Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 15.605
Filtrar
1.
Notas enferm. (Córdoba) ; 25(43): 17-23, jun.2024.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, UNISALUD, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1561178

RESUMO

Determinar el nivel de conocimiento de los estudiantes de enfermería de la Universidad Técnica de Ambato sobre la desinfección terminal del área quirúrgica. Metodología: Esta investigación es cuantitativa, con enfoque descriptivo de cohorte transversal ya que el nivel de conocimiento se ha representado mediante tablas y gráficos para describir la problemática del periodo octubre 2023-febrero 2024. Resultados: Se evidencia el alto porcentaje de respuestas incorrectas por cada ítem por parte de los estudiantes. La categoría desinfección fue respondida de manera incorrecta con un porcentaje del 26%, la categoría proceso de desinfección con el 55,6%, la categoría aplicación del DAN con el 45.8%, la categoría desinfectante del DAN con el 36,2% y, por último, la categoría riesgo y prevención del DAN con el 29,2%. Conclusiones: El nivel de conocimiento de los estudiantes sobre desinfección es bajo, porque no están lo suficientemente motivados o interesados en el tema de desinfección[AU]


Determine the level of knowledge of nursing students at the Technical University of Ambato about terminal disinfection of the surgical area.Methodology:This research is quantitative, with a descriptive cross-sectional cohort approach and the level of knowledge has been represented through tables and graphs to describe the problems of the period October 2023-February 2024.Results:A high percentage of incorrect answers for each item by the students is evident. The disinfection category was answered incorrectly with a percentage of 26%, the disinfection process category with 55.6%, the DAN application category with 45.8%, the disinfectant category with 36.2% and, finally, the DAN risk and prevention category. with 29.2%. Conclusions:The level of knowledge of students about disinfection is low, because they are not sufficiently motivated or interested in the topic of disinfection[AU]


Determinar o nível de conhecimento dos estudantes de enfermagem da Universidade Técnica de Ambato sobre desinfecção terminal da área cirúrgica. Metodologia:Esta pesquisa é quantitativa, com abordagem descritiva de coorte transversal e o nível de conhecimento foi representado por meio de tabelas e gráficos para descrever os problemas do período outubro de 2023 a fevereiro de 2024.Resultados: Evidencia-se um alto percentual de respostas incorretas para cada item por parte dos alunos. A categoria desinfecção foi respondida incorretamente com um percentual de 26%, a categoria processo de desinfecção com 55,6%, a categoria aplicação DAN com 45,8%, a categoria desinfetante com 36,2% e, por último, a categoria risco e prevenção DAN. com 29,2%.Conclusões:O nível de conhecimento dos alunos sobre desinfecção é baixo, porque não estão suficientemente motivados ou interessados no tema da desinfecção[AU]


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Salas Cirúrgicas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Controle de Infecções , Desinfetantes
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(13)2024 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39000264

RESUMO

Selecting the appropriate disinfectant to control and prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) is a challenging task for environmental health experts due to the large number of available disinfectant products. This study aimed to develop a label-free flow cytometry (FCM) method for the rapid evaluation of bactericidal activity and to compare its efficacy with that of standard qualitative/quantitative suspension tests. The bactericidal efficiency of eight commercial disinfectants containing quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) was evaluated against four strains recommended by EN 13727 (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus hirae) and four multidrug-resistant pathogens. The proposed FCM protocol measures changes in scattered light and counts following disinfectant exposure, neutralization, and culture steps. Unlike other available FCM-based methods, this approach does not rely on autofluorescence measurements, impedance cytometry, or fluorescent dyes. The FCM scattered light signals revealed both decreased count rates and morphological changes after treatment with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and higher concentrations for all tested bacteria. The results from the FCM measurements showed excellent correlation with those from standard assays, providing a rapid tool for monitoring the susceptibility profile of clinical, multidrug-resistant pathogens to chemical disinfectants, which could support infection prevention and control procedures for healthcare environments. This label-free FCM protocol offers a novel and rapid tool for environmental health experts, aiding in the optimization of disinfectant selection for the prevention and control of HAIs.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Citometria de Fluxo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/farmacologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(13)2024 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39000304

RESUMO

This publication presents the effect of hypochlorous acid dry mist as a disinfectant on selected bacteria, viruses, spores, and fungi as well as on portable Microlife OXY 300 finger pulse oximeters and electronic systems of Raspberry Pi Zero microcomputers. The impact of hypochlorous acid on microbiological agents was assessed at concentrations of 300, 500, and 2000 ppm of HClO according to PN-EN 17272 (Variant I). Studies of the impact of hypochlorous acid fog on electronic components were carried out in an aerosol chamber at concentrations of 500 ppm and 2000 ppm according to two models consisting of 30 (Variant II) and 90 fogging cycles (Variant III). Each cycle included the process of generating a dry mist of hypochlorous acid (25 mL/m3), decontamination of the test elements, as well as cleaning the chamber of the disinfectant agent. The exposure of the materials examined on hypochlorous acid dry mist in all variants resulted in a decrease in the number of viruses, bacteria, spores, and fungi tested. In addition, the research showed that in the variants of hypochlorous acid fogging cycles analyzed, no changes in performance parameters and no penetration of dry fog of hypochlorous acid into the interior of the tested medical devices and electronic systems were observed.


Assuntos
Descontaminação , Desinfetantes , Fungos , Ácido Hipocloroso , Ácido Hipocloroso/farmacologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Descontaminação/métodos , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Esporos Fúngicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Esporos Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletrônica
4.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 33(2): 141-147, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39005089

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the stability of physicochemical properties and sterilizing effect about two commercially available hypochlorous acid (HClO) products under simulated clinical conditions, and to evaluate the compatibility of HClO on soft and hard tissues and cells in oral cavity. METHODS: Samples of HClO solution with different production processes were prepared, to detect the changes of physicochemical indexes of each sample over time under simulated clinical conditions (shielded from light at 20-25 ℃, open the cover for 5 minutes every day), including free available chlorine, oxidation-reduction potential and pH. Through suspension quantitative germicidal test, the antibiosis-concentration curve of HClO solution was made, so as to calibrate the change of antibacterial ability of disinfectant with the decrease of available chlorine content during storage. Pulp, tongue and dentine were immersed in PBS, 100 ppm HClO, 200 ppm HClO and 3% NaClO. The influence on soft and hard tissues was evaluated by weighing method and microhardness test. The toxic effects of HClO, NaClO and their 10-fold diluent on human gingival fibroblasts were determined by CCK-8 cytotoxicity assay. GraphPad PRIS 8.0 software was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Under simulated conditions, the free available chlorine (FAC) of HClO solution decayed with time, and the attenuation degree was less than 20 ppm within 1 month. The bactericidal effect of each HClO sample was still higher than 5log after concentration decay. There was no obvious dissolution and destruction to soft and hard tissues for HClO(P>0.05). The cell viability of HClO to human gingival fibroblast cells (HGFC) was greater than 80%, which was much higher than 3% NaClO (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The bactericidal effect and stability of HClO solution can meet clinical needs, which has low cytotoxicity and good histocompatibility. It is expected to become a safe and efficient disinfection product in the field of living pulp preservation and dental pulp regeneration.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos , Ácido Hipocloroso , Boca , Ácido Hipocloroso/química , Humanos , Boca/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Gengiva/citologia , Gengiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Irritantes , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química
5.
Water Sci Technol ; 90(1): 363-372, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39007324

RESUMO

There has been numerous research on the uses of treated wastewater that needs chlorine disinfection, but none have looked at the impacts of injecting nanobubbles (NBs) on the decomposition of residual chlorine. Gas NB injection in treated wastewater improves its properties. The kinetics of disinfectant decay could be impacted by changes in treated wastewater properties. This paper studies the effect of various NB injections on the residual chlorine decay of secondary treated wastewater (STWW). It also outlines the empirical equations that were developed to represent these impacts. The results show that each type of NBs in treated wastewater had a distinct initial chlorine concentration. The outcomes demonstrated a clear impact on the decrease of the needed chlorine quantity and the reduction of chlorine decay rate when utilizing NB injection for the STWW. As a result, the residual chlorine will remain for a longer time and will resist any microbiological growth under the application of NBs on treated wastewater. Moreover, NBs in secondary treated effluent reduce chlorine usage, lowering wastewater disinfection costs.


Assuntos
Cloro , Águas Residuárias , Cloro/química , Águas Residuárias/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Desinfecção/métodos , Purificação da Água/métodos , Desinfetantes/química , Desinfetantes/farmacologia
6.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 177(1): 98-103, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38963599

RESUMO

We examined the effects of elevated temperatures and biocides on survivability of food isolates of Cronobacter spp. (C. sakazakii) and concomitant enterobacteriaceae obtained in microbiological control of infant nutrition products. Increased resistance of certain strains of Cronobacter, Enterobacter cloacae, and Pantoea spp. to thermal processing was revealed. Salmonella, Pantoea, and Cronobacter bacteria were least sensitive to antimicrobial action of chlorine-containing agents. The above properties varied in the strains of the same species. Specifically, only two of three examined isolates of Cronobacter spp. demonstrated lower sensitivity to heat in comparison with the enterobacterial test-cultures of other species.


Assuntos
Cloro , Cronobacter , Desinfetantes , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Cronobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Cronobacter/isolamento & purificação , Cloro/farmacologia , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Cronobacter sakazakii/efeitos dos fármacos , Cronobacter sakazakii/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Enterobacter cloacae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacter cloacae/isolamento & purificação
7.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 60(2): 134-144, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38984628

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: During COVID-19 pandemic, cleaning/disinfection activities were highly recommended. This study summarizes the state of art and estimates the prevalence of dangerous exposures to specific chemicals managed by Poison Centers (PCs) from all over the world during 2020 vs 2019, trying to overcome the critical aspects of the product categorization systems used by PCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic research was conducted in 3 major databases and 2 websites of PCs associations. Proportional meta-analyses were performed to estimate the prevalence of exposures to disinfectants, household products and hand sanitizers in 2020 vs 2019. RESULTS: The pooled prevalence of exposures to disinfectants, household products and hand sanitizers were respectively 5.9% (95% CI 4.9-7.0) (2019: 4.4% vs 2020: 7.8%; p=0.22), 25.9% (95% CI 24.0-27.7) (2019: 25.0% vs 2020: 28.6%; p=0.71) and 1.6% (95% CI 1.3-1.9) (2019: 0.6% vs 2020: 2.8%; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study detected overall increases of exposures to specific chemicals in 2020, suggesting that the awareness on topics related to the safe use of these products should be improved, especially during health emergencies, highlighting the need to develop standardized systems to better compare data coming from PCs all over the world.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações , Humanos , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Higienizadores de Mão , Desinfetantes , Pandemias , Produtos Domésticos , Exposição Ambiental , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 474: 134697, 2024 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823102

RESUMO

Airborne pathogens severely threaten public health worldwide. Air disinfection is essential to ensure public health. However, excessive use of disinfectants may endanger environmental and ecological security due to the residual disinfectants and their by-products. This study systematically evaluated disinfection efficiency, induction of multidrug resistance, and the underlying mechanisms of disinfectants (NaClO and H2O2) on airborne bacteria. The results showed that airborne bacteria were effectively inactivated by atomized NaClO (>160 µg/L) and H2O2 (>320 µg/L) after 15 min. However, some bacteria still survived after disinfection by atomized NaClO (0-80 µg/L) and H2O2 (0-160 µg/L), and they exhibited significant increases in antibiotic resistance. The whole-genome sequencing of the resistant bacteria revealed distinct mutations that were responsible for both antibiotic resistance and virulence. This study also provided evidences and insights into possible mechanisms underlying the induction of antibiotic resistance by air disinfection, which involved intracellular reactive oxygen species formation, oxidative stress responses, alterations in bacterial membranes, activation of efflux pumps, and the thickening of biofilms. The present results also shed light on the role of air disinfection in inducing antibiotic resistance, which could be a crucial factor contributing to the global spread of antibiotic resistance through the air.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Desinfetantes , Desinfecção , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfecção/métodos , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Microbiologia do Ar , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cloro/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
9.
Euro Surveill ; 29(26)2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38940004

RESUMO

In 2022, an outbreak with severe bloodstream infections caused by Serratia marcescens occurred in an adult intensive care unit (ICU) in Hungary. Eight cases, five of whom died, were detected. Initial control measures could not stop the outbreak. We conducted a matched case-control study. In univariable analysis, the cases were more likely to be located around one sink in the ICU and had more medical procedures and medications than the controls, however, the multivariable analysis was not conclusive. Isolates from blood cultures of the cases and the ICU environment were closely related by whole genome sequencing and resistant or tolerant against the quaternary ammonium compound surface disinfectant used in the ICU. Thus, S. marcescens was able to survive in the environment despite regular cleaning and disinfection. The hospital replaced the disinfectant with another one, tightened the cleaning protocol and strengthened hand hygiene compliance among the healthcare workers. Together, these control measures have proved effective to prevent new cases. Our results highlight the importance of multidisciplinary outbreak investigations, including environmental sampling, molecular typing and testing for disinfectant resistance.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar , Surtos de Doenças , Desinfetantes , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Infecções por Serratia , Serratia marcescens , Humanos , Serratia marcescens/efeitos dos fármacos , Serratia marcescens/genética , Serratia marcescens/isolamento & purificação , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Hungria/epidemiologia , Infecções por Serratia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Serratia/microbiologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Desinfecção/métodos , Idoso , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana
10.
Contact Dermatitis ; 91(2): 112-118, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mainly women work as foot care specialists (FCS). They are at risk to develop occupational dermatitis (OD). OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to describe the contact sensitisation pattern of female FCS with OD. METHODS: In a retrospective study, patch test and clinical data collected by the Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK) from 2008 to 2022 were analysed. Data of 116 female FCS with OD were compared with data of 13 930 female patients with OD working in other professions and 78 612 female patients without OD. RESULTS: Hand dermatitis (93.1%) was significantly more common and face dermatitis (0.9%) significantly less common in female FCS with OD compared to other female patients with or without OD. Frequent suspected allergen sources were disinfectants, gloves, leave-on and nail cosmetics. Occlusion and wetness were important co-factors. The most common diagnoses were irritant contact dermatitis (26.7%) and allergic contact dermatitis (21.6%). No sensitisation to any of the baseline series allergens was significantly more frequent in female FCS with OD than in the two control groups. However, sensitisations to allergens which FCS are abundantly exposed to, including fragrances, preservatives, rubber ingredients and disinfectants, were most common. CONCLUSIONS: FCS should be aware of the OD risk and prevention should be promoted.


Assuntos
Dermatite Alérgica de Contato , Dermatite Irritante , Dermatite Ocupacional , Dermatoses da Mão , Testes do Emplastro , Humanos , Feminino , Dermatite Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/etiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/diagnóstico , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/etiologia , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/epidemiologia , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dermatoses da Mão/epidemiologia , Dermatoses da Mão/etiologia , Dermatite Irritante/epidemiologia , Dermatite Irritante/etiologia , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Dermatoses Faciais/epidemiologia , Dermatoses Faciais/etiologia , Cosméticos/efeitos adversos , Desinfetantes/efeitos adversos , Luvas Protetoras/efeitos adversos , Dermatoses do Pé/epidemiologia
11.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 648, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ensuring the safety of dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) has become a pivotal issue in dental care practices, focusing on the health implications for both patients and healthcare providers. The inherent structure and usage conditions of DUWLs contribute to the risk of biofilm formation and bacterial growth, highlighting the need for effective disinfection solutions.The quest for a disinfection method that is both safe for clinical use and effective against pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in DUWLs underscores the urgency of this research. MATERIALS: Chlorine dioxide disinfectants at concentrations of 5, 20, and 80 mg/L were used to treat biofilms of S. aureus and E. coli cultured in DUWLs. The disinfection effectiveness was assessed through bacterial counts and culturing. Simultaneously, human skin fibroblast cells were treated with the disinfectant to observe changes in cell morphology and cytotoxicity. Additionally, the study included corrosion tests on various metals (carbon steel, brass, stainless steel, aluminum, etc.). RESULTS: Experimental results showed that chlorine dioxide disinfectants at concentrations of 20 mg/L and 80 mg/L significantly reduced the bacterial count of S. aureus and E. coli, indicating effective disinfection. In terms of cytotoxicity, higher concentrations were more harmful to cellular safety, but even at 80 mg/L, the cytotoxicity of chlorine dioxide remained within controllable limits. Corrosion tests revealed that chlorine dioxide disinfectants had a certain corrosive effect on carbon steel and brass, and the degree of corrosion increased with the concentration of the disinfectant. CONCLUSION: After thorough research, we recommend using chlorine dioxide disinfectant at a concentration of 20 mg/L for significantly reducing bacterial biofilms in dental unit waterlines (DUWLs). This concentration also ensures satisfactory cell safety and metal corrosion resistance.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Compostos Clorados , Equipamentos Odontológicos , Desinfecção , Escherichia coli , Óxidos , Staphylococcus aureus , Compostos Clorados/farmacologia , Óxidos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfecção/métodos , Equipamentos Odontológicos/microbiologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfetantes de Equipamento Odontológico/farmacologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas In Vitro
12.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4888, 2024 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849332

RESUMO

Chloroxylenol is a worldwide commonly used disinfectant. The massive consumption and relatively high chemical stability of chloroxylenol have caused eco-toxicological threats in receiving waters. We noticed that chloroxylenol has a chemical structure similar to numerous halo-phenolic disinfection byproducts. Solar detoxification of some halo-phenolic disinfection byproducts intrigued us to select a rapidly degradable chloroxylenol alternative from them. In investigating antimicrobial activities of disinfection byproducts, we found that 2,6-dichlorobenzoquinone was 9.0-22 times more efficient than chloroxylenol in inactivating the tested bacteria, fungi and viruses. Also, the developmental toxicity of 2,6-dichlorobenzoquinone to marine polychaete embryos decreased rapidly due to its rapid degradation via hydrolysis in receiving seawater, even without sunlight. Our work shows that 2,6-dichlorobenzoquinone is a promising disinfectant that well addresses human biosecurity and environmental sustainability. More importantly, our work may enlighten scientists to exploit the slightly alkaline nature of seawater and develop other industrial products that can degrade rapidly via hydrolysis in seawater.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Desinfecção , Água do Mar , Desinfetantes/química , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfecção/métodos , Água do Mar/química , Animais , Hidrólise , Poliquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofenóis/química , Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Xilenos
13.
Trop Biomed ; 41(1): 45-51, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38852133

RESUMO

Water pollution in developing countries continues to be a major health problem due to various anthropological activities that contribute to the spread of many parasitic diseases, including those caused by helminths. The aim of this study is to explore the ability of ozone and peroxone to disinfect drinking water contaminated samples with Toxocara canis eggs. The oxidants used were ozone and ozone-hydrogen peroxide combination. The treatment of Toxocara canis eggs was carried out in a 50 ml reactor with an operating volume of 10 ml. The pH conditions (5, 7 and 10) were varied for each treatment. The treatment effect was calculated by counting eggs and examining the condition of the larvae larval condition (whole, broken and hatched larvae) using an optical microscope. The experiment was carried out by exposing the eggs for 60 and 120 minutes to ozone and peroxone. The best results were obtained for helminths treated with the ozone/hydrogen peroxide combination at pH 10, with an inactivation of 79.2%. The synergistic effect of ozone combined with hydrogen peroxide allows higher helminth egg inactivation rates, demonstrating that advanced oxidation processes are a real alternative to apply in the inactivation of Toxocara canis eggs. The results obtained in this study show that the ozone and peroxone treatment could be a useful disinfection process to destroy or inactivate Toxocara canis eggs in processes commonly applied in water treatment.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Desinfecção , Ozônio , Toxocara canis , Animais , Ozônio/farmacologia , Toxocara canis/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfecção/métodos , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Purificação da Água/métodos , Peróxidos/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Água Potável/parasitologia
14.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(7): 295, 2024 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38856934

RESUMO

Microbial community biofilm exists in the household drinking water system and would pose threat to water quality. This paper explored biofilm formation and chlorination resistance of ten dual-species biofilms in three typical household pipes (stainless steel (SS), polypropylene random (PPR), and copper), and investigated the role of interspecific interaction. Biofilm biomass was lowest in copper pipes and highest in PPR pipes. A synergistic or neutralistic relationship between bacteria was evident in most biofilms formed in SS pipes, whereas four groups displayed a competitive relationship in biofilms formed in copper pipe. Chlorine resistance of biofilms was better in SS pipes and worse in copper pipes. It may be helped by interspecific relationships, but was more dependent on bacteria and resistance mechanisms such as more stable extracellular polymeric substance. The corrosion sites may also protect bacteria from chlorination. The findings provide useful insights for microbial control strategies in household drinking water systems.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Biofilmes , Cloro , Água Potável , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cloro/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/classificação , Água Potável/microbiologia , Cobre/farmacologia , Microbiologia da Água , Aço Inoxidável , Polipropilenos , Abastecimento de Água , Halogenação , Corrosão , Desinfetantes/farmacologia
15.
Anal Chem ; 96(28): 11226-11231, 2024 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38943047

RESUMO

Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are ubiquitous contaminants present in nearly all drinking water and are associated with adverse health effects in human epidemiologic studies. The most toxic DBPs are unregulated and often occur at concentrations well below regulated DBPs; thus, quantification at low parts-per-trillion (ng/L) levels is critical in assessing exposure. We developed a new liquid-liquid extraction-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LLE-GC-MS/MS) method with the first analysis by tandem gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of 23 priority unregulated DBPs including 13 haloacetamides, 3 haloacetic acids, 2 haloacetonitriles, 1 haloacetaldehyde, 2 haloketones, and 2 halonitromethanes. When combined with our previous GC-MS/MS method for haloacetic acids and previously reported MS/MS transitions that we optimized for this method, the analysis of 62 regulated and priority unregulated DBPs at lower quantification limits is achieved. Limits of quantification for most DBPs were between 5 and 30 ng/L with r2 > 0.99 and an average of 9 times lower limits of quantification (LOQs) compared to LLE-GC-MS using selected ion monitoring (SIM). Relative standard deviations ranged from 0.7 to 30% for 61 DBPs in spiked samples. This new method was validated using tap waters from four US cities, where individual DBP concentrations ranged from 5 to 126,882 ng/L. This project provides the most comprehensive GC-MS/MS method for DBP analysis to date and is capable of analyzing volatile and semivolatile DBPs across nine different compound classes, including a class not previously analyzed by GC-MS/MS.


Assuntos
Desinfecção , Água Potável , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Água Potável/análise , Água Potável/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Desinfetantes/análise , Extração Líquido-Líquido , Humanos
16.
J Water Health ; 22(6): 1064-1074, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38935457

RESUMO

We characterized concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs), a measure of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), in tap water samples collected from households with utility-supplied water in two rural counties in Appalachian Virginia, and assessed associations with pH, free chlorine, and metal ions which can impact THM formation. Free chlorine concentrations in all samples (n = 27 homes) complied with EPA drinking water guidelines, though 7% (n = 2) of first draw samples and 11% (n = 3) of 5-min flushed-tap water samples exceeded the US Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) for THM (80 ppb). Regression analyses showed that free chlorine and pH were positively associated with the formation of THM levels above SDWA MCLs (OR = 1.04, p = 0.97 and OR = 1.74, p = 0.79, respectively), while temperature was negatively associated (OR = 0.78, p = 0.38). Of the eight utilities serving study households, samples from water served by three different utilities exceeded the EPA MCL for THM. Overall, these findings do not indicate substantial exposures to DBPs for rural households with utility-supplied water in this region of southwest Virginia. However, given the observed variability in THM concentrations between and across utilities, and established adverse health impacts associated with chronic and acute DBP exposure, more research on DBPs in rural Central Appalachia is warranted.


Assuntos
Cloro , Água Potável , População Rural , Trialometanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Abastecimento de Água , Virginia , Cloro/análise , Água Potável/química , Água Potável/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Trialometanos/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Desinfecção , Humanos , Desinfetantes/análise , Região dos Apalaches , Características da Família
17.
J Water Health ; 22(6): 1102-1110, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38935460

RESUMO

Ferrate (Fe(VI): HFeO4- /FeO42-), a potent oxidant, has been investigated as an alternative chemical disinfectant in water treatment due to its reduced production of disinfection by-products. In this study, we assessed the disinfecting ability of potassium ferrate against a variety of microorganisms, including waterborne pathogens, under varying pH and water temperature conditions. We presented CT values, a metric of ferrate concentrations (C) and contact time (T), to quantify microbial inactivation rates. Among the tested microorganisms, human adenovirus was the least resistant to ferrate, followed by waterborne bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae, and finally, the protozoan parasite Giardia duodenalis. We further investigated the impact of two pH values (7 and 8) and two temperatures (5 and 25 °C) on microbial inactivation rates, observing that inactivation rates increased with lower pH and higher temperature. In addition to showcasing ferrate's capacity to effectively inactivate a range of the tested microorganisms, we offer a ferrate CT table to facilitate the comparison of the effectiveness of various disinfection methods.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Giardia lamblia , Temperatura , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Giardia lamblia/efeitos dos fármacos , Adenovírus Humanos/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Potássio/farmacologia , Compostos de Potássio/química , Microbiologia da Água , Desinfecção/métodos , Purificação da Água/métodos , Compostos de Ferro/farmacologia , Compostos de Ferro/química , Humanos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(6): e0012264, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38900788

RESUMO

Despite continued outbreaks of yellow fever virus (YFV) in endemic regions, data on its environmental stability or guidelines for its effective inactivation is limited. Here, we evaluated the susceptibility of the YFV 17D vaccine strain to inactivation by ethanol, 2-propanol, World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended hand rub formulations I and II, as well as surface disinfectants. In addition, two pathogenic strains were tested to compare inactivation kinetics by WHO-recommended hand rub formulations I and II. Furthermore, environmental stability of the vaccine strain was assessed. YFV 17D particles displayed infectivity half-life decay profiles of ~13 days at room temperature. Despite this extended environmental stability, YFV was efficiently inactivated by alcohols, WHO-recommended hand formulations, and four out of five tested surface disinfectants. These results are useful in defining disinfection protocols to prevent non-vector borne YFV transmission.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Inativação de Vírus , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Vírus da Febre Amarela , Vírus da Febre Amarela/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle , Febre Amarela/transmissão , Febre Amarela/virologia , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops
19.
Water Res ; 259: 121844, 2024 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824795

RESUMO

Trace iron ions (Fe(III)) are commonly found in water and wastewater, where free chlorine is very likely to coexist with Fe(III) affecting the disinfectant's stability and N-DBPs' fate during UV/chlorine disinfection, and yet current understanding of these mechanisms is limited. This study investigates the effects of Fe(III) on the formation and toxicity alteration of halonitromethanes (HNMs), dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), and dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm) from polyethyleneimine (PEI) during UV/chlorine disinfection. Results reveal that the maxima concentrations of HNMs, DCAN, and DCAcAm during UV/chlorine disinfection with additional Fe(III) were 1.39, 1.38, and 1.29 times higher than those without additional Fe(III), instead of being similar to those of Fe(III) inhibited the formation of HNMs, DCAN and DCAcAm during chlorination disinfection. Meanwhile, higher Fe(III) concentration, acidic pH, and higher chlorine dose were more favorable for forming HNMs, DCAN, and DCAcAm during UV/chlorine disinfection, which were highly dependent on the involvement of HO· and Cl·. Fe(III) in the aquatic environment partially hydrolyzed to the photoactive Fe(III)­hydroxyl complexes Fe(OH)2+ and [Fe(H2O)6]3+, which undergone UV photoactivation and coupling reactions with HOCl to achieve effective Fe(III)/Fe(II) interconversion, a process that facilitated the sustainable production of HO·. Extensive product analysis and comparison verified that the HO· production enhanced by the Fe(III)/Fe(II) internal cycle played a primary role in increasing HNMs, DCAN, and DCAcAm productions during UV/chlorine disinfection. Note that the incorporation of Fe(III) increased the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of HNMs, DCAN, and DCAcAm formed during UV/chlorine disinfection, and yet Fe(III) did not have a significant effect on the acute toxicity of water samples before, during, and after UV/chlorine disinfection. The new findings broaden the knowledge of Fe(III) affecting HNMs, DCAN, and DCAcAm formation and toxicity alteration during UV/chlorine disinfection.


Assuntos
Desinfecção , Desinfecção/métodos , Raios Ultravioleta , Cloro/química , Polietilenoimina/química , Acetonitrilas/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Ferro/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Acetamidas/química , Acetamidas/toxicidade , Desinfetantes/química
20.
Water Res ; 259: 121794, 2024 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824796

RESUMO

Legionella is an opportunistic waterborne pathogen that causes Legionnaires' disease. It poses a significant public health risk, especially to vulnerable populations in health care facilities. It is ubiquitous in manufactured water systems and is transmitted via inhalation or aspiration of aerosols/water droplets generated from water fixtures (e.g., showers and hand basins). As such, the effective management of premise plumbing systems (building water systems) in health care facilities is essential for reducing the risk of Legionnaires' disease. Chemical disinfection is a commonly used control method and chlorine-based disinfectants, including chlorine, chloramine, and chlorine dioxide, have been used for over a century. However, the effectiveness of these disinfectants in premise plumbing systems is affected by various interconnected factors that can make it challenging to maintain effective disinfection. This systematic literature review identifies all studies that have examined the factors impacting the efficacy and decay of chlorine-based disinfectant within premise plumbing systems. A total of 117 field and laboratory-based studies were identified and included in this review. A total of 20 studies directly compared the effectiveness of the different chlorine-based disinfectants. The findings from these studies ranked the typical effectiveness as follows: chloramine > chlorine dioxide > chlorine. A total of 26 factors were identified across 117 studies as influencing the efficacy and decay of disinfectants in premise plumbing systems. These factors were sorted into categories of operational factors that are changed by the operation of water devices and fixtures (such as stagnation, temperature, water velocity), evolving factors which are changed in-directly (such as disinfectant concentration, Legionella disinfectant resistance, Legionella growth, season, biofilm and microbe, protozoa, nitrification, total organic carbon(TOC), pH, dissolved oxygen(DO), hardness, ammonia, and sediment and pipe deposit) and stable factors that are not often changed(such as disinfectant type, pipe material, pipe size, pipe age, water recirculating, softener, corrosion inhibitor, automatic sensor tap, building floor, and construction activity). A factor-effect map of each of these factors and whether they have a positive or negative association with disinfection efficacy against Legionella in premise plumbing systems is presented. It was also found that evaluating the effectiveness of chlorine disinfection as a water risk management strategy is further complicated by varying disinfection resistance of Legionella species and the form of Legionella (culturable/viable but non culturable, free living/biofilm associated, intracellular replication within amoeba hosts). Future research is needed that utilises sensors and other approaches to measure these key factors (such as pH, temperature, stagnation, water age and disinfection residual) in real time throughout premise plumbing systems. This information will support the development of improved models to predict disinfection within premise plumbing systems. The findings from this study will inform the use of chlorine-based disinfection within premise plumbing systems to reduce the risk of Legionnaires disease.


Assuntos
Cloro , Desinfetantes , Desinfecção , Legionella , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Cloro/farmacologia , Legionella/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfecção/métodos , Compostos Clorados/farmacologia , Microbiologia da Água , Cloraminas/farmacologia , Abastecimento de Água , Óxidos/farmacologia , Purificação da Água/métodos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...