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2.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 96: 151-162, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819689

RESUMO

Within the drinking water distribution system (DWDS) using chloramine as disinfectant, nitrification caused by nitrifying bacteria is increasingly becoming a concern as it poses a great challenge for maintaining water quality. To investigate efficient control strategies, operational conditions including hydraulic regimes and disinfectant scenarios were controlled within a flow cell experimental facility. Two test phases were conducted to investigate the effects on the extent of nitrification of three flow rates (Q = 2, 6, and 10 L/min) and four disinfection scenarios (total Cl2=1 mg/L, Cl2/NH3-N=3:1; total Cl2=1 mg/L, Cl2/NH3-N=5:1; total Cl2=5 mg/L, Cl2/NH3-N=3:1; and total Cl2=5 mg/L, Cl2/NH3-N=5:1). Physico-chemical parameters and nitrification indicators were monitored during the tests. The characteristics of biofilm extracellular polymetric substance (EPS) were evaluated after the experiment. The main results from the study indicate that nitrification is affected by hydraulic conditions and the process tends to be severe when the fluid flow transforms from laminar to turbulent (2300

Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Água Potável , Biofilmes , Desinfecção , Nitrificação
4.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 530(1): 1-3, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828268

RESUMO

Alcohol-based disinfectant shortage is a serious concern in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Acidic electrolyzed water (EW) with a high concentration of free available chlorine (FAC) shows strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Here, we assessed the SARS-CoV-2-inactivating efficacy of acidic EW for use as an alternative disinfectant. The quick virucidal effect of acidic EW depended on the concentrations of contained-FAC. The effect completely disappeared in acidic EW in which FAC was lost owing to long-time storage after generation. In addition, the virucidal activity increased proportionately with the volume of acidic EW mixed with the virus solution when the FAC concentration in EW was same. These findings suggest that the virucidal activity of acidic EW against SARS-CoV-2 depends on the amount of FAC contacting the virus.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloro/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfecção/métodos , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos/química , Ácidos/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Cloro/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Desinfetantes/química , Eletrólise/métodos , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Água/química , Água/farmacologia
5.
BMC Microbiol ; 20(1): 265, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acetic acid has been used to clean and disinfect surfaces in the household for many decades. The antimicrobial efficacy of cleaning procedures can be considered particularly important for young, old, pregnant, immunocompromised people, but may also concern other groups, particularly with regards to the COVID-19 pandemics. This study aimed to show that acetic acid exhibit an antibacterial and antifungal activity when used for cleaning purposes and is able to destroy certain viruses. Furthermore, a disinfecting effect of laundry in a simulated washing cycle has been investigated. RESULTS: At a concentration of 10% and in presence of 1.5% citric acid, acetic acid showed a reduction of > 5-log steps according to the specifications of DIN EN 1040 and DIN EN 1275 for the following microorganisms: P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, K. pneumoniae, E. hirae and A. brasiliensis. For MRSA a logarithmic reduction of 3.19 was obtained. Tests on surfaces according to DIN EN 13697 showed a complete reduction (> 5-log steps) for P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus, E. hirae, A. brasiliensis and C. albicans at an acetic acid concentration of already 5%. Virucidal efficacy tests according to DIN EN 14476 and DIN EN 16777 showed a reduction of ≥4-log-steps against the Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) for acetic acid concentrations of 5% or higher. The results suggest that acetic acid does not have a disinfecting effect on microorganisms in a dosage that is commonly used for cleaning. However, this can be achieved by increasing the concentration of acetic acid used, especially when combined with citric acid. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show a disinfecting effect of acetic acid in a concentration of 10% and in presence of 1.5% citric acid against a variety of microorganisms. A virucidal effect against enveloped viruses could also be proven. Furthermore, the results showed a considerable antimicrobial effect of acetic acid when used in domestic laundry procedures.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Cítrico/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfecção/métodos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Norovirus/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 737: 139606, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783818

RESUMO

Disinfection, which aims to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms, is an essential step of water treatment. Hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) has emerged as a promising technology for large-scale disinfection without introducing new chemicals. HC, which can effectively induce sonochemistry by mechanical means, creates extraordinary conditions of pressures of ~1000 bar, local hotspots with ~5000 K, and high oxidation (hydroxyl radicals) in room environment. These conditions can produce highly destructive effects on microorganisms in water. In addition, the enhancements of chemical reactions and mass transfers by HC produce the synergism between HC and disinfectants or other physical treatment methods. HC is generated by hydrodynamic cavitation reactors (HCRs), therefore, their performance basically determines the effectiveness, economical efficiency, and applicability of HC disinfection. Therefore, developing high-performance HCRs and revealing the corresponding disinfection mechanisms are the most crucial issues today. In this review, we summarize the fundamental principles of HC and HCRs and recent development in HC disinfection. The energy release from cavitation phenomenon and corresponding mechanisms are elaborated. The performance (effectiveness, treatment ratio, and cost) of various HCRs, effects of treatment conditions on performance, and applicability of HC disinfection are evaluated and discussed. Finally, recommendations are provided for the future progress based on the analysis of previous studies.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Purificação da Água , Desinfecção , Hidrodinâmica , Microbiologia da Água
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 737: 140296, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783866

RESUMO

Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water is an issue in many countries. Many DBPs are possible or probable human carcinogens while few DBPs pose cyto- and genotoxic effects to the mammalian cells. The populations are likely to consume DBPs with drinking water throughout their lifetimes. A number of DBPs are regulated in many countries to protect humans. In this study, human exposure, risk and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) were predicted from DBPs in multiple water supply systems, including groundwater (GW), desalinated water (DW) and blend water (BW). The averages of lifetime excess cancer risks from GW, DW and BW were 4.15 × 10-6, 1.75 × 10-5 and 2.59 × 10-5 respectively. The populations in age groups of 0 - <2, 2-16 and >16 years contributed 25.4-25.7%, 28.6-29.6% and 45.0-45.7% to the total risks respectively. The DALY from GW, DW and BW were estimated to be 5.8, 27.0 and 39.9 years, respectively while the corresponding financial burdens were US$ 0.63, 2.93 and 4.34 million respectively. The findings are likely to assist in selecting the supply water sources to better control human exposure and risk from DBPs.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/análise , Água Potável/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água , Animais , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Arábia Saudita , Abastecimento de Água
8.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111402, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753187

RESUMO

Antifouling biocides are known to leach out of paints and into the aquatic environment. There is currently a data gap on the occurrence of the current antifouling biocides, as legislative changes caused a change in the antifouling market. Therefore, a comprehensive monitoring study was performed across 13 Danish marinas, both waters and sediments were analyzed, including a transect and a study with seasonal resolution. Three biocides, i.e., Medetomidine, Tralopyril, and DCOIT were not detected in any of the samples. More commonly found, in 11 of the 13 marinas, were the hydrolysis products of Dichlofluanid (DMSA) and Tolylfluanid (DMST). These biocides rapidly dropped in concentration and reached background levels around 200 m from the source. The antifouling biocide Irgarol 1051 was found in all sediment samples and half of all water samples. The concentrations of Irgarol were lower than previously monitored. The decrease can likely be attributed to legislative changes and its disapproval for use since 2016.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Dinamarca , Monitoramento Ambiental , Pintura , Triazinas/análise
9.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(16): 2391-2392, 2020 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786329

RESUMO

The current outbreak has led to renewed interest in developing novel disinfectants/drugs to kill "a species" for the benefit of "another species." While the discovery of new antimicrobials will ensure our ability to counter such threats in the short term, the development of drug resistance through natural selection will lead to the evolution of more "superbugs." In this regard, there is a need to understand viral perspective and associated molecular mechanisms and whether we can regulate viral strategies for our benefit to coexist in the long term.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/imunologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Evolução Biológica , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/prevenção & controle , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Desinfetantes/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia
10.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 129, 2020 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771064

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hand sanitisers are urgently needed in the time of COVID-19, and as a result of shortages, some people have resorted to making their own formulations, including the repurposing of distilleries. We wish to highlight the importance of those producing hand sanitisers to avoid methylated spirits containing methanol and to follow WHO recommended formulations. METHODS: We explore and discuss reports of methanol toxicity through ingestion and transdermal absorption. We discuss the WHO formulations and explain the rationale behind the chosen ingredients. SHORT CONCLUSION: We advise those producing hand sanitisers to follow WHO recommended formulations, and advise those producing hand sanitisers using methylated spirits, to avoid formulations which contain methanol.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Metanol/farmacologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Desinfetantes/química , Desinfetantes/normas , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Composição de Medicamentos , Etanol/química , Desinfecção das Mãos/instrumentação , Humanos , Metanol/química , Metanol/toxicidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
11.
Crit Rev Toxicol ; 50(6): 513-520, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729370

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has created a significant threat to global health. It originated in Wuhan, China and caused a total of 83,483 confirmed cases and 4634 deaths until June 2020. This novel virus spread primarily through respiratory droplets and close contact. The person-to-person transmission by direct transmittance through cough, sneeze, droplet inhalation, and contact spreading from dry surfaces contaminated with secretions of nose, mouth, and eyes of an infected person has been proven about SARS-CoV-2 transmission. As disease progressed, a series of complications tends to develop, especially in critically ill and immunocompromised patients. Pathological studies showed representative features of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and implications on multiple organs as well. However, no specific antiviral drugs or vaccines are immediately available for the treatment of this lethal disease. The efficacy of some promising antivirals needs to be investigated by ongoing clinical trials. In current circumstances, supportive care, precautions, and social distancing are the only preventive options to ameliorate COVID-19. To disinfect the environment, mainly chemical disinfectants are being used robustly. However, due to panic state, fright, and unawareness, people are using it violently, which can have an adverse effect on human health and environment. This review discusses about the potential harmful effect of disinfectants, if used inappropriately. Here, we will also discuss safe preventive options as an alternative to robust use of disinfection methods to fight against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/administração & dosagem , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Desinfetantes/efeitos adversos , Desinfecção/métodos , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
12.
J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 78(9): 1461-1466, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653307

RESUMO

The surgeon needs to have an inexpensive, available, nontoxic, and practical disinfectant that is effective in sanitizing against the COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) virus. The purpose of this article was to review the evidence for using hypochlorous acid in the office setting on a daily basis. The method used to assemble recommendations was a review of the literature including evidence for this solution when used in different locations and industries other than the oral-maxillofacial clinic facility. The results indicate that this material can be used with a high predictability for disinfecting against the COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) virus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/química , Ácido Hipocloroso/química , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Consultórios Odontológicos , Humanos , Cirurgia Bucal
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 742: 140522, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623170

RESUMO

Disinfection By-products (DBPs) are formed during the chemical treatment of water for human consumption, by the reaction of raw water with chemical agents used in the different steps of the process. Disinfection is one of the most important steps, inactivating pathogens and preventing their regrowth during water distribution. However, it is also involved in DBPs formation due to the use of disinfectant agents, such as chlorine, which reacts with dissolved precursors, such as pharmaceuticals, toxins, pesticides, among others. Given their widespread occurrence, potential human health and (eco) toxicological impacts are of particular interest due to their potential carcinogenicity and various non-carcinogenic effects, such as endocrine disruption. In this study, the developmental toxicity of chemically- different unregulated DBPs was evaluated using zebrafish embryo bioassay. Embryos were exposed to different concentrations of the target DBPs and multiple endpoints, including, mortality, morphological abnormalities and locomotor behavior were assessed at specific developmental stages (24, 48, 72 and 96 hpf). The different families of DBPs tested included nitrosamines, aldehydes, alcohols and ketones. The results show that the effects were compound dependent, with EC10 values varying between 0.04 mg/L (2-ethyl-1-hexanal) to 9.2 mg/L (hexachloroacetone). Globally, several of the tested unregulated DBPs displayed higher toxicity when compared with the available data for some already regulated, such as trihalomethanes (THMs), which highlights the importance of screening the toxicity of still untested and poorly characterized DBPs.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/análise , Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água , Animais , Bioensaio , Desinfecção , Humanos , Trialometanos , Peixe-Zebra
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 742: 140566, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721729

RESUMO

The emergence of nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs) in drinking water has become a widespread concern. In this study, dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), dicholoacetamide (DCAcAm) and trichloronitromethane (TCNM) were chosen as representatives to clarify the characteristics of N-DBP precursors in the raw waters of Taihu Lake, the Yangtze River, and Gaoyou Lake. Removal of DCAN and DCAcAm precursors must focus on nonpolar and positively charged organics, but more attention should be paid to micromolecular, polar and non-positively charged organics as TCNM precursors. Compared to molecular weight (MW) and hydrophilicity fractionation, polarity and electrical classification have higher selectivity to intercept N-DBP precursors. The properties of N-DBP precursors are relatively fixed and traceable in water systems, which could contribute to their targeted removal. Based on investigation of their characteristics, the removal efficiency and preferences of organic precursors under different processes were studied in three drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). The TCNM precursors produced in preozonation can be effectively removed during coagulation. The cumulative removal efficiency of conventional processes on N-DBP precursors was approximately 20-30%, but O3/BAC process improved removal by about 40%. The key to improving the removal efficiency of N-DBP precursors by O3/BAC is that it can significantly remove low-MW, nonpolar, positively charged, hydrophilic and transphilic organics. In combined toxicity trials, both cytotoxicity and genotoxicity showed a synergistic effect when DCAN, DCAcAm, and TCNM coexisted, which means that low-level toxicity enhancement in the actual water merits attention. DCAN precursors dominated in the toxicity formation potential (TFP), followed by TCNM precursors. In addition, the removal rate of total N-DBP precursors may be higher than that of TFP, leading to overly optimistic evaluation of precursor removal in water treatment practice. Therefore, the removal effect on TFP must also be considered.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Lagos , Nitrogênio
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 157: 111320, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658685

RESUMO

In this study, we derived the predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC) for triphenyl (octadecylamine) boron (TPB-18) and investigated the occurrence of triphenylboranes (TPBs), including TPB-18, for ecological risk assessment in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. We tested algal growth inhibition, crustacean immobilization, and reproductive toxicity and performed toxicity tests in fish to assess acute and chronic toxicity and generate the PNEC for TPB-18. The minimum toxicity value was 0.30 µg/L, as determined by the 72-h no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC) for the alga Chaetoceros gracilis. The 5th-percentile of hazardous concentration (HC5), derived from NOECs using the species sensitivity distributions approach, was 0.059 µg/L, which indicated the PNEC of 0.0059 µg/L. In comparison, the highest concentration in seawater sampled from the Seto Inland Sea was 0.00034 µg/L, suggesting that the ecological risks posed by TPB-18 are currently low.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Aminas , Animais , Boro , Japão , Medição de Risco
18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 157: 111321, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658686

RESUMO

Dichlofluanid is a fungicide employed as a booster biocide in antifouling paints, but information its toxicity to aquatic organisms is scarce. This study aims to evaluate biomarker responses in the mussel Perna perna exposed to dichlofluanid. Mussels were exposed to 0 (control), 0.1 µg/L (environmental concentration), 10, and 100 µg/L of dichlofluanid for 24 and 96 h. Byssus formation, oxygen consumption, and oxidative stress response were evaluated in gills and digestive glands. The results demonstrated that even the lowest dichlofluanid concentration causes a reduction in byssus biomass and water content. The higher concentrations caused an acute increase in oxygen consumption, which only returned to control levels after 96 h of exposure. ACAP levels and antioxidant enzyme activities were affected in both tissues with a larger effect observed in gill tissues as demonstrated by the IBR index. The overall results demonstrated that environmentally relevant concentrations of dichlofluanid would be deleterious to aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Perna (Organismo) , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Compostos de Anilina , Animais , Antioxidantes , Brânquias
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(8): 516, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666262

RESUMO

Applying a desirable disinfestation process is necessary to control the pathogenic microorganisms in the swimming pools and prevent both dermal and intestinal effects. Therefore, the present study was conducted to compare the bacterial community and diversity in the two swimming pools disinfected by the chlorine and ozone (O3)-chlorine processes. A total of 24 samples were taken from the two swimming pools in three distinct seasons to analyze the bacterial and physico-chemical indicators. Culture and molecular methods were used to evaluate the microbial quality. Two sets of sample taken from the pools with the maximum swimmer load in the summer were investigated by the next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique. In total, 410 and 406 bacterial species were identified in the chlorine- and ozone-chlorine-disinfected pools, respectively. Among the eight dominant bacterial species in each swimming pool, Pseudomonas alcaliphila, Pseudomonas stutzeri, and Pseudomonas acnes were common species between the two studied pools. Oleomonas sagaranensis (350 reads/18593), Staphylococcus caprae (302 reads /18593), and Anaerococcus octavius (110 reads/18593) were among the dominant bacteria in the chlorine-disinfected pool. Bacterial diversity was lower in the ozone-chlorine-disinfected pool than the other one, and the highest bacterial sequencing belonged to the genus Pseudomonas (85.79%). Results showed that water quality of in O3-chlorine-disinfected pool was more desirable than the chlorine-disinfected pool. Molecular methods along with conventional culture methods would be advantageous for microbial assessment in the swimming pools.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/análise , Ozônio , Piscinas , Acetobacteraceae , Cloro/análise , Desinfecção , Monitoramento Ambiental , Firmicutes , Irã (Geográfico) , Pseudomonas , Staphylococcus , Microbiologia da Água
20.
Aquat Toxicol ; 225: 105525, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629302

RESUMO

Halogenated dipeptides, 3, 5-di-I-tyrosylalanine (DIYA), have been identified as novel disinfection byproducts (DBPs), following chloramination of authentic water. However, little is known about their toxicity. Zebrafish embryos were used to assess the toxicity of novel iodinated DBPs (I-DBPs). Although DIYA did not exhibit high acute toxicity to embryonic zebrafish (LC50 > 2 mM), it significantly inhibited pigmentation of melanophores and xanthophores on head, trunk and tail at 500 µM as determined by photographic analysis. Whereas N-phenylthiourea (PTU) as a pigment inhibitor did not inhibit development of yellow pigments. Colorimetric detection of melanin further confirmed these results. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) measurements indicated that genes (dct, slc24a5, tyr, tyrp1a, tyrp1b, silva) associated with the melanogenesis pathway were dramatically down-regulated following exposure to 500 µM DIYA. In addition, enzymatic activity of tyrosinase (TYR) decreased, also demonstrating that the underlying mechanism of hypopigmentation was attributed to the disruption of melanogenesis pathway. Transcription levels of xanthophore genes (gch2, bnc2, csf1a, csf1b, pax7a and pax7b) were also monitored by qRT-PCR assay. DIYA exposure up-regulated expression of gch2 and bnc2, but not csf1 and pax7. Tested DIYA analogues, brominated tyrosine was unlikely to inhibit pigmentation, indicating that the iodine substitution and dipeptides structure are of important structural feature for the inhibition of pigmentation. In this study, we observed that DIYA inhibited melanogenesis related genes, which might contribute to pigmentation defects. Moreover, as an emerging I-DBPs, the developmental toxicity of aromatic dipeptides should be further studied.


Assuntos
Dipeptídeos/toxicidade , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipopigmentação/induzido quimicamente , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Halogenação , Hipopigmentação/genética , Melanóforos/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanóforos/metabolismo , Purificação da Água , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
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