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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502595

RESUMO

Drought and water scarcity due to global warming, climate change, and social development have been the most death-defying threat to global agriculture production for the optimization of water and food security. Reflectance indices obtained by an Analytical Spectral Device (ASD) Spec 4 hyperspectral spectrometer from tomato growth in two soil texture types exposed to four water stress levels (70-100% FC, 60-70% FC, 50-60% FC, and 40-50% FC) was deployed to schedule irrigation and management of crops' water stress. The treatments were replicated four times in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) in a 2 × 4 factorial experiment. Water stress treatments were monitored with Time Domain Reflectometer (TDR) every 12 h before and after irrigation to maintain soil water content at the desired (FC%). Soil electrical conductivity (Ec) was measured daily throughout the growth cycle of tomatoes in both soil types. Ec was revealing a strong correlation with water stress at R2 above 0.95 p < 0.001. Yield was measured at the end of the end of the growing season. The results revealed that yield had a high correlation with water stress at R2 = 0.9758 and 0.9816 p < 0.01 for sandy loam and silty loam soils, respectively. Leaf temperature (LT °C), relative leaf water content (RLWC), leaf chlorophyll content (LCC), Leaf area index (LAI), were measured at each growth stage at the same time spectral reflectance data were measured throughout the growth period. Spectral reflectance indices used were grouped into three: (1) greenness vegetative indices; (2) water overtone vegetation indices; (3) Photochemical Reflectance Index centered at 570 nm (PRI570), and normalized PRI (PRInorm). These reflectance indices were strongly correlated with all four water stress indicators and yield. The results revealed that NDVI, RDVI, WI, NDWI, NDWI1640, PRI570, and PRInorm were the most sensitive indices for estimating crop water stress at each growth stage in both sandy loam and silty loam soils at R2 above 0.35. This study recounts the depth of 858 to 1640 nm band absorption to water stress estimation, comparing it to other band depths to give an insight into the usefulness of ground-based hyperspectral reflectance indices for assessing crop water stress at different growth stages in different soil types.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Solo , Desidratação , Imageamento Hiperespectral , Areia
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445454

RESUMO

The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors is one of the most significant and biggest in plants. It is involved in the regulation of both growth and development, as well as stress response. Numerous members of the bHLH family have been found and characterized in woody plants in recent years. However, no systematic study of the bHLH gene family has been published for Hibiscus hamabo Sieb. et Zucc. In this research, we identified 162 bHLH proteins (HhbHLHs) from the genomic and transcriptomic datasets of H. hamabo, which were phylogenetically divided into 19 subfamilies. According to a gene structural study, the number of exon-introns in HhbHLHs varied between zero and seventeen. MEME research revealed that the majority of HhbHLH proteins contained three conserved motifs, 1, 4, and 5. The examination of promoter cis-elements revealed that the majority of HhbHLH genes had several cis-elements involved in plant growth and development and abiotic stress responses. In addition, the overexpression of HhbHLH2 increased salt and drought stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hibiscus , Proteínas de Plantas , Estresse Salino , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Desidratação/genética , Desidratação/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hibiscus/genética , Hibiscus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
3.
J Plant Physiol ; 264: 153483, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371311

RESUMO

Tomato plants are susceptible to drought stress, but the mechanism involved in this process still remains poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that SlNAC6, a nuclear-localized protein induced by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) or polyethylene glycol (PEG) stress treatment, plays a positive role in tomato plant response to PEG stress. Down-regulation of SlNAC6 (SlNAC6-RNAi) resulted in a semidwarf phenotype, and the SlNAC6-RNAi lines showed reduced tolerance to PEG stress, exhibiting a higher water loss rate and degree of oxidative damage, as well as lower values of proline content and antioxidant enzyme activity, when compared with those in wild type (WT). In contrast, overexpression of SlNAC6 (SlNAC6-OE) leads to a significant delay of growth, and the SlNAC6-OE lines showed greatly enhanced tolerance to PEG stress concomitant with a lower water loss rate and degree of oxidative damage, as well as higher values of proline content and antioxidant enzyme activity. Further study showed that the transcription level of ABA signaling-related genes and the ABA content are respectively decreased or increased in SlNAC6-RNAi and SlNAC6-OE seedlings, as verified by multiple physiological parameters, such as stomatal conductance, water loss rate, seed germination, and root length. Moreover, overexpression of SlNAC6 can accelerate tomato fruit ripening. Collectively, this study demonstrates SlNAC6 exerts important roles in tomato development, drought stress response, and fruit ripening processes, some of them perhaps partly through modulating an ABA-mediated pathway, which implies SlNAC6 may hold the potential applications in improving agronomic traits of tomato or other Solanaceae crops.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Desidratação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reprodução , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372375

RESUMO

The goal of this research is to use a WORKSWELL WIRIS AGRO R INFRARED CAMERA (WWARIC) to assess the crop water stress index (CWSIW) on tomato growth in two soil types. This normalized index (CWSI) can map water stress to prevent drought, mapping yield, and irrigation scheduling. The canopy temperature, air temperature, and vapor pressure deficit were measured and used to calculate the empirical value of the CWSI based on the Idso approach (CWSIIdso). The vegetation water content (VWC) was also measured at each growth stage of tomato growth. The research was conducted as a 2 × 4 factorial experiment arranged in a Completely Randomized Block Design. The treatments imposed were two soil types: sandy loam and silt loam, with four water stress treatment levels at 70-100% FC, 60-70% FC, 50-60% FC, and 40-50% FC on the growth of tomatoes to assess the water stress. The results revealed that CWSIIdso and CWSIW proved a strong correlation in estimating the crop water status at R2 above 0.60 at each growth stage in both soil types. The fruit expansion stage showed the highest correlation at R2 = 0.8363 in sandy loam and R2 = 0.7611 in silt loam. VWC and CWSIW showed a negative relationship with a strong correlation at all the growth stages with R2 values above 0.8 at p < 0.05 in both soil types. Similarly, the CWSIW and yield also showed a negative relationship and a strong correlation with R2 values above 0.95, which indicated that increasing the CWSIW had a negative effect on the yield. However, the total marketable yield ranged from 2.02 to 6.8 kg plant-1 in sandy loam soil and 1.75 to 5.4 kg plant-1 in silty loam soil from a low to high CWSIW. The highest mean marketable yield was obtained in sandy loam soil at 70-100% FC (0.0 < CWSIW ≤ 0.25), while the least-marketable yield was obtained in silty loam soil 40-50% FC (0.75 < CWSIW ≤ 1.0); hence, it is ideal for maintaining the crop water status between 0.0 < CWSIW ≤ 0.25 for the optimum yield. These experimental results proved that the WWARIC effectively assesses the crop water stress index (CWSIW) in tomatoes for mapping the yield and irrigation scheduling.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Desidratação , Solo , Temperatura , Água/análise
5.
J Gerontol Nurs ; 47(9): 40-48, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432569

RESUMO

The purpose of the current study was to assess effects of a hydration management program on the fluid consumption and dehydration parameters (i.e., dehydration risk scores, urine specific gravity, and urine color) of older adults. The study was conducted as a pre-/post-test quasi-experimental study with a control group (intervention group: n = 42, control group: n = 37). The hydration management program applied to the intervention group was completed in 1 week. After the intervention, the knowledge and awareness of the intervention group regarding fluid consumption increased (p = 0.001). The dehydration risk score of the intervention group was significantly lower than that of the control group (p = 0.0001). There was a significant change in average 3-day water intake (p = 0.0001), urine specific gravity value (p = 0.01), and urine color scale score (p = 0.0001) in the intervention group between pre- and post-test. The hydration management program provided a significant improvement in daily water intake and dehydration risk score and increased knowledge and awareness among older adults concerning the importance of fluid intake. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 47(9), 40-48.].


Assuntos
Desidratação , Enfermagem Geriátrica , Idoso , Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Ingestão de Líquidos , Humanos , Urinálise , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico
7.
J Plant Physiol ; 263: 153463, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256212

RESUMO

Intercropping of legumes and cereals provides many ecological advantages and contributes to a sustainable agriculture. These agricultural systems face ongoing shifts in precipitation patterns and seasonal drought. Although the effect of drought stress on legumes has been frequently studied, knowledge about water deficits influencing legumes under different cropping systems is still limited. Therefore, we investigated the impact of water deficit and re-irrigation on two winter faba bean genotypes (S_004 and S_062) and winter wheat (var. Genius) in pure and intercropped stands under greenhouse conditions. Various physiological and biochemical parameters, such as canopy surface temperature, leaf relative water content and proline content, were collected at three time points (beginning of water deficit, end of water deficit, after re-irrigation). In addition, water use efficiency (WUE) was analyzed at the end of the experiment. The overall drought stress tolerance was determined as conceptual analysis of all measured parameters. Water deficit significantly affected WUE, surface temperature and proline content of both winter faba bean genotypes. Interestingly, intercropping with wheat resulted in an overall high drought tolerance of genotype S_004, while genotype S_062 had a high drought tolerance in pure stands. Under water deficit, pure stands of S_062 substantially increased WUE by 30.5%. Intercropping of genotype S_004 increased the dry matter per plant by 31.7% compared to pure stands under water deficit. Contrary, intercropping of genotype S_062 did not improve the dry matter production. Our findings indicate that genotype S_004 benefits from resource complementarity in intercropping systems with wheat, whereas S_062 is better suitable for pure stands due to competitive effects. Thus, our study highlights that the drought tolerance of winter faba bean genotypes depends on the cropping system, leading to a demand for drought-adapted cultivars specifically selected for intercropping.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Secas , Estações do Ano , Vicia faba/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vicia faba/genética , Vicia faba/fisiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
Klin Padiatr ; 233(4): 194-199, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of hypernatremic dehydration (HND) has increased in recent years most likely due to insufficient intake of breast milk as the most important factor. This study aimed to investigate risk factors of HND. METHODS: In this study, 47 neonates whom were diagnosed to have HND were included in the study group and 96 healty neonates whom were included in the control group. While demographic data of the patients were recorded, mothers were asked to fill out the sociodemographic/ psychosocial data form, Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale(EPDS) and STAI I and II State and Trait Anxiety Scale. Breast milk sodium concentrations were studied from mothers of all infants. The relationship between the development of neonatal HND and risk factors affecting this condition were evaluated. RESULTS: Being the first-born baby of the family was found to be a significant risk factor for HND. Breast milk sodium concentration was 25.8±7.9 mmol/L in the HND group which was significantly higher than the control group. Median depression score was similar in both groups and there was no statistical difference in terms of groups. The anxiety score was higher in the control group compared to the study group. There was no difference in terms of other sociodemographic / psychosocial data of mothers. CONCLUSION: Primiparity or insufficient breastfeeding may result in elevated breast milk sodium levels and related neonatal HND. Breastfeeding support should principally target primiparous women to improve breastfeeding outcomes like as especially HND.


Assuntos
Desidratação , Hipernatremia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipernatremia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mães , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sódio
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210068

RESUMO

Dehydration beyond 2% bodyweight loss should be monitored to reduce the risk of heat-related injuries during exercise. However, assessments of hydration in athletic settings can be limited in their accuracy and accessibility. In this study, we sought to develop a data-driven noninvasive approach to measure hydration status, leveraging wearable sensors and normal orthostatic movements. Twenty participants (10 males, 25.0 ± 6.6 years; 10 females, 27.8 ± 4.3 years) completed two exercise sessions in a heated environment: one session was completed without fluid replacement. Before and after exercise, participants performed 12 postural movements that varied in length (up to 2 min). Logistic regression models were trained to estimate dehydration status given their heart rate responses to these postural movements. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to parameterize the model's discriminative ability. Models achieved an AUROC of 0.79 (IQR: 0.75, 0.91) when discriminating 2% bodyweight loss. The AUROC for the longer supine-to-stand postural movements and shorter toe-touches were similar (0.89, IQR: 0.89, 1.00). Shorter orthostatic tests achieved similar accuracy to clinical tests. The findings suggest that data from wearable sensors can be used to accurately estimate mild dehydration in athletes. In practice, this method may provide an additional measurement for early intervention of severe dehydration.


Assuntos
Esportes , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Atletas , Desidratação , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199738

RESUMO

Due to multifactorial reasons, such as decreased thirst and decreased total body water, elderly patients are vulnerable to dehydration. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia increase the risk of dehydration and, in turn, dehydration decreases cognitive performance. The study aims to identify and assess differences in hydration status, taking into account patients' drug treatment and diseases, using bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA), thereby revealing unfavorable aspects of prognosis. 447 geriatric patients (241 women, 206 men) including information on medication and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) were investigated, which allowed studying the association between 40 drugs and the hydration status. First, patients were divided into disease groups. Renal disease and diuretic treatment were significantly different in both sexes, whereas cardiovascular patients differed exclusively for females. Next, drug enrichment was examined in either hyperhydrated or dehydrated patients. Simvastatin, candesartan, bisoprolol, amlodipine, olmesartan, furosemide, torasemide, allopurinol, mirtazapine, pantoprazole, cholecalciferol, and resveratrol showed enrichment depending on hydration status. This study demonstrated that patients can be differentiated and stratified by BIVA, taking into account medication and disease associated with hydration status. Although patients diagnosed with MCI and therefore treated with resveratrol, BIVA still showed evaluated dehydration. This is unfavorable in terms of prognosis and requires special attention.


Assuntos
Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo/fisiologia , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Composição Corporal , Disfunção Cognitiva , Feminino , Geriatria , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional
11.
Forensic Sci Int ; 325: 110896, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243037

RESUMO

Fatal starvation is rarely seen in developed countries; when it occurs, it may be associated with medicolegal problems. Forensic pathologists are required to determine leading causes of death and provide opinions on the influence of starvation, especially in cases of suspected child abuse. Recently, starvation-induced steatosis was suggested to be regulated by lipophagy. Here, we report an extremely rare case of death by malnutrition of a 10-year-old boy, who was fed only infant formula throughout his life. The deceased presented with severe hepatic steatosis, probably related to prolonged malnutrition. Fatty liver changes, with deposition of small lipid droplets deposited in the peripheral lobules. High levels of P62 protein (overexpression of which indicates an autophagy impairment) were seen around the central vein region, whereas light-chain-3 (LC3) protein (an indicator of lipophagy activation) was unremarkable. Thus, in our case, impaired lipophagy influenced starvation-induced steatosis. To our knowledge, this article is the first to evaluate the application of lipophagy in forensic investigations as an objective diagnostic criterion.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/etiologia , Fórmulas Infantis/efeitos adversos , Inanição , Autofagia , Criança , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/complicações , Desidratação/complicações , Evolução Fatal , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Glicogênio/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Fígado/química , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/sangue
12.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 10(8): 11, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251425

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of temperature and blinking on contact lens (CL) dehydration using an in vitro blink model. Methods: Three silicone hydrogel (delefilcon A, senofilcon A, and comfilcon A) and two conventional hydrogel (etafilcon A and omafilcon A) CL materials were evaluated at 1 and 16 hours. The water content (WC) of the CLs was measured using a gravimetric method. Lenses were incubated on a blink model, internally heated to achieve a clinically relevant surface temperature of 35°C. An artificial tear solution (ATS) was delivered to the blink model at 4.5 µL/min with a blink rate of 6 blinks/min. A comparison set of lenses were incubated in a vial containing either 2 mL of ATS or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 35°C. Results: Increasing temperature to 35°C resulted in a decrease in WC for all tested CLs over time (P ≤ 0.0052). For most CLs, there was no significant difference in WC over time between ATS or PBS in the vial (P > 0.05). With the vial system, WC decreased and plateaued over time. However, on the blink model, for most CLs, the WC significantly decreased after 1 hour but returned toward initial WC levels after 16 hours (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The reduction in WC of CLs on the eye is likely due to both an increase in temperature and dehydration from air exposure and blinking. Translational Relevance: This study showed that the novel, heated, in vitro blink model could be used to provide clinical insights into CL dehydration on the eye.


Assuntos
Piscadela , Lentes de Contato Hidrofílicas , Desidratação , Humanos , Lágrimas , Temperatura
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(8): 503, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292407

RESUMO

Water use in coal power generation is one of the key points to highlight for the countries like India because country electricity demand increases rapidly which led to increase in water demand. The coal power sector in India will remain to be the dominant source of electricity generation until 2040 and will require a regular water supply, which is already in a stressful condition. This work focuses on the regional assessment of water withdrawal and consumption of the coal power sector at three broad stages includes fuel extraction, fuel preparation, and power generation. Our analysis reveals that 99% of the total water supply to the sector was withdrawn by power plants. Further, the study assessed its trade-off with other sectoral water demand adopting WSI (Water Stress Index) criteria for both surface and groundwater sources. The results highlighted the per capita groundwater to be under severe stress and similar status was also identified in the case of fresh surface water except for the Central region. The overall WSI status was found to be severe in all regions of India. This situation creates a water-scarce situation for water-guzzling power plants that are dependent on surface water and faces the competitive situation with the agriculture and domestic sector. Results of the study concluded that the technological up-gradation at the power plants could be helpful to reduce the total water demand by 78% of coal power sector which can be reduced the severity of regional water stress. Our study aids policymakers to identify the region which is more vulnerable in terms of cross-sectoral water demand and also fulfills the need for quality data availability at a regional scale that may use in the future towards sustainable water-resources management practices.


Assuntos
Carvão Mineral , Água , Desidratação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Índia , Centrais Elétricas
14.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205234

RESUMO

Fluid intake monitoring is an essential component in preventing dehydration and overhydration, especially for the senior population. Numerous critical health problems are associated with poor or excessive drinking such as swelling of the brain and heart failure. Real-time systems for monitoring fluid intake will not only measure the exact amount consumed by the users, but could also motivate people to maintain a healthy lifestyle by providing feedback to encourage them to hydrate regularly throughout the day. This paper reviews the most recent solutions to automatic fluid intake monitoring both commercially and in the literature. The available technologies are divided into four categories: wearables, surfaces with embedded sensors, vision- and environmental-based solutions, and smart containers. A detailed performance evaluation was carried out considering detection accuracy, usability and availability. It was observed that the most promising results came from studies that used data fusion from multiple technologies, compared to using an individual technology. The areas that need further research and the challenges for each category are discussed in detail.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Líquidos , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Idoso , Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
New Phytol ; 232(1): 68-79, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34164816

RESUMO

Global warming is expected to dramatically accelerate forest mortality as temperature and drought intensity increase. Predicting the magnitude of this impact urgently requires an understanding of the process connecting atmospheric drying to plant tissue damage. Recent episodes of forest mortality worldwide have been widely attributed to dry conditions causing acute damage to plant vascular systems. Under this scenario vascular embolisms produced by water stress are thought to cause plant death, yet this hypothetical trajectory has never been empirically demonstrated. Here we provide foundational evidence connecting failure in the vascular network of leaves with tissue damage caused during water stress. We observe a catastrophic sequence initiated by water column breakage under tension in leaf veins which severs local leaf tissue water supply, immediately causing acute cellular dehydration and irreversible damage. By highlighting the primacy of vascular network failure in the death of leaves exposed to drought or evaporative stress our results provide a strong mechanistic foundation upon which models of plant damage in response to dehydration can be confidently structured.


Assuntos
Transpiração Vegetal , Xilema , Desidratação , Secas , Folhas de Planta
17.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064102

RESUMO

Euhydration remains a challenge in children due to lack of access and unpalatability of water and to other reasons. The purpose of this study was to determine if the availability/access to a beverage (Creative Roots®) influences hydration in children and, therefore, sleep quality and mood. Using a crossover investigation, 46 participants were randomly assigned to a control group (CON) or an intervention group and received Creative Roots® (INT) for two-week periods. We recorded daily first morning and afternoon urine color (Ucol), thirst perception, and bodyweight of the two groups. Participants reported to the lab once per week and provided first morning urine samples to assess Ucol, urine specific gravity (USG), and urine osmolality (Uosmo). Participants also completed the questionnaires Profile of Mood States-Adolescents (POMS-a) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Dependent t-tests were used to assess the effects of the intervention on hydration, mood, and sleep quality. Uosmo was greater and Ucol was darker in the control group (mean ± SD) [Uosmo: INT = 828 ± 177 mOsm·kg-1, CON = 879 ± 184 mOsm·kg-1, (p = 0.037], [Ucol:INT = 5 ± 1, CON = 5 ± 1, p = 0.024]. USG, POMS-a, and PSQI were not significant between the groups. At-home daily afternoon Ucol was darker in the control group [INT = 3 ± 1, CON = 3 ± 1, p = 0.022]. Access to Creative Roots® provides a small, potentially meaningful hydration benefit in children. However, children still demonstrated consistent mild dehydration based on Uosmo, despite consuming the beverage.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Bebidas/provisão & distribuição , Desidratação/urina , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido/fisiologia , Aromatizantes/administração & dosagem , Sono/fisiologia , Peso Corporal , Criança , Estudos Cross-Over , Desidratação/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Concentração Osmolar , Gravidade Específica , Sede/fisiologia
18.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 779, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34163009

RESUMO

The Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) is the most important livestock animal in arid and semi-arid regions and provides basic necessities to millions of people. In the current context of climate change, there is renewed interest in the mechanisms that enable camelids to survive in arid conditions. Recent investigations described genomic signatures revealing evolutionary adaptations to desert environments. We now present a comprehensive catalogue of the transcriptomes and proteomes of the dromedary kidney and describe how gene expression is modulated as a consequence of chronic dehydration and acute rehydration. Our analyses suggested an enrichment of the cholesterol biosynthetic process and an overrepresentation of categories related to ion transport. Thus, we further validated differentially expressed genes with known roles in water conservation which are affected by changes in cholesterol levels. Our datasets suggest that suppression of cholesterol biosynthesis may facilitate water retention in the kidney by indirectly facilitating the AQP2-mediated water reabsorption.


Assuntos
Água Corporal/metabolismo , Camelus/fisiologia , Colesterol/fisiologia , Rim/metabolismo , Animais , Aquaporina 2/fisiologia , Desidratação/metabolismo , Clima Desértico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Proteoma , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/fisiologia , Transcriptoma
19.
Plant Cell Rep ; 40(8): 1565-1583, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132878

RESUMO

Stress arising due to abiotic factors affects the plant's growth and productivity. Among several existing abiotic stressors like cold, drought, heat, salinity, heavy metal, etc., drought condition tends to affect the plant's growth by inducing two-point effect, i.e., it disturbs the water balance as well as induces toxicity by disturbing the ion homeostasis, thus hindering the growth and productivity of plants, and to survive under this condition, plants have evolved several transportation systems that are involved in regulating the drought stress. The role of membrane transporters has gained interest since genetic engineering came into existence, and they were found to be the important modulators for tolerance, avoidance, ion movements, stomatal movements, etc. Here in this comprehensive review, we have discussed the role of transporters (ABA, protein, carbohydrates, etc.) and channels that aids in withstanding the drought stress as well as the regulatory role of transporters involved in osmotic adjustments arising due to drought stress. This review also provides a gist of hydraulic conductivity by roots that are involved in regulating the drought stress.


Assuntos
Secas , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Desidratação , Engenharia Genética , Canais Iônicos/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia
20.
Plant Cell Rep ; 40(8): 1543-1564, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142217

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Exogenous potassium (K+) and endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) synergistically alleviate drought stress through regulating H+-ATPase activity, sugar metabolism and redox homoeostasis in tomato seedlings. Present work evaluates the role of K+ in the regulation of endogenous H2S signaling in modulating the tolerance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. Mill.) seedlings to drought stress. The findings reveal that exposure of seedlings to 15% (w/v) polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG) led to a substantial decrease in leaf K+ content which was associated with reduced H+-ATPase activity. Treatment with sodium orthovanadate (SOV, PM H+-ATPase inhibitor) and tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA, K+ channel blocker) suggests that exogenous K+ stimulated H+-ATPase activity that further regulated endogenous K+ content in tomato seedlings subjected to drought stress. Moreover, reduction in H+-ATPase activity by hypotaurine (HT; H2S scavenger) substantiates the role of endogenous H2S in the regulation of H+-ATPase activity. Elevation in endogenous K+ content enhanced the biosynthesis of H2S through enhancing the synthesis of cysteine, the H2S precursor. Synergistic action of H2S and K+ effectively neutralized drought stress by regulating sugar metabolism and redox homoeostasis that resulted in osmotic adjustment, as witnessed by reduced water loss, and improved hydration level of the stressed seedlings. The integrative role of endogenous H2S in K+ homeostasis was validated using HT and TEA which weakened the protection against drought stress induced impairments. In conclusion, exogenous K+ and endogenous H2S regulate H+-ATPase activity which plays a decisive role in the maintenance of endogenous K+ homeostasis. Thus, present work reveals that K+ and H2S crosstalk is essential for modulation of drought stress tolerance in tomato seedlings.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Desidratação , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Potássio/metabolismo , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Secas , Enzimas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , ATPases Translocadoras de Prótons/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Plântula/fisiologia , Açúcares/metabolismo
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