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1.
Undersea Hyperb Med ; 48(1): 59-72, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648035

RESUMO

It is widely accepted that bubbles are a necessary but insufficient condition for the development of decompression sickness. However, open questions remain regarding the precise formation and behavior of these bubbles after an ambient pressure reduction (decompression), primarily due to the inherent difficulty of directly observing this phenomenon in vivo. In decompression research, information about these bubbles after a decompression is gathered via means of ultrasound acquisitions. The ability to draw conclusions regarding decompression research using ultrasound is highly influenced by the variability of the methodologies and equipment utilized by different research groups. These differences play a significant role in the quality of the data and thus the interpretation of the results. The purpose of this review is to provide a technical overview of the use of ultrasound in decompression research, particularly Doppler and brightness (B)-mode ultrasound. Further, we will discuss the strengths and limitations of these technologies and how new advancements are improving our ability to understand bubble behavior post-decompression.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Doença da Descompressão/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia Doppler/métodos , Ultrassonografia Doppler/métodos , Descompressão , Doença da Descompressão/etiologia , Mergulho/fisiologia , Ecocardiografia Doppler/tendências , Embolia Aérea/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Aérea/etiologia , Humanos , Design de Software , Som , Transdutores , Ultrassonografia Doppler/instrumentação , Ultrassonografia Doppler/tendências
2.
GMS J Med Educ ; 38(1): Doc10, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33659615

RESUMO

Objective: Replacing face-to-face lessons by remote teaching due to COVID-19 led to a markedly reduced interaction between students and lecturers. In our opinion, one of the main reasons for this is the raise hand function of the respective web conference systems, which (independent of the system used) results in an unobtrusive signal that can easily be missed by the lecturer. Given the necessary focus on one's own presentation, questions can therefore only be perceived with a considerable time delay and can only be integrated into the lessons to a limited extent. Thus, the idea arose to display question requests of the auditorium by a clear visual signal in PowerPoint® itself. Methodology: With Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), Microsoft PowerPoint® holds an integrated programming language that extends its functionality. Accordingly, VBA was used to program a routine running in the background of the presentation, which periodically retrieves the contents of a web-based "signal file" in a cycle of a few seconds. The content of this signal file, in turn, can be modified by the students by calling up an URL (i.e. from any Internet-capable device) - this results in a (customizable) visual signal in PowerPoint® that is temporarily visible and does not further interfere with the presentation. Conclusion: With the concept presented here, a raise hand function was realized in PowerPoint®, which manifests itself as a clear visual signal independent of the web conferencing system used. This enables the lecturers to respond instantly to questions from the audience during live transmission of lectures.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Educação a Distância/organização & administração , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Design de Software , Humanos , Pandemias
3.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 212, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Information regarding response to past treatments may provide clues concerning the classes of drugs most or least likely to work for a particular metastatic or neoadjuvant early stage breast cancer patient. However, currently there is no systematized knowledge base that would support clinical treatment decision-making that takes response history into account. METHODS: To model history-dependent response data we leveraged a published in vitro breast cancer viability dataset (84 cell lines, 90 therapeutic compounds) to calculate the odds ratios (log (OR)) of responding to each drug given knowledge of (intrinsic/prior) response to all other agents. This OR matrix assumes (1) response is based on intrinsic rather than acquired characteristics, and (2) intrinsic sensitivity remains unchanged at the time of the next decision point. Fisher's exact test is used to identify predictive pairs and groups of agents (BH p < 0.05). Recommendation systems are used to make further drug recommendations based on past 'history' of response. RESULTS: Of the 90 compounds, 57 have sensitivity profiles significantly associated with those of at least one other agent, mostly targeted drugs. Nearly all associations are positive, with (intrinsic/prior) sensitivity to one agent predicting sensitivity to others in the same or a related class (OR > 1). In vitro conditional response patterns clustered compounds into five predictive classes: (1) DNA damaging agents, (2) Aurora A kinase and cell cycle checkpoint inhibitors; (3) microtubule poisons; (4) HER2/EGFR inhibitors; and (5) PIK3C catalytic subunit inhibitors. The apriori algorithm implementation made further predictions including a directional association between resistance to HER2 inhibition and sensitivity to proteasome inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: Investigating drug sensitivity conditioned on observed sensitivity or resistance to prior drugs may be pivotal in informing clinicians deciding on the next line of breast cancer treatments for patients who have progressed on their current treatment. This study supports a strategy of treating patients with different agents in the same class where an associated sensitivity was observed, likely after one or more intervening treatments.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/secundário , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Algoritmos , Antineoplásicos/classificação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/terapia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Análise por Conglomerados , Terapia Combinada , Mineração de Dados/métodos , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Gerenciamento Clínico , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Substituição de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Qualidade de Vida , Design de Software , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2258: 3-15, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340350

RESUMO

Laboratory automation now commonly allows high-throughput sample preparation, culturing, and acquisition of microscopy images, but quantitative image analysis is often still a painstaking and subjective process. This is a problem especially significant for work on programmed morphogenesis, where the spatial organization of cells and cell types is of paramount importance. To address the challenges of quantitative analysis for such experiments, we have developed TASBE Image Analytics, a software pipeline for automatically segmenting collections of cells using the fluorescence channels of microscopy images. With TASBE Image Analytics, collections of cells can be grouped into spatially disjoint segments, the movement or development of these segments tracked over time, and rich statistical data output in a standardized format for analysis. Processing is readily configurable, rapid, and produces results that closely match hand annotation by humans for all but the smallest and dimmest segments. TASBE Image Analytics can thus provide the analysis necessary to complete the design-build-test-learn cycle for high-throughput experiments in programmed morphogenesis, as validated by our application of this pipeline to process experiments on shape formation with engineered CHO and HEK293 cells.


Assuntos
Rastreamento de Células , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Morfogênese , Design de Software , Animais , Automação Laboratorial , Células CHO , Cricetulus , Genes Reporter , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteínas Luminescentes/biossíntese , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2258: 17-28, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340351

RESUMO

Cell-fate determination is a function of cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic signaling cues. Understanding the design principles governing fate control in multicellular systems remains difficult to understand and analyze. To address the current challenges of spatial analysis of potential signaling events, we have developed a pipeline for assessment of the neighboring cells at defined areas in the vicinity of target cells using a newly defined concept of Neighborhood Impact Factor. We have used our pipeline to interrogate cellular decision-making in a genetically derived multi-lineage liver organoid from induced pluripotent stem cells. We examined endothelial versus hepatocyte fate determination for cells with similar expression level of an engineered driver gene circuit. Our analysis suggests that the relative level of gene expression to the neighbor population can control the final fate choice in our engineered liver multicellular system.


Assuntos
Linhagem da Célula , Rastreamento de Células , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/fisiologia , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Design de Software , Animais , Comunicação Celular , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Células Cultivadas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Morfogênese , Organoides , Transdução de Sinais , Esferoides Celulares , Nicho de Células-Tronco
7.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 33(4): eabc98, 20200000.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146297

RESUMO

Fundamento: A fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo é um dos parâmetros ecocardiográficos mais utilizados na prática clínica. Sua estimativa pelo método bidimensional manual (método de Simpson) tem reprodutibilidade e acurácia limitadas, e métodos semiautomáticos têm sido propostos. Torna-se necessário comparar o método bidimensional semiautomático com métodos mais acurados de avaliação da fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo, como a medida pela ecocardiografia tridimensional automática. Objetivo: Comparar as estimativas da fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo e dos volumes diastólico final e sistólico final do ventrículo esquerdo pelo método bidimensional semiautomático com as obtidas pelo método tridimensional automático. Método: Estudo observacional transversal, com pacientes em ritmo sinusal, fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo >50% e sem cardiopatia estrutural significativa, submetidos ao ecocardiograma transtorácico. Teste t de Student, coeficiente de Pearson e análise de Bland-Altman foram usados na análise estatística. Resultados: Foram incluídos 40 pacientes, sendo: 53% mulheres, 35% hipertensos, 25% dislipidêmicos, 10% diabéticos, 10% tabagistas e 13% com angioplastia prévia. Os valores médios da fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo aos métodos tri e bidimensionais foram 62,1 ± 5,8% e 61,7 ± 5,9% (p = 0,50), respectivamente. Houve forte correlação da fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo determinada melos métodos bi e tridimensional (r = 0,74; p<0,001), assim como com o volume diastólico final (r = 0,75; p<0,001) e o sistólico final (r = 0,76; p<0,001). Houve boa concordância entre a fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo bi e tridimensional (diferença média: -0,39; intervalo de confiança 95% -1,7-0,9). Conclusão: A fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo estimada pelo método bidimensional semiautomático mostrou boa concordância com o método tridimensional automático. Os achados sugerem que o método bidimensional semiautomático represente uma alternativa confiável para avaliação dos volumes e fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo.


Background: Left ventricular ejection fraction is one of the most used echocardiographic parameters in clinical practice. Its estimation by twodimensional manual method (Simpson method) has limited reproducibility and accuracy, and semi-automatic methods have been proposed. It becomes necessary to compare the semiautomatic two-dimensional method with more accurate methods of assessing left ventricular ejection fraction, such as measurement by automatic three-dimensional echocardiography. Objective: To compare the left ventricular ejection fraction, and left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes estimates by the semiautomatic two-dimensional method with those obtained using the automatic three-dimensional method. Method: Observational cross-sectional study, including patients in sinus rhythm, left ventricular ejection fraction > 50% and without significant structural heart disease, submitted to transthoracic echocardiography. Student's t test, Pearson's coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis wer


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Design de Software , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Volume Sistólico , Padrões de Prática Médica , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Estudos Transversais/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ecocardiografia Tridimensional/métodos
8.
Rev. cuba. inform. méd ; 12(2): e381, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144468

RESUMO

Introducción: El Centro Nacional Coordinador de Ensayos Clínicos (CENCEC) utiliza el software OpenClinica para diseñar los Cuadernos de Recogida de Datos (CRD) de los ensayos clínicos. Cada ensayo tiene características específicas, pero existen datos comunes a todos los ensayos que pueden ser estandarizados. Objetivo: Desarrollar una biblioteca de plantillas para el diseño de los CRD. Método: Se realizó un análisis documental de los estándares para el manejo de datos en los ensayos clínicos y se analizaron los diseños utilizados en cuatro ensayos desarrollados en OpenClinica. Resultados: Según los tipos de datos que se registran en los ensayos clínicos se diseñaron 14 plantillas. Cada plantilla, es un fichero Excel con cinco hojas de trabajo donde se registran todas las definiciones del CRD. Las plantillas se han utilizado en tres ensayos clínicos con resultados favorables. Conclusión: Las 14 plantillas que componen la biblioteca CRD fueron diseñadas permitiendo su futura reutilización en la gestión de datos de nuevos ensayos clínicos(AU)


Introduction: CENCEC uses OpenClinica software to design the database of the Case Report Forms (CRF) of the clinical trials (CT). Every trial has specific characteristics although some of them are common to all trials which permit to standardize the process. Objective: To develop a library of templates in order to design the CRF. Methods: A documentary analyses of the standards for data management in clinical trials was performed and in addition of that four designs developed at OpenClinica were reviewed. Results: A library of 14 templates according to data types of CT was proposed. Every template is an Excel file with five sheets in which the definitions of the CRF is registered. The templates have been used in three CT. Conclusions: The 14 templates that make up the CRF library were designed allowing their future reuse in the management of data from new clinical trials(AU)


Assuntos
Design de Software , Software , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Gerenciamento de Dados
9.
Rev. cuba. inform. méd ; 12(2): e377, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144464

RESUMO

Introducción: el proceso de evaluación del desempeño de los recursos humanos en proyectos médicos está sujeto a niveles considerables de subjetividad, lo cual genera incertidumbre a la hora de tomar decisiones. Problemas de esta índole donde se incluye la evaluación y clasificación de alternativas en el proceso, pueden ser abordados a través de la Computación con palabras. Objetivo: el objetivo del presente trabajo es desarrollar un método para la evaluación del desempeño de los recursos humanos en proyectos médicos mediante computación con palabras. Materiales y métodos: se utilizan los conjuntos de datos lingüísticos para mejorar la interpretación de los resultados. Se emplea el modelo de representación de la información lingüística basado en 2-tuplas en el tratamiento de la incertidumbre. El procesamiento de la información se realizó mediante los operadores de agregación de información Promedio Ponderado Ordenado que permiten la agregación de información de acuerdo a parámetros predefinidos obteniéndose un valor representativo. Resultados: se obtiene un método de apoyo a la toma de decisiones basado en la computación con palabras. El método propuesto fue implementado para manejar la incertidumbre existente en el proceso de evaluación del desempeño de los recursos humanos en proyectos médicos a partir de la evaluación y clasificación de alternativas, basado en computación con palabras. Conclusiones: la implementación del método propuesto, permite evaluar y clasificar a los Recursos Humanos según su desempeño(AU)


Introduction: the process of evaluating the performance of human resources in medical projects is subject to considerable levels of subjectivity, which generates uncertainty when making decisions. Problems of this nature, where the evaluation and classification of alternatives is included in the process, can be addressed through Computing with Words. Objective: to develop a method for evaluating the performance of human resources in medical projects using Computing with Words. Method: linguistic data sets are used to improve the interpretation of the results. The 2-tuple-based linguistic information representation model is used in the treatment of uncertainty. The information processing was performed using the Ordered Weighted Average information aggregation operators that allow the aggregation of information according to predefined parameters obtaining a representative value. Results: a method of decision support is obtained, based on Computing with Words. The method was implemented to manage the uncertainty in the process of evaluating the performance of human resources in medical projects based on the evaluation and classification of alternatives. Conclusions: the implementation of the proposed method allows evaluating and classifying human resources according to their performance(AU)


Assuntos
Design de Software , Software , Avaliação de Recursos Humanos em Saúde , Avaliação de Desempenho Profissional/normas
10.
Rev. cuba. inform. méd ; 12(2): e352, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144462

RESUMO

El Sistema para el Almacenamiento, Transmisión y Visualización de Imágenes Médicas XAVIA PACS, desarrollado por la Universidad de las Ciencias Informáticas, se utiliza en múltiples instituciones de salud de Cuba. El propósito de estas herramientas es manejar la imagen médica, por lo que no gestionan la información que se capta en los servicios de diagnóstico por imágenes, entre los que se encuentran los datos del paciente, del estudio imagenológico y el informe diagnóstico. En este trabajo se exponen los resultados del desarrollo de un sistema informático para la gestión de la información imagenológica integrado al sistema XAVIA PACS para garantizar el control automatizado de la información en los servicios de diagnóstico por imágenes. Para el desarrollo previsto fue determinante la necesidad de reutilizar el código fuente ya implementado en el sistema XAVIA PACS; se seleccionó Microsoft.NET Framework, ASP.NET 3.5, C# 3.5 como lenguaje de programación, PostgreSQL como sistema de gestión de Base de Datos. Adicionalmente, fueron tenidos en cuenta la portabilidad, el procesamiento complejo interno, la facilidad de la instalación, y la facilidad del cambio. El sistema desarrollado automatiza la gestión de las listas de trabajo en los servicios de diagnósticos por imágenes, la gestión de la información del paciente, las citaciones, la planificación del trabajo de las modalidades médicas, y especialistas de radiología. La implantación del sistema desarrollado en diferentes instituciones de salud que emplean el sistema XAVIA PACS, validó la pertinencia y aplicabilidad del mismo(AU)


The XAVIA PACS Medical Images Storage, Transmission and Visualization System, developed by the University of Computer Sciences is used in multiple Cuban health institutions. The purpose of these tools is to manage the medical image, so they do not manage the information that is captured in the diagnostic imaging services, among which are the patient's data, the imaging study and the diagnostic report. This article presents a computer system for the management of imaging information integrated into the XAVIA PACS system to ensure automated control of information in diagnostic imaging services. For the planned development, the need to reuse the source code already implemented in the XAVIA PACS system was decisive; Microsoft.NET Framework, ASP.NET 3.5, C # 3.5 were selected as the programming language, PostgreSQL as the Database management system. Additionally, portability, complex internal processing, ease of installation, and ease of change were considered. The developed system automates the management of work lists in diagnostic imaging services, the management of patient information, appointments, work planning of medical modalities, and radiology specialists. The implementation of the system developed in different health institutions that use the XAVIA PACS system, validated its relevance and applicability(AU)


Assuntos
Design de Software , Software , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Sistemas de Informação em Radiologia
11.
Rev. esp. drogodepend ; 45(4): 49-64, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-199685

RESUMO

El diseño de videojuegos es una profesión relativamente nueva. Con todo, en la breve vida de este fenómeno se ha observado su crecimiento incesante y su coronación como uno de los sectores lúdicos por excelencia. A tenor de este ímpetu los diseñadores de juegos han iniciado un camino de estandarización del acto creativo que, en su mayoría, se rige por principios psicológicos con gran bagaje teórico y científico. Desde el entendimiento del videojuego como una experiencia de aprendizaje, los diseñadores han adoptado conceptos como el moldeamiento de la conducta, la autoeficacia y las necesidades psicológicas básicas, entre otros, para asegurar el éxito de sus productos. En muchas ocasiones este éxito se atribuye a los patrones de consumo del jugador y estos son consecuencia natural de la implicación del usuario en el juego. Esta implicación es en ocasiones susceptible de convertirse en adicción. Dado el uso que los desarrolladores de videojuegos hacen de los principios psicológicos, los clínicos y académicos deberíamos tener un conocimiento igualmente extenso sobre cuál es el proceso y métodos que usan los diseñadores de videojuegos al crear sus productos con el objetivo de entender mejor de donde surge su potencial adictivo, más allá de la sintomatología asociada


Video game design is a relatively new profession. This phenomenon has undergone continuous growth during its short lifespan, becoming one of the world's primary entertainment industries. Based on this impetus, game designers have begun a path of standardization of the creative act that is mostly governed by psychological principles with significant theoretical and scientific baggage. Understanding video games as a learning experience, designers have adopted concepts such as behavior shaping, self-efficacy, and underlying psychological needs, among others, to ensure the success of their products. This success is often attributed to the consumption patterns of the player, and these are a natural consequence of the user's engagement with the game. This engagement is sometimes liable to become an addiction. Given the use that video game developers make of psychological principles, clinicians and academics should have an equally extensive knowledge of the process and methods that video game designers use when creating their products, in order to better understand where its addictive 4 potential comes from, beyond the associated symptoms


Assuntos
Humanos , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Design de Software , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Motivação , Aprendizagem
12.
Emergencias ; 32(5): 340-344, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006834

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the diagnostic yield of point-of-care ultrasound imaging in patients suspected of having noncritical severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection but no apparent changes on a chest radiograph. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of a case series including patients coming to an emergency department in March and April 2020 with mild-moderate respiratory symptoms suspected to be caused by SARS-CoV-2. A point-of-care ultrasound examination of the lungs was performed on all participants as part of routine clinical care. Ultrasound findings were compared according to the results of SARS-CoV-2 test results. RESULTS: Fifty-eight patients with a median (interquartile range) age of 44.5 (34-67) years were enrolled; 42 (72.4%) were women. Twenty-seven (46.5%) had confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Ultrasound findings were consistent with interstitial pneumonia due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 33 (56.9%). Most were in cases with testconfirmed COVID-19 (100% vs 22.2% of cases with no confirmation; P < .001). The most common ultrasound findings in confirmed COVID-19 cases were focal and confluent B-lines in the basal and posterior regions of the lung (R1, 85.2%; R2, 77.8%; L1, 88.9%; and L2, 88.9%) and associated pleural involvement (70.4%, 70.4%, 81.5%, and 85.2%, respectively). The sensitivity of point-of-care ultrasound in the diagnosis of COVID-19 was 92.6% (95% CI, 75.7%-99.1%). Specificity was 85.2% (95% CI, 66.3%-95.8%); positive predictive value, 75.8% (95% CI, 59.6%- 91.9%); negative predictive value, 92% (95% CI, 74.0%-99.0%); and positive and negative likelihood ratios, 6.2 (95% CI, 6.0-6.5) and 0.1 (95% CI, 0.1-0.1), respectively. CONCLUSION: Point-of-care lung ultrasound could be useful for the diagnosis of noncritical SARS-CoV-2 infection when chest radiographs are inconclusive.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Design de Software , Ultrassonografia
13.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(11): e22131, 2020 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has officially been declared as a pandemic, and the spread of the virus is placing sustained demands on public health systems. There are speculations that the COVID-19 mortality differences between regions are due to the disparities in the availability of medical resources. Therefore, the selection of patients for diagnosis and treatment is essential in this situation. Military personnel are especially at risk for infectious diseases; thus, patient selection with an evidence-based prognostic model is critical for them. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the usability of a novel platform used in the military hospitals in Korea to gather data and deploy patient selection solutions for COVID-19. METHODS: The platform's structure was developed to provide users with prediction results and to use the data to enhance the prediction models. Two applications were developed: a patient's application and a physician's application. The primary outcome was requiring an oxygen supplement. The outcome prediction model was developed with patients from four centers. A Cox proportional hazards model was developed. The outcome of the model for the patient's application was the length of time from the date of hospitalization to the date of the first oxygen supplement use. The demographic characteristics, past history, patient symptoms, social history, and body temperature were considered as risk factors. A usability study with the Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire (PSSUQ) was conducted on the physician's application on 50 physicians. RESULTS: The patient's application and physician's application were deployed on the web for wider availability. A total of 246 patients from four centers were used to develop the outcome prediction model. A small percentage (n=18, 7.32%) of the patients needed professional care. The variables included in the developed prediction model were age; body temperature; predisease physical status; history of cardiovascular disease; hypertension; visit to a region with an outbreak; and symptoms of chills, feverishness, dyspnea, and lethargy. The overall C statistic was 0.963 (95% CI 0.936-0.99), and the time-dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic curve ranged from 0.976 at day 3 to 0.979 at day 9. The usability of the physician's application was good, with an overall average of the responses to the PSSUQ being 2.2 (SD 1.1). CONCLUSIONS: The platform introduced in this study enables evidence-based patient selection in an effortless and timely manner, which is critical in the military. With a well-designed user experience and an accurate prediction model, this platform may help save lives and contain the spread of the novel virus, COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Hospitais Militares , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco , Design de Software , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pacientes , Médicos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Curva ROC , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 32(5): 340-344, oct. 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197085

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Evaluar el rendimiento diagnóstico de la ecografía clínica pulmonar en pacientes con sospecha de infección respiratoria no crítica por SARS-CoV-2 sin alteraciones evidentes en la radiografía de tórax. MÉTODO: Estudio de una serie de casos con análisis transversal que incluyó pacientes con sospecha de infección respiratoria por SARS-CoV-2, sintomatología respiratoria leve-moderada y sin hallazgos patológicos concluyentes en la radiografía torácica, que consultaron en un servicio de urgencias durante marzo y abril de 2020. Se realizó una ecografía clínica pulmonar a todos los participantes como parte de la práctica clínica asistencial. Se compararon los hallazgos ecográficos en función del resultado del test SARS-CoV-2. RESULTADOS: Se estudiaron 58 pacientes [mediana de edad 44,5 (RIC 34-67) años; 42 (72,4%) mujeres], 27 (46,5%) con infección por SARS-CoV2 confirmada. Treinta y tres (56,9%) presentaron hallazgos ecográficos de neumonía intersticial por COVID-19, siendo más frecuente en los casos con COVID-19 confirmada (22,2% vs 100%; p < 0,001). Los hallazgos más frecuentes en los casos con COVID-19 confirmada fueron en áreas posterobasales (regiones R1, R2, L1, L2), en forma de líneas B focalizadas y confluentes (85,2%, 77,8%, 88,9% y 88,9%, respectivamente), con irregularidad pleural asociada (70,4%, 70,4%, 81,5% y 85,2%, respectivamente). El diagnóstico del COVID-19 mediante ecografía pulmonar clínica tuvo una sensibilidad de un 92,6% (IC 95%: 75,7-99,1%), una especificidad de un 85,2% (IC 95%: 66,3-95,8%), un valor predictivo positivo fue de un 75,8% (IC 95%: 59,6-91,9%), un valor predictivo negativo de un 92% (IC 95%: 74,0-99,0%), una razón de verosimilitud positiva de un 6,25 (IC 95%: 6,0-6,5) y una negativa de 0,1 (IC 95%: 0,1-0,1). CONCLUSIONES: El uso de la ecografía clínica pulmonar podría ser de ayuda diagnóstica en pacientes con sospecha de infección respiratoria no crítica por SARS-CoV-2 donde la radiografía de tórax no es diagnóstica


OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic yield of point-of-care ultrasound imaging in patients suspected of having noncritical severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection but no apparent changes on a chest radiograph. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of a case series including patients coming to an emergency department in March and April 2020 with mild-moderate respiratory symptoms suspected to be caused by SARS-CoV-2. A point-of-care ultrasound examination of the lungs was performed on all participants as part of routine clinical care. Ultrasound findings were compared according to the results of SARS-CoV-2 test results. RESULTS: Fifty-eight patients with a median (interquartile range) age of 44.5 (34-67) years were enrolled; 42 (72.4%) were women. Twenty-seven (46.5%) had confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Ultrasound findings were consistent with interstitial pneumonia due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 33 (56.9%). Most were in cases with testconfirmed COVID-19 (100% vs 22.2% of cases with no confirmation; P < .001). The most common ultrasound findings in confirmed COVID-19 cases were focal and confluent B-lines in the basal and posterior regions of the lung (R1, 85.2%; R2, 77.8%; L1, 88.9%; and L2, 88.9%) and associated pleural involvement (70.4%, 70.4%, 81.5%, and 85.2%, respectively). The sensitivity of point-of-care ultrasound in the diagnosis of COVID-19 was 92.6% (95% CI, 75.7%-99.1%). Specificity was 85.2% (95% CI, 66.3%-95.8%); positive predictive value, 75.8% (95% CI, 59.6%- 91.9%); negative predictive value, 92% (95% CI, 74.0%-99.0%); and positive and negative likelihood ratios, 6.2 (95% CI, 6.0-6.5) and 0.1 (95% CI, 0.1-0.1), respectively. CONCLUSION: Point-of-care lung ultrasound could be useful for the diagnosis of noncritical SARS-CoV-2 infection when chest radiographs are inconclusive


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Precoce , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Design de Software , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Serviços Médicos de Emergência
15.
Nature ; 585(7825): 357-362, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939066

RESUMO

Array programming provides a powerful, compact and expressive syntax for accessing, manipulating and operating on data in vectors, matrices and higher-dimensional arrays. NumPy is the primary array programming library for the Python language. It has an essential role in research analysis pipelines in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry, astronomy, geoscience, biology, psychology, materials science, engineering, finance and economics. For example, in astronomy, NumPy was an important part of the software stack used in the discovery of gravitational waves1 and in the first imaging of a black hole2. Here we review how a few fundamental array concepts lead to a simple and powerful programming paradigm for organizing, exploring and analysing scientific data. NumPy is the foundation upon which the scientific Python ecosystem is constructed. It is so pervasive that several projects, targeting audiences with specialized needs, have developed their own NumPy-like interfaces and array objects. Owing to its central position in the ecosystem, NumPy increasingly acts as an interoperability layer between such array computation libraries and, together with its application programming interface (API), provides a flexible framework to support the next decade of scientific and industrial analysis.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Matemática , Linguagens de Programação , Design de Software
16.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 29(4): e2020391, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997068

RESUMO

In view of the need to manage and forecast the number of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) beds for critically ill COVID-19 patients, the Forecast UTI open access application was developed to enable hospital indicator monitoring based on past health data and the temporal dynamics of the Coronavirus epidemic. Forecast UTI also enables short-term forecasts of the number of beds occupied daily by COVID-19 patients and possible care scenarios to be established. This article presents the functions, mode of access and examples of uses of Forecast UTI, a computational tool intended to assist managers of public and private hospitals within the Brazilian National Health System by supporting quick, strategic and efficient decision-making.


Assuntos
Ocupação de Leitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Número de Leitos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Software , Leitos/provisão & distribução , Brasil/epidemiologia , Tomada de Decisões , Previsões , Humanos , Pandemias , Design de Software
17.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238535, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941468

RESUMO

The deep multiple kernel Learning (DMKL) method has attracted wide attention due to its better classification performance than shallow multiple kernel learning. However, the existing DMKL methods are hard to find suitable global model parameters to improve classification accuracy in numerous datasets and do not take into account inter-class correlation and intra-class diversity. In this paper, we present a group-based local adaptive deep multiple kernel learning (GLDMKL) method with lp norm. Our GLDMKL method can divide samples into multiple groups according to the multiple kernel k-means clustering algorithm. The learning process in each well-grouped local space is exactly adaptive deep multiple kernel learning. And our structure is adaptive, so there is no fixed number of layers. The learning model in each group is trained independently, so the number of layers of the learning model maybe different. In each local space, adapting the model by optimizing the SVM model parameter α and the local kernel weight ß in turn and changing the proportion of the base kernel of the combined kernel in each layer by the local kernel weight, and the local kernel weight is constrained by the lp norm to avoid the sparsity of basic kernel. The hyperparameters of the kernel are optimized by the grid search method. Experiments on UCI and Caltech 256 datasets demonstrate that the proposed method is more accurate in classification accuracy than other deep multiple kernel learning methods, especially for datasets with relatively complex data.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Algoritmos , Análise por Conglomerados , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Design de Software
18.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1115): 20200775, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880475

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The isotope bone scan (IBS) is the gold-standard imaging modality for detecting skeletal metastases as part of prostate cancer staging. However, its clinical utility for assessing skeletal metastatic burden is limited due to the need for subjective interpretation. We designed and tested a novel custom software tool, the Metastatic Bone Scan Tool (MetsBST), aimed at improving interpretation of IBSs, and compared its performance with that of an established software programme. METHODS: We used IBS images from 62 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer and suspected bone metastases to design and implement MetsBST in MATLAB by defining thresholds used to identify the texture and size of metastatic bone lesions. The results of MetsBST were compared with those of the commercially available automated Bone Scan Index (aBSI) with regression analysis. RESULTS: There was strong agreement between the MetsBST and aBSI results (R2 = 0.9189). In a subregional analysis, MetsBST quantified the extent of metastatic disease in multiple bone sites in patients receiving multimodality therapy (radium-223 and external beam radiotherapy) to illustrate the differences in bone metastatic response to different treatments. CONCLUSION: The results of MetsBST and the commercial software aBSI were highly consistent. MetsBST introduces novel clinical utility by its ability to differentiate between the responses of different bone metastases to multimodality therapies. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: MetsBST reduces the variability in assessment of tumour burden caused by subjective interpretation. Therefore, it is a useful aid to physicians reporting nuclear medicine scans, and may improve decision-making in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Design de Software , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/radioterapia , Ácido Etidrônico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos de Organotecnécio , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Análise de Regressão , Carga Tumoral , Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237468, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785254

RESUMO

BD5 is a new binary data format based on HDF5 (hierarchical data format version 5). It can be used for representing quantitative biological dynamics data obtained from bioimage informatics techniques and mechanobiological simulations. Biological Dynamics Markup Language (BDML) is an XML (Extensible Markup Language)-based open format that is also used to represent such data; however, it becomes difficult to access quantitative data in BDML files when the file size is large because parsing XML-based files requires large computational resources to first read the whole file sequentially into computer memory. BD5 enables fast random (i.e., direct) access to quantitative data on disk without parsing the entire file. Therefore, it allows practical reuse of data for understanding biological mechanisms underlying the dynamics.


Assuntos
Linguagens de Programação , Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados Factuais , Software , Design de Software
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237154, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797055

RESUMO

Data prioritization of heterogeneous data in wireless sensor networks gives meaning to mission-critical data that are time-sensitive as this may be a matter of life and death. However, the standard IEEE 802.15.4 does not consider the prioritization of data. Prioritization schemes proffered in the literature have not adequately addressed this issue as proposed schemes either uses a single or complex backoff algorithm to estimate backoff time-slots for prioritized data. Subsequently, the carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance scheme exhibits an exponentially increasing range of backoff times. These approaches are not only inefficient but result in high latency and increased power consumption. In this article, the concept of class of service (CS) was adopted to prioritize heterogeneous data (real-time and non-real-time), resulting in an optimized prioritized backoff MAC scheme called Class of Service Traffic Priority-based Medium Access Control (CSTP-MAC). This scheme classifies data into high priority data (HPD) and low priority data (LPD) by computing backoff times with expressions peculiar to the data priority class. The improved scheme grants nodes the opportunity to access the shared medium in a timely and power-efficient manner. Benchmarked against contemporary schemes, CSTP-MAC attained a 99% packet delivery ratio with improved power saving capability, which translates to a longer operational lifetime.


Assuntos
Redes de Comunicação de Computadores , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/métodos , Tecnologia sem Fio , Algoritmos , Modelos Teóricos , Rádio , Design de Software
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