WHC. However, A. ludoviciana survived at 40% WHC and produced 54 seeds plant-1. A. fatua produced a higher number of seeds per plant than A. ludoviciana at 80 (474 vs 406 seeds plant-1) and 100% WHC (480 vs 417 seeds plant-1). Seed production for both species remained similar at 80 and 100% WHC; however, higher than 60% WHC. Seed production of A. fatua and A. ludoviciana was 235 and 282 seeds plant-1, respectively, at 60% WHC. The 60% WHC reduced seed production of A. fatua and A. ludoviciana by 51 and 32% respectively, compared to 100% WHC. The plant height, leaf weight, stem weight, and root weight per plant of A. fatua at 60% WHC reduced by 45, 27, 32, and 59%, respectively, as compared with 100% WHC. Similarly, the plant height, leaf weight, stem weight, and root weight per plant of A. ludoviciana at 60% WHC reduced by 45, 35, 47 and 76%, respectively, as compared with 100% WHC. Results indicate that A. ludoviciana can survive and produce seeds at 40% of WHC, indicating the adaptation of the species to dryland conditions. The results also suggest that A. ludoviciana is likely to be robust under water stress conditions, potentially reducing crop yield. The ability of A. fatua and A. ludoviciana to produce seeds under water-stressed conditions (60% WHC) necessitates integrated weed management strategies that suppress these weeds whilst taking into account the efficient utilization of stored moisture for winter crops.


Assuntos
Avena/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Controle de Plantas Daninhas/métodos , Austrália , Fenômenos Biológicos , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desidratação/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Daninhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água/metabolismo
13.
Food Chem ; 333: 127433, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659662

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of exogenous citrulline (control, 1 and 2 mM) and water availability (100%, 50% and 25% WA) on antioxidant attributes and essential oil constituents of Hyssopus officinalis L. in two successive harvests. Hyssop tolerantly responded to water deficiency by well-promoted antioxidant enzymes (i.e., superoxide dismutase, and catalase), strong DPPH-scavenging activity, and increasing polyphenols; however, the essential oil content was negatively reduced by water stress. External citrulline further increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Citrulline application at 2 mM under severe water stress could also improve essential oil (EO) content in the first and second harvests by about 15 and 30%, respectively. Furthermore, under severe drought, citrulline at 2 mM could obtain the highest yield of isopinocamphone (47%) as the main component of EO. The results showed the high potential of this novel applied metabolite agent to be used in a well-fulfilled production of this medicinal plant.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Citrulina/farmacologia , Hyssopus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hyssopus/fisiologia , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Canfanos/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Desidratação , Secas , Hyssopus/química , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Medicinais/fisiologia , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
14.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 78(4): 449-453, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618565

RESUMO

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus due to the inability of the kidneys to concentrate urine is frequently observed during lithium therapy. Lithium concentrates into principal cells in collecting ducts in the kidney and downregulates aquaporin 2 expression, which reduces renal reabsorption of water. This disease is characterized by polyuria - polydipsia leading to intracellular dehydration and hypernatremia. Water deprivation test is performed to confirm insipidus diabetes. The desmopressin permits to distinguish nephrogenic from cranial insipidus diabetes. We report the case of a 64 years old women who presented with global dehydration and severe hypernatremia. Four years ago, she was hospitalized for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus related to a self-induced lithium intoxication. Persistent nephrogenic insipidus diabetes after cessation of lithium therapy are described in literature, and this hypothesis may be consistent with this case report.


Assuntos
Diabetes Insípido Nefrogênico/induzido quimicamente , Compostos de Lítio/efeitos adversos , Sódio/efeitos adversos , Água/efeitos adversos , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Desidratação/diagnóstico , Desidratação/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Compostos de Lítio/envenenamento , Compostos de Lítio/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intoxicação por Água/complicações , Intoxicação por Água/diagnóstico
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 738: 139798, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526414

RESUMO

Biochar has been proposed as a promising amendment that may improve soil structure. However, our understanding how it mitigates extreme soil water stress in roadside soils is limited. In this study, we investigated the effects of biochar on soil properties and plant growth under extreme water stress conditions. A greenhouse experiment was conducted on two-year-old Gingko biloba saplings planted in pots with sandy soil only (CON) and with sandy soil mixed with biochar (BC). To simulate excessive water stress conditions, we increased the soil water-filled pore space up to the saturation level throughout the experimental period. We also simulated the switching water conditions by maintaining the saturation condition for 30 days, followed by no addition of water. The BC treatment significantly influenced the aggregate distribution and enhanced the proportion of macroaggregates (>250 µm). The biochar itself also functioned as a macroaggregate and contributed to increased aeration under the excessive water condition. Under the switching water condition, the micropores within the biochar might have helped maintain the available water for plant roots and soil microbes. Plant growth was significantly higher in the BC than CON soils for both the excessive and switching water sets. In the BC soils, plant growth was higher in the excessive than in the switching water sets, indicating that the soil water status in our BC treatment for the excessive water set was not stressful enough to inhibit plant growth. The % optimal water condition, which is defined as the proportion of days when the soil water status is within the least limiting water range, had a very high explanatory power to explain the plant growth (r = 0.7172, p < 0.0001). Our results indicate that biochar can alleviate water stresses in urban roadside soils by retaining plant available water under the wet and dry conditions.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Carvão Vegetal , Pré-Escolar , Desidratação , Humanos
16.
J Environ Manage ; 271: 110947, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579517

RESUMO

Onion is a commonly used vegetable in the Cuyo Region, Argentina, and important in the world global vegetable production ranking. Production levels often exceed immediate markets of fresh sale, and excesses, although still edible, are currently discarded (mostly incinerated and disposed in landfill, creating numerous environmental hazards). To minimize these adverse environmental problems, this research investigates upgrading the discarded products by dehydration, hence guaranteeing their ultimate food-use. The dehydration process of discarded onion cv. Crioula Roxa was hence studied at 60 and 70 °C, temperatures selected to maintain the main physicochemical characteristics of the onions, while also creating optimum heat and mass transfer coefficients while significantly reducing the energy consumption and CO2 emissions. When using an electrically-heated convective dryer, the Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) values and the CO2 emissions during dehydration at 70 °C are 738.89 kWh.kg-1 and 264.74 kg of CO2 kg-1, respectively. These values are only 41.61 kWh.kg-1 and 2-4 kg of CO2 kg-1 if a solar dryer is applied. The thermal diffusivities were 1.86✕10-10 m2 s-1 (dehydration) and 1.08✕10-10 m2 s-1 (rehydration), showing a weak effect of the dehydration process on the solid structure and properties.


Assuntos
Desidratação , Cebolas , Argentina , Alimentos , Temperatura Alta , Humanos
17.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(2): R29-R40, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580146

RESUMO

For an endocrinologist, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is an end-organ disease, that is the antidiuretic hormone, arginine-vasopressin (AVP) is normally produced but not recognized by the kidney with an inability to concentrate urine despite elevated plasma concentrations of AVP. Polyuria with hyposthenuria and polydipsia are the cardinal clinical manifestations of the disease. For a geneticist, hereditary NDI is a rare disease with a prevalence of five per million males secondary to loss of function of the vasopressin V2 receptor, an X-linked gene, or loss of function of the water channel AQP2. These are small genes, easily sequenced, with a number of both recurrent and private mutations described as disease causing. Other inherited disorders with mild, moderate or severe inability to concentrate urine include Bartter's syndrome and cystinosis. MAGED2 mutations are responsible for a transient form of Bartter's syndrome with severe polyhydramnios. The purpose of this review is to describe classical phenotype findings that will help physicians to identify early, before dehydration episodes with hypernatremia, patients with familial NDI. A number of patients are still diagnosed late with repeated dehydration episodes and large dilations of the urinary tract leading to a flow obstructive nephropathy with progressive deterioration of glomerular function. Families with ancestral X-linked AVPR2 mutations could be reconstructed and all female heterozygote patients identified with subsequent perinatal genetic testing to recognize affected males within 2 weeks of birth. Prevention of dehydration episodes is of critical importance in early life and beyond and decreasing solute intake will diminish total urine output.


Assuntos
Diabetes Insípido Nefrogênico/genética , Diabetes Insípido Nefrogênico/fisiopatologia , Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Insípido Nefrogênico/terapia , Feminino , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Hipernatremia , Recém-Nascido , Glomérulos Renais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Mutação , Neurofisinas/sangue , Neurofisinas/fisiologia , Concentração Osmolar , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Precursores de Proteínas/sangue , Precursores de Proteínas/fisiologia , Receptores de Vasopressinas/genética , Receptores de Vasopressinas/fisiologia , Vasopressinas/sangue , Vasopressinas/fisiologia
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(25): 31427-31438, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488700

RESUMO

This paper empirically examines the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis using a country's water stress as an indicator of the pressure on renewable water resources. The sample consists of 9 European countries by covering the period 1995-2013. The paper adopts a panel threshold regression model which can predict the threshold level endogenously to analyze whether income per person has an impact on water stress. The empirical findings strongly demonstrate the existence of a threshold beyond which environmental pressures of GDP (real) per capita growth on renewable water resources tend to increase. The growth below the threshold levels has no statistically significant effect on water stress, while the growth rate above the threshold increases stress on water resources. The available empirical findings obtained, albeit limited, tend not to support the EKC hypothesis, which postulates an inverted-U-shaped relationship.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Energia Renovável , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Desidratação , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110803, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505761

RESUMO

Water stress and nutrient supply are two of the most ubiquitous global changes that surely drive substantial variations not only in agricultural productivity but also extend to alert soil living organisms. The present study aims to understand the intrinsic changes in the composition of soil populations and their functions due to the interaction between long-term fertilization and rainfall fluctuations, seeing whether fertilization history would render the soil microbial communities and their activities more resistant to water stress or not. The experiment was established in 1988 on a typical meadow soil (Vertisols) as a rainfed maize monoculture receiving six elevated rates of NPK annually. The 30-year average annual precipitation of the growing season in this region is 345.1 mm. However, in 2010 rainfall was 106.1% greater than the average, while in 2011 it was 26.5% lower. The results show that long-term NPK fertilization has made the soil microbes more tolerant to changes in soil moisture content resulting from rainfall fluctuations. Soil microbes and their activities, however, did not follow a dose-response relationship of NPK as soil moisture content was the main driving factor. Numbers of total fungi, cellulose decomposing bacteria, and nitrifying bacteria increased as rainfall in 2010 increased. Moreover, microbial biomass carbon in 2010 was almost 2-fold higher than in 2009. Soil respiration in 2010 was 11 and 35% higher than in 2009 and 2011, respectively. Otherwise, high rainfall in 2010 significantly diminished soil NO3- content and nitrification rate. Soil enzyme activity showed a higher response to soil moisture than the rate of NPK. The highest activity of phosphatase, dehydrogenase, and saccharase was measured in the driest year (2011), while urease displayed its highest activity in 2010. High rates of NPK significantly reduced soil dehydrogenase activity. These results illustrate how important it is for fertilizer programs to be flexible to match expected climate change in order to improve productivity and reduce environmental pollution.


Assuntos
Desidratação , Fertilizantes/análise , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Chuva , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Biomassa , Fertilizantes/efeitos adversos , Hungria , Nitratos/análise , Nitrificação , Urease/análise , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Pediatrics ; 146(1)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487592

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Management decisions for patients with gastroenteritis affect resource use within pediatric emergency departments (EDs), and algorithmic care using evidence-based guidelines (EBGs) has become widespread. We aimed to determine if the implementation of a dehydration EBG in a pediatric ED resulted in a reduction in intravenous (IV) fluid administration and the cost of care. METHODS: In a single-center quality improvement initiative between 2010 and 2016, investigators aimed to decrease the percentage of patients with gastroenteritis who were rehydrated with IV fluids. The EBG assigned the patient a dehydration score with subsequent rehydration strategy on the basis of presenting signs and symptoms. The primary outcome was proportion of patients receiving IV fluid, which was analyzed using statistical process control methods. The secondary outcome was cost of the episode of care. Balancing measures included ED length of stay, admission rate, and return visit rate within 72 hours. RESULTS: A total of 7145 patients met inclusion criteria with a median age of 17 months. Use of IV fluid decreased from a mean of 15% to 9% postimplementation. Average episode of care-related health care costs decreased from $599 to $410. For our balancing measures, there were improvements in ED length of stay, rate of admission, and rate of return visits. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of an EBG for patients with gastroenteritis led to a decrease in frequency of IV administration, shorter lengths of stay, and lower health care costs.


Assuntos
Desidratação/economia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/economia , Hidratação/economia , Gastroenterite/economia , Recursos em Saúde/tendências , Custos Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Algoritmos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Desidratação/etiologia , Desidratação/terapia , Feminino , Hidratação/métodos , Gastroenterite/complicações , Gastroenterite/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
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