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1.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 17(1): 1845-1852, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317763

RESUMO

Pharmacies have been practicing innovative infection control measures during COVID-19. This article seeks to explore the current activities undertaken across various community pharmacy settings in relation to the safety of the workplace environment for staff and patients. METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted in Australia during the COVID-19 outbreak from 1st to 30th April 2020, addressing community pharmacist's awareness and response to infection and sanitation control. RESULTS: A total of 137 pharmacists took part in the survey. Regular cleaning took place in the pharmacy, but the use of gloves while cleaning was not regularly practice (48.18%). In addition, only 46.72% of respondents reported observing script baskets being cleaned and disinfected. About one-third (37.96%) of pharmacists were aware of the two-step cleaning and disinfecting process, with only 18.98% of pharmacist practicing such cleaning procedures. More than half of surveyed pharmacists reported having difficulty keeping up with pharmacy practice and infection control guidelines during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that the majority of pharmacists are not fully aware of the proper infection control measures needed in a community pharmacy setting. Pharmacists must play a bigger role in infection control measures to ensure staff and public health safety.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Desinfecção/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Farmacêuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Papel Profissional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
Chemosphere ; 263: 127954, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854008

RESUMO

Chlorine disinfection is required to inactivate pathogens in drinking water, but it inevitably generates potentially toxic halogenated disinfection byproducts (halo-DBPs). A previous study has reported that the addition of ascorbate to tap water before boiling could significantly decrease the concentration of overall halo-DBPs in the boiled water. Since the fruit lemon is rich in vitamin C (i.e., ascorbic acid), adding it to tap water followed by heating and boiling in an effort to decrease levels of halo-DBPs was investigated in this study. We examined three approaches that produce lemon water: (i) adding lemon to tap water at room temperature, termed "Lemon"; (ii) adding lemon to boiled tap water (at 100 °C) and then cooling to room temperature, termed "Boiling + Lemon"; and (iii) adding lemon to tap water then boiling and cooling to room temperature, termed "Lemon + Boiling". The concentrations of total and individual halo-DBPs in the resultant water samples were quantified with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and the cytotoxicity of DBP mixtures extracted from the water samples was evaluated using human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells and hepatoma HepG2 cells. Our results show that the "Lemon + Boiling" approach substantially decreased the concentrations of halo-DBPs and the cytotoxicity of tap water. This strategy could be applied to control halo-DBPs, as well as to lower the adverse health effects of halo-DBPs on humans through tap water ingestion.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/química , Desinfecção/métodos , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Células CACO-2 , Cloro/análise , Desinfetantes/química , Água Potável/química , Halogenação , Humanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos
4.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(49): e432, 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350188

RESUMO

Hospitals need to find a safe and rapid method for respiratory specimen collection as the number of patients suspicious for coronavirus disease -2019 (COVID-19) rapidly grows. Applied with significant infection control and prevention measures, a respiratory specimen collection booth was newly designed. The new respiratory specimen collection booth not only increased COVID-19 testing cases but also decreased personal protective equipment consumption.


Assuntos
/instrumentação , /diagnóstico , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Manejo de Espécimes/instrumentação , /epidemiologia , Desinfecção/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Hospitais , Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos
5.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 49(10): 764-778, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283840

RESUMO

As of 27 October 2020, there have been 57,980 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Singapore, with 28 fatalities. To summarise the Singapore experience in managing and containing COVID-19 based on available published data and from relevant sources, a review of literature using research databases such as PubMed and OVID Medline, along with non-peer-reviewed articles and other sources, was conducted with the search terms 'COVID-19' and 'Singapore'. Research conducted in Singapore has provided insight into the clinical manifestations and period of infectivity of COVID-19, demonstrated evidence of pre-symptomatic transmission, linked infection clusters using serological tools, and highlighted aspects of hospital-based environmental contamination. It has also provided guidance for diagnostic testing and has described immune and virologic correlates with disease severity. Evidence of effectiveness of containment measures such as early border control, rigorous contact training, and calibrated social distancing measures have also been demonstrated. Singapore's multipronged strategy has been largely successful at containing COVID-19 and minimising fatalities, but the risk of re-emergence is high.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , /fisiopatologia , /terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Busca de Comunicante , Desinfecção/métodos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Respiração Artificial , Medição de Risco , Singapura/epidemiologia , Ventilação/métodos , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 550, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276806

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess self-reported hygiene precautions taken by U.S. adults during spring 2020 to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to identify demographic characteristics associated with these hygiene precautions. RESULTS: We obtained data from Porter Novelli Public Services's national survey, Spring ConsumerStyles, conducted March 19-April 9, 2020 among a nationally representative random sample of 6463 U.S. adults aged 18 years or older. We present data from the survey question: "What, if any, precautions are you taking to prevent coronavirus?". Respondents replied yes or no to the following precautions: washing hands often with soap and water and disinfecting surfaces at home and work often. Most respondents reported taking hygiene-related precautions to prevent COVID-19; more respondents reported handwashing (93%) than disinfecting surfaces (74%). Men, younger respondents, those with lower income and education levels, and respondents in self-rated poor health had lower reported rates of both handwashing and disinfecting surfaces. Communications about hygiene precautions for COVID-19 prevention may need to target sub-populations with the greatest gaps in hygiene-related practices. Research identifying barriers to these practices and developing effective messaging could inform and improve these communications.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção , Desinfecção das Mãos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Desinfecção/métodos , Desinfecção/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242474, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is global shortage of Personal Protective Equipment due to COVID-19 pandemic. N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirators (N95-FFRs) provide respiratory protection against respiratory pathogens including SARS-CoV-2. There is scant literature on reprocessing methods which can enable reuse of N95-FFRs. AIM: We conducted this study to evaluate research done, prior to COVID-19 pandemic, on various decontamination methods for reprocessing of N95-FFRs. METHODS: We searched 5 electronic databases (Pubmed, Google Scholar, Crossref, Ovid, ScienceDirect) and 1 Grey literature database (OpenGrey). We included original studies, published prior to year 2020, which had evaluated any decontamination method on FFRs. Studies had evaluated a reprocessing method against parameters namely physical changes, user acceptability, respirator fit, filter efficiency, microbicidal efficacy and presence of chemical residues post-reprocessing. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found 7887 records amongst which 17 original research articles were finally included for qualitative analysis. Overall, 21 different types of decontamination or reprocessing methods for N95-FFRs were evaluated. Most commonly evaluated method for reprocessing of FFRs was Ultraviolet (Type-C) irradiation (UVGI) which was evaluated in 13/17 (76%) studies. We found published literature was scant on this topic despite warning signs of pandemic of a respiratory illness over the years. Promising technologies requiring expeditious evaluation are UVGI, Microwave generated steam (MGS) and based on Hydrogen peroxide vapor. Global presence of technologies, which have been given Emergency use authorisation for N95-FFR reprocessing, is extremely limited. Reprocessing of N95-FFRs by MGS should be considered for emergency implementation in resource limited settings to tackle shortage of N95-FFRs. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW IDENTIFIER: PROSPERO, PROSPERO ID: CRD42020189684, (https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42020189684).


Assuntos
Descontaminação/métodos , Desinfecção/métodos , Reutilização de Equipamento , Máscaras , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Segurança de Equipamentos , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Micro-Ondas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vapor , Raios Ultravioleta
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(21)2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138092

RESUMO

Since its beginning at the end of 2019, the pandemic spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2) caused more than one million deaths in only nine months. The threat of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases exists as an imminent threat to human health. It is essential to implement adequate hygiene best practices to break the contagion chain and enhance society preparedness for such critical scenarios and understand the relevance of each disease transmission route. As the unconscious hand-face contact gesture constitutes a potential pathway of contagion, in this paper, the authors present a prototype system based on low-cost depth sensors able to monitor in real-time the attitude towards such a habit. The system records people's behavior to enhance their awareness by providing real-time warnings, providing for statistical reports for designing proper hygiene solutions, and better understanding the role of such route of contagion. A preliminary validation study measured an overall accuracy of 91%. A Cohen's Kappa equal to 0.876 supports rejecting the hypothesis that such accuracy is accidental. Low-cost body tracking technologies can effectively support monitoring compliance with hygiene best practices and training people in real-time. By collecting data and analyzing them with respect to people categories and contagion statistics, it could be possible to understand the importance of this contagion pathway and identify for which people category such a behavioral attitude constitutes a significant risk.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Algoritmos , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Desinfecção/economia , Desinfecção/métodos , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/economia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/instrumentação , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
11.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 61(3): E301-E303, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150218

RESUMO

The new SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 emergency has imposed new disinfection and sanitation measures of work environments also to beauty and health professional workers and in this context ozone shows growing interest. Ozone has proven to be highly effective in killing bacteria, fungi, and molds and inactivating viruses both on the surfaces and suspended in the air. Ozone is proven to be effective also for the inactivation of the SARS virus, while for the novel SARS-CoV-2 it is supposed that it be equally effective but specific studies are needed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção/métodos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Ozônio/química , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Raios Ultravioleta
12.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 138(6): 505-514, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Faced with a pandemic, all healthcare actions need to reflect best practices, in order to avoid high transmissibility, complications and even hospitalizations. For hospital environments, the products recommended and authorized by regulatory institutions for environmental cleaning and disinfection need to be highly effective. OBJECTIVE: To identify, systematically evaluate and summarize the best available scientific evidence on environmental cleaning to prevent COVID-19 infection. DESIGN AND SETTING: A systematic review of studies analyzing cleaning products that inactivate coronavirus, conducted within the evidence-based health program of a federal university in São Paulo (SP), Brazil. METHODS: A systematic search of the relevant literature was conducted in the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and LILACS databases, for articles published up to May 27, 2020, relating to studies evaluating cleaning products that inactivate coronavirus in the environment. RESULTS: Seven studies were selected. These analyzed use of 70% alcohol, detergent, detergent containing iodine, household bleach, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, chlorine dioxide, glutaraldehyde, ultraviolet irradiation and plasma air purifier. The effectiveness of treating sewage with sodium hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide was also evaluated. CONCLUSION: Disinfection of environments, especially those in ordinary use, such as bathrooms, needs to be done constantly. Viral inactivation was achieved using chlorine-based disinfectants, alcohol, detergents, glutaraldehyde, iodine-containing detergents, hydrogen peroxide compounds and household bleaches. Alcohol showed efficient immediate activity. In sewage, sodium hypochlorite had better action than chlorine dioxide. REGISTRATION NUMBER: DOI: 10.17605/OSF.IO/YC5P4 in the Open Science Framework.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção/métodos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Brasil , Desinfetantes , Humanos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242495, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201932

RESUMO

Pork is one of the most globally eaten meats and the pig production chain contributes significantly to the water footprint of livestock production. However, very little knowledge is available about the on-farm factors that influence freshwater use in the pig production chain. An experiment was conducted to quantify the effect of three different washing treatments on freshwater use, bacterial levels [(total bacterial counts; TBC), Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus] and cleaning time in washing of pens for weaning pigs. Three weaner rooms were selected with each room having 10 pens and a capacity to hold up to 14 pigs each. Pigs were weaned and kept in the pens for 7 weeks. Finally, the pens were cleaned before the next batch of pigs moved in. The washing treatments used were power washing and disinfection (WASH); presoaking followed by power washing and disinfection (SOAK), and presoaking followed by detergent, power washing and disinfection (SOAK + DETER). A water meter was used to collect water use data and swab samples were taken to determine the bacterial levels. The results showed that there was no overall effect of washing treatments on water use. However, there was an effect of treatment on the washing time (p<0.01) with SOAK and SOAK+DETER reducing the washing time per pen by 2.3 minutes (14%) and 4.2 minutes (27%) compared to WASH. Nonetheless, there was an effect of sampling time (before or after washing) (p<0.001) on the levels of TBC and Staphylococcus, but no effect was seen on Enterobacteriaceae levels. Thus, the washing treatments used in this study had no effect on the water use of the pork production chain. Although there was no difference in both water use and bacterial load, from a producer perspective, presoaking and detergent use can save time and labour costs, so this would be the preferred option.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Desinfecção/métodos , Água/análise , Animais , Bactérias , Carga Bacteriana/genética , Carga Bacteriana/métodos , Enterobacteriaceae , Fazendas , Abrigo para Animais , Higiene , Carne , Suínos , Microbiologia da Água , Desmame
14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 8896812, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33145359

RESUMO

Background: The control of biological hazard risk in health care and dental clinic environments represents a critical point in relation to the Covid-19 infection outbreak and international public health emergency. The purpose of the present review was to evaluate the scientific literature on the no-touch disinfection procedures in dental clinics aiming to limit transmission via airborne particles or fomites using no-touch procedures for environmental decontamination of dental clinics. Methods: An electronic database literature search was performed to retrieve research papers about Covid-19 and no-touch disinfection topics including full-length articles, editorials, commentaries, and outbreak studies. A total of 86 papers were retrieved by the electronic research. Results: No clinical article about the decontamination of a dental clinic during the Covid-19 pandemic was detected. About the topic of hospital decontamination, we found different no-touch disinfection procedures used in hospital against highly resistant organisms, but no data were found in the search for such procedures with respect to SARS-CoV-2: (1) aerosolized hydrogen peroxide, (2) H2O2 vapor, (3) ultraviolet C light, (4) pulsed xenon, and (5) gaseous ozone. One paper was retrieved concerning SARS-CoV-2; 32 documents focused on SARS and MERS. The cleaning and disinfection protocol of health care and dental clinic environment surfaces are essential elements of infection prevention programs, especially during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Conclusion: The decontamination technique that best suits the needs of the dental clinic is peroxide and hypochlorous which can be sprayed via a device at high turbine speed with the ability of producing small aerosol particles, recommendable also for their low cost.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Descontaminação/métodos , Clínicas Odontológicas/métodos , Desinfecção/métodos , Aerossóis , Bases de Dados Factuais , Clínicas Odontológicas/normas , Desinfecção/normas , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Raios Ultravioleta , Xenônio
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19659, 2020 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184316

RESUMO

There are increased risks of contracting COVID-19 in hospitals and long-term care facilities, particularly for vulnerable groups. In these environments aerosolised coronavirus released through breathing increases the chance of spreading the disease. To reduce aerosol transmissions, the use of low dose far-UVC lighting to disinfect in-room air has been proposed. Unlike typical UVC, which has been used to kill microorganisms for decades but is carcinogenic and cataractogenic, recent evidence has shown that far-UVC is safe to use around humans. A high-fidelity, fully-coupled radiation transport and fluid dynamics model has been developed to quantify disinfection rates within a typical ventilated room. The model shows that disinfection rates are increased by a further 50-85% when using far-UVC within currently recommended exposure levels compared to the room's  ventilation alone. With these magnitudes of reduction, far-UVC lighting could be employed to mitigate SARS-CoV-2 transmission before the onset of future waves, or the start of winter when risks of infection are higher. This is particularly significant in poorly-ventilated spaces where other means of reduction are not practical, in addition social distancing can be reduced without increasing the risk.


Assuntos
/transmissão , Desinfecção/métodos , Raios Ultravioleta , Ar Condicionado , Desinfecção/normas , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Ventilação
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37: 63, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33244326

RESUMO

Introduction: the coronavirus disease COVID-19 pandemic has affected the way we live. The use of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) has been reported to be effective in controlling similar respiratory diseases outbreak in the past and is being used as one of the mainstays of control of the pandemic. We therefore assessed the knowledge and practice of preventive measures against COVID-19 among adults in Enugu metropolis during the outbreak in the State. Methods: we conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study among 320 adults who were recruited through a multistage sampling technique. We used semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire to collect information on the knowledge and preventive practices against COVID-19. The data were analyzed using the IBM-SPSS version 25. Results: the mean age of the participants was 41.6±12.5 years. There were 168 (52.5%) male, 69.7% had attained tertiary education and 57.8% were self-employed. Overall, 256 (80.0%) of the respondents had good knowledge about COVID-19. Only 133 (41.6%) had good practice of preventive measures among respondents. The more commonly practiced NPIs among the respondents were use of alcohol hand sanitizer (86.6%), physical distancing (85.6%), washing of hands with soap and water (81.6%) and disinfecting frequently touched surfaces (80.9%). The NPIs the respondents practiced poorly were use of face mask (33.8%) and avoidance of crowded areas (47.2%). Having good knowledge (aOR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.65 - 6.05) and attaining secondary education or less (aOR: 2; 95%CI: 10-3.13) were the only predictors of good practice of preventive measures. Conclusion: the highly educated segment of the population needs to be targeted with appropriate messages to improve their adoption of the right preventive measures against COVID-19.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Aglomeração , Desinfetantes/administração & dosagem , Desinfecção/métodos , Escolaridade , Características da Família , Feminino , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde
17.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 167, 2020 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121538

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We performed an environmental sampling study to investigate the environmental contamination of SARS-CoV-2 by COVID-19 patients with prolonged PCR positive status of clinical samples. METHODS: We sampled the air from rooms for nine COVID-19 patients with illness or positive PCR > 30 days, before and after nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabbing and before and after nebulization treatment. We also sampled patients' surroundings and healthcare workers' personal protection equipment (PPE) in a non-ICU ward. SARS-CoV-2 was detected by PCR. RESULTS: Eighty-eight samples were collected from high-touch surfaces and floors in patient rooms and toilets, with only the bedsheets of two patients and one toilet positive for SARS-CoV-2. All air samples (n = 34) were negative for SARS-CoV-2. Fifty-five samples collected from PPE were all negative. CONCLUSION: Contamination of near-patient surroundings was uncommon for COVID-19 patients with prolonged PCR positive status if environmental cleaning/disinfection were performed rigorously. Airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was unlikely in these non-ICU settings.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Desinfecção/métodos , Microbiologia Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Quartos de Pacientes , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação
18.
J Appl Behav Anal ; 53(4): 1935-1954, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063854

RESUMO

The coronavirus pandemic highlighted that workplaces may serve as a hub of disease transmission if proper precautions are not enacted. The Centers for Disease Control recommends several strategies for decreasing the spread of illnesses in the workplace, including a) promoting proper hand hygiene, b) cleaning and sanitizing the work area, c) encouraging sick employees to stay home, d) personal protective equipment, and, e) social distancing. Research suggests that instructions are often not sufficient to change work behaviors, and behavioral interventions may be needed. Thus, the present paper reviews existing research that informs the implementation of behavioral strategies to reduce the spread of disease in the workplace, and makes recommendations for organizations to protect employees, clients, and customers. Intervention components such as training, prompts, the reduction of response effort, clear workplace policies, feedback, and consequences are discussed, and practical recommendations and suggestions for future research are provided.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Local de Trabalho , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Desinfecção/métodos , Higiene das Mãos , Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Licença Médica , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(6): 2357-2367, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124537

RESUMO

The outbreak of COVID-19 quickly spread to 184 countries and regions around the world. It has drawn great attention from the WHO and was declared an international public health emergency on January 31, 2020. Because the population is generally susceptible to the virus, there are no effective drugs and vaccines, and active participation of the entire population in self-protection and self-isolation has become the key to cutting off transmission routes and effectively controlling the epidemic. A self-designed questionnaire to assess residents' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to COVID-19 prevention and control used the Questionnaire Star service platform, and snowball sampling was used to invite rural residents to complete the questionnaire on WeChat. A total of 554 valid questionnaires were collected. Rural residents' average scores on knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding prevention and control were 40 ± 7 (total of 50 points), 45 ± 3 (total of 52 points), and 92 ± 12 (total of 127 points), respectively. A lack of protective materials and weak awareness of prevention and control are the greatest difficulties and challenges experienced by rural residents during the epidemic. Accordingly, social support services, such as public transportation plans, supply chains for living materials, and orderly returns to work, need to be strengthened. Moreover, new infectious disease control is not only a task for individuals but also a global issue. It is of great significance to guarantee information transparency and enhance health risk communication.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias , /patogenicidade , Adulto , /transmissão , China/epidemiologia , Desinfecção/métodos , Feminino , Comunicação em Saúde , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Quarentena/métodos , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Neurodiagn J ; 60(3): 195-207, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006508

RESUMO

Since 1995, ASET has periodically published updates to recommendations for best practices in infection prevention for Neurodiagnostic technologists. The latest installment was accepted in December 2019 for publication in Volume 60, Issue 1, before we had much knowledge or understanding about the SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. This Technical Tips article is presented as an addendum to the 2020 update and includes important information about infection prevention measures specific to procedure protocols when working with patients positive or under investigation for a highly infectious disease, and when working with patients in general during the current pandemic. All Neurodiagnostic technologists who have direct patient care are responsible for ensuring the use of best practices to prevent the spread of infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Neurológico/instrumentação , Desinfecção/métodos , Eletroencefalografia/instrumentação , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Humanos , Polissonografia/instrumentação , Polissonografia/métodos
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