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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 146, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193961

RESUMO

Prevention of exposure to the COVID-19 virus in the general population is an essential strategy to slow community transmission. This paper shares the experiences and challenges of community engagement in COVID-19 prevention in the Kilimanjaro region, Northern Tanzania implemented by our team from the Institute of Public Health (IPH), Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College (KCMUCo) in collaboration with the COVID-19 response team in the Moshi Municipality. We conducted an education session with the COVID-19 response team and together brainstormed transmission hotspots and which interventions would be most feasible in their settings. The first hotspot identified was crowded local market spaces. Suggested interventions included targeted and mass public health education through the engagement of market opinion leaders, public announcements, and radio shows. We conducted participatory rural appraisal techniques to enable market vendors and clients to visualize two-meter distances and provided a prototype hand-washing facility that was foot operated. We found mass public health educational campaigns essential to inform and update the public about COVID-19 pandemic and to address rumors and misinformation, which hampers compliance with public health interventions. Coordinated efforts among stakeholders in the country are necessary to develop context-specific prevention and case management strategies following the national and international guidelines. Local ownership of recommended interventions is necessary to ensure compliance.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Participação da Comunidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Desinfecção das Mãos/instrumentação , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Colaboração Intersetorial , Liderança , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Aplicativos Móveis , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Instalações Privadas , Saúde Pública , População Rural , Participação dos Interessados , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
2.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 19(11): 1127-1129, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196736

RESUMO

As the coronavirus pandemic continues into the second half of 2020, states across the US remain steadfast in their search to determine the safest methods of returning to normalcy. Without a readily available, effective COVID-19 vaccine, and as the numbers of infected individuals continues to climb, the best practices to ensure public safety are rooted in good personal hygiene and prevention of transmission of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. To that end, in addition to properly wearing adequate facial covering, individuals should properly wash their hands to prevent direct auto-inoculation. J Drugs Dermatol. 2020;19(11): 1127-1129 doi:10.36849/JDD.2020.5557.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Máscaras , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Saudi Med J ; 41(11): 1263-1269, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130849

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)  pandemic in improving personal hygiene in Saudi Arabia. Methods: We administered a questionnaire distributed online between 19 and 28 May 2020 to determine alterations in personal hygiene practices during this pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic phase. Results: We included 211 respondents from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in this study.  Improvement at different levels was detected in all examined personal hygiene items compared to the pre-pandemic stage. The percentages of respondents who always washed their hands after coming back home (34.1%), used soap to wash their hands (58.8%), used a hand sanitizer outside (5.2%), wore a face masks while outside (1.4%) and washed their hands before preparing and/or eating food (74.9%) was increased before the pandemic to 89.6%, 90%, 63.5%, 59.2% and 89.1% during the pandemic, respectively. The percentage of respondents who never shake hands with people they know increased from 0% before the pandemic to 62.6% during the pandemic. The mean duration of washing hands with soap significantly increased from 13.31 seconds before the pandemic to 28.01 seconds during the pandemic (p less than 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a noticeable improvement in the personal hygiene habits in Saudi Arabia mainly those related to COVID-19 prevention.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Higiene/normas , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Papel (figurativo) , Arábia Saudita , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241662, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented public health threat, both in scope and response. With no vaccine available, the public is advised to practice non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) including social distancing, mask-wearing, and washing hands. However, little is known about public perceptions of the effectiveness of these measures, and high perceived effectiveness is likely to be critical in order to achieve widespread adoption of NPI. METHODS: In May 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among U.S. adults (N = 3,474). The primary outcome was a six-item measure assessing perceived effectiveness of recommended behaviors to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection from 1 (not at all effective) to 5 (extremely effective). The sample was divided into "higher" and "lower" perceived effectiveness groups. Covariates included demographics, healthcare characteristics, and health beliefs. Variables that were significant at p<0.01 in bivariate analyses were entered into a multivariable logistic regression and a best-fit model was created using a cutoff of p<0.01 to stay in the model. RESULTS: Mean age was 45.5 years and most participants were non-Hispanic White (63%) and female (52.4%). The high perceived effectiveness group was slightly larger than the low perceived effectiveness group (52.7% vs. 47.3%). Almost all health belief variables were significant in the best-fit regression model. COVID-19-related worry (aOR = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.64-2.02), and perceived threat to physical health (aOR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.20-1.45) were positively associated with perceived effectiveness while perceived severity of COVID-19 (0.84; 95% CI = 0.73-0.96) and perceived likelihood of infection (0.85; 95% CI = 0.77-0.94) switched directions in the adjusted model and were negatively associated with perceived effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: This research indicates people generally believe NPI are effective, but there was variability based on health beliefs and there are mixed rates of engagement in these behaviors. Public health efforts should focus on increasing perceived severity and threat of SARS-CoV-2-related disease, while promoting NPI as effective in reducing threat.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Distância Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Biomedica ; 40(Supl. 2): 68-72, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152189

RESUMO

Despite the positive response of Colombia's health system to the arrival of Venezuelan migrants, the new challenges that accompany the COVID-19 pandemic have triggered a closed-borders response that runs the risk of encouraging a negative view of migrants and increasing their health risks. This manuscript discusses the recommendations that could be proposed in the case of a country with limited resources such as Colombia to respond to the needs of the Venezuelan mixed migrant flows.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Emigração e Imigração/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Migrantes , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Desinfecção das Mãos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Pública , Quarentena , Venezuela/etnologia , Populações Vulneráveis
6.
Recurso educacional aberto em Português | CVSP - Regional | ID: oer-3908

RESUMO

Cadeia de transmissão de doenças infeciosas Higiene e desinfecção de ambientes Higiene das mãos


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Protocolos Clínicos , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Saneantes
7.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e261, 2020 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092675

RESUMO

Although handwashing is an effective way to prevent infections, there is scarce evidence on predictors of handwashing during a pandemic. This paper aims to identify behavioural and demographic predictors of handwashing. The study surveyed 674 adults in Malaysia in May 2020 regarding whether the time spent on social media predicted handwashing contingent on gender and number of children. More time spent on social media was positively associated with handwashing for males with three or more children. However, for males without children, social media use was negatively associated with handwashing. The association was not significant for males with one or two children. For females, more time spent on social media was significantly linked to more handwashing only for females with one child. Gender, a traditional predictor of handwashing, was a useful predictor only for those who spent more than three hours per day on social media and had at most one child. Number of children was a novel negative predictor for males who did not use social media and who averaged one hour per day on social media, a positive predictor for males who spent lots of time on social media, but not a predictor for females. In sum, social media use predicts handwashing, and is thus a helpful variable for use in targeted health communication during a pandemic - particularly through social media. Further, more conventional predictors like gender and number of children exhibit contingency effects with social media use.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Desinfecção das Mãos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Mídias Sociais , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Adulto Jovem
8.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(4): e22305, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene is one of the most effective ways to remove germs, prevent the spread of infectious pathogens, and avoid getting sick. Since the COVID-19 pandemic began, health authorities have been advocating good hand hygiene practices. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study is to field test a prototype smart handwashing station deployed in a school setting during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We deployed a smart handwashing station and examined key technological considerations including connectivity, security, and data management systems, as well as the health and safety of users. RESULTS: The smart handwashing station was deployed for 10 days in a school setting in Australia during the COVID-19 pandemic. The smart handwashing station's electrical components remained operational during field testing and underwent robust cleaning protocols each day. The handwashing station was used 1138 times during the field test and there was no COVID-19 transmission at the school during the testing. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that a personalized feedback approach using technology can successfully be implemented at a school and can provide a platform to improve hand hygiene among school-aged children.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção das Mãos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
9.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(7): 286, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063151

RESUMO

The CoViD-19 pandemic has caused a sudden spike in demand and production of hand sanitisers. Concerns are rising regarding the quality of such products, as the safeguard of consumers is a priority worldwide. We analyse here the ethanolic content of seven off-the-shelf hand sanitiser gels (two biocides and five cosmetics) from the Italian market, using gas chromatography. The WHO recommends that products containing ethanol should have 60-95% (v/v) alcohol. Four of the tested hand gels have ethanolic contents within the recommended range, while three products (all cosmetics) contain < 60% (v/v), i.e. 52.1% (w/w), ethanol. The product with the lowest alcoholic content has 37.1% w/w ethanol. Toxic methanol is not found in any of the hand sanitisers. We show, in addition, that products with the highest ethanolic content have generally greater antibacterial activity. In conclusion, all tested products are complying with the EU regulations, as the three "substandard" products are classified as cosmetics, whose purpose is cleaning and not disinfecting. Nevertheless, if such hand cleaners were inappropriately used as hand disinfectants, they might be ineffective. Thus, consumer safety relays on awareness and ability to distinguish between biocidal and cosmetics hand gels. The obtained results might sensitise the scientific community, health agencies and ultimately consumers towards the risks of using hand sanitisers of substandard alcoholic concentration. If the wrong product is chosen by consumers, public health can be compromised by the inappropriate use of "low-dosed" cosmetic gels as disinfectants, particularly during the period of the CoViD-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Higienizadores de Mão/análise , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Antibacterianos/análise , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa , Cosméticos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/análise , Europa (Continente) , Géis , Desinfecção das Mãos , Higienizadores de Mão/farmacologia , Higienizadores de Mão/normas , Metanol/análise , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 150, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109262

RESUMO

The ongoing pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 has spread rapidly to all countries of the world. Africa is particularly predisposed to an escalation of the pandemic and its negative impact given its weak economy and health systems. In addition, inadequate access to the social determinants of health such as water and sanitation and socio-cultural attributes may constrain the implementation of critical preventive measures such as hand washing and social distancing on the continent.Given these facts, the continent needs to focus on targeted and high impact prevention and control strategies and interventions which could break the chain of transmission quickly. We conclude that the available body of scientific evidence on the coronavirus disease 2019 holds the key to the development of such strategies and interventions.Going forward, we recommend that the African research community should scale up research to provide scientific evidence for a better characterization of the epidemiology, transmission dynamics, prevention and control of the virus on the continent.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , África/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Desinfecção das Mãos , Educação em Saúde , Planejamento em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Política Pública , Saneamento
11.
Int J Public Health ; 65(8): 1437-1443, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063142

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To understand the status of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) on university and college students, and to explore the determinants during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: Our data were from network-based survey, and 17,876 participants completed the questionnaire. t test, one-way ANOVA and multiple linear regression model were performed using PANAS (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule) score as the dependent variable. RESULTS: Of 17,876 participants, the mean score of PA was 25.5 ± 7.3, while NA was 19.1 ± 7.1. Multiple linear regression models showed that there are some common determinants of PA and NA, such as education, health literacy on communicable diseases, satisfaction with measures for epidemic prevention and control, risk of infection, impact of the outbreak on daily life, sleep duration and frequency of hand washing in the past 2 weeks. Besides, whether the student is a medical major and whether outing in the past 2 weeks were specific determinants of PA, and frequency of masks wearing was specific determinant of NA. CONCLUSIONS: The outbreak of COVID-19 is detrimental to university and college students' affect. During the outbreak response, we should strengthen the guidance and regulation for negative affect and pay attention to improving the positive affect of university and college students.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Comportamento do Consumidor , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Letramento em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Medição de Risco , Sono , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(40): 1443-1449, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031363

RESUMO

Washing hands often, especially during times when one is likely to acquire and spread pathogens,* is one important measure to help prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as well as other pathogens spread by respiratory or fecal-oral transmission (1,2). Studies have reported moderate to high levels of self-reported handwashing among adults worldwide during the COVID-19 pandemic (3-5)†; however, little is known about how handwashing behavior among U.S. adults has changed since the start of the pandemic. For this study, survey data from October 2019 (prepandemic) and June 2020 (during pandemic) were compared to assess changes in adults' remembering to wash their hands in six situations.§ Statistically significant increases in reported handwashing were seen in June 2020 compared with October 2019 in four of the six situations; the odds of remembering to wash hands was 2.3 times higher among respondents after coughing, sneezing, or blowing their nose, 2.0 times higher before eating at a restaurant, and 1.7 times higher before eating at home. Men, young adults aged 18-24 years, and non-Hispanic White (White) adults were less likely to remember to wash hands in multiple situations. Strategies to help persons remember to wash their hands frequently and at important times should be identified and implemented, especially among groups reporting low prevalence of remembering to wash their hands.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção das Mãos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5722-5728, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019274

RESUMO

More than 200 virus strains have been implicated in common colds, thereby thwarting vaccination efforts. However, the most common causes of colds are human rhinoviruses, which infect the epithelial cells of the nasopharynx. Moreover, after decades of research, the best documented method of preventing infection remains to be handwashing. However, stopping people from inadvertently touching or rubbing one's nose and eyes is difficult, and the effectiveness of preventing such habits has not been validated. Here, we reported the results of a randomized controlled trial (n = 120) performed over 50 days. We examined the effectiveness of using smartwatches equipped with a sensor and a vibration alert, as well as the self-checking of behavior, in preventing subjects from touching their nose or eyes. Participants were randomly assigned to either the smartwatch group or the handwashing group (control). Subjects in the handwashing group were requested to wash their hands after going out, whereas subjects in the smartwatch group were requested to wash their hands and in addition wear a smartwatch that vibrates to remind them not to excessively touch their nose or eyes. The daily frequency of nose and eye touching was also recorded by the smartwatches. The first incidence of an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) was the primary endpoint. In the smartwatch group, compared with the control group, the incidence of URTIs was significantly lower by 53% (p < 0.05) and was associated with a decrease in the mean frequency of nose or eye touching (p < 0.05).


Assuntos
Resfriado Comum , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Aplicativos Móveis , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Resfriado Comum/prevenção & controle , Olho , Mãos , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Nariz , Tato
15.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36Suppl 3(Suppl 3): e00193920, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053062

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of social distancing, the use of face masks and hand washing when leaving home among Brazilian adults aged 50 or over. Data from 6,149 telephone interviews were used, conducted between May 26 and June 8, 2020 among participants in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSI-Brazil). Social distancing was defined by not having left home in the last seven days. Only 32.8% of study participants did not leave home during the period considered, 36.3% left between one and two times, 15.2% between three and five times and 15.7% left every day. The main reasons for leaving home were to buy medicine or food (74.2%), to work (25.1%), to pay bills (24.5%), for health care (10.5%), to exercise (6.2%), and to meet family or friends (8.8%). Among those who left home, 97.3% always wore face masks and 97.3% always performed hand washing. Women left home less often than men. Men left home more often to work and exercise while women left home more often to seek healthcare. Men (odds ratio - OR = 1.84), those with higher education (OR = 1.48 and 1.95 for 5-8 and 9 years, respectively) and urban residents (OR = 1.54) left home more frequently to perform essential activities, regardless of age or other characteristics. Results show low adherence to social distancing, but high prevalence in the reported use of face masks and hand washing.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção das Mãos , Máscaras , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Distância Social , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
16.
G Ital Nefrol ; 37(5)2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026201

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 is an infectious respiratory syndrome caused by the virus called SARS-CoV-2, belonging to the family of coronaviruses. The first ever cases were detected during the 2019-2020 pandemic. Coronaviruses can cause a common cold or more serious diseases such as Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndromes (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). They can cause respiratory, lung and gastrointestinal infections with a mild to severe course, sometimes causing the death of the infected person. This new strain has no previous identifiers and its epidemic potential is strongly associated with the absence of immune response/reactivity and immunological memory in the world population, which has never been in contact with this strain before. Most at risk are the elderly, people with pre-existing diseases and/or immunodepressed, dialyzed and transplanted patients, pregnant women, people with debilitating chronic diseases. They are advised to avoid contacts with other people, unless strictly necessary, and to stay away from crowded places, also observing scrupulously the recommendations of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità. In this article we detail the recommendations that must be followed by the nursing care staff when dealing with chronic kidney disease patients in dialysis or with kidney transplant patients. We delve into the procedures that are absolutely essential in this context: social distancing of at least one meter, use of PPI, proper dressing and undressing procedures, frequent hand washing and use of gloves, and finally the increase of dedicated and appropriately trained health personnel on ward.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/enfermagem , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Transplante de Rim/enfermagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/enfermagem , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Diálise Renal/enfermagem , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/enfermagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Processo de Enfermagem/normas , Registros de Enfermagem , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Isolamento de Pacientes , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Precauções Universais
17.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008059

RESUMO

COVID-19 related restrictions aimed at curbing the spread of the coronavirus result in changes in daily routines and physical activity which can have a negative effect on eating and health habits. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with diabetes and their nutrition and health behaviours. A survey conducted in July 2020 included 124 individuals with type 1 (n = 90) and 2 (n = 34) diabetes mellitus from Poland. To assess nutritional and health behaviours, an online questionnaire covering basic information, anthropometric data, and details regarding physical activity, eating, and hygiene habits was used. Almost 40% of all respondents with type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) stated that their disease self-management had significantly improved. Over 60% of all participants declared that they had started eating more nutritious and regular meals during the COVID-19 pandemic. Enhanced hygiene, in particular, during the period, a statistically significant increase in hand sanitiser use was reported by respondents (18% vs. 82%, p < 0.001). The study demonstrated that the pandemic had a significant impact on the behaviour of patients with DM. Improved disease self-management and making healthy, informed food and hygiene choices were observed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dieta , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Autogestão , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(20): 3188-3190, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006886

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is a positive stranded-RNA human viral pathogen that attacks the central nervous system (CNS), causing interminable diseases. Although alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHS) control the widespread transmission of such pathogens through dermal contact, excessive exposure to alcohol mists and vapors causes CNS disorders, apart from skin infections and negative impacts on the useful microbiome. Herein, we propose bentonite paste, which interacts strongly with different +RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-2/poliovirus, for dermal sanitization. Repeated hand cleansing with bentonite paste not only provides complete protection against any viruses but also improves the skin condition. The proposed method is useful for contact isolation and as a strict infection control tool in hospital settings and in public.


Assuntos
Bentonita/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Argila , Humanos
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(5): 2012-2018, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996450

RESUMO

In countries without adequate access to improved sanitation, government-imposed restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic can impact toilet usage. In India, where millions have recently transitioned to using a toilet, pandemic-related barriers to use might increase open defecation practices. We assessed changes in reported defecation practices in peri-urban communities in Tamil Nadu. Field assistants conducted phone surveys in 26 communities in two districts from May 20, 2020 to May 25, 2020. They asked respondents about their access to a toilet, whether they or a family member left their house to defecate in the past week, and whether specific practices had changed since the lockdown. Among 2,044 respondents, 60% had access to a private toilet, 11% to a public or community toilet, whereas 29% lacked access to any toilet facility. In our study, 92% of the respondents did not change their defecation behaviors in the 2 months following the pandemic-related lockdown. About a third (27%) reported that they or a family member left their house daily to defecate amid lockdown measures. A majority of those with private toilets (91%) or with public toilets (69%) continued using them. Respondents with private toilet access were more likely to report an increased frequency of handwashing with soap (prevalence ratio [PR]: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.04-3.05) since the lockdown. The lack of private toilets contributes to the need to leave the house amid a lockdown. Maintaining shared toilets require disinfection protocols and behavioral precautions to limit the risk of fomite transmission. Robust urban COVID-19 control strategies should include enhanced sanitation facility management and safe usage messaging.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Higiene , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saneamento/métodos , Toaletes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aparelho Sanitário/provisão & distribução , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Defecação , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Health Educ Res ; 35(5): 353-361, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951026

RESUMO

Proper training on the preventive measures against COVID-19 among health-care workers is crucial for mitigating the spread of viral infection. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a brief web-based module on the practice of hand hygiene and respiratory etiquette among respective health-care workers. A comparative study was conducted with a total of 500 participants. A self-reported questionnaire was used for both pre- and post-intervention evaluation. The post-intervention assessment was conducted 1-2 weeks following the intervention. The difference in the practice of hand hygiene and respiratory etiquettes during work hours was recorded. We found that the intervention resulted in an evident difference in the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer by the participating doctors before examining the patient. Interns showed a much higher propensity to wash their hands for at least 20 s, relative to other health-care workers. The difference between pre- and post-intervention handwashing for >5 times/day was 6.5% in females and 4.5% in males. In short, the study was able to demonstrate that a web-based health education module is an effective tool for the education and promotion of preventative measures in hospital setups, which may ultimately aid in halting the spread of COVID-19 among health-care workers.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Higiene das Mãos , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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