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1.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(11): e2003503, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105286

RESUMO

While the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic affirms an urgent global need for effective vaccines as second and third infection waves are spreading worldwide and generating new mutant virus strains, it has also revealed the importance of mitigating the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through the introduction of restrictive social practices. Here, it is demonstrated that an architecturally- and chemically-diverse family of nanostructured anionic polymers yield a rapid and continuous disinfecting alternative to inactivate coronaviruses and prevent their transmission from contact with contaminated surfaces. Operating on a dramatic pH-drop mechanism along the polymer/pathogen interface, polymers of this archetype inactivate the SARS-CoV-2 virus, as well as a human coronavirus surrogate (HCoV-229E), to the minimum detection limit within minutes. Application of these anionic polymers to frequently touched surfaces in medical, educational, and public-transportation facilities, or personal protection equipment, can provide rapid and repetitive protection without detrimental health or environmental complications.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Desinfetantes/uso terapêutico , Polímeros/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Polímeros/química , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(10)2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069524

RESUMO

Surfactant liquid-membrane type sensors are usually made of a PVC, ionophore and a plasticizer. Plasticizers soften the PVC. Due to their lipophilicity, they influence the ion exchange across the membrane, ionophore solubility, membrane resistance and, consequently, the analytical signal. We used the DMI-TPB as an ionophore, six different plasticizers [2-nitrophenyl-octyl-ether (P1), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (P2), bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (P3), 2-nitrophenyl phenyl ether (P4), dibutyl phthalate (P5) and dibutyl sebacate (P6)] and a PVC to produce ionic surfactant sensors. Sensor formulation with P1 showed the best potentiometric response to four usually used cationic surfactant, with the lowest LOD, 7 × 10-7 M; and potentiometric titration curves with well-defined and sharp inflexion points. The sensor with P6 showed the lowest analytical performances. Surfactant sensor with P1 was selected for quantification of cationic surfactant in model solutions and commercial samples of disinfectants and antiseptics. It showed high accuracy and precision in all determinations, with recovery from 98.2 to 99.6, and good agreement with the results obtained with surfactant sensor used as a referent one, and a standard two-phase titration method. RDS values were lower than 0.5% for all determinations.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Desinfetantes , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Plastificantes , Cloreto de Polivinila , Potenciometria , Tensoativos
3.
Environ Pollut ; 283: 117232, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034019

RESUMO

Restoring woody vegetation to riparian zones helps to protect waterways from excessive sediment and nutrient inputs. However, the associated leaf litter can be a major source of dissolved organic matter (DOM) leached into surface waters. DOM can lead to the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during drinking water treatment. This study investigated the DBPs formed during chlorination of DOM leached from leaf litter and assessed the potential toxicity of DBPs generated. We compared the leachate of two native Australian riparian trees, Casuarina cunninghamiana and Eucalyptus tereticornis, and a reservoir water source from a catchment dominated by Eucalyptus species. Leachates were diluted to dissolved organic carbon concentrations equivalent to the reservoir (~9 mg L-1). E. tereticornis leachates produced more trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), and haloketones after chlorination, while C. cunninghamiana produced more chloral hydrate and haloacetonitriles. Leachate from both species produced less THMs and more HAAs per mole of carbon than reservoir water. This may be because reservoir water had more aromatic, humic characteristics while leaf leachates had relatively more protein-like components. Using in vitro bioassays to test the mixture effects of all chemicals, chlorinated E. tereticornis leachate induced oxidative stress in HepG2 liver cells and bacterial toxicity more frequently and at lower concentrations than C. cunninghamiana and reservoir water. Overall, this study has shown that the DOM leached from litter of these species has the potential to generate DBPs and each species has a unique DBP profile with differing bioassay responses. E. tereticornis may pose a relatively greater risk to drinking water than C. cunninghamiana as it showed greater toxicity in bioassays. This implies tree species should be considered when planning riparian zones to ensure the benefits of vegetation to waterways are not offset by unintended increased DBP production and associated toxicity following chlorination at downstream drinking water intakes.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Austrália , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Trialometanos/análise , Trialometanos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 629142, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33996714

RESUMO

Electrolyzed water is a safe, broad-spectrum bactericidal and viricidal agent, which can be used as a potent and effective alternative disinfectant in case of supply shortages. This report describes the on-site production of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (EW) from diluted salt solution and vinegar at a dental office using a portable EW generator unit. Such measures can ensure the safe continuity of important dental service provision for our patients during the coronavirus disease 2019 (CoVID-19) pandemic.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Consultórios Odontológicos , Eletrólise , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Água
5.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 104: 225-232, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985725

RESUMO

Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) disinfection usually does not produce halogenated disinfection by-products, but the formation of the inorganic by-product chlorite (ClO2-) is a serious consideration. In this study, the ClO2- formation rule in the ClO2 disinfection of drinking water was investigated in the presence of three representative reductive inorganics and four natural organic matters (NOMs), respectively. Fe2+ and S2- mainly reduced ClO2 to ClO2- at low concentrations. When ClO2 was consumed, the ClO2- would be further reduced by Fe2+ and S2-, leading to the decrease of ClO2-. The reaction efficiency of Mn2+ with ClO2 was lower than that of Fe2+ and S2-. It might be the case that MnO2 generated by the reaction between Mn2+ and ClO2 had adsorption and catalytic oxidation on Mn2+. However, Mn2+ would not reduce ClO2-. Among the four NOMs, humic acid and fulvic acid reacted with ClO2 actively, followed by bovine serum albumin, while sodium alginate had almost no reaction with ClO2. The maximum ClO2- yields of reductive inorganics (70%) was higher than that of NOM (around 60%). The lower the concentration of reductive substances, the more ClO2- could be produced by per unit concentration of reductive substances. The results of the actual water samples showed that both reductive inorganics and NOM played an important role in the formation of ClO2- in disinfection.


Assuntos
Compostos Clorados , Desinfetantes , Água Potável , Purificação da Água , Cloretos , Cloro , Desinfecção , Compostos de Manganês , Óxidos
6.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 104: 233-241, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985726

RESUMO

Algal organic matter (AOM), including extracellular organic matter (EOM) and intracellular organic matter (IOM) from algal blooms, is widely accepted as essential precursors of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). This study evaluated the effect of ozonation or ozone combined with activated carbon (O3-AC) treatment on characteristic alternation and DBP formation with subsequent chlorination of Chlorella sp.. The effects of pH and bromide concentration on DBP formation by ozonation or O3-AC treatment were also investigated. Results showed that the potential formation of DBPs might be attributed to ozonation, but these DBP precursors could be further removed by activated carbon (AC) treatment. Moreover, the formation of target DBPs was controlled at acidic pH by alleviating the reactions between chlorine and AOM. Besides, the bromide substitution factor (BSF) value of trihalomethanes (THMs) from EOM and IOM remained constant after AC treatment. However, THM precursors could be significantly decreased by AC treatment. The above results indicated that O3-AC was a feasible treatment method for algal-impacted water.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Desinfetantes , Ozônio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Carvão Vegetal , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Trialometanos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Ecotoxicology ; 30(5): 914-918, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934253

RESUMO

Bromide is a common ion found in freshwater and marine systems. Although normally at relatively low concentrations, higher levels may occur in point-released wastewaters as well as nonpoint runoff from agricultural or industrial locations where bromide compounds are used as biocides and disinfectants. In this study, the potential toxicity of NaBr in a saltwater environment was studied using the brine shrimp, Artemia salina. The confounding factors of organism age at test initiation and pre-test feeding were included in the test design. Survival of brine shrimp nauplii in several NaBr treatments up to 11,000 mg Br-/L (measured) was assessed after 24 h in both fed- and unfed-tests. In tests with unfed organisms, only the youngest (<24 h old) nauplii had acceptable control survival (≥90%), while control survival for all of the tests with fed organisms (<24 h old, <48 h old, <72 h old) was acceptable. There was also greater and more erratic mortality in the unfed tests. These data indicate feeding A. salina prior to initiating a short-term acute test improved performance. Not feeding the test organisms, especially in longer tests or when using >24 h old organisms, may result in excessive control mortality and an invalid test. These studies show that, when healthy organisms are used in the toxicity tests, 11,000 mg/L of Br- (~14,200 mg/L NaBr) is not acutely toxic to Artemia salina.


Assuntos
Artemia , Desinfetantes , Animais , Brometos , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Compostos de Sódio
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 778: 146375, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030372

RESUMO

Bronopol and Detarox® AP are broad spectrum antimicrobial biocides of growing interest for the aquaculture sector. While their effectiveness against aquatic pathogens has been demonstrated, toxicity data on wild or farmed species are still lacking, as is information on their potential environmental risk for aquatic ecosystems. With this study, we assessed the acute and sublethal toxicity of Bronopol and Detarox® AP in the freshwater bivalve Sinanodonta woodiana and their theoretical risk for aquatic ecosystem. The 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) was determined using the acute toxicity test, while for the sublethal toxicity test the bivalves were exposed to two concentrations for 14 days of Bronopol (2.5 and 50 mg/L) and Detarox® AP (1.11 and 22.26 mg/L) followed by a 14-day withdrawal period. Biocide-mediated oxidative processes were investigated via a panel of oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase). Theoretical environmental risk assessment of both biocides, with predicted concentration of no effect (PNEC), expected theoretical concentration (TEC) in the environment, and risk quotient (RQ) was performed. TEC was calculated using a model based on the size of the aquaculture facility and the receiving basin, the estimated quantity of biocide dissolved in water, and published data on biocide stability in water. Although the LC50 was higher for Bronopol (2440 mg/L) than for Detarox® AP (126 mg/L), fluctuations in oxidative stress biomarkers levels indicated that both biocides exert a slight oxidative pressure on S. woodiana. Theoretical environmental risk assessment suggested a muted risk with Detarox® AP and greater eco-sustainability compared to Bronopol.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Aquicultura , Catalase/metabolismo , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Propilenoglicóis , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
9.
Environ Res ; 198: 111219, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965385

RESUMO

The control of marine biofouling has raised serious environmental concerns, thus the continuous release of toxic and persistent biocidal agents applied as anti-biofouling coatings have triggered the search for non-toxic strategies. However, most of them still lack rigorous evaluation of their ecotoxicity and antifouling effects under real scenarios and their correlation with simulated assays. In this work, the biocide releasing risk and ecotoxicity of a biocidal and foul-release polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based marine coating containing grafted Econea biocide (<0.6 wt.%) were evaluated under simulated real mechanical wear conditions at a pilot-scale system, and under extreme wear scenarios (washability settings). The coating system demonstrated low environmental impact against the model Vibrio fischeri bacterium and marine algae, associated with the effective biocide grafting in the coating matrix and subsequent biocide release minimization. This multifunctional coating system also showed auspicious antifouling (AF) effects, with an AF performance index significantly higher (API > 89) than a single foul-release system (AF < 40) after two and half years at a real immersion scenario in the Portuguese shore of the Atlantic Ocean. These field results corroborated the antibiofilm performance evaluated with Pseudoalteromonas tunicata at simulated dynamic marine conditions after seven-week assays. This eco-friendly multifunctional strategy, validated by both simulated testing conditions and real field tests, is believed to be a powerful tool for the development of AF technologies and a potential contribution to the quest for new environmentally friendly antifouling solutions.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica , Desinfetantes , Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Pseudoalteromonas
10.
J Environ Manage ; 290: 112603, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895453

RESUMO

This study evaluated the dual-function of ferrate as a coagulant and disinfectant for chemically-enhanced primary treatment during wet weather flow (WWF). For the first time, ferrate was thoroughly examined as a coagulant aid with aluminum sulfate (alum) to minimize the organic and inorganic contents along with microbial level during WWF. Ferrate as a coagulant was evaluated based on a two-level factorial design. At an optimized condition, a ferrate dose of 0.5 mg/L Fe with a cationic polymer (1.25 mg/L) removed 83% of turbidity, 87% of total suspended solids (TSS), 70% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), and 23% of ortho-phosphate (OP). Linear models were developed and used to adequately predict the removals. Ferrate as a coagulant aid added with alum showed better removal of TSS while no improvement was observed in the removals of turbidity and COD. The disinfection capacity of ferrate was evaluated at different dosing points when it was used as a coagulant, coagulant aid and as post dosed as a disinfectant. In particular, ferrate dose of 8 mg/L Fe removed only 2 logs of E. coli when it was used as a coagulant compared to more than 3-log removal of E. coli when ferrate was used as a coagulant aid and as a disinfectant. At optimal ferrate dose of 10 mg/L Fe as a coagulant aid with 6 mg/L Al achieved the target levels of turbidity (<8 NTU), TSS (<25 mg/L), and ferrate-induced iron particles (<0.6 mg/L) along with 5-log removal of E. coli within 31 min. This study suggested that using ferrate as a coagulant aid/disinfectant might be considered an effective approach for treating the wastewater during WWF.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Purificação da Água , Escherichia coli , Ferro , Tempo (Meteorologia)
11.
Chemosphere ; 278: 130403, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819895

RESUMO

Phenylalanine (Phe) is widely present in natural water and serves as a precursor of disinfection by-products (DBPs). We reported the identification of chloramination DBPs from Phe in drinking water using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with complementary high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) and triple quadrupole (tQ) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). In the chloraminated Phe water solution, sixteen new DBPs in a total of seventeen were identified based on their accurate mass, MS/MS spectra and 35Cl/37Cl isotopic patterns. Three of these DBPs were verified as benzamide, phenylacetamide, and p-hydroxyphenylacetamide with their standards, while the others were chlorinated derivatives of Phe, hydrazone, amidine, amide and peroxide, in which the unique structures of these DBPs were rarely reported. Their stability and formation process were investigated as well. Furthermore, a method consisting of solid phase extraction (SPE) and UHPLC-MS/MS using dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (dMRM) was developed to investigate these DBPs in authentic waters. Phe, benzamide, phenylacetamide, and N-Cl-2-phenylacetimidamide were detected in chlorinated tap water. Compared with the other identified DBPs, these three DBPs were exceptionally stable and could be formed in wide formation conditions. Our work not only provided ideas for the identification of new chloramination DBPs, but also demonstrated that some DBPs usually generated in the chloramination disinfection process could also be found in the chlorinated drinking water.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Desinfetantes/análise , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Fenilalanina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
12.
Environ Pollut ; 283: 117074, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848900

RESUMO

During the current pandemic, chemical disinfectants are ubiquitously and routinely used in community environments, especially on common touch surfaces in public settings, as a means of controlling the virus spread. An underappreciated risk in current regulatory guidelines and scholarly discussions, however, is that the persisting input of chemical disinfectants can exacerbate the growth of biocide-tolerant and antibiotic-resistant bacteria on those surfaces and allow their direct transfers to humans. For COVID-19, the most commonly used disinfecting agents are quaternary ammonium compounds, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, and ethanol, which account for two-thirds of the active ingredients in current EPA-approved disinfectant products for the novel coronavirus. Tolerance to each of these compounds, which can be either intrinsic or acquired, has been observed on various bacterial pathogens. Of those, mutations and horizontal gene transfer, upregulation of efflux pumps, membrane alteration, and biofilm formation are the common mechanisms conferring biocide tolerance in bacteria. Further, the linkage between disinfectant use and antibiotic resistance was suggested in laboratory and real-life settings. Evidence showed that substantial bacterial transfers to hands could effectuate from short contacts with surrounding surfaces and further from fingers to lips. While current literature on disinfectant-induced antimicrobial resistance predominantly focuses on municipal wastes and the natural environments, in reality the community and public settings are most severely impacted by intensive and regular chemical disinfecting during COVID-19 and, due to their proximity to humans, biocide-tolerant and antibiotic-resistant bacteria emerged in these environments may pose risks of direct transfers to humans, particularly in densely populated urban communities. Here we highlight these risk factors by reviewing the most pertinent and up-to-date evidence, and provide several feasible strategies to mitigate these risks in the scenario of a prolonging pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Desinfetantes , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 66(4): 242-247, 2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878247

RESUMO

For the local health service, Elizabethkingia meningoseptica remains a relatively new and little-known pathogen, whereas in many countries of Europe, Asia and other continents it is considered as a potential causative agent of nosocomial infections, especially in premature infants and immunocompromised patients. An analysis of the literature data, as well as our results indicate that E. meningoseptica should be considered as a potential pathogen, which is characterized by a unique profile of susceptibility to antimicrobial agents (AMP) and disinfectants. This article presents the results of a study of susceptibility to AMP and disinfectants of three isolates of E. meningoseptica, isolated during an investigation of an outbreak in one of the perinatal centers of the Russian Federation, where three cases of sepsis with a fatal outcome in premature infants caused by co-infection with Acinetobacter baumannii and E. meningoseptica were recorded between January and February 2016.


Assuntos
Chryseobacterium , Desinfetantes , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Federação Russa
14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(9): 5906-5916, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830743

RESUMO

Although >700 disinfection byproducts (DBPs) have been identified, >50% of the total organic halogen (TOX) in drinking water chlorination is unknown, and the DBPs responsible for the chlorination-associated health risks remain largely unclear. Recent studies have revealed numerous aromatic halo-DBPs, which generally present substantially higher developmental toxicity than aliphatic halo-DBPs. This raises a fascinating and important question: how much of the TOX and developmental toxicity of chlorinated drinking water can be attributed to aromatic halo-DBPs? In this study, an effective approach with ultraperformance liquid chromatography was developed to separate the DBP mixture (from chlorination of bromide-rich raw water) into aliphatic and aromatic fractions, which were then characterized for their TOX and developmental toxicity. For chlorine contact times of 0.25-72 h, aromatic fractions accounted for 49-67% of the TOX in the obtained aliphatic and aromatic fractions, which were equivalent to 26-36% of the TOX in the original chlorinated water samples. Aromatic halo-DBP fractions were more developmentally toxic than the corresponding aliphatic fractions, and the overall developmental toxicity of chlorinated water samples was dominated by aromatic halo-DBP fractions. This might be explained by the considerably higher potentials of aromatic halo-DBPs to bioconcentrate and then generate reactive oxygen species in the organism.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Desinfetantes/análise , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Halogênios/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
15.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 2689-2702, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33854315

RESUMO

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is requesting highly effective protective personnel equipment, mainly for healthcare professionals. However, the current demand has exceeded the supply chain and, consequently, shortage of essential medical materials, such as surgical masks. Due to these alarming limitations, it is crucial to develop effective means of disinfection, reusing, and thereby applying antimicrobial shielding protection to the clinical supplies. Purpose: Therefore, in this work, we developed a novel, economical, and straightforward approach to promote antimicrobial activity to surgical masks by impregnating silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Methods: Our strategy consisted of fabricating a new alcohol disinfectant formulation combining special surfactants and AgNPs, which is demonstrated to be extensively effective against a broad number of microbial surrogates of SARS-CoV-2. Results: The present nano-formula reported a superior microbial reduction of 99.999% against a wide number of microorganisms. Furthermore, the enveloped H5N1 virus was wholly inactivated after 15 min of disinfection. Far more attractive, the current method for reusing surgical masks did not show outcomes of detrimental amendments, suggesting that the protocol does not alter the filtration effectiveness. Conclusion: The nano-disinfectant provides a valuable strategy for effective decontamination, reuse, and even antimicrobial promotion to surgical masks for frontline clinical personnel.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Máscaras , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , /transmissão , Embrião de Galinha , Desinfetantes/administração & dosagem , Desinfetantes/química , Desinfecção/métodos , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Reutilização de Equipamento , Humanos , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/efeitos dos fármacos , Máscaras/virologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prata/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Têxteis , Difração de Raios X
16.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807081

RESUMO

The emergent human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and its high infectivity rate has highlighted the strong need for new disinfection systems. Evidence has proven that airborne transmission is an important route of spreading for this virus. Therefore, this short communication introduces CLODOS Technology®, a novel strategy to disinfect contaminated surfaces. It is a product based on stable and 99% pure chlorine dioxide, already certified as a bactericide, fungicide and virucide against different pathogens. In this study, CLODOS Technology®, by direct contact or thermonebulization, showed virucidal activity against the human coronavirus HCoV-229E at non-cytotoxic doses. Different conditions such as nebulization, exposure time and product concentration have been tested to standardize and optimize this new feasible method for disinfection.


Assuntos
Coronavirus Humano 229E/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfecção/métodos , Linhagem Celular , Compostos Clorados/análise , Compostos Clorados/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Desinfetantes/análise , Desinfecção/instrumentação , Humanos , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Óxidos/análise , Óxidos/farmacologia
17.
Water Res ; 197: 117044, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799083

RESUMO

To control microbial proliferation and nitrification within distribution systems, utilities practicing secondary disinfection chloramination often discontinue their ammonia feed and provide a short, free chlorine disinfection period (FClP), commonly referred to as a "chlorine burn". However, the success and practicality of this approach is often criticized because of the return to nitrification; yet, previous studies conducted in full-scale distribution systems do not contain the sampling frequency to determine how quickly nitrification can return. In this research, a total of 15 hydrants distributed across hydraulically modeled water ages were sampled for 21 sampling events over a period spanning two annual FClPs (2018 and 2019) to investigate the water quality, planktonic community, and, using a new sampling technique, established biofilm community impacts within a single, distribution system pressure zone. Hydrants measured elevated nitrite only 10 weeks after the end of the FClP and live cell counts in the bulk and scour samples statistically significantly increased within two weeks after the FClP ended and chloramine disinfection resumed, indicating limited impacts from a FClP. Furthermore, the FClP significantly increased iron concentrations during the period of free chlorine disinfection creating a consumer water quality concern. Microbial fingerprint analysis using flow cytometry revealed that beta diversity did not significantly change for sampling locations that experienced even periodic low total chlorine concentrations. Only locations that maintained high chlorine residuals throughout both chloramine and free chlorine disinfection periods demonstrated significant changes in bulk water microbial community. Even for these locations, microbial communities of the scoured biofilms remained similar over the course of the study.


Assuntos
Queimaduras , Desinfetantes , Água Potável , Purificação da Água , Biofilmes , Cloraminas/análise , Cloro , Desinfecção , Humanos , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805110

RESUMO

Household disinfectant and cleaning products (HDCPs) assessment is challenging in epidemiological research. We hypothesized that a newly-developed smartphone application was more objective than questionnaires in assessing HDCPs. Therefore, we aimed to compare both methods, in terms of exposure assessments and respiratory health effects estimates. The women of the SEPAGES birth cohort completed repeated validated questionnaires on HDCPs and respiratory health and used an application to report HDCPs and scan products barcodes, subsequently linked with an ingredients database. Agreements between the two methods were assessed by Kappa coefficients. Logistic regression models estimated associations of HDCP with asthma symptom score. The 101 participants (18 with asthma symptom score ≥1) scanned 617 different products (580 with available ingredients list). Slight to fair agreements for sprays, bleach and scented HDCP were observed (Kappa: 0.35, 0.25, 0.11, respectively). Strength of the associations between HDCP and asthma symptom score varied between both methods but all odds ratios (OR) were greater than one. The number of scanned products used weekly was significantly associated with the asthma symptom score (adjusted-OR [CI 95%]: 1.15 [1.00-1.32]). This study shows the importance of using novel tools in epidemiological research to objectively assess HDCP and therefore reduce exposure measurement errors.


Assuntos
Asma , Desinfetantes , Asma/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Smartphone , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806369

RESUMO

Isothiazolinone (IT) biocides are potent antibacterial substances commonly used as preservatives or disinfectants, and 2-n-Octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (OIT; octhilinone) is a common IT biocide that is present in leather products, glue, paints, and cleaning products. Although humans are exposed to OIT through personal and industrial use, the potentially deleterious effects of OIT on human health are still unknown. To investigate the effects of OIT on the vascular system, which is continuously exposed to xenobiotics through systemic circulation, we treated brain endothelial cells with OIT. OIT treatment significantly activated caspase-3-mediated apoptosis and reduced the bioenergetic function of mitochondria in a bEnd.3 cell-based in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) model. Interestingly, OIT significantly altered the thiol redox status, as evidenced by reduced glutathione levels and protein S-nitrosylation. The endothelial barrier function of bEnd.3 cells was significantly impaired by OIT treatment. OIT affected mitochondrial dynamics through mitophagy and altered mitochondrial morphology in bEnd.3 cells. N-acetyl cysteine significantly reversed the effects of OIT on the metabolic capacity and endothelial function of bEnd.3 cells. Taken together, we demonstrated that the alteration of the thiol redox status and mitochondrial damage contributed to OIT-induced BBB dysfunction, and we hope that our findings will improve our understanding of the potential hazardous health effects of IT biocides.


Assuntos
Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Tiazóis/toxicidade , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/patologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Desinfetantes/antagonistas & inibidores , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Compostos de Sulfidrila/metabolismo , Tiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
20.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804814

RESUMO

The disinfection of surfaces in medical facilities is an important element of infection control, including the control of viral infections such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Preparations used for surface disinfection are typically characterized via their activity against test organisms (i.e., viruses, bacteria and fungi) in the laboratory. Typically, these methods use a suspension of the test organism to assess the bactericidal, fungicidal or virucidal activity of a given preparation. However, such suspension methods do not fully imitate real-life conditions. To address this issue, carrier methods have been developed, in which microorganisms are applied to the surface of a carrier (e.g., stainless steel, glass and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)) and then dried. Such methods more accurately reflect the applications in real-life clinical practice. This article summarizes the available methods for assessing the virucidal activity of chemical disinfectants for use in medical facilities based on the current European standards, including the activity against coronaviruses.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , /efeitos dos fármacos , Antivirais/normas , /virologia , Desinfetantes/normas , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , /crescimento & desenvolvimento
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