Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 206
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220724, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381592

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of storage temperature, duration, and storage vessel seal on 24 h urinary hydration markers. Twenty-one males (n = 8) and females (n = 13) (mean±SD; age, 24±5 y; body mass, 68.9±24.2 kg; height, 160.2±32.1 cm) without a history of renal disease or currently taking any medications or supplements known to affect the accuracy of urinary hydration markers were enrolled in this study. Participants provided a 24 h urine sample in a clean container with each urine sample being separate into four separate containers, two in each of the following temperatures: 7°C and 22°C. One specimen container at each temperature was either sealed using the manufacturers cap (single sealed) or the manufacturers cap plus laboratory wrapping film (double sealed). Each sample was analyzed after 1, 2, 3, 7 and 10 days. Urine samples were assessed for urine osmolality (UOSMO), urine specific gravity (USG) and urine color (UCOL). UOSMO was stable at 7°C for two days (mean difference [95% CI]; +1 mmol·kg-1 [0+3], p>0.05) and three days (+1 mmol·kg-1 [0, +3], p>0.05) for single sealed and double sealed containers, respectively. USG measures were stable for singled sealed and double sealed for up to ten days when stored at 22°C. UCOL measures were maintained for up to three days in all storage methods (p>0.05). In conclusion, if immediate analysis is unavailable, such as in the case of field based or longitudinal research, it is recommended that 24 h urine samples are stored in a refrigerated environment and hydration markers (UOSMO and UCOL) be assessed within 48 h.


Assuntos
Desidratação/urina , Urinálise/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Concentração Osmolar , Gravidade Específica , Temperatura , Coleta de Urina/métodos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(4): 355-359, 2019 Apr 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982267

RESUMO

Objectives: To investigate the total fluids intake, volume of urine and hydration status among college students from Hebei Province in spring. Methods: In March 2017, the subjects were recruited in a college in Baoding, Hebei Province. 156 students completed the investigation. Total drinking fluids was assessed by 7-day 24-hour fluid intake questionnaire, with a quantitative tool. The water from food was assessed by the duplicate portion method. The urine samples of 24-hour was collected for 3 consecutive days, and the volume, osmolality, pH and specific gravity of urine were measured. Hydration status was grouped to three types according to the urine osmolality (mOsm/kg), namely, optimal hydration (urine osmolality ≤500), middle hydration (500< urine osmolality ≥800) and dehydration (urine osmolality >800), and the differences among subjects in different genders and hydration statuses were compared. Results: The age of all subjects was (19.8±1.1) years old, including 80 male students. The median amounts of total fluids intake, total drinking fluids, water from food and urine volume were 2 324, 1 135, 1 174 and 1 279 ml/d, respectively. The volume of urine among males was 1 272 ml/d, which was not significantly different from that of females (1 304 ml/d) (P>0.05). The osmolality and specific gravity of urine among males were 688 mOsm/kg and 1.017, which were higher than those of females (493 mOsm/kg, 1.014) (P<0.05). But the pH of males was 6.6±0.3, which was lower than that of females (6.7±0.3) (P<0.05). Only 37.2% (n=58) of college students were in optimal hydration status. The median of the amount of total drinking fluids among subjects in optimal hydration status was 301, 448 ml/d higher than that in middle hydration status and dehydration, respectively (P<0.05). The proportion of females in optimal hydration status was 51.3% (n=39), which was higher than that of males 23.8% (n=19) (P<0.05). Conclusion: Large proportion of college students in Hebei had lower total drinking fluids than the recommended intake of China, and the volume of urine was equal to the amount of total drinking fluids among the college students. Only 37.2% of college students were in optimal hydration status, and the proportion of female college students in optimal hydration status was larger than that of males.


Assuntos
Desidratação/urina , Ingestão de Líquidos , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo , Urinálise/métodos , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Biomarcadores/urina , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Concentração Osmolar , Gravidade Específica , Adulto Jovem
3.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(2): 497-514, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820653

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Athletes in Olympic combat sports experience body water fluctuations resulting from training and intentional dehydration when making weight. Despite the popularity of urine specific gravity (USG) and urine osmolality (UOSM) measurement in characterizing fluid fluctuations, their utility remains questioned. This systematic review/meta-analysis examined the utility of urinary hydration indices in laboratory and field settings in Olympic combat sport athletes. METHODS: 27 articles met the inclusion criteria for systematic review, 15 studies were included in the meta-analysis; with USG and UOSM the main outcome variables. Meta-regression analyses evaluated the interrelationship among body mass (BM), fluid intake, and urine measures. RESULTS: Significant USG alterations were observed following different sampling time frames: dehydration (ES 0.59; 95% CI 0.46-0.72; p = 0.001), follow-up period (ES 0.31; 95% CI 0.11-0.50; p = 0.002) and rehydration (ES - 0.34; 95% CI - 0.56 to - 0.12; p = 0.003). Direct comparison of laboratory (ES 0.20; 95% CI - 0.19 to 0.59; p = 0.324) and field (ES 0.35; 95% CI 0.14-0.56; p = 0.001) sampling showed marginally trivial and small effects. Small effects on UOSM were observed following dehydration (ES 0.31; 95% CI 0.12-0.74, p = 0.15), follow-up period (ES 0.39; 95% CI 0.08-0.70, p = 0.015) and rehydration (ES - 0.45; 95% CI - 0.60 to 0.30, p = 0.001). Meta-regression analysis suggests only fluid intake predicts USG alterations (p = 0.044) during rehydration protocols. CONCLUSIONS: There were likely small changes in both USG and UOSM readings across all experimental conditions, with moderate-to-large heterogeneity in all studies, except for USG readings during dehydration protocols. The meta-regression failed to provide conclusive evidence concerning the interrelationship among urine measures, BM fluctuations, and fluid intake.


Assuntos
Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Desidratação/epidemiologia , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia , Adulto , Desidratação/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Concentração Osmolar , Esportes , Urinálise , Adulto Jovem
4.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 31(5): 695-703, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30128663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ageing is inevitably associated with a progressive cognitive decline. With the rising percentage of the elderly in society, the number of people with dementia and cognitive impairment increases. Water is a vital ingredient that must be included in the diet. The impact of hydration status on cognitive performance has been studied only a little so far. AIMS: The objective of the study was to investigate the relation between the hydration status and the cognitive function. METHODS: The study was conducted among 60 free-living volunteers, aged 60-93 years. Data on water consumption were gathered based on 3-day records. The hydration status was assessed in morning urine samples by evaluating urine specific gravity. The cognitive function was tested using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Babcock Story Recall Test and the Trail Making Test. Information about depression was gathered by the Geriatric Depression Scale. RESULTS: The mean daily total water intake was 2441 ± 622 ml, and 70% of respondents met the reference values for an adequate intake. The mean urine specific gravity (1.013 g/cm3, range of 1.004-1.025 g/cm3) indicated that most of the individuals were in a good hydration state. The average result of MMSE was 27.8, which is connected with mild cognitive impairment. There was no significant relationship between the hydration status and the results of the cognitive function test in the studied population. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: As the elderly volunteers had a good hydration status, there was no significant relationship between cognitive performance and urine specific gravity. It is necessary to replicate the findings of this study with a larger and more diverse sample of older adults.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo/fisiologia , Idoso , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Desidratação/complicações , Desidratação/diagnóstico , Desidratação/urina , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência
5.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(2): 475-496, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30506317

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although low water intake has been associated with adverse health outcomes, available literature indicated that the majority of children do not meet the water intake guidelines and they are underhydrated based on elevated hydration biomarkers. This review examined the water intake habits and hydration status in children from 32 observational studies (n = 36813). METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, and CINAHL were used to identify relevant articles. Total water/fluid intake from 25 countries was compared with water intake recommendations and underhydration (urine osmolality greater than 800 mmol kg-1) was assessed. Risk of bias was assessed using customized categories following the review guideline for observational studies. RESULTS: From 32 studies, only 11 studies reported both water intake and hydration status. 12 out of 24 studies reported mean/median water/fluid intake below the guidelines, while 4 out of 13 studies that assessed hydration status indicated underhydration based on urine osmolality (greater than 800 mmol kg-1). Among the 19 countries that reported comparison of water/fluid intake with guidelines, 60 ± 24% of children (range 10-98%) failed to meet them. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that children are not consuming enough water to be adequately hydrated.


Assuntos
Desidratação/epidemiologia , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Água/administração & dosagem , Criança , Desidratação/urina , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Concentração Osmolar , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia
6.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 54(6)2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563153

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Only a few studies have reported the pre-practice hydration status in soccer players (SPs) who train in a cool climate. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the hydration status of male semiprofessional SPs immediately before their regular training session in winter. The secondary purpose was to compare the urinary indices of the hydration status of Estonian and Latvian SPs. Materials and Methods: Pre-training urine samples were collected from 40 Estonian (age 22.1 ± 3.4 years, soccer training experience 13.7 ± 3.9 years) and 41 Latvian (age 20.8 ± 3.4 years, soccer training experience 13.3 ± 3.0 years) SPs and analyzed for urine specific gravity (USG). The average outdoor temperature during the sample collection period (January⁻March) was between -5.1 °C and 0.2 °C (Estonia) and -1.9 °C and -5.0 °C (Latvia). Results: The average pre-training USG of Estonian and Latvian SPs did not differ (P = 0.464). Pooling the data of Estonian and Latvian SPs yielded a mean USG value of 1.021 ± 0.007. Hypohydration (defined as a USG ≥ 1.020) was evident altogether in fifty SPs (61.7%) and one of them had a USG value greater than 1.030. Conclusions: Estonian and Latvian SPs do not differ in respect of USG and the prevalence of pre-training hypohydration is high in this athletic cohort. These findings suggest that SPs as well as their coaches, athletic trainers, and sports physicians should be better educated to recognize the importance of maintaining euhydration during the daily training routine in wintertime and to apply appropriate measures to avoid hypohydration.


Assuntos
Clima Frio , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Desidratação/urina , Estônia , Humanos , Letônia , Masculino , Concentração Osmolar , Estações do Ano , Gravidade Específica , Urina/química , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0205321, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30356308

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of dehydration in occupational settings and contextualize findings to effects on performance in cognitively dominated tasks, simple and complex motor tasks during moderate and high heat stress. METHODS: The study included an occupational part with hydration assessed in five industries across Europe with urine samples collected from 139 workers and analyzed for urine specific gravity. In addition, laboratory experiments included eight male participants completing mild-intensity exercise once with full fluid replacement to maintain euhydration, and once with restricted water intake until the dehydration level corresponded to 2% bodyweight deficit. Following familiarization, euhydration and dehydration sessions were completed on separate days in random order (cross-over design) with assessment of simple motor (target pinch), complex motor (visuo-motor tracking), cognitive (math addition) and combined motor-cognitive (math and pinch) performance at baseline, at 1°C (MOD) and 2°C (HYPER) delta increase in body core temperature. RESULTS: The field studies revealed that 70% of all workers had urine specific gravity values ≥1.020 corresponding to the urine specific gravity (1.020±0.001) at the end of the laboratory dehydration session. At this hydration level, HYPER was associated with reductions in simple motor task performance by 4±1%, math task by 4±1%, math and pinch by 9±3% and visuo-motor tracking by 16±4% (all P<0.05 compared to baseline), whereas no significant changes were observed when the heat stress was MOD (P>0.05). In the euhydration session, HYPER reduced complex (tracking) motor performance by 10±3% and simple pinch by 3±1% (both P<0.05, compared to baseline), while performance in the two cognitively dominated tasks were unaffected when dehydration was prevented (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Dehydration at levels commonly observed across a range of occupational settings with environmental heat stress aggravates the impact of hyperthermia on performance in tasks relying on combinations of cognitive function and motor response accuracy.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Febre/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/epidemiologia , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/urina , Desidratação/urina , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Europa (Continente) , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Febre/fisiopatologia , Febre/urina , Gravitação , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/urina , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia
8.
Physiol Rep ; 6(18): e13851, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30221840

RESUMO

Acclimatization favors greater extracellular tonicity from lower sweat sodium, yet hyperosmolality may impair thermoregulation during heat stress. Enhanced secretion or action of vasopressin could mitigate this through increased free water retention. Aims were to determine responses of the vasopressin surrogate copeptin to dehydrating exercise and investigate its relationships with tonicity during short and long-term acclimatization. Twenty-three participants completed a structured exercise programme following arrival from a temperate to a hot climate. A Heat Tolerance Test (HTT) was conducted on Day-2, 6, 9 and 23, consisting of 60-min block-stepping at 50% VO2 peak, with no fluid intake. Resting sweat [Na+ ] was measured by iontophoresis. Changes in body mass (sweat loss), core temperature, heart rate, osmolality (serum and urine) and copeptin and aldosterone (plasma) were measured with each Test. From Day 2 to Day 23, sweat [Na+ ] decreased significantly (adjusted P < 0.05) and core temperature and heart rate fell. Over the same interval, HTT-associated excursions were increased for serum osmolality (5 [-1, 9] vs. 9 [5, 12] mosm·kg-1 ), did not differ for copeptin (9.6 [6.0, 15.0] vs. 7.9 [4.3, 14.7] pmol·L-1 ) and were reduced for aldosterone (602 [415, 946] vs. 347 [263, 537] pmol·L-1 ). Urine osmolality was unchanging and related consistently to copeptin at end-exercise, whereas the association between copeptin and serum osmolality was right-shifted (P = 0.0109) with acclimatization. Unchanging urine:serum osmolality argued against increased renal action of vasopressin. In conclusion, where exercise in the heat is performed without fluid replacement, heat acclimatization does not appear to enhance AVP-mediated free water retention in humans.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Desidratação/sangue , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Glicopeptídeos/sangue , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Hipertonia Muscular/sangue , Hipertonia Muscular/fisiopatologia , Sudorese/fisiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Desidratação/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Hipertonia Muscular/urina , Telemetria/métodos , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 19(12): 1124-1128, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30228079

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although dehydration can affect mental and physical health, there is no clear, consistent, and reproducible diagnostic tool for this condition in older people. We applied multiple methods to detect dehydration with the aim of assessing the value of using urine analysis for this purpose. DESIGN: Nonrandomized cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Sixty nursing home residents, aged 64-103 (mean 84) years. METHODS: Sampling of morning urine, blood analyses, and clinical examination. A previously validated algorithm summarized the urine specific gravity, osmolality, creatinine, and color to a Fluid Retention Index (FRI). RESULTS: The cut-off for renal fluid conservation consistent with dehydration (FRI ≥ 4.0) was reached by 51% of the cohort. No statistically significant linear correlation was found between FRI and serum osmolality (mean 307.5 mOsmol/kg) or plasma sodium (mean 139 mmol/L), but the subjects reported less thirst with increasing FRI scores (linear correlation r = -0.35; P < .03). Clinical examinations of mucous membranes and tongue furrows did not correlate with other markers of dehydration. Subjects with sunken eyes had higher C-reactive protein (P < .02) and lower albumin (P < .002) concentrations in plasma than the others, while impaired skin turgor only correlated with age (P < .04). CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Renal fluid conservation consistent with dehydration was found in half of the nursing home residents, which could partially be accounted for by decreased thirst. Clinical examinations probably reflected the physical status and age more than dehydration. The lack of correlation between the serum osmolality and the FRI, both of which are purported to be gold standards for dehydration, raises questions about whether a gold standard exists.


Assuntos
Desidratação/sangue , Desidratação/urina , Casas de Saúde , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Concentração Osmolar , Exame Físico , Urinálise , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico
10.
J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs ; 47(5): 602-607, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30006263

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if women who present to the labor and delivery unit at 23 0/7 to 36 6/7 weeks gestation with threatened preterm labor (TPTL) are more likely to be dehydrated than women who present at the same gestational age for other reasons. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: An academic medical center in the northeastern United States. PARTICIPANTS: All women at preterm gestational ages 23 0/7 to 36 6/7 weeks who presented to the labor and delivery unit for care in 2014. METHODS: We compared hydration status by urine specific gravity of women with TPTL to that of women with other chief complaints. Women for whom data were missing and those with hypertension, diabetes, renal disease, vaginal bleeding, ruptured membranes, advanced dilation (>3 cm), multiple gestation, or fetal demise were excluded. Chi-square statistic and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used for data analysis. RESULTS: A total of 840 women at 23 0/7 to 36 6/7 weeks gestation presented during the study period; 188 of these had TPTL, 261 had other chief complaints, and 391 were excluded. The proportion of women diagnosed with dehydration was similar between those with TPTL (39%) and those with other complaints (46%, p = .12). An ROC curve showed no association between TPTL and hydration status (area under the curve = 0.57, 95% confidence interval [0.46, 0.67]). CONCLUSION: At 23 0/7 to 36 6/7 weeks gestation, the hydration status of women with TPTL was not different from those without TPTL. Because there is no relationship, it is unlikely that hydration is a worthwhile therapy for women with TPTL, although additional prospective study is warranted.


Assuntos
Desidratação , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro , Adulto , Correlação de Dados , Desidratação/diagnóstico , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Desidratação/urina , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , New England , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/diagnóstico , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/fisiopatologia , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Physiol Rep ; 6(11): e13734, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29890037

RESUMO

Exercise and dehydration may be associated with a compromised kidney function and potential signs of kidney injury. However, the kidney responses to exercise of different durations and hypohydration levels are not yet known. Therefore, we aimed to compare the effects of acute versus prolonged exercise and dehydration on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and kidney injury biomarkers in healthy male adults. A total of 35 subjects (23 ± 3 years) were included and invited for two study visits. Visit 1 consisted of a maximal cycling test. On Visit 2, subjects performed a submaximal exercise test at 80% of maximal heart rate until 3% hypohydration. Blood and urine samples were taken at baseline, after 30 min of exercise (acute effects; low level of hypohydration) and after 150 min of exercise or when 3% hypohydration was achieved (prolonged effects, high level of hypohydration). Urinary outcome parameters were corrected for urinary cystatin C, creatinine, and osmolality. Subjects dehydrated on average 0.6 ± 0.3% and 2.9 ± 0.7% after acute and prolonged exercise, respectively (P < 0.001). The eGFRcystatin C did not differ between baseline and acute exercise (118 ± 11 vs. 116 ± 12 mL/min/1.73 m2 , P = 0.12), whereas eGFRcystatin C was significantly lower after prolonged exercise (103 ± 16 mL/min/1.73 m2 , P < 0.001). We found no difference in osmolality corrected uKIM1 concentrations after acute and prolonged exercise (P > 0.05), and elevated osmolality corrected uNGAL concentrations after acute and prolonged exercise (all P-values < 0.05). In conclusion, acute exercise did barely impact on eGFRcystatin C and kidney injury biomarkers, whereas prolonged exercise is associated with a decline in eGFRcystatin C and increased biomarkers for kidney injury.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Lesão Renal Aguda/urina , Desidratação/sangue , Desidratação/urina , Exercício Físico , Rim/fisiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Desidratação/complicações , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Masculino , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Adulto Jovem
12.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 18(7): 920-929, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29746803

RESUMO

Urine specific gravity (USG) is the most commonly reported biochemical marker used in research and applied settings to detect fluid deficits in athletes, including those participating in combat sports. Despite the popularity of its use, there has been a growing debate regarding the diagnostic accuracy and the applicability of USG in characterizing whole-body fluid status and fluctuations. Moreover, recent investigations report universally high prevalence of hypohydration (∼90%) via USG assessment in combat sport athletes, often in spite of stable body-mass. Given the widespread use in both research and practice, and its use in a regulatory sense as a 'hydration test' in combat sports as a means to detect dehydration at the time of weigh-in; understanding the limitations and applicability of USG assessment is of paramount importance. Inconsistencies in findings of USG readings, possibly as a consequence of diverse methodological research approaches and/or overlooked confounding factors, preclude a conclusive position stand within current combat sports research and practice. Thus the primary aim of this paper is to critically review the literature regarding USG assessment of hydration status in combat sports research and practice. When taken on balance, the existing literature suggests: the use of laboratory derived benchmarks in applied settings, inconsistent sampling methodologies, the incomplete picture of how various confounding factors affect end-point readings, and the still poorly understood potential of renal adaptation to dehydration in combat athletes; make the utility of hydration assessment via USG measurement quite problematic, particularly when diet and training is not controlled.


Assuntos
Boxe , Desidratação/diagnóstico , Desidratação/urina , Luta Romana , Atletas , Comportamento Competitivo , Ingestão de Líquidos , Humanos , Gravidade Específica , Urinálise
13.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 72(3): 420-427, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29238038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Children consume various fluids to meet dietary water intake needs. However, the contribution of different fluid types on hydration is unclear. The purpose of this study was to develop fluid intake patterns and examine their association with hydration, as indicated by 24-h urine osmolality. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Two hundred ten (105 girls) healthy children (height: 1.49 ± 0.13 m, weight: 43.4 ± 12.6 kg, body fat: 25.2 ± 7.8%) recorded their fluid intake for two consecutive days, and collected their urine for 24-h during the 2nd day, while conducting their normal daily activities. Urine samples were analyzed for specific gravity and osmolality. Factor analysis with principal components method was applied to extract dietary patterns from six fluid groups. Linear regression analysis evaluated the associations between the extracted dietary patterns and hydration based on 24-h urine osmolality. RESULTS: The analysis revealed the following six components: 1, characterized by consumption of milk and fresh juice, but not packaged juice; 2, by regular soda and other drinks, but not water; 3, by fresh juice and other drinks; 4, by packaged juice, but not regular soda; 5, by water and milk; and 6, by fresh juice. Component 5 was negatively correlated with urine osmolality (P = 0.001) indicating better hydration, whereas component 2 was positively correlated with urine osmolality (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A drinking pattern based on water and milk was associated with better hydration, as indicated by lower urine osmolality, whereas drinking regular soda and other drinks but not water was associated with inferior hydration.


Assuntos
Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Água Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Desidratação/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Leite , Concentração Osmolar , Gravidade Específica , Urinálise , Água
14.
J Physiol Biochem ; 74(1): 139-151, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28799126

RESUMO

Proper hydration is essential to maintain optimal health and well-being at all stages of life, especially for the elderly. Side effects of certain drugs that affect hydration status may compromise the health of the ancients, who also constitute the most vulnerable group. No studies have been carried out, to our knowledge, at the intersection of drugs and hydration status. Our study aimed to evaluate the effects of chronic use of certain drugs (diuretics, corticoids and metformin) in the hydration status of the elderly. Results were obtained from a cross-sectional study with 96 volunteers (65-93 years) selected based on their pharmacological treatment. It included a validated food and drink frequency questionnaire and water removal, dehydration signs and symptoms assessment and urine analysis. All data were analysed by age and sex. Water balance decreased with advanced age, especially in men's group. Results were confirmed by means of the evaluation of dehydration signs and symptoms and colorimetric and chemical analysis of urine. Correlations between consumption of corticoids and hydration status were found, with different signs depending on the administration route (Rho = 0.522 and Rho = - 0,522 for oral and pulmonary corticoids, respectively). Furthermore, correlations between diuretics (Rho = - 0.343, p < 0.05) and metformin (Rho = - 0.802, p < 0.01) consumption and different urine markers were determined. In conclusion, the predominant dehydration state of the volunteers of the study is affected by drugs consumption and their route of administration. Hence, there is an urgent need for monitorization of hydration status based on drugs consumption.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Doença Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Desidratação/etiologia , Interações Medicamentosas , Nível de Saúde , Polimedicação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/urina , Estudos Transversais , Desidratação/epidemiologia , Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Desidratação/urina , Dieta Saudável , Ingestão de Líquidos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Idoso , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Cooperação do Paciente , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência , Espanha/epidemiologia
15.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 72(1): 69-76, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28853743

RESUMO

Evaluating and testing hydration status is increasingly requested by rehabilitation, sport, military and performance-related activities. Besides commonly used biochemical hydration assessment markers within blood and urine, which have their advantages and limitations in collection and evaluating hydration status, there are other potential markers present within saliva, sweat or tear. This literature review focuses on body fluids saliva, sweat and tear compared to blood and urine regarding practicality and hydration status influenced by fluid restriction and/or physical activity. The selected articles included healthy subjects, biochemical hydration assessment markers and a well-described (de)hydration procedure. The included studies (n=16) revealed that the setting and the method of collecting respectively accessing body fluids are particularly important aspects to choose the optimal hydration marker. To obtain a sample of saliva is one of the simplest ways to collect body fluids. During exercise and heat exposures, saliva composition might be an effective index but seems to be highly variable. The collection of sweat is a more extensive and time-consuming technique making it more difficult to evaluate dehydration and to make a statement about the hydration status at a particular time. The collection procedure of tear fluid is easy to access and causes very little discomfort to the subject. Tear osmolarity increases with dehydration in parallel to alterations in plasma osmolality and urine-specific gravity. But at the individual level, its sensitivity has to be further determined.


Assuntos
Desidratação/diagnóstico , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo , Saliva/química , Suor/química , Lágrimas/química , Atividades Cotidianas , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Pesquisa Comparativa da Efetividade , Desidratação/sangue , Desidratação/metabolismo , Desidratação/urina , Humanos , Concentração Osmolar , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 26(5): 788-793, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28802286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between quantified urine color and urine osmolality, and its validity in distinguishing hydration status among college men in Hebei, China. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Sixty-eight college men aged 18~25 years completed a cross-sectional study. All participants were asked to complete a 24-h fluid intake record to estimate fluid intake from beverages after anthropometric measurements. The foods eaten by participants were weighed to assess fluid intake from foods. All urine samples for the day were collected by participants to determine urine osmolality and urine color by chromatogram spectrophotometry (in accord with the Commission Internationale de l'Eclarige (CIE) notation L*a*b*). RESULTS: A total 413 urine samples from 68 participants were collected and 151 (36.6%) samples indicated dehydration according to urine osmolality. The dehydrated group versus hydrated group had a smaller urine color L* (94.88 vs 98.06) and a* (- 2.39 vs -1.91), bigger b* (30.41 vs 15.15), and higher osmolality (958 mOsm/kg vs 486 mOsm/kg). Urine color and osmolality were closely correlated, especially for b* (0.86, p<0.0001). The percentage variance in urine osmolality (R2) explained by a partial least squares (PLS) model was 79%. Urine color b* contributed most substantially to the PLS model, with variable importance for projection of 1.35. The cutoff for b* for adequate hydration was 17.78 (area under the curve=0.899). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in urine color between dehydrated and hydrated status related to urine osmolality. Urine color quantification is a reliable method to assess hydration status among young Chinese men.


Assuntos
Desidratação/diagnóstico , Desidratação/urina , Urinálise/métodos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Concentração Osmolar , Estudantes , Universidades , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Adulto Jovem
18.
Physiol Behav ; 180: 113-119, 2017 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28842190

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Depending on type, intensity and duration, exercise can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on cognitive function. The impact of exercise on learning and memory is also sensitive to hydration status, so we hypothesized that mild hypohydration induced with exercise, will adversely impact executive and complex memory function tasks and that these changes in cognitive function are independent of changes in emotion. METHODS: Using a cross over design, on separate days 11 women exercised on a recumbent bicycle. On day 1, women exercised to 1.5% hypohydration at 34°C, and <10% rh, on day 2, water loss from sweating was replaced by drinking water (euhydration). Pre- and post-euhydration and hypohydration, subjects underwent computer based cognitive tasks (simple, learning, memory, executive function) and visual analog testing to determine emotion. RESULTS: Exercise increased Groton Maze Learning Test errors within both conditions: [Pre: 41.5±11.8, Post: 46.8±12.4, and Pre: 41.9±9.2, Post: 46.5±12.9, hypohydrated and euhydrated, respectively, Pre vs Post, ANOVA, time effect, P=0.007], a test of acquisition, storage, and use of new knowledge. None of the measures of emotion were affected by exercise under either hydration condition. CONCLUSIONS: A bout of mild aerobic exercise compromised performance on a complex learning and memory task, but this change was unaffected by hydration status or emotion.


Assuntos
Desidratação/complicações , Emoções/fisiologia , Exercício Físico , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Aprendizagem por Associação/fisiologia , Ciclismo/lesões , Estudos Cross-Over , Desidratação/urina , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória/urina , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 26(9): 1885-1891, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28739345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early neurological deterioration after ischemic stroke (stroke-in-evolution [SIE]) is associated with poorer outcomes. Previous studies have demonstrated a link between hydration status and the development of SIE. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that rehydration therapy, administered on the basis of urine-specific gravity (USG) findings, might reduce the development of SIE. METHODS: We conducted a single-arm prospective study of patients with acute ischemic stroke with historical controls. For the study group, a USG higher than 1.010 was taken as an indication for rehydration. Control group patients were rehydrated without referring to USG. An increase in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of 4 or higher within 3 days was defined as having SIE. RESULTS: A total of 445 patients were analyzed, 167 in the study group and 278 in the control group. The proportion of patients who developed SIE was numerically, but not significantly, lower in the study group (5.9%; 10 of 167) compared with the control group (11.5%; 32 of 278). Among patients with a USG higher than 1.010 at admission, the SIE rate was significantly reduced in the study group compared with the control group (6.1% versus 16.0%; P = .021), while the rate of SIE was similar in those with a USG of 1.010 or lower at admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed that USG-based hydration was an independent factor associated with reducing SIE. CONCLUSIONS: USG might be a convenient and useful method for guiding fluid therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke. USG-based hydration reduced the incidence of SIE among patients with a USG higher than 1.010 at admission.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Desidratação/terapia , Hidratação/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Isquemia Encefálica/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Desidratação/diagnóstico , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Desidratação/urina , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Estudo Historicamente Controlado , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Gravidade Específica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/urina , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Urinálise , Urina/química
20.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 70 Suppl 1: 18-22, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28614809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urine osmolality (UOSM) reflects the renal regulation of excess fluid or deficit fluid, and therefore, serves as a marker of hydration status. Little is known about monitoring hydration in pregnant and lactating women despite significant physiological challenges to body water balance during that time. Therefore, we designed a study to assess if urine color (UCOL), an inexpensive and practical method, was a valid means of assessing urine concentration. Twenty-four hour UCOL was significantly correlated with 24 h UOSM in all women: pregnant, lactating, and control (r = 0.61-0.84, all p < 0.001). Utilizing a receiver operating characteristic statistical analysis, we found that 24 h and single sample UCOL had excellent diagnostic accuracy for identifying UOSM ≥500 mOsm·kg-1 in all women (area under the curve = 0.68-0.95, p < 0.001-0.46), and the UCOL that reflected this cut off was ≥4 on the UCOL chart. SUMMARY: Therefore, UCOL is a valid marker of urine concentration and ultimately hydration status in pregnant, lactating, and non-pregnant, non-lactating women. For pregnant, lactating, and control women, the UCOL chart is a valid tool that can be used to monitor urine concentration in a single sample or over the course of the day via a 24 h sample. Key Message: Women who present with a UCOL of 4 or more likely have a UOSM ≥500 mOsm·kg-1. Given the positive health benefits associated with UOSM <500 mOsm·kg-1, women should aim for a 1, 2, or 3 on the UCOL chart. If a UCOL of ≥4 is observed, women should consider increasing fluid consumption to improve hydration status.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/urina , Aleitamento Materno , Ingestão de Líquidos , Lactação/fisiologia , Urinálise/normas , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cor , Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Desidratação/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Concentração Osmolar , Pigmentação , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações na Gravidez/urina , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Gravidade Específica , Urina/química , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA