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2.
Sports Health ; 12(1): 51-57, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Athletic training rooms have a high prevalence of bacteria, including multidrug-resistant organisms, increasing the risk for both local and systematic infections in athletes. There are limited data outlining formal protocols or standardized programs to reduce bacterial and viral burden in training rooms as a means of decreasing infection rate at the collegiate and high school levels. HYPOTHESIS: Adaptation of a hygiene protocol would lead to a reduction in bacterial and viral pathogen counts in athletic training rooms. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: Two high school and 2 collegiate athletic training rooms were studied over the course of the 2017-2018 academic year. A 3-phase protocol, including introduction of disinfectant products followed by student-athlete and athletic trainer education, was implemented at the 4 schools. Multiple surfaces in the athletic training rooms were swabbed at 4 time points throughout the investigation. Bacterial and viral burden from swabs were analyzed for overall bacterial aerobic plate count (APC), bacterial adenosine triphosphate activity, influenza viral load, and multidrug-resistant organisms such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE). RESULTS: Overall bacterial load, as measured by APC, was reduced by 94.7% (95% CI, 72.6-99.0; P = 0.003) over the course of the investigation after protocol implementation. MRSA and VRE were found on 24% of surfaces prior to intervention and were reduced to 0% by the end of the study. Influenza was initially detected on 25% of surfaces, with no detection after intervention. No cases of athletic training room-acquired infections were reported during the study period. CONCLUSION: A uniform infection control protocol was effective in reducing bacterial and viral burden, including multidrug-resistant organisms, when implemented in the athletic training rooms of 2 high schools and 2 colleges. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A standardized infection control protocol can be utilized in athletic training rooms to reduce bacterial and viral burden.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/prevenção & controle , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/transmissão , Desinfetantes/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/transmissão , Desinfecção das Mãos , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Estafilocócicas/transmissão , Enterococos Resistentes à Vancomicina/isolamento & purificação
3.
Orv Hetil ; 160(49): 1957-1962, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786938

RESUMO

Introduction: Infections affect about 30-50% of intensive care unit patients resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. Multimodal interventions proved to be successful in the prevention of healthcare-associated infections. Appropriate hand hygiene including correct disinfection technique and timing is essential. Aim: The aim of our study was to investigate the hand hygiene practice among the intensive care unit healthcare workers by immediate feedback system implementation and compliance study. Method: A 3-week-long observational study was conducted at the Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Therapy, Semmelweis University, during November and December, 2018. Data regarding hand hygiene technique were collected by using the Semmelweis Scanner technology, while compliance data were recorded by direct observations. Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal-Wallis test, Fisher's exact test and χ2-test. Results: 604 measurements were recorded by the electronic system. Hand disinfection was appropriate in 86.5% of cases. The median value of coverage was 99.87%. The trend of these indices showed persistently high values. A lower error rate was observed in the physiotherapy group compared to others (doctors: p<0.01, nurses: p = 0.03, assistant nurses: p = 0.03). 162 opportunities were recorded during direct observations. The mean compliance rate was 60.49%, with the lowest among doctors (53.97%). The difference was non-significant compared to nurses (62.92%, p = 0.26). Conclusions: Hand hygiene technique during the study period was found to be highly and permanently appropriate, while compliance was lower than expected. The immediate feedback system may be useful in achieving appropriate hand disinfection technique, although further interventions are needed for higher compliance rates. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(49): 1957-1962.


Assuntos
Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Higiene das Mãos , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Humanos
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1066, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Symptomatic and asymptomatic enteric infections in early childhood are associated with negative effects on childhood growth and development, especially in low and middle-income countries, and food may be an important transmission route. Although basic food hygiene practices might reduce exposure to faecal pathogens and resulting infections, there have been few rigorous interventions studies to assess this, and no studies in low income urban settings where risks are plausibly very high. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of a novel infant food hygiene intervention on infant enteric infections and diarrhoea in peri-urban settlements of Kisumu, Kenya. METHODS: This is a cluster randomized control trial with 50 clusters, representing the catchment areas of Community Health Volunteers (CHVs), randomly assigned to intervention or control, and a total of 750 infants recruited on a rolling basis at 22 weeks of age and then followed for 15 weeks. The intervention targeted four key caregiver behaviours related to food hygiene: 1) hand washing with soap before infant food preparation and feeding; 2) bringing all infant food to the boil before feeding, including when reheating or reserving; 3) storing all infant food in sealed containers; and, 4) using only specific utensils for infant feeding which are kept separate and clean. RESULTS: The primary outcome of interest is the prevalence of one or more of 23 pre-specified enteric infections, determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for enteric pathogen gene targets. In addition, infant food samples were collected at 33 weeks, and faecal indicator bacteria (Enterococcus) isolated and enumerated to assess the impact of the intervention on infant food contamination. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the first randomized controlled trial to assess the effect of an infant food hygiene intervention on enteric infections in a high burden, low income urban setting. Our trial responds to growing evidence that food may be a key pathway for early childhood enteric infection and disease and that basic food hygiene behaviours may be able to mitigate these risks. The Safe Start trial seeks to provide new evidence as to whether a locally appropriate infant food hygiene intervention delivered through the local health extension system can improve the health of young children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered at clinicaltrial.gov on March 16th 2018 before enrolment of any participants (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03468114).


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Enterite/epidemiologia , Enterite/microbiologia , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Pobreza , Cuidadores , Culinária , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Enterite/prevenção & controle , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Controle de Infecções , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Saúde Pública , Sabões , Saúde da População Urbana
5.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 23(6): 467-471, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751943

RESUMO

Selecting an appropriate sanitizer (i.e., "rub") for application to hands and gloves before and, if necessary, during sterile compounding is as important as is its consistent and judicious use. Alcohols and chlorhexidine gluconate, which have long been recognized as safe and powerful biocides, are often essential ingredients in such sanitizing products. In this second article in a 2-part series on alcohol-based hand and glove sanitizers, we review the selection of and need for those rubs in sterile compounding, present considerations for their safe storage, compare the features of several appropriate sanitizing agents, and answer compounders' frequently asked questions about their use. Glove sanitizing is discussed as part of the hand-sanitizing process. In part 1 of this series, we explained, among other topics, the mechanism of action and composition of alcohol-based sanitizers and presented a protocol for their application to hands and gloves.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Luvas Protetoras , Desinfecção das Mãos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Mãos , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Humanos , Controle de Qualidade
6.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 22(258): 3345-3350, nov.2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1053407

RESUMO

Objetivo: identificar a compreensão dos familiares sobre a importância da técnica de higienização das mãos para a realização de diálise peritoneal em domicílio. Metodologia: estudo descritivo, abordagem qualitativa, método de pesquisa convergente-assistencial. O estudo foi realizado em um Hospital Universitário Estadual do Rio de Janeiro, no setor de Nefrologia. O estudo envolveu 06 familiares que realizam terapia de diálise peritoneal para seus familiares. A coleta de dados ocorreu no período de 13 de julho de 2017 a 31 de agosto de 2017. Principais resultados: dos 06 participantes do estudo 02 realizou-se o saneamento das mãos corretamente de acordo com o vídeo fornecido pela pesquisadora. Conclusão: Percebe-se que, para alguns participantes, ainda há receio e insegurança em relação à execução da técnica de higienização das mãos corretamente.(AU)


Objective: the present study has the following aims: to identify the family members' understanding of the importance of hand hygiene technique for peritoneal dialysis at home. Methods: a descriptive study, qualitative approach, using Convergence - Assistance Research as a method. The study was conducted at a State University Hospital located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, in the Nephrology sector. Sixty family members undergoing peritoneal dialysis therapy of their relative at home participated in the study. Data collection occurred from July 3, 2017 to August 31, 2017.Results: of the 06 participants in study 02 performed the hand hygiene correctly according to the video provided by the researcher. Conclusion: the study reached the proposed objectives; with this it was perceptible that for some participants there is still fear and insecurity about the execution of the technique of hand hygiene correctly.(AU)


Objetivo: identificar el entendimiento de los familiares sobre la importancia de la técnica de higienización de las manos para la realización de la diálisis peritoneal en el domicilio. Metodología: estudio descriptivo, abordaje cualitativo, método la Investigación Convergente-Asistencial. El estudio fue realizado en un Hospital Universitario Estadual de Río de Janeiro, en el sector de Nefrología. Participaron del estudio 06 familiares que realizan la terapia de diálisis peritoneal de su pariente. La recolección de datos ocurrió en el período de 13 de julio de 2017 al 31 de agosto de 2017. Resultados principales: de los 06 participantes del estudio 02 realizaron la higienización de las manos de forma correcta de acuerdo con el vídeo proporcionado por la investigadora. Conclusión principal: Fue perceptible que para algunos participantes aún exista el miedo y inseguridad con relación a la ejecución de la técnica de higienización de las manos de forma correcta. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Desinfecção das Mãos , Diálise Peritoneal , Higiene das Mãos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Promoção da Saúde
7.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 647, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590689

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the effect of awareness of subtle control after training on the hand hygiene compliance among nurses in intensive care units (ICUs). The study was conducted in two ICUs of a trauma center in Shiraz, Iran on 48 nurses. The nurses of one ICU were randomly allocated to the intervention and the nurses of the other ICU were allocated to the control group. All nurses were trained on hand hygiene. Then a fake closed camera television (CCTV) was visibly installed in the intervention group's ICU, while the nurses were aware of it. The degree of compliance with hand hygiene was observed in both groups before and after the intervention. Data were gathered using a checklist based on the World Health Organization hand hygiene protocol and analyzed using SPSS 16 and the Chi square, Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney U, and Independent T-tests, were performed. RESULTS: The mean percentage of hand hygiene compliance in the intervention group after the intervention was significantly higher than before the intervention (p < 0.001). Additionally, the changes in the mean percentage of the intervention group was significantly higher than that for the control group (p = 0.001). The findings showed that a fake CCTV after training, installed in ICUs, can improve hand hygiene compliance.


Assuntos
Higiene das Mãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Lista de Checagem/normas , Lista de Checagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Irã (Geográfico) , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/normas
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1324, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported an association between improvements in hand hygiene and the reductions in rates of intestinal parasitic diseases. However, only a some have addressed its link to the frequency of influenza-like illness. The current study aimed to find the correlation between personal hygiene habits and the frequency of influenza-like illness. METHODS: A cross-sectional study targeting 3000 participants conducted in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. A systematic random sampling methodology was applied for participant from different part of Riyadh city using a computer generating system. The researcher first started by calling each participant. A full explanation was given to each participant in details (from the purpose of the research, consent to answer the questionnaire, to the explanation of the outcome definition). Each point of the questionnaire was explained to them to make sure they had excellent comprehension, and therefore, respond accurately. Descriptive statistics and Odds Ratio and its 95% confidence intervals were used to determine the association between frequency of influenza-like illness and the studied variables. RESULTS: Two thousand eighty-two (69.4%) completed the questionnaire. The participants who spent 5-10 s in handwashing with soap and rubbing were at increased risk of more frequent influenza-like illness (odds ratio = 1.37, 1.08-1.75). Handwashing with soap and rubbing after handshaking is an independent protective habit against frequent influenza-like illness (adjusted OR = 0.59, 0.37-0.94). CONCLUSION: The decrease of the frequency of influenza-like illness could be done through the following: getting the influenza vaccine annually, washing hands with soap and hand rubbing not less than 15 s after getting out of the bathroom, before and after handshaking and before eating. Soap companies should invent soaps that take less rubbing time to kill bacteria, and subsequently may maximize compliance in the community.


Assuntos
Hábitos , Desinfecção das Mãos , Higiene , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Mãos/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Arábia Saudita , Sabões , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600942

RESUMO

Stunting is a global burden affecting nearly 160 million children younger than five years of age. Whilst the linkages between nutrition and stunting are well recognized, there is a need to explore environmental factors such as water and sanitation, which may influence feeding practices and result in potential infection pathways. This paper explores the linkages between stunting and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) factors in Ethiopia, which is a relatively understudied context. The research draws upon baseline data for children under the age of five from 3200 households across four regions in Ethiopia as part of a wider study and integrated program led by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). Using World Health Organization (WHO) z-scoring, the average stunting rate in the sample is 47.5%. This paper also takes into account demographic and social behavioural factors such as the age, gender of children, and gender of the primary caregiver, in addition to handwashing behaviour and drinking water facilities. The evidence recommends efforts to improve handwashing behaviour for mothers and children with a focus on access to clean water. Higher stunting rates with an increase in the age of children highlight the need for continued interventions, as efforts to improve nutrition and WASH behaviours are most effective early on in promoting long-term health outcomes for children.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Desinfecção das Mãos , Higiene , Saneamento , Abastecimento de Água , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Estado Nutricional , População Rural , Água
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 804, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, diarrhea is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among less than 5 years old children and it contributes to the deaths of approximately one million children every year. In Ethiopia, diarrhea is the second cause of under-five mortality and morbidity. However, in the study area, studies were limited. Therefore, this study has assessed the prevalence of diarrhea and associated factors among < 5 years of age in Jamma district, Northeast Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from August 15 to September 15, 2017, in Jamma district, South Wello zone, northeast Ethiopia. A Systematic random sampling technique was used to select 614 households and a pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors associated with diarrheal disease. Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) with the corresponding 95% Confidence Interval (CI) for variables with P-value < 0.05 was used to show statistically significant association. RESULTS: In this study, the prevalence of diarrhea among under-five children was 23.1% (95% CI: (19.4, 26.5). Child's age 6 to 23 months [AOR: 2.46, 95% CI: (1.49, 4.05)], Living in rural area [AOR: 2.75, 95% CI: (1.33,5.66)], absence of latrine [AOR: 4.80, 95% CI: (2.39,9.60)], absence of handwashing facility [AOR: 2.45, 95% CI: (1.53,3.93], unprotected drinking water source [AOR:2.68, 95% CI: (1.54,4.68)], and Improper waste disposal practices [AOR:3.86, 95% CI: (2.38,6.26)] were associated with diarrhea disease. CONCLUSION: There was a high prevalence of diarrheal disease among children in the study area. Child age, rural residence, availability of latrine and handwashing facility, source of drinking water, and improper waste disposal were notably associated with childhood diarrheal disease. Therefore, improving handwashing practices and pure water supply, proper waste disposal including the availability of latrines would minimize the burden of diarrheal disease.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Meio Ambiente , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/mortalidade , Água Potável/normas , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Habitação , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Toaletes/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
mSphere ; 4(5)2019 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533996

RESUMO

Both antiseptic hand rubbing (AHR) using ethanol-based disinfectants (EBDs) and antiseptic hand washing (AHW) are important means of infection control to prevent seasonal influenza A virus (IAV) outbreaks. However, previous reports suggest a reduced efficacy of ethanol disinfection against pathogens in mucus. We aimed to elucidate the situations and mechanisms underlying the reduced efficacy of EBDs against IAV in infectious mucus. We evaluated IAV inactivation and ethanol concentration change using IAV-infected patients' mucus (sputum). Additionally, AHR and AHW effectiveness against infectious mucus adhering to the hands and fingers was evaluated in 10 volunteers. Our clinical study showed that EBD effectiveness against IAV in mucus was extremely reduced compared to IAV in saline. IAV in mucus remained active despite 120 s of AHR; however, IAV in saline was completely inactivated within 30 s. Due to the low rate of diffusion/convection because of the physical properties of mucus as a hydrogel, the time required for the ethanol concentration to reach an IAV inactivation level and thus for EBDs to completely inactivate IAV was approximately eight times longer in mucus than in saline. On the other hand, AHR inactivated IAV in mucus within 30 s when the mucus dried completely because the hydrogel characteristics were lost. Additionally, AHW rapidly inactivated IAV. Until infectious mucus has completely dried, infectious IAV can remain on the hands and fingers, even after appropriate AHR using EBD, thereby increasing the risk of IAV transmission. We clarified the ineffectiveness of EBD use against IAV in infectious mucus.IMPORTANCE Antiseptic hand rubbing (AHR) and antiseptic hand washing (AHW) are important to prevent the spread of influenza A virus (IAV). This study elucidated the situations/mechanisms underlying the reduced efficacy of AHR against infectious mucus derived from IAV-infected individuals and indicated the weaknesses of the current hand hygiene regimens. Due to the low rate of diffusion/convection because of the physical properties of mucus as a hydrogel, the efficacy of AHR using ethanol-based disinfectant against mucus is greatly reduced until infectious mucus adhering to the hands/fingers has completely dried. If there is insufficient time before treating the next patient (i.e., if the infectious mucus is not completely dry), medical staff should be aware that effectiveness of AHR is reduced. Since AHW is effective against both dry and nondry infectious mucus, AHW should be adopted to compensate for these weaknesses of AHR.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Muco/virologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Viabilidade Microbiana , Muco/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia
12.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 567, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511045

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to assess enteropathogens carriage rate and risk factors among apparently healthy food handlers at Wolkite University cafeteria, Southern Ethiopia. RESULTS: Cross-sectional study was conducted among 170 food handlers to collect socio-demographic and related data by using structured questionnaires. Stool samples were collected and subjected to microscopic examination and cultured to determine intestinal parasites. Among the total study participants, 66% of them were found to be carriers of enteropathogens: bacteria (Salmonella typhi, Shigella species), and intestinal parasites (Ascaris lumbricoides,Taenia species, Giardia lamblia, Entameoba histolytica/dispar, Enterobius vermicularis, Hook worm and Trichuris trichiura). All Salmonella and Shigella isolates were sensitive to ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin. A significant association was found between hand washing practice before food preparation and isolated pathogens [p = 0.013]. A significant proportion of food handlers were found to be carriers of pathogens which require a periodic screening and antibiotic therapy monitoring.


Assuntos
Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Manipulação de Alimentos/normas , Serviços de Alimentação/normas , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Alimentação/estatística & dados numéricos , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 23(5): 387-391, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513537

RESUMO

In pharmaceutical compounding, strict adherence to a protocol for hand hygiene and glove sanitizing is essential to ensure the purity, safety, and effectiveness of sterile preparations; reduce patient morbidity and mortality; and decrease the cost of health care. Alcohols and chlorhexidine gluconate are among the most effective bactericides, virucides, and fungicides, and acquired resistance to those agents has not been shown in clinical practice. This article, which is part 1 in a series of 2, pertains primarily to alcohol-based hand rubs that are appropriate for use in sterile compounding (glove sanitizing is discussed as part of the handsanitizing process). In a brief overview of those products, we define pertinent terminology, examine the necessity of and requirements for the use of sanitizers, review their mechanism of action and composition, consider factors pertinent to their selection, and present a protocol for their application. In part 2 of this series, the topics examined include a comparison of various alcohol-based sanitizers and answers to compounders' frequently asked questions about their use.


Assuntos
Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Mãos , Mãos/microbiologia , Humanos
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 547, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective hand hygiene is one of the most important measures for protecting nursing home residents from nosocomial infections. Infections with multi-resistant bacteria's, associated with healthcare, is a known problem. The nursing home setting differs from other healthcare environments in individual and organisational factors such as knowledge, behaviour, and attitude to improve hand hygiene and it is therefore difficult to research the influential factors to improve hand hygiene. Studies have shown that increasing knowledge, behaviour and attitudes could enhance hand hygiene compliance in nursing homes. Therefore, it may be important to examine individual and organisational factors that foster improvement of these factors in hand hygiene. We aim to explore these influences of individual and organisational factors of hand hygiene in nursing home staff, with a particular focus on the function of role modelling by nursing managers. METHODS: We conducted a mixed-methods study surveying 165 nurses and interviewing 27 nursing managers from nursing homes in Germany. RESULTS: Most nurses and nursing managers held the knowledge of effective hand hygiene procedures. Hygiene standards and equipment were all generally available but compliance to standards also depended upon availability in the immediate work area and role modelling. Despite a general awareness of the impact of leadership on staff behaviour, not all nursing managers fully appreciated the impact of their own consistent role modelling regarding hand hygiene behaviours. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that improving hand hygiene should focus on strategies that facilitate the provision of hand disinfectant materials in the immediate work area of nurses. In addition, nursing managers should be made aware of the impact of their role model function and they should implement this in daily practice.


Assuntos
Higiene das Mãos/normas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Competência Clínica/normas , Infecção Hospitalar/enfermagem , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Humanos , Liderança , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras Administradoras/normas , Casas de Saúde/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 478, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375135

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Absence of latrine remains a common public health problem in most of the Sub-Saharan Africa countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the effect of community-led total sanitation and hygiene approach implementation and associated factors among villages of Laelai Maichew District, Tigray, and North Ethiopia. RESULTS: This study revealed that the rate of latrine use in the rural community of Laelai-Maichew district was about 46.8%. The majority, 71.1% of households in CLTSH implemented Villages and 93.5% of households in CLTSH non-implemented Villages did not have hand washing facility around their latrine. Community-led to total sanitation and hygiene non-implemented villages were 49% times less likely to utilize their latrine compared to those community-led total sanitation implemented villages [AOR = 0.51 95% CI (0.35, 0.75)]. Households owned latrines for two and above years were 1.5 more likely to utilize their latrine [AOR = 1.50 95% CI (1.21, 2.59)] than those of owning latrines for less than 2 years. In this study, latrine use rate was low. As a result, the local, national governmental and non-governmental organization should design programs to create behavioral changes on the community's attitude towards latrine utilization.


Assuntos
Higiene/normas , Saúde Pública/normas , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Saneamento/normas , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Saneamento/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Toaletes/normas , Toaletes/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 147, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a significant public health problem globally. The early identification and management of the determinants of pneumonia demands clear evidence. But, there is a limited data on this issue in the current study area. Thus, this study aimed to identify the determinants of pneumonia among 2-59 months old children at Debre Markos Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A Hospital based unmatched case-control study was conducted among 334 (167 Cases and 167 Controls) children at Debre Markos Referral Hospital from February 1 to March 30, 2018. Consecutive sampling technique was employed and data were collected with a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire. Data were entered into Epi-Data version 4.2, and analyzed using SPSS version 25 software. Bi-variable and multi-variable logistic regression analyses were fitted. Variables having p-value < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 328(164 cases and 164 controls) 2-59 months old children were included in this study. Not opening windows daily [AOR:6.15(2.55,14.83)], household near to the street [AOR:4.23(1.56,11.44)], child care by the house workers and relatives [AOR:2.97 (1.11,7.93)], using only water for hand washing before child feeding [AOR:3.81 (1.51, 9.66)], mixed feeding practice from birth to six months [AOR: 7.62 (2.97, 19.55)], having upper respiratory tract infection in the last 2 weeks for the child [AOR: 5.33 (2.16, 13.19)] and children with history of co- residence with URTI family [AOR: 6.17 (2.36,16.15)] were found to be determinants of pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: The main contributing factors for pneumonia in this study are preventable with no or minimal cost. Therefore, we recommend appropriate and adequate health education regarding pneumonia prevention and control.


Assuntos
Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Habitação , Humanos , Lactente , Pacientes Internados , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1817-1818, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438359

RESUMO

As one of the countermeasures against infection at medical institutions, thorough hand hygiene is extremely important. In Japan, these controls are not sufficient. management, it is necessary to track the hand washing situation. Therefore, we decided to monitor the condition of hand washing by utilizing IoT. use IoT in our hospital, we decided to follow up using these environments. As a result, it is possible to collect data continuously for 24 hours, 365 days, and evaluate infection risk based on data. location information on smartphone, so we can also track work. We are considering support for medical staff by utilizing smart devices.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar , Higiene das Mãos , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Japão
18.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1028, 2019 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7-Days (CHoBI7) is a handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention program delivered by a health promoter bedside in a health facility and through home visits to diarrhea patients and their household members during the 7 days after admission to a health facility. In a randomized controlled trial among cholera patient households in Bangladesh, the 7-day CHoBI7 program resulted in a significant reduction in cholera among household members of cholera patients and sustained improvements in drinking water quality and handwashing with soap practices 12 months post-intervention. In an effort to take this intervention to scale across Bangladesh in partnership with the Bangladesh Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, this study evaluates the feasibility and acceptability of mobile health (mHealth) programs as a low-cost, scalable approach for CHoBI7 program delivery. METHODS: Formative research for the development of the CHoBI7 mHealth intervention included 40 semi-structured interviews, 4 mHealth workshops, 2 group discussions, and a pilot study of 52 households to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the developed mHealth program. Thematic analysis of the interviews and group discussions was conducted by two individuals separately based on emergent themes, and then themes were compared and discussed. RESULTS: A theory- and evidence-based approach using qualitative research methods was implemented to design the CHoBI7 mHealth program. Semi-structured interviews with government stakeholders identified perceptions and preferences for scaling the CHoBI7 mHealth program. Group discussions and semi-structured interviews with diarrhea patients and their family members identified beneficiary perceptions of mHealth and preferences for CHoBI7 mHealth program delivery. mHealth workshops were conducted as an interactive approach to draft and refine mobile message content based on stakeholder preferences. The pilot findings indicate that the CHoBI7 mHealth program has high user acceptability and is feasible to deliver to diarrhea patients that present at health facilities for treatment in Bangladesh. Both text and voice messages were recommended for program delivery. Dr. Chobi, the sender of mHealth messages, was viewed as a credible source of information that could be shared with others. CONCLUSION: This study presents a theory- and evidence-based approach that can be implemented for the development of future water, sanitation, and hygiene mHealth programs in low-resource settings.


Assuntos
Cólera/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/terapia , Higiene/normas , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Saneamento/normas , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Qualidade da Água/normas , Bangladesh , Características da Família , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Projetos de Pesquisa , Sabões
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443355

RESUMO

Background: Patient safety is a priority of any healthcare system, and one of the most effective measures is hand hygiene. For this, it is important that health staff have correct adherence and perform the technique properly. Otherwise, the incidence of nosocomial infections can increase, with consequent complications. The aim here was to analyze hand hygiene training and the effectiveness of different methods and educational strategies among nurses and whether they maintained correct adherence over time. Methods: A systematic review was conducted in the sources CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Dialnet, Lilacs (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), ProQuest (Proquest Health and Medical Complete), Medline, SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online), and Scopus. The search equation with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) descriptors was "Nurs* AND (handwashing OR hand hygiene) AND clinical trial". The review was performed following the recommendations of the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Results: n = 17 clinical trials were included, with a total of 5747 nurses and nursing students. Strategies such as reminder sounds, practical simulations, videos, and audiovisual media improved handwashing compliance. Adherence overtime increased by up to 60%. The greatest effectiveness was related to the use of povidone-iodine, which reduced colony formation compared Hand hygiene teaching strategies among nursing staff: a systematic review to soap. Conclusions: The strategies that go beyond teaching techniques such as lectures may be more effective at increasing hand hygiene compliance. Combined approaches to learning/instruction improve user satisfaction by enabling self-management, flexibility, and repetition.


Assuntos
Educação em Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene das Mãos , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/educação , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Desinfecção das Mãos , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Ital J Pediatr ; 45(1): 77, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Under nutrition is linked with poor water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) condition. However, there is conflicting evidence on the effect of WASH on nutritional status of children. This review was, therefore, conducted to estimate the pooled effect of WASH interventions on child under nutrition. METHODS: All published and unpublished cluster-randomized, non-randomized controlled trials, and before and after intervention studies conducted in developing countries were included. Relevant articles were searched from MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane Collaboration's database, Web of Science, WHO Global Health Library, Google Scholar, Worldcat and ProQuest electronic databases. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using JBI critical appraisal checklist for randomized and non-randomized controlled trials. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias in randomized trials. The treatment effect was expressed as standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: This meta-analysis of 10 studies including 16,473 children (7776 in the intervention and 8687 in the control group) indicated that WASH interventions significantly associated with increased pooled mean height-for-age-z-score (SMD = 0.14, 95% CI = (0.09, 0.19); I2 = 39.3%]. The effect of WASH on HAZ was heterogeneous in age and types of interventions. WASH intervention had more effect on HAZ among under two children [SMD = 0.20, 95% CI = (0.11, 0.29); I2 = 37%]. Children who received combined WASH interventions grew better compared with children who received single interventions [SMD = 0.15, 95% CI = (0.09, 0.20); I2 = 43.8%]. CONCLUSION: WASH interventions were significantly associated with increased mean height-for-age-z score in under 5 years old children. The effect of WASH on linear growth is markedly different with age and types of interventions, either single or combined. Implementing combined WASH interventions has a paramount benefit to improve nutritional status of children.


Assuntos
Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Higiene/normas , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Estado Nutricional , Saneamento/normas , Qualidade da Água/normas , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido
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