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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 714, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extreme disparities in access, experience, and outcomes highlight the need to transform how pregnancy care is designed and delivered in the United States, especially for low-income individuals and people of color. METHODS: We used human-centered design (HCD) to understand the challenges facing Medicaid-insured pregnant people and design interventions to address these challenges. The HCD method has three phases: Inspiration, Ideation, and Implementation. This study focused on the first and second. In the Inspiration phase we conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposeful sample of stakeholders who had either received or participated in the care of Medicaid-insured pregnant people within our community, with a specific emphasis on representation from marginalized communities. Using a general inductive approach to thematic analysis, we identified themes, which were then framed into design opportunities. In the Ideation phase, we conducted structured brainstorming sessions to generate potential prototypes of solutions, which were tested and iterated upon through a series of community events and engagement with a diverse community advisory group. RESULTS: We engaged a total of 171 stakeholders across both phases of the HCD methodology. In the Inspiration phase, interviews with 23 community members and an eight-person focus group revealed seven insights centered around two main themes: (1) racism and discrimination create major barriers to access, experience, and the ability to deliver high-value pregnancy care; (2) pregnancy care is overmedicalized and does not treat the pregnant person as an equal and informed partner. In the Ideation phase, 162 ideas were produced and translated into eight solution prototypes. Community scoring and feedback events with 140 stakeholders led to the progressive refinement and selection of three final prototypes: (1) implementing telemedicine (video visits) within the safety-net system, (2) integrating community-based peer support workers into healthcare teams, and (3) delivering co-located pregnancy-related care and services into high-need neighborhoods as a one-stop shop. CONCLUSIONS: Using HCD methodology and a collaborative community-health system approach, we identified gaps, opportunities, and solutions to address perinatal care inequities within our urban community. Given the urgent need for implementable and effective solutions, the design process was particularly well-suited because it focuses on understanding and centering the needs and values of stakeholders, is multi-disciplinary through all phases, and results in prototyping and iteration of real-world solutions.


Assuntos
Assistência Perinatal , Design Universal , Criança , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Medicaid , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Estados Unidos
2.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 282: 41-51, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085958

RESUMO

Aesthetic experience of the built environment involves all our senses: the sight of colour and form; the echo in a room; the smell of wood; the touch of handrails; the refreshing cool air on the skin, and so on. However, the definition of universal design sets no criteria for aesthetics, only stating the functional requirements that need to be met. The term for many architects and planners is still too closely associated with legislations, regulations, and standards. Buildings designed by some of the pioneers of modern architecture have been briefly mentioned in relation to universal design: Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright's use of the ramp as an architectural element, Mies van der Rohe's plans, the fluent transition between inside and outside, through which people may move easily and effortlessly, and Alvar Aalto's design of details, such as door handles suitable for people of varying heights. However, their architectural works have greater potential as sources of inspiration with respect to moving buildings in a universal direction. Rem Koolhaas' innovative design for a client with reduced mobility and his library projects are examples of how a contemporary architect has used Le Corbusier's architecture as a source of reference. This paper refers to or includes works made by the above-mentioned architects to illustrate universal design and thereby discusses architectural qualities and aesthetics in relation to the needs of people with reduced mobility, vision and hearing.


Assuntos
Acessibilidade Arquitetônica , Design Universal , Ambiente Construído , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Humanos , Tato
3.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 282: 55-70, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085959

RESUMO

Universal Design (UD) aims to provide designed environments that allow users to fully participate in all kinds of activities. Especially, the design of Sport and Leisure buildings should support and encourage the participation of mobility and sensory impaired people in any physical and social activity. Yet, the variety of physical and social users' needs calls for different approaches to investigate, analyze and assess how the environment fulfills users' needs and expectations. This paper presents a new analytical model that: a) investigates how people with mobility, visual, and hearing impairments interact with specific architectural features; b) links the examined user-environment interaction with the user's personal assessment of the spatial experience. The study employs the literature review of the existing analytical models, which are based on the concept of user-environment interaction and framed around empirically deducted basic human needs. These models address the issue of user-environment fit by focusing on the identification of environmental barriers. Also, some of these models are too descriptive and cannot inform the practice in creative design processes. The proposed analytical model, which is built upon the theoretical concepts of affordances and usability, aims to develop a qualitative evaluation method for identifying environmental facilitators by linking the design of architectural characteristics with the influenced perception of users of the physical and social aspects of the built environment. The model consists of three groups of elements: (1) users' physical abilities; (2) architectural features and (3) usability criteria. The inter-relations of each element across the groups develop the narrating scenarios that can be investigated from the user's perspective. This new model does not only advance the understanding of the spatial experiences of persons with mobility and sensory impairments but also offers new insights for exploring UD solutions by identifying the architectural features that enlarge the spectrum of possible user-environment interactions.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Design Universal , Humanos
4.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 282: 102-119, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085962

RESUMO

For the creation of inclusive design solutions, designers require relevant knowledge about a diversity of users throughout the design process. Besides understanding users' needs and expectations, the ways in which users perceive and experience the environment contain valuable knowledge for designers. Since users' perceptions and experiences are mainly tacit by nature, they are much more difficult to communicate and therefore more difficult to externalize. Hence, more insight is needed into the ways designers can build knowledge on Universal Design through direct user contact. In a project called 'Light up for all' architecture students are asked to design a light switch and socket, elegant, usable and understandable to the greatest extent possible by everyone. Two workshops with user/experts are organized in the first stages of the design process in which students could gain insight into users' experiences and perceptions through direct contact. Three data collection techniques are used to analyze the teams' design processes: (1) a design diary, (2) observations of the workshops and (3) a focus group. By means of analyzing collected qualitative data, we have identified three different design aspects that affect designers' UD knowledge building process. First, findings give indications on values and limitations of working with selected design artefacts when externalizing users' experiences. Second, the value of stories clearly affected designers' deeper understanding about users' experiences. Finally, results show that in some situations, designers encountered contradictory information between observations and verbal conversations. These insights may help researchers to better understand designers' process of building knowledge on UD from users' experiences and perceptions, which may result in better incorporating users' experiences when designing for everyone.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Design Universal , Coleta de Dados , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Estudantes
5.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 282: 120-134, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085963

RESUMO

International regulations about Accessibility and Design for All are clear. They provide two guidelines to ensure equality, autonomy, and non-discrimination, such as Reasonable Accommodation and Universal Design (or Design for All). Reasonable Accommodation leads to Adapted Fashion, which adjusts clothing to the body (average clothes for the average consumer). Universal Design leads to Inclusive Fashion, which creates clothes for everybody even if you have a body issue. Design for All (or Universal Design) implies projecting from the beginning to the end of the design process based on inclusion. In this context, the Museum-Foundation Juan March in Palma was the starting point to conceive, develop and communicate a collaborative and transdisciplinary design project; it was designed under the principle of Universal Design. This transdisciplinary co-design project took place during the first semester of the 2019-2020 academic year with a third-year BA in Fashion Design students. They designed an inclusive ready-to-wear fashion micro-collection, which focused on sensitizing BA in Fashion Design students, promoting a change of attitude, and fostering a better understanding of the challenges clothing design process. Students were invited to complete two online questionnaires to collect data on the project. The first survey was used to assess alumni's perception of acquisition, development, and/or consolidation of key competences in participating students and control groups. The second survey was used to assess alumni's activity on the project among participating students. This project was aimed at sensitizing BA in Fashion Design students, promoting a change of attitude, and a better understanding of the challenges clothing design process. After visiting the museum, getting inspired by their artists and their works of art, creating a mood board, and drawing the first sketches, two groups were created to develop an inclusive, ready-to-wear fashion micro-collection. Each collection focused on a different users' profile: one group worked with a model with achondroplasia (woman), and the other group worked with two wheelchair models (man, woman). Despite the mixed results, the main objectives of the project were reached. As members of a school community, students must learn about other realities that differ from their everyday environment. As members of a school of design, students must be aware of an important prospective market niche and expand their fields of action that must include Design for All. In any case, human diversity is the key concept to approach user-centred design in the twenty-first century. The «Museum and Inclusive Fashion¼ project was part of an ongoing academic research project funded by the Balearic Government (2017-2020). This article reflects the views only of the authors, and the Balearic Government cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.


Assuntos
Museus , Design Universal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
6.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 282: 144-160, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085965

RESUMO

The TINEL Project is running a series of camps for staff at higher education institution to support them in developing inclusive eLearning. The first camp was conducted face-to-face, but the coronavirus pandemic meant that the second camp was conducted online. This created a case study in inclusive eLearning in itself and allowed us to experience and reflect on the challenges and opportunities of inclusive online teaching and learning. This paper presents the structure and content of the two camps, our reflections on moving from a face-to-face to an online situation and our elaboration how the UDL principles apply to eLearning to create Universal Design for eLearning (UDeL). We found that because we already had a syllabus for the camp prepared, transferring it to an online camp did not present a great number of challenges. Some aspects of the online situation were actually advantageous (e.g. presenting all materials digitally and making them fully accessible) while others were difficult to overcome (e.g. engaging all participants in online activities and discussions). We provide a set of recommendations of how to implement the three principles of UDL in eLearning situations.


Assuntos
Instrução por Computador , Educação à Distância , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Design Universal , Universidades
7.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 282: 161-175, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085966

RESUMO

Accessibility in higher education campuses of India paves way for inclusion.This paper shares perspectives from three diverse campuses from India and highlights the accessibility paradigms in their respective contexts. It further elaborates the contextual measures of accessibility and universal design from these examples with larger focus on physical attributes of accessibility. Challenges of historic and mixed use campus alongwith high ecological footprint pose distinct perspectives to accessible built environments in higher education. Comparative understanding of accessibility through structured metrics and mapping with Universal Design goals leads to development of a framework to assess and guide universal design approach in higher education in similar contexts. It argues that Universal design approach requires a contextual interpretation for contexts like these and may reflect new interpretations to existing theories. New Education Policy by the Government of India and Covid'19 as pandemic have furthered the need and understanding of accessibility in higher education with some degree of universaliaton and some degree of contextualization.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Design Universal , Ambiente Construído , Humanos , Índia , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 282: 176-182, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085967

RESUMO

The purpose of this paper is to introduce participants to our journey of integrating Universal Design as a central part of a new Technological University in addressing the challenge of a consistent quality experience for all learners. Adopting and combining both the principles of universal design and universal design for learning is not to make it easier but to offer a framework of principles and guidelines to make education appropriate and challenging for everyone. Ken Robinson wrote "A vibrant school can nourish an entire community by becoming a source of hope and creative energy…Poor schools can drain the optimism from all the students and families who depend on it by diminishing their opportunities for growth and development" (1).


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Design Universal , Currículo , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
9.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 282: 183-198, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085968

RESUMO

Providing access to high quality books for all types of readers is a premise for cultural democracy. Many people, however, have challenges reading mainstream books. There might be diverse reasons why people find reading challenging. Some examples are reading impairments, reduced vision, cognitive impairments, learning a new language, or due to stress, fatigue or illness. To ensure everyone access to literature, it is therefore vital to produce books that can (and will) be read by a wide range of users. This case study addresses the following research questions: Do adapted books represent accessible or universal design? Can adapted books be perceived as motivating to read for all types of readers? Are "special books" necessary to ensure that all users have access to high quality literature? In Norway, the association Books for Everyone develops adapted, printed fictional books to accommodate various types of reading challenges. This paper examines the production of these books and uses this collection to investigate the research questions. The main finding is that most of the books by Books for Everyone can be considered examples of universal design, rather than "special books" directed at a very narrow user group. Moreover, there seems to be a limited need for "special books", except for books targeting readers with severe cognitive or sensory impairments. By applying the universal design approach, fictional literature can potentially make books more accessible for all types of readers.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Design Universal , Livros , Humanos , Noruega , Leitura
10.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 282: 252-258, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085973

RESUMO

The study has the objective of designing AR tourist guide mobile app within an academic teaching framework facilitating collaborative (e.g. external commercial partners), cooperative (i.e. external academic experts) and user-centred design (UCD). [1]The tourist guide app, VisitAR, is a digitized tour application that portrays information in the form of landmarks and information windows. VisitAR provides a seamless walking experience in real-time by using your location, and triggering pop up information windows while you walk at Carlingford Ireland. The application testing was completed by using several usability evaluation methods i.e. technical field testing, living lab testing including speaking thoughts out loud, usability focus group testing and usability analysis As a result, by teaching UD within an experiential, living lab, a more realistic design context is provided, addressing realistic UX and SD, allowing deployment of potentially commercially viable solutions, which address the needs of a more diverse range of end users. As part of this case study, both qualitative and quantitative data related to UX, usability and SD from each stage of development was evaluated.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis , Design Universal , Irlanda , Design Centrado no Usuário
11.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 282: 273-287, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085975

RESUMO

Public hospitals should be designed to clover as wider inclusivity levels as possible forproviding access for all. Unfortunately, and for a variety of reasons, a quality service is not always provided. When evaluation of the service quality in healthcare organizations is carried out, it is mostly conducted in terms of medical service quality, whilst the physical layout, functionality and facilitating devices are not given as much scrutiny. Post Occupation Evaluation (POE) is notably an efficient process for checking the satisfaction of users after the building has been in-used for a certain period of times. However, hospital is generally a type of building and service that need to support users with a variety of physical capabilities thus, a conventional POE may not cover all requirements of users, so this research has employed the UD concepts as a basis to combined with POE for evaluating service performance of a hospital of the case study, Naresuan University hospital, THAILAND. Even though the POE delivered a good design suggestion that is beneficial to users with a wide range of physical ability but that may not guarantee the new design will be agreed by all stakeholders and implemented through success. As a matter of fact, to success an implementing of a good design does not depend solely on a designer, specifically for this case study, a universal design to a hospital. This research found that to make UD perfectly effects in a hospital (in Thailand context) may require more supportive factors beyond just pointing out problems related to physical conditions of the design and suggest a design solution. As in the context of Thailand, this research identified 4 factors contributing to the success of UD which the designer should be accountable for (1) public understanding of the basic concepts of UD (2) all the related background such as culture, tradition and economic etc. that contributed the attitudes of all stakeholders (of the hospital) towards people with physical impairments (3) the rights, laws, regulations and policies for people with disabilities in the context of the country and (4) the participation of all types of users. And in doing so, this research added an extensive evaluation to the general POE to cover as more factors as possible to those involved with the design implementation. Therefore, an extensive evaluation process so called "Comprehensive Post-Occupancy Evaluation C-POE" has been created and employed in this study for offering more comprehensive solution that cover all possibilities cause of problems, the evaluation processes are as follows; (1) evaluating physical features and users' behavior (the experimental access audit), (2) examining administrative policy, HA and UD principles and (3) interviewing attitude of executives about UD.


Assuntos
Políticas , Design Universal , Atitude , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Tailândia
12.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 282: 288-300, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085976

RESUMO

Among various approaches to handling friction between (dis)abilities and the built environment, universal design (UD) has emerged as an interdisciplinary field for research and practice. However, while the literature denotes UD as a design concept, practice, and strategy for rehabilitation, its true impact is still largely unknown. To explore the rehabilitative potential of UD and determine how to evaluate its impact, this paper seeks to turn the tables. It investigates a case regarding low-vision rehabilitation, in which a group of consultants developed a holistic lighting assessment (HLA) that embraced the social and the physical contexts of the visually impaired. The lighting assessment was performed using participant observations from 15 consultations, document analysis, and interviews with the low-vision consultants. Based on an actor-network theory (ANT) approach, the analysis reveals the contextual knowledge of participants, environments, and the interaction between them. The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods in HLA enabled a range of different understandings of light: as a quantitative measure, as an individually perceived aspect of the home environment, as something that enables or disables daily activities, and as a social factor of great importance for social practices. While traditional lighting assessments generally resemble the accessibility approach, with its measures of visual acuity translated into recommendations for an overall lux value, the holistic approach more closely resembles the UD methodology. One finding of this paper is that the concepts of rehabilitation and UD are committed to slightly different levels of abstraction. Rehabilitation focuses on specific individuals and specific environments, with patient rehabilitation as the main goal. UD focuses on user groups and design principles, with design and architectural solutions as the main objectives. While the concepts of UD and HLA represent different fields and different levels of abstraction, the two approaches can enhance both respective practices and theoretical frames.


Assuntos
Design Universal , Baixa Visão , Ambiente Construído , Planejamento Ambiental , Humanos , Iluminação
13.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 282: 301-314, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085977

RESUMO

Based on experiences with the development of a new research-based website on Universal Design meant to inspire and qualify the work of the Danish building sector, this paper examines the types of knowledge requested by professionals in the building sector when working with Universal Design. The Danish Transport, Construction and Housing Authority commissioned a website with the aim of increasing the building sector's knowledge of Universal Design and supporting a change in attitude towards universal design. The site is intended to function as a platform for disseminating knowledge about Universal Design that can support the regulatory system. The empirical material of the study consists of data from qualitative interviews with actors from the building sector and workshops with the advisory board of the website. The analysis shows that, on one hand, the sector requires good examples of Universal Design and knowledge about users and their needs and, on the other hand, it needs detailed help such as comprehensive checklists to ensure the appropriate process is undertaken. However, technical information about, for example, the gradient of a ramp, does not contribute to an architectural idea and will not change any mindsets in regard to Universal Design. This paper reflects on the duality of requests from the sector using the theoretical concept of liminality. The paper describes and argues for the chosen approach for the website, namely focusing on inspiring and assisting professionals in the building sector to enhance their level of knowledge and support a change in practice towards Universal Design.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Design Universal , Acessibilidade Arquitetônica , Habitação , Humanos
14.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 282: 374-386, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085982

RESUMO

The presentation describes challenges and possible solutions for achieving truly accessible high-class urban public transportation based on a case from Trondheim, where a new high-class bus system was implemented. The implemented solution did not reflect the wheelchair user's needs - despite clearly stated ambitions for accessibility. Ramboll conducted a study comprising a screening of the international market for relevant solutions, combined with interviews with representatives of Public transport authorities. The results were presented to the local user's representatives, and some solutions tested on location. Based on this process, recommendations for short-, medium- and long-term solutions were made. The project highlights the need for involvement of sufficient professional knowledge of universal design in the planning phase as well as in the implementation phase.


Assuntos
Design Universal , Cadeiras de Rodas , Noruega , Transportes
15.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 282: 405-414, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085984

RESUMO

This study reviews the extent to which Universal Design of digitalized work tools is not only a useful, but a necessary principle to support inclusion in an ageing workforce. But Universal Design must be understood and implemented in a broader sense than "classic" adaptation. It includes areas like services, digitalization training and user interface between mainstream and assistive technologies. It makes requirements to an enterprise's management system and training policy, besides mainstream human resources policies. The paper goes through these requirements and concludes with the need to improve our understanding of the principle of Universal Design for it to be an efficient tool for inclusive workplaces: not only the digital work tools have to be accessible, but it must be combined with management policy, training and support.


Assuntos
Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Local de Trabalho , Envelhecimento , Humanos , Design Universal , Recursos Humanos
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(4)2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668488

RESUMO

There has been a conscious shift towards developing increasingly inclusive applications. However, despite this fact, most research has focused on supporting those with visual or hearing impairments and less attention has been paid to cognitive impairments. The purpose of this study is to analyse touch gestures used for touchscreens and identify which gestures are suitable for individuals living with Down syndrome (DS) or other forms of physical or cognitive impairments. With this information, app developers can satisfy Design for All (DfA) requirements by selecting adequate gestures from existing lists of gesture sets. Twenty touch gestures were defined for this study and a sample group containing eighteen individuals with Down syndrome was used. A tool was developed to measure the performance of touch gestures and participants were asked to perform simple tasks that involved the repeated use of these twenty gestures. Three variables are analysed to establish whether they influence the success rates or completion times of gestures, as they could have a collateral effect on the skill with which gestures are performed. These variables are Gender, Type of Down syndrome, and Socioeconomic Status. Analysis reveals that significant difference is present when a pairwise comparison is performed, meaning individuals with DS cannot perform all gestures with the same ease. The variables Gender and Socioeconomic Status do not influence success rates or completion times, but Type of DS does.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down , Gestos , Design Universal , Atenção , Humanos
17.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243388, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270772

RESUMO

The use of high quality facemasks is indispensable in the light of the current COVID pandemic. This study proposes a fully automatic technique to design a face specific mask. Through the use of stereophotogrammetry, computer-assisted design and three-dimensional (3D) printing, we describe a protocol for manufacturing facemasks perfectly adapted to the individual face characteristics. The face specific mask was compared to a universal design of facemask and different filter container's designs were merged with the mask body. Subjective assessment of the face specific mask demonstrated tight closure at the nose, mouth and chin area, and permits the normal wearing of glasses. A screw-drive locking system is advised for easy assembly of the filter components. Automation of the process enables high volume production but still allows sufficient designer interaction to answer specific requirements. The suggested protocol can be used to provide more comfortable, effective and sustainable solution compared to a single use, standardized mask. Subsequent research on printing materials, sterilization technique and compliance with international regulations will facilitate the introduction of the face specific mask in clinical practice as well as for general use.


Assuntos
Desenho Assistido por Computador , Máscaras , Impressão Tridimensional , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Face/anatomia & histologia , Face/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Fotogrametria/métodos , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Design Universal
18.
South Med J ; 113(10): 469-474, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005959

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Screening is a priority in primary care and women's health, and increasingly used for intimate partner violence. Integrating such routine screening into primary care screening may be challenging for clinicians. Human-centered design (HCD) is a participatory process emphasizing stakeholder input and is used increasingly in health care. A growing body of literature has examined the science of patient and community engagement in health research, yet few qualitative studies investigate how participants recruited to collaborate in designing screening tools perceive HCD processes. This study examined participants' perceptions of an HCD process used as an engagement tool to inform the development of a women's health screening tool. METHODS: Qualitative study using data collected from community members and providers and staff recruited through a southern Appalachian medical education center and network of family medicine clinics and in the surrounding community. Using opportunistic and key informant sampling, study participants (some of whom were also intimate partner violence survivors) were part of an earlier HCD process undertaken to redesign a women's health/primary care screening tool and were invited to be interviewed about their perceptions of and experiences in the HCD process. Interviews were conducted using a semistructured guide. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, hand-coded, and analyzed using modified grounded theory. RESULTS: All of the participants reported that they valued the opportunity to be part of the HCD process; however, they reported divergent views of the process itself. Some found it easy to engage, whereas others found it confusing or embarrassing. All valued the opportunity to be part of determining the best process for screening, yet concerns were expressed about access to and full participation in the process. Community members reported more concerns; providers and staff reported fewer concerns about their own involvement and participation, although some expressed doubts about community members' full engagement. CONCLUSIONS: Although a promising option and valuable process, the HCD process was not equally comfortable for or accessible to all participants. Community engagement beyond the clinical team is important for improving practices in health screening and health care, but it must be undertaken thoughtfully.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Design Universal , Saúde da Mulher , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Participação dos Interessados
19.
Work ; 67(1): 157-164, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The philosophy of universal design contributes to providing age-friendly products and environments in the ageing society. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to establish the philosophy of universal safety and design to ensure the safety and health of product users and production workers. METHODS: The concept and principles of universal safety and design are developed based on the limitations of universal design and the necessity of a new philosophy. RESULTS: Requirements of physical support, flexibility, accessibility, ensuring safety and health, diversity and inclusion, and sustainability are proposed for implementing the universal safety and design philosophy. Also, the guidelines for applying the universal safety and design philosophy are presented. CONCLUSIONS: The principles presented in this study can be applied to reduce incidents and ensure productivity in customers and production workers by helping them to work efficiently, comfortably, and safely.


Assuntos
Saúde do Trabalhador , Design Universal , Humanos , Filosofia
20.
Ann Biomed Eng ; 48(9): 2281-2284, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710248

RESUMO

The global COVID-19 pandemic disrupted supply chains across the world, resulting in a critical shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE) for frontline healthcare workers. To preserve PPE for healthcare providers treating COVID-19 positive patients and to reduce asymptomatic transmission, the Department of Bioengineering at the University of Colorado, Denver | Anschutz Medical Campus collaborated with National Jewish Health to design and test patterns for cloth face coverings. A public campaign to sew and donate the final pattern was launched and over 2500 face coverings have been donated as a result. Now that nearly three million cases of COVID-19 have been confirmed in the United States, many state and local governments are requiring cloth face coverings be worn in public. Here, we present the collaborative design and testing process, as well as the final pattern for non-patient facing hospital workers and community members alike.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/provisão & distribuição , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribuição , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Engenharia Biomédica , COVID-19 , Colorado/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Colaboração Intersetorial , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , SARS-CoV-2 , Têxteis , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Design Universal
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