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1.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 73Suppl 2(Suppl 2): e20200316, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609253

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to perform a situational diagnosis of the behavior of health professionals concerning hand hygiene practices in highly-complex sectors. METHODS: this quantitative and retrospective study was based on reports (2016 and 2017) of Adult and Pediatric ICUs of a Federal hospital in Rio de Janeiro. RESULTS: one thousand two hundred fifty-eight opportunities for hand hygiene were analysed. The chance of professionals sanitizing hands in Pediatric ICUs is 41.61% higher than in Adult ICUs. Concerning proper hand hygiene, the medical team had a 39.44% lower chance than the nursing team. Others had a 30.62% lower chance when compared to the nursing team. The moment "after contact with the patient" presented 4.5275 times the chance in relation "before contact with the patient". CONCLUSION: in front of hand hygiene recommendations to control COVID-19, diagnostic assessment and previous analysis of the behavior of professionals proved to be positive.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Arch. Soc. Esp. Oftalmol ; 95(6): 300-310, jun. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187733

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Minimizar la exposición al virus SARS-CoV-2, reducir las posibilidades de transmisión cruzada entre pacientes y personal sanitario, y evitar el desarrollo de complicaciones postoperatorias por la atención a pacientes con enfermedades oculares durante la pandemia de Enfermedad por Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). MÉTODOS: Elaboración de un documento de revisión del estado del conocimiento sobre COVID-19 y consenso entre diferentes sociedades oftalmológicas españolas y afines, al objeto de proporcionar guías y recomendaciones de máximos recursos primariamente condicionadas por el estado de alerta, confinamiento y distanciamiento social que acontece en España desde el 16 de marzo de 2020. RESULTADOS: Las recomendaciones promoverán la adopción de medidas de actuación y protección para el desarrollo de la actividad asistencial en consultas externas, área quirúrgica y hospitalización, tanto para pacientes no confirmados - asintomáticos y sintomáticos - como confirmados de COVID-19. Deberán ser adaptadas a las circunstancias y disponibilidad de Equipos de Protección Individual (EPI) en cada uno de los Centros y Comunidades Autónomas, debiendo ser actualizadas en función de las fases de la pandemia y de las medidas que adopte el Gobierno de la Nación. CONCLUSIONES: Durante la pandemia COVID-19, la atención a los potenciales riesgos de salud para la población ocasionados por el coronavirus deberá prevalecer sobre la posible progresión de enfermedades oculares comunes. Tanto médicos oftalmólogos como restantes profesionales de la salud ocular deberán asumir una posible progresión de dichas enfermedades ante la imposibilidad de un seguimiento adecuado de los pacientes


OBJECTIVE: Minimize exposure to the SARS-CoV-2, reduce the chances of cross-transmission between patients and healthcare personnel, and prevent the development of postoperative complications from the management of patients with eye diseases during the 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID -19). METHODS: COVID-19 literature review and consensus establishment between different Spanish ophthalmology societies in order to provide guidelines and recommendations of máximum resources primarily conditioned by the state of alert, confinement and social distancing that occurs in Spain since March 16, 2020. Results: The recommendations will promote the adoption of action and protection measures for eye care in outpatient clinics, surgical areas and hospitalization, for unconfirmed (asymptomatic and symptomatic) and confirmed COVID-19 patients. Measures must be adapted to the circumstances and availability of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in each of the centers and Autonomous Communities, which will be updated according to the pandemic phases and the measures adopted by the Spanish Government. Conclusions: During the COVID-19 pandemic, attention to the potential health risks to the population caused by coronavirus should prevail over the possible progression of the common eye diseases. Ophthalmologists and other eye care professionals must assume a possible progression of these diseases due to the impossibility of adequate patient follow-up


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Pandemias , Serviços de Saúde Ocular , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Equipamentos de Proteção/normas , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas
4.
J Hosp Med ; 15(5): 262-267, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene is key to preventing healthcare-associated infection and the spread of respiratory viruses like the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19. Unfortunately, hand hygiene adherence of healthcare workers (HCWs) in Japan is suboptimal according to previous studies. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to evaluate hand hygiene adherence among physicians and nurses before touching hospitalized patients and to evaluate changes in hand hygiene adherence after a multimodal intervention was implemented. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a pre- and postintervention study with HCWs at four tertiary hospitals in Niigata, Japan. Hand hygiene observations were conducted from June to August 2018 (preintervention) and February to March 2019 (postintervention). INTERVENTION: The multimodal hand hygiene intervention recommended by the World Health Organization was tailored to each hospital and implemented from September 2018 to February 2019. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: We observed hand hygiene adherence before touching patients in each hospital and compared rates before and after intervention. Intervention components were also evaluated. RESULTS: There were 2,018 patient observations preintervention and 1,630 postintervention. Overall, hand hygiene adherence improved from 453 of 2,018 preintervention observations (22.4%) to 548 of 1,630 postintervention observations (33.6%; P < .001). Rates improved more among nurses (13.9 percentage points) than among doctors (5.7 percentage points). Improvement varied among the hospitals: Hospital B (18.4 percentage points) was highest, followed by Hospitals D (11.4 percentage points), C (11.3 percentage points), and Hospital A (6.5 percentage points). CONCLUSIONS: A multimodal intervention improved hand hygiene adherence rates in physicians and nurses in Niigata, Japan; however, further improvement is necessary. Given the current suboptimal hand hygiene adherence rates in Japanese hospitals, the spread of COVID-19 within the hospital setting is a concern.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Unidades Hospitalares , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
5.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; mayo 4, 2020. 2 p.
Não convencional em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096878

RESUMO

La promoción del lavado de manos es fundamental para minimizar la transmisión de SARS-COV-2 y para salvar vidas. Una de las maneras más frecuentes de trasmisión de SARS-COV-2 es a través de manos contaminadas al tocarse la boca, la nariz y los ojos. También se puede transferir el virus de una superficie a otra a través de las manos contaminadas. Acceso gratuito y uso mandatorio de estaciones de lavado de manos ayudaría a minimizar la transmisión del virus de COVID y a salvar vidas.


Promoting handwashing is essential to minimize transmission of SARS-COV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and to save lives. One of the most commons ways of transmission of SARS-COV-2 is from contaminated hands touching the mouth, nose and eyes. The virus can also be transferred from one surface to another through contaminated hands. Free access and mandatory use of handwashing stations would help to minimize SARS-COV-2 transmission and save lives.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção das Mãos/instrumentação , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus
6.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; mayo 11, 2020. 3 p.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096915

RESUMO

Proporcionar acceso universal a las estaciones públicas de higiene de manos, con indicaciones precisas para su uso correcto. •Garantizar el suministro continuo de agua segura en las instalaciones de salud. •Asegurar que las instalaciones de atención a largo plazo y los espacios comunitarios cerrados tengan un suministro continuo de agua segura. •Asegurar el acceso de agua segura a no más de 500 metros de la residencia. •Abogar para el acceso continuo de agua segura para toda la población. •Instalar tanques de almacenamiento temporales en áreas desatendidas y donde haya un servicio interrumpido, con niveles de cloro residual de 0,5 mg/L. •Asegurar que los tanques de agua y los camiones cisterna tengan un nivel de cloro residual de 0,5-1 mg/L. •Asegurar que el nivel de cloro residual en todo el sistema de suministro y en el punto de uso es de 0,5 mg/L. •Fortalecer las acciones de vigilancia de la calidad del agua, especialmente en las zonas más afectadas. •Promover el almacenamiento seguro de agua en los hogares, como tanques elevados con tapas y grifos. •Promover tecnologías de bajo costo para garantizar la calidad del agua, como los filtros de agua domésticos. •Realizar la coordinación del sector salud, con el sector de agua y otros sectores relevantes para definir e implementar las intervenciones. •Abogar por la participación intersectorial (por ejemplo, sector del agua, agricultura) en los comités de emergencia y desastre de los paises. •Reparar las tuberías con fugas. •Establecer una prohibición sobre el uso de mangueras. • Recomendar el uso de sistemas de inodoros de bajo flujo (por diseño o modernizados) en áreas propensas a la sequía. •Realizar intervenciones de prevención que hayan demostrado ser efectivas contra el SARS-COV-2.


This technical note contains recommendations for the public sector, the community, and health establishments to make rational use of water in conditions of low water availability due to drought.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Qualidade da Água/normas , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Saúde Ambiental/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus
10.
Orv Hetil ; 160(49): 1957-1962, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786938

RESUMO

Introduction: Infections affect about 30-50% of intensive care unit patients resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. Multimodal interventions proved to be successful in the prevention of healthcare-associated infections. Appropriate hand hygiene including correct disinfection technique and timing is essential. Aim: The aim of our study was to investigate the hand hygiene practice among the intensive care unit healthcare workers by immediate feedback system implementation and compliance study. Method: A 3-week-long observational study was conducted at the Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Therapy, Semmelweis University, during November and December, 2018. Data regarding hand hygiene technique were collected by using the Semmelweis Scanner technology, while compliance data were recorded by direct observations. Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal-Wallis test, Fisher's exact test and χ2-test. Results: 604 measurements were recorded by the electronic system. Hand disinfection was appropriate in 86.5% of cases. The median value of coverage was 99.87%. The trend of these indices showed persistently high values. A lower error rate was observed in the physiotherapy group compared to others (doctors: p<0.01, nurses: p = 0.03, assistant nurses: p = 0.03). 162 opportunities were recorded during direct observations. The mean compliance rate was 60.49%, with the lowest among doctors (53.97%). The difference was non-significant compared to nurses (62.92%, p = 0.26). Conclusions: Hand hygiene technique during the study period was found to be highly and permanently appropriate, while compliance was lower than expected. The immediate feedback system may be useful in achieving appropriate hand disinfection technique, although further interventions are needed for higher compliance rates. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(49): 1957-1962.


Assuntos
Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Higiene das Mãos , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Humanos
11.
Infez Med ; 27(4): 374-379, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846986

RESUMO

Cell phones are one of the most important and indispensable accessories for professional and social life. Cell phones used by healthcare workers are highly contaminated by microorganisms. The objective of the study was to ascertain the presence of bacterial resistance type Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase [ESBL] and its related factors in cultures isolated from cell phones of medical students. A quantitative, observational, analytical and transversal study was carried out in students of the Faculty of Medicine of the Universidad Nacional Hermilio Valdizán in Huánuco, Peru. The relationship was sought between the frequency of attendance at hospital practices, cell phone disinfection and hand washing after contact with patients with the presence of ESBL-type bacterial resistance. Of the total sample, 95% of students presented positive culture to Gram-negative bacteria, 30% carried out the disinfection of their cell phone and only 5% of the students performed hand-washing in an appropriate manner. In the bivariate analysis, a statistical association was found between cell phone disinfection and the presence of ESBL-type bacterial resistance [p <0.05]. Cell phone disinfection is related to the reduction of ESBL-type resistance, highlighting the need for disinfection of cell phones after performing hospital practices.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Telefone Celular , Desinfecção/normas , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Fômites/microbiologia , Estudantes de Medicina , Adulto , Bactérias/enzimologia , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Peru , Adulto Jovem , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
12.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226548, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor water sanitation and hygiene (WASH) in health care facilities increases hospital-associated infections, and the resulting greater use of second-line antibiotics drives antimicrobial resistance. Recognising the existing gaps, the World Health Organisations' Water and Sanitation for Health Facility Improvement Tool (WASH-FIT) was designed for self-assessment. The tool was designed for small primary care facilities mainly providing outpatient and limited inpatient care and was not designed to compare hospital performance. Together with technical experts, we worked to adapt the tool for use in larger facilities with multiple inpatient units (wards), allowing for comparison between facilities and prompt action at different levels of the health system. METHODS: We adapted the existing facility improvement tool (WASH-FIT) to create a simple numeric scoring approach. This is to illustrate the variation across hospitals and to facilitate monitoring of progress over time and to group indicators that can be used to identify this variation. Working with stakeholders, we identified those responsible for action to improve WASH at different levels of the health system and used piloting, analysis of interview data to establish the feasibility and potential value of the WASH Facility Survey Tool (WASH-FAST) to demonstrate such variability. RESULTS: We present an aggregate percentage score based on 65 indicators at the facility level to summarise hospitals' overall WASH status and how this varies. Thirty-four of the 65 indicators spanning four WASH domains can be assessed at ward level enabling within hospital variations to be highlighted. Three levels of responsibility for WASH service monitoring and improvement were identified with stakeholders: the county/regional level, senior hospital management and hospital infection prevention and control committees. CONCLUSION: We propose WASH-FAST can be used as a survey tool to assess, measure and monitor the progress of WASH in hospitals in resource-limited settings, providing useful data for decision making and tracking improvements over time.


Assuntos
Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Saneamento/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Purificação da Água/normas , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Viabilidade , Saúde Global , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/normas , Hospitais , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade , Saneamento/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Purificação da Água/métodos , Abastecimento de Água/normas
13.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 23(6): 467-471, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751943

RESUMO

Selecting an appropriate sanitizer (i.e., "rub") for application to hands and gloves before and, if necessary, during sterile compounding is as important as is its consistent and judicious use. Alcohols and chlorhexidine gluconate, which have long been recognized as safe and powerful biocides, are often essential ingredients in such sanitizing products. In this second article in a 2-part series on alcohol-based hand and glove sanitizers, we review the selection of and need for those rubs in sterile compounding, present considerations for their safe storage, compare the features of several appropriate sanitizing agents, and answer compounders' frequently asked questions about their use. Glove sanitizing is discussed as part of the hand-sanitizing process. In part 1 of this series, we explained, among other topics, the mechanism of action and composition of alcohol-based sanitizers and presented a protocol for their application to hands and gloves.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Luvas Protetoras , Desinfecção das Mãos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Mãos , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Humanos , Controle de Qualidade
14.
Anesth Analg ; 129(6): e182-e184, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743176

RESUMO

Anesthesia providers have the burden of constant hand hygiene during task dense periods. The requirement for hand hygiene often demands frequent application of alcohol-based hand rub. To assess whether frequent alcohol-based hand rub use leads to skin changes or irritant contact dermatitis, volunteers cleaned their hands with alcohol-based hand rub every 15 minutes for 8 hours for 5 sequential days. They were examined by a dermatologist before and after and asked about subjective skin changes. Results suggest an increase in irritant contact dermatitis scores and subjective complaints.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas/normas , Dermatite de Contato/etiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/etiologia , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Higienizadores de Mão/efeitos adversos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Dermatite de Contato/diagnóstico , Dermatite Ocupacional/diagnóstico , Humanos , Salas Cirúrgicas/normas , Distribuição Aleatória , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Organização Mundial da Saúde
15.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 647, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590689

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the effect of awareness of subtle control after training on the hand hygiene compliance among nurses in intensive care units (ICUs). The study was conducted in two ICUs of a trauma center in Shiraz, Iran on 48 nurses. The nurses of one ICU were randomly allocated to the intervention and the nurses of the other ICU were allocated to the control group. All nurses were trained on hand hygiene. Then a fake closed camera television (CCTV) was visibly installed in the intervention group's ICU, while the nurses were aware of it. The degree of compliance with hand hygiene was observed in both groups before and after the intervention. Data were gathered using a checklist based on the World Health Organization hand hygiene protocol and analyzed using SPSS 16 and the Chi square, Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney U, and Independent T-tests, were performed. RESULTS: The mean percentage of hand hygiene compliance in the intervention group after the intervention was significantly higher than before the intervention (p < 0.001). Additionally, the changes in the mean percentage of the intervention group was significantly higher than that for the control group (p = 0.001). The findings showed that a fake CCTV after training, installed in ICUs, can improve hand hygiene compliance.


Assuntos
Higiene das Mãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Lista de Checagem/normas , Lista de Checagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Irã (Geográfico) , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/normas
16.
mSphere ; 4(5)2019 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533996

RESUMO

Both antiseptic hand rubbing (AHR) using ethanol-based disinfectants (EBDs) and antiseptic hand washing (AHW) are important means of infection control to prevent seasonal influenza A virus (IAV) outbreaks. However, previous reports suggest a reduced efficacy of ethanol disinfection against pathogens in mucus. We aimed to elucidate the situations and mechanisms underlying the reduced efficacy of EBDs against IAV in infectious mucus. We evaluated IAV inactivation and ethanol concentration change using IAV-infected patients' mucus (sputum). Additionally, AHR and AHW effectiveness against infectious mucus adhering to the hands and fingers was evaluated in 10 volunteers. Our clinical study showed that EBD effectiveness against IAV in mucus was extremely reduced compared to IAV in saline. IAV in mucus remained active despite 120 s of AHR; however, IAV in saline was completely inactivated within 30 s. Due to the low rate of diffusion/convection because of the physical properties of mucus as a hydrogel, the time required for the ethanol concentration to reach an IAV inactivation level and thus for EBDs to completely inactivate IAV was approximately eight times longer in mucus than in saline. On the other hand, AHR inactivated IAV in mucus within 30 s when the mucus dried completely because the hydrogel characteristics were lost. Additionally, AHW rapidly inactivated IAV. Until infectious mucus has completely dried, infectious IAV can remain on the hands and fingers, even after appropriate AHR using EBD, thereby increasing the risk of IAV transmission. We clarified the ineffectiveness of EBD use against IAV in infectious mucus.IMPORTANCE Antiseptic hand rubbing (AHR) and antiseptic hand washing (AHW) are important to prevent the spread of influenza A virus (IAV). This study elucidated the situations/mechanisms underlying the reduced efficacy of AHR against infectious mucus derived from IAV-infected individuals and indicated the weaknesses of the current hand hygiene regimens. Due to the low rate of diffusion/convection because of the physical properties of mucus as a hydrogel, the efficacy of AHR using ethanol-based disinfectant against mucus is greatly reduced until infectious mucus adhering to the hands/fingers has completely dried. If there is insufficient time before treating the next patient (i.e., if the infectious mucus is not completely dry), medical staff should be aware that effectiveness of AHR is reduced. Since AHW is effective against both dry and nondry infectious mucus, AHW should be adopted to compensate for these weaknesses of AHR.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Muco/virologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Viabilidade Microbiana , Muco/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia
17.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 567, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511045

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to assess enteropathogens carriage rate and risk factors among apparently healthy food handlers at Wolkite University cafeteria, Southern Ethiopia. RESULTS: Cross-sectional study was conducted among 170 food handlers to collect socio-demographic and related data by using structured questionnaires. Stool samples were collected and subjected to microscopic examination and cultured to determine intestinal parasites. Among the total study participants, 66% of them were found to be carriers of enteropathogens: bacteria (Salmonella typhi, Shigella species), and intestinal parasites (Ascaris lumbricoides,Taenia species, Giardia lamblia, Entameoba histolytica/dispar, Enterobius vermicularis, Hook worm and Trichuris trichiura). All Salmonella and Shigella isolates were sensitive to ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin. A significant association was found between hand washing practice before food preparation and isolated pathogens [p = 0.013]. A significant proportion of food handlers were found to be carriers of pathogens which require a periodic screening and antibiotic therapy monitoring.


Assuntos
Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Manipulação de Alimentos/normas , Serviços de Alimentação/normas , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Universidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Alimentação/estatística & dados numéricos , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 478, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375135

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Absence of latrine remains a common public health problem in most of the Sub-Saharan Africa countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the effect of community-led total sanitation and hygiene approach implementation and associated factors among villages of Laelai Maichew District, Tigray, and North Ethiopia. RESULTS: This study revealed that the rate of latrine use in the rural community of Laelai-Maichew district was about 46.8%. The majority, 71.1% of households in CLTSH implemented Villages and 93.5% of households in CLTSH non-implemented Villages did not have hand washing facility around their latrine. Community-led to total sanitation and hygiene non-implemented villages were 49% times less likely to utilize their latrine compared to those community-led total sanitation implemented villages [AOR = 0.51 95% CI (0.35, 0.75)]. Households owned latrines for two and above years were 1.5 more likely to utilize their latrine [AOR = 1.50 95% CI (1.21, 2.59)] than those of owning latrines for less than 2 years. In this study, latrine use rate was low. As a result, the local, national governmental and non-governmental organization should design programs to create behavioral changes on the community's attitude towards latrine utilization.


Assuntos
Higiene/normas , Saúde Pública/normas , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Saneamento/normas , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Saneamento/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Toaletes/normas , Toaletes/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 547, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective hand hygiene is one of the most important measures for protecting nursing home residents from nosocomial infections. Infections with multi-resistant bacteria's, associated with healthcare, is a known problem. The nursing home setting differs from other healthcare environments in individual and organisational factors such as knowledge, behaviour, and attitude to improve hand hygiene and it is therefore difficult to research the influential factors to improve hand hygiene. Studies have shown that increasing knowledge, behaviour and attitudes could enhance hand hygiene compliance in nursing homes. Therefore, it may be important to examine individual and organisational factors that foster improvement of these factors in hand hygiene. We aim to explore these influences of individual and organisational factors of hand hygiene in nursing home staff, with a particular focus on the function of role modelling by nursing managers. METHODS: We conducted a mixed-methods study surveying 165 nurses and interviewing 27 nursing managers from nursing homes in Germany. RESULTS: Most nurses and nursing managers held the knowledge of effective hand hygiene procedures. Hygiene standards and equipment were all generally available but compliance to standards also depended upon availability in the immediate work area and role modelling. Despite a general awareness of the impact of leadership on staff behaviour, not all nursing managers fully appreciated the impact of their own consistent role modelling regarding hand hygiene behaviours. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that improving hand hygiene should focus on strategies that facilitate the provision of hand disinfectant materials in the immediate work area of nurses. In addition, nursing managers should be made aware of the impact of their role model function and they should implement this in daily practice.


Assuntos
Higiene das Mãos/normas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Competência Clínica/normas , Infecção Hospitalar/enfermagem , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Humanos , Liderança , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras Administradoras/normas , Casas de Saúde/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311186

RESUMO

Nearly 90% of diarrhea-related mortalities are the result of unsafe drinking water, poor sanitation, and insufficient hygiene. Although "Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene" (WASH) interventions may significantly reduce the risk of diarrheal disease, it is currently unclear which interventions are the most effective. In this study, we aim to determine the importance of contextualizing a WASH intervention to the local context and the needs for increasing impact (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT03709368). A total of 1500 households in rural Tanzania will participate in this cluster randomized controlled trial. Households will be randomized into one of three cohorts: (1) a control group receiving a basic intervention and 1 placebo household visit, (2) an intervention group receiving a basic intervention + 9 additional household visits which are contextualized to the setting using the RANAS approach, and (3) an intervention group receiving a basic intervention + 9 additional household visits, which are not contextualized, i.e., a general intervention. Assessments will take place at a baseline, 1 and 2 years after the start of the intervention, and 1 year after the completion of the intervention. Measurements involve questionnaires and spot checks. The primary outcome is hand-washing behavior, secondary objectives include, the impact on latrine use, health, WASH infrastructure, quality of life, and cost-effectiveness.


Assuntos
Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Saúde da População Rural , Saneamento/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos Clínicos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Serviços de Saúde Rural/normas , Saneamento/normas , Método Simples-Cego , Tanzânia , Adulto Jovem
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