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1.
Meat Sci ; 183: 108643, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390897

RESUMO

Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) is often used as a disinfectant in beef preservation to ensure microbiological safety. However, it ineffectively inhibit lipid oxidation. Therefore, the combination of SAEW and tea polyphenols (TPs) was tested to inhibit lipid oxidation and microbial growth in beef preservation. SAEW and TPs were selected as the optimum sanitizer and antioxidant, respectively. Then, the inactivation efficacies of different combination treatments of SAEW and TPs of Salmonella enteritidis in beef were compared and treatment of SAEW-TPs (SAEW immersion at an available chlorine concentration of 30 mg/L for 2.5 min, followed by the TPs immersion at a 0.1% concentration for 2.5 min) was selected. Finally, the effectiveness of SAEW-TPs on the microbiological and physicochemical properties of beef during storage was evaluated. The results revealed that the required quality standard of beef treated with SAEW-TPs was prolonged by approximately 9 d at 4 °C, and this treatment had greater antimicrobial and antioxidant effects than did the single treatment.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Carne Vermelha/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Lipídeos , Oxirredução , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Salmonella enteritidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Chá/química , Água/química
2.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(1): 67-72, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635450

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Human norovirus (HuNoV) is a leading cause of infectious gastroenteritis. Since HuNoV shows resistance to alcohol, chlorine-based sanitizers are applied to decontaminate the virus on environmental surfaces. Chlorous acid water (CA) has been recently approved as a novel chlorine-based disinfectant categorized as a Type 2 OTC medicine in Japan. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the capability of CA to inactivate HuNoV. METHODS: HuNoV (genogroups GII.2 and GII.4) was exposed to the test disinfectants including CA and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), and the residual RNA copy was measured by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) after pretreatment with RNase. In addition, the log10 reduction of HuNoV RNA copy number by CA and NaClO was compared in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA), sheep red blood cells (SRBC), polypeptone, meat extract or amino acids to evaluate the stability of these disinfectants under organic-matter-rich conditions. RESULTS: In the absence of organic substances, CA with 200 ppm free available chlorine provided >3.0 log10 reduction in the HuNoV RNA copy number within 5 min. Even under high organic matter load (0.3% each of BSA and SRBC or 0.5% polypeptone), 200 ppm CA achieved >3.0 log10 reduction in HuNoV RNA copy number while less than 1.0 log10 reduction was observed with 1,000 ppm sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) in the presence of 0.5% polypeptone. CA reacted with only cysteine, histidine and glutathione while NaClO reacted with all of the amino acids tested. CONCLUSIONS: CA is an effective disinfectant to inactivate HuNoV under organic-matter-rich conditions.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Norovirus , Animais , Cloretos , Cloro/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Ovinos , Água
3.
J Water Health ; 19(5): 808-822, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665773

RESUMO

Thermal and chemical disinfection of technical water systems not only aim at minimizing the level of undesired microorganisms, but also at preventing excessive biofouling, clogging and interference with diverse technical processes. Typically, treatment has to be repeated in certain time intervals, as the duration of the effect is limited. The transient effect of disinfection was demonstrated in this study applying different treatments to water and biofilms including heat, chlorination, a combination of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid and monochloramine. Despite the diverse treatments, the reduction in live bacteria was followed by regrowth in all cases, underlining the universal validity of this phenomenon. The study shows that autochthonous bacteria can reach the concentrations given prior to treatment. The reason is seen in the nutrient concentration that has not changed and that forms the basis for regrowth. Nutrients are released by disinfection from lysed cells or are still fixed in dead biomass that is subsequently scavenged by necrotrophic growth. Treatment cycles therefore only provide a transient reduction of water microbiology if nutrients are not removed. When aiming at greater sustainability of the effect, biocidal treatment has to be equally concerned about nutrient removal by subsequent cleaning procedures as about killing efficiency.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Purificação da Água , Bactérias , Biofilmes , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfecção , Água
4.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 359: 109425, 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607035

RESUMO

Biofilm formation in food processing plants reduces the efficacy of sanitation. The presence of transmissible locus of stress tolerance (tLST) also enhances resistance of planktonic cells of Escherichia coli to sanitation chemicals but the role of tLST in resistance of biofilm-embedded cells remains unclear. This study investigated the link of tLST to biofilm formation and its contribution to resistance of biofilm-embedded E. coli to sanitation. Biofilms were formed as single-strain and as dual-strain biofilms in association with E. coli, Aeromonas australensis or Carnobacterium maltaromaticum. Biofilms on stainless steel were compared to floating biofilms formed at the air-liquid interface (pellicles). The resistance of biofilm-embedded tLST positive strains of E. coli to chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, and peroxyacetic acid was higher than the resistance of tLST negative strains. Higher biofilm density as measured by crystal violet staining was observed in tLST-positive strains of E. coli when compared to tLST negative strains. Biofilm density positively correlated to resistance to disinfectants. The use of confocal laser scanning microscopy detected more compact structure of pellicles compared to solid surface-attached biofilms, resulting in higher chlorine resistance despite the absence of tLST in strains of E. coli. Collectively, the findings of this study elucidated the impact of tLST in strains of E. coli on biofilm formation and sanitizer resistance. These findings may inform the development of improved sanitization protocols for food facilities.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Saneamento , Biofilmes , Carnobacterium , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Estresse Oxidativo
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639485

RESUMO

Recently, and considering the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a growing consensus that the disinfection of surfaces contaminated with pathogenic viral particles is essential. Chemical disinfectant sprays are effective at preventing the spread of infectious human noroviruses (Hu-NoVs) in healthcare and public areas. We assessed the virucidal activity of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) spray on fomite surfaces. A multivariate statistical assessment that combined a response surface methodology (RSM) and a Box-Behnken design (BBD) was performed to define the optimal parameters of, and correlations among, experimental conditions. Spraying SAEW disinfectant (oxidation-reduction potential: 1123 mV, pH range: 5.12, available chlorine concentration: 33.22 ppm) resulted in the successful decontamination of Hu-NoV, with a 4-log reduction in viral particles on polyvinyl chloride, stainless steel, ceramic tile, and glass surfaces. Our experimental data revealed optimized treatment conditions for decontaminating Hu-NoV GI.6 and GII.4, using the numerical multiple optimized method (spraying rate: 218 mL/min, spraying time: 4.9 s, spraying distance: 0.9 m). These findings offer significant insights for designing optimal strategic control practices to prevent infectious disease, particularly Hu-NoV, transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Desinfetantes , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfecção , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Água
6.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2021: 9342748, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34712107

RESUMO

Background: Recently, an outbreak of a novel human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has become a world health concern leading to severe respiratory tract infections in humans. Virus transmission occurs through person-to-person contact, respiratory droplets, and contaminated hands or surfaces. Accordingly, we aim at reviewing the literature on all information available about the persistence of coronaviruses, including human and animal coronaviruses, on inanimate surfaces and inactivation strategies with biocides employed for chemical and physical disinfection. Method: A comprehensive search was systematically conducted in main databases from 1998 to 2020 to identify various viral disinfectants associated with HCoV and methods for control and prevention of this newly emerged virus. Results: The analysis of 62 studies shows that human coronaviruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus or endemic human coronaviruses (HCoV), canine coronavirus (CCV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), and mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) can be efficiently inactivated by physical and chemical disinfectants at different concentrations (70, 80, 85, and 95%) of 2-propanol (70 and 80%) in less than or equal to 60 s and 0.5% hydrogen peroxide or 0.1% sodium hypochlorite within 1 minute. Additionally, glutaraldehyde (0.5-2%), formaldehyde (0.7-1%), and povidone-iodine (0.1-0.75%) could readily inactivate coronaviruses. Moreover, dry heat at 56°C, ultraviolet light dose of 0.2 to 140 J/cm2, and gamma irradiation could effectively inactivate coronavirus. The WHO recommends the use of 0.1% sodium hypochlorite solution or an ethanol-based disinfectant with an ethanol concentration between 62% and 71%. Conclusion: The results of the present study can help researchers, policymakers, health decision makers, and people perceive and take the correct measures to control and prevent further transmission of COVID-19. Prevention and decontamination will be the main ways to stop the ongoing outbreak of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfecção/instrumentação , SARS-CoV-2 , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , 2-Propanol/farmacologia , Animais , COVID-19/virologia , Coronavirus Canino/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfecção/métodos , Etanol/farmacologia , Formaldeído/farmacologia , Raios gama , Glutaral/farmacologia , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Camundongos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Hepatite Murina/efeitos dos fármacos , Povidona-Iodo/farmacologia , Vírus da SARS/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Vírus da Gastroenterite Transmissível/efeitos dos fármacos , Raios Ultravioleta
7.
Biol Futur ; 72(3): 273-280, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554548

RESUMO

Aim The article reviews the current usage of biocides during this lockdown period for sanitizing our living areas due to the pandemic and discusses the pros and cons. Subject COVID-19 spread like wildfire to over 200 countries of the world across all continents. The causative agent, novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is being counter attacked by a thorough application of disinfectants and sterilants. However, the virus mutated over 30 times during this global pandemic, creating panic and leading to enhanced pathogenicity and consequently to more stringent sanitation measures for controlling it. However, excessive use of different types of biocides for disinfecting surfaces is highly alarming in several cases. Extensive application of biocides affects the microbial flora, leading to an abrupt decrease in the number and diversity of beneficial microbes that may directly affect the functioning of nutrient cycles. Results The increased concentration of biocides in agricultural land via surface water or pond water indirectly affect the soil and water ecosystem, soil aggregation and fertility. This will also lead to the flourishing of resistant strains due to loss of competition from the other species, which fail to persist after prolonged use of biocides. Conclusion It is necessary to realize the environmental impacts of biocides and sterilants. It is the right time to stop their entry into the agricultural ecosystem by following adequate management strategies and complete neutralization.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Poluição Ambiental , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Desinfetantes/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Mutação
8.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257434, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591869

RESUMO

Although research has shown that the COVID-19 disease is most likely caused by airborne transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, disinfection of potentially contaminated surfaces is also recommended to limit the spread of the disease. Use of electrostatic sprayers (ESS) and foggers to rapidly apply disinfectants over large areas or to complex surfaces has emerged with the COVID-19 pandemic. ESSs are designed to impart an electrostatic charge to the spray droplets with the goal of increasing deposition of the droplets onto surfaces, thereby promoting more efficient use of the disinfectant. The purpose of this research was to evaluate several spray parameters for different types of sprayers and foggers, as they relate to the application of disinfectants. Some of the parameters evaluated included the spray droplet size distribution, the electrostatic charge, the ability of the spray to wrap around objects, and the loss of disinfectant chemical active ingredient due to the spray process. The results show that most of the devices evaluated for droplet size distribution had an average volume median diameter ≥ 40 microns, and that four out of the six ESS tested for charge/mass produced sprays of at least 0.1 mC/kg. A minimal wrap-around effect of the spray deposition onto a cylindrical object was observed. The loss of disinfectant active ingredient to the air due to spraying was minimal for the two disinfectants tested, and concurrently, the active ingredient concentrations of the liquid disinfectants sprayed and collected 3 feet (1 meter) away from the spray nozzle do not decrease.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/administração & dosagem , Desinfecção/instrumentação , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfecção/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletricidade Estática , Propriedades de Superfície/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576934

RESUMO

This study aimed to compare the SARS-CoV-2-inactivation activity and virucidal mechanisms of ozonated water (OW) with those of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) and 70% ethanol (EtOH). SARS-CoV-2-inactivation activity was evaluated in a virus solution containing 1%, 20% or 40% fetal bovine serum (FBS) with OW, SAEW or EtOH at a virus-to-test solution ratio of 1:9, 1:19 or 1:99 for a reaction time of 20 s. EtOH showed the strongest virucidal activity, followed by SAEW and OW. Even though EtOH potently inactivated the virus despite the 40% FBS concentration, virus inactivation by OW and SAEW decreased in proportion to the increase in FBS concentration. Nevertheless, OW and SAEW showed potent virucidal activity with 40% FBS at a virus-to-test solution ratio of 1:99. Real-time PCR targeting the viral genome revealed that cycle threshold values in the OW and SAEW groups were significantly higher than those in the control group, suggesting that OW and SAEW disrupted the viral genome. Western blotting analysis targeting the recombinant viral spike protein S1 subunit showed a change in the specific band into a ladder upon treatment with OW and SAEW. OW and SAEW may cause conformational changes in the S1 subunit of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfecção/métodos , Etanol/farmacologia , Ozônio/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos
10.
Water Res ; 204: 117629, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509870

RESUMO

The formation of fungal biofilm goes through some different states, including monodisperse state, aggregated state, germinated state, hyphal and biofilm. The aggregation of spores is a primary step of fungal biofilm development in aquatic systems. Previous studies on the inactivation of fungi were mostly performed in the monodisperse state of fungal spores and biofilm state, however, the inactivation of aggregated fungal spores is still unclear. In this study, the aggregated characteristics of fungal spores (Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus) at different pH values were firstly studied, and the inactivation efficiency of fungal spores at different aggregation degree by chlorine-based disinfectants was also clarified. The results showed that the aggregation degree of Aspergillus fumigatus was the highest at pH 9.0 while it was the lowest at pH 5.0. Aggregation between fungal spores was mainly mediated by occasional adhesin-adhesin interactions and electrostatic interactions. Compared with monodisperse spores, fungal spores were more resistant to chlorine-based disinfectants with the increase of spore aggregation degree. The inactivation rate constants of Aspergillus fumigatus at 30% and 63% aggregation degree were 1.5- and 4-folds lower than that of monodisperse spores, respectively. The lower proportion of membrane damage and higher intracellular reactive oxygen species level for aggregated spores than monodisperse spores was observed according to the flow cytometric results after chlorine-based disinfectants treatment. The reasons for the lower inactivation efficiency of aggregated spores are as following: the protection of outer layer spores and signals between aggregates lead to the increase of resistance for aggregated spores. This study is meaningful for the control of the fungal spores at different states in water.


Assuntos
Cloro , Desinfetantes , Aspergillus , Biofilmes , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Esporos Fúngicos
11.
Biocontrol Sci ; 26(3): 129-135, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556615

RESUMO

The current pandemic of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has highlighted the importance of disinfectants. As a raw material for next-generation disinfectants, scallop shell-derived calcium oxide (CaO) has been revealed to exhibit significant virucidal and microbicidal activities and is compatible with living tissues and the environment. This minireview summarizes recent progress in the development of disinfectants from scallop shell-CaO, focusing especially on studies of clinical and daily use applications. We describe the preparation, basic characteristics, and virucidal and microbicidal activities of scallop shell-CaO disinfectants. Furthermore, their applications in the disinfection of contaminated masks and the treatment of infected wounds are briefly introduced.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto/química , Compostos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfecção/métodos , Óxidos/farmacologia , Pectinidae/química , Animais , Desinfecção/instrumentação , Desinfecção/tendências , Humanos
12.
Biocontrol Sci ; 26(3): 177-180, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34556620

RESUMO

Ethanol is an effective disinfectant against the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. However, its effective concentration has not been shown, and we therefore analyzed the effects of different concentrations of ethanol on SARS-CoV-2. When SARS-CoV-2 was treated with varying ethanol concentrations and examined for changes in infectivity, the ethanol concentration at which 99% of the infectious titers were reduced was 24.1% (w/w) [29.3% (v/v)]. For reference, ethanol susceptibility was also examined with other envelope viruses, including influenza virus, vesicular stomatitis virus in the family Rhabdoviridae, and Newcastle disease virus in the family Paramyxoviridae, and the 99% inhibitory concentrations were found to be 28.8%(w/w) [34.8% (v/v)], 24.0% (w/w) [29.2% (v/v)], and 13.3% (w/w) [16.4% (v/v)], respectively. Some differences from SARS-CoV-2 were observed, but the differences were not significant. It was concluded that ethanol at a concentration of 30%(w/w) [36.2% (v/v)] almost completely inactivates SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Etanol/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , COVID-19/virologia , Desinfetantes/análise , Etanol/análise , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/crescimento & desenvolvimento , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 37(10): 174, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519903

RESUMO

Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is one of the major corrosion threats in the oil and gas industry. It is caused by environmental biofilms. Glutaraldehyde is a popular green biocide for mitigating biofilms and MIC. This work investigated the efficacy of glutaraldehyde enhancement by food-grade green chemical D-limonene in the biofilm prevention and MIC mitigation using a mixed-culture oilfield biofilm consortium. After 7 days of incubation at 37 °C in enriched artificial seawater in 125 mL anaerobic vials, the 100 ppm (w/w) glutaraldehyde + 200 ppm D-limonene combination treatment reduced the sessile cell counts on C1018 carbon steel coupons by 2.1-log, 1.7-log, and 2.3-log for sulfate reducing bacteria, acid producing bacteria, and general heterotrophic bacteria, respectively in comparison with the untreated control. The treatment achieved 68% weight loss reduction and 78% pit depth reduction. The 100 ppm glutaraldehyde + 200 ppm D-limonene combination treatment was found more effective in biofilm prevention and MIC mitigation than glutaraldehyde and D-limonene used individually. Electrochemical tests corroborated weight loss and pit depth data trends.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Glutaral/farmacologia , Limoneno/farmacologia , Aço/química , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Corrosão , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Água do Mar/microbiologia
14.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 24(9): 1313-1320, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531343

RESUMO

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a communicable disease as well as an airborne disease. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) could survive on dental materials shipped to dental laboratories. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the number of bacilli held on the prosthetic material and the effect of chemical disinfection agents on various prosthetic materials that were shipped to dental laboratory of TB patient. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of three study groups, and a control group. 10 mm x 2 mm disc-shaped (n = 18 for each group, n = 72 in total) nickel-chromium alloy (Ni-Cr), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and dental ceramic (DC) samples were prepared. After exposure to MTB 24 hours in a 37°C incubator, six samples for each group (PMMA), Ni-Cr alloy and a control group DC samples) were exposed to three disinfectants; 10 minutes into 2% glutaraldehyde, 10 minutes into 5% sodium hypochlorite, and 1 minute into alcohol-based disinfectant after vortexed in distilled water. Colony forming units (CFU/ml) were calculated per milliliters. Two-way ANOVA statistical analysis method was used, and a P value less than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The bacteria count for six Ni-Cr alloy disc-shaped specimens were recorded as 40, 10, 8, 6, 5, and 4 CFU/ml, respectively. Intensity of the colonies were found to be lower in other groups. 5 CFU/ml were detected on a single PMMA sample in the control group, and 40 CFU/ml were detected on one of the dental ceramic sample. No MTB uptake was observed on any sample in the 2% glutaraldehyde and 5% NaOCl disinfectant study groups. In alcohol-based disinfectant group, 1 CFU/ml was observed on Ni-Cr alloy sample. The effect of prosthetic materials used in this experimental study were not statistically significant on the CFU (p = 0.293). However, the disinfectants use was statistically significant on the number of colonies (p = 0.004). Conclusion: NaOCl and glutaraldehyde appeared to be more effective than alcohol-based disinfectant in removing MTB from Ni-Cr alloy, PMMA and dental ceramic surfaces.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Desinfetantes , Tuberculose , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Propriedades de Superfície
15.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(9)2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477547

RESUMO

A review of African swine fever (ASF) was conducted, including manifestations of disease, its transmission and environmental persistence of ASF virus. Findings on infectious doses of contemporary highly-pathogenic strains isolated from outbreaks in Eastern Europe were included. Published data on disinfectant susceptibility of ASF virus were then compared with similar findings for selected other infectious agents, principally those used in the UK disinfectant approvals tests relating to relevant Disease Orders for the control of notifiable and zoonotic diseases of livestock. These are: swine vesicular disease virus, foot and mouth disease virus, Newcastle disease virus and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. The comparative data thus obtained, presented in a series of charts, facilitated estimates of efficacy against ASF virus for some UK approved disinfectants when applied at their respective General Orders concentrations. Substantial data gaps were encountered for several disinfectant agents or classes, including peracetic acid, quaternary ammonium compounds and products based on phenols and cresols.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Africana/efeitos dos fármacos , Febre Suína Africana , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfecção/métodos , Febre Suína Africana/prevenção & controle , Febre Suína Africana/transmissão , Febre Suína Africana/virologia , Animais , Europa Oriental , Suínos , Reino Unido
16.
J Hosp Infect ; 117: 135-146, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34560167

RESUMO

A global upsurge in antibiotic-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii requires supervised selection of biocides and disinfectants to avert nosocomial infections by reducing its spread. Moreover, inadequate and improper biocides have been reported as a contributing factor in antimicrobial resistance. Regardless of the manner of administration, a biocidal concentration that does not kill the target bacteria creates a stress response, propagating the resistance mechanisms. This is an essential aspect of the disinfection programme and the overall bio-contamination management plan. Knowing the mechanisms of action of biocides and resistance modalities may open new avenues to discover novel agents. This review describes the mechanisms of action of some biocides, resistance mechanisms, and approaches to study susceptibility/resistance to these agents.


Assuntos
Acinetobacter baumannii , Infecção Hospitalar , Desinfetantes , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
17.
Int J Pharm ; 609: 121139, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592397

RESUMO

Emergent diseases caused by viral and bacterial infections have proven to be a current and future challenge. The occurrence of these diseases is usually accompanied by the lack of vaccines and dedicated therapies leaving prevention as the best strategy to adopt. In that context, and apart from confinement and physical distancing measures, an increase in hygiene actions, namely hand and surface cleaning and disinfection can reduce the infection spread originated from our day-to-day routines. However, during crisis situations the high disinfectants demand can very likely lead to having them running out of stock. This impels many individuals and companies to produce their own disinfectants. Here, we explore the main components of a disinfection formulation, both for hand-rub and surface cleaning. Alcohol and non-alcohol based formulations are described, including the possibility to fine tune the properties of the final product in order to increase public acceptance while maintaining product efficacy. The action mechanisms of the main active principles are also described conjugating information from experimental and theoretical data. Overall, the main aspects to develop a disinfectant formulation are addressed, as well as their function, helping formulation developers to better understand the impact of their choices.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Higienizadores de Mão , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antivirais , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfecção , Etanol , Humanos
18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 657443, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34447735

RESUMO

The authors evaluated four disinfectant pre-impregnated wipes (DPW) for efficacy against Ebola virus Makona variant (EBOV) and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), Indiana serotype. Steel carriers were inoculated with the infectious virus and then were wiped with DPW in the Wiperator instrument per ASTM E2967-15. Following the use of J-Cloth impregnated with medium (negative control wipes) or the use of activated hydrogen peroxide (AHP)-, ethanol-, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)-, or single or dual quaternary ammonium compound (QAC)-based DPW, virus recovery from the carriers was assayed by titration assay and by two passages on Vero E6 cells in 6-well plates. The Wiperator also enabled the measurement of potential transfer of the virus from the inoculated carrier to a secondary carrier by the DPW or control wipes. The J-Cloth wipes wetted with medium alone (no microbicidal active) removed 1.9-3.5 log10 of virus from inoculated carriers but transferred ~4 log10 of the wiped virus to secondary carriers. DPW containing AHP, ethanol, NaOCl, or single or dual QAC as active microbicidal ingredients removed/inactivated ~6 log10 of the virus, with minimal EBOV or no VSV virus transfer to a secondary surface observed. In Ebola virus outbreaks, a DPW with demonstrated virucidal efficacy, used as directed, may help to mitigate the unintended spread of the infectious virus while performing surface cleaning.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Ebolavirus , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola , Estomatite Vesicular , Animais , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Aço Inoxidável
19.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 142: 107894, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371350

RESUMO

Extensive amounts of chlorine disinfectants have been applied to wastewater system since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which inevitably affects the pollutant degradation via interfering with electron transfer mediated by electroactive bacteria. Herein, the response of electroactive biofilm (EAB) to chronic chlorine exposure was investigated. Results showed the EAB formed without exposure (EAB-0) exhibited a 53% and 123% higher current output than that formed with 0.1 mg L-1 (EAB-0.1) and 0.5 mg L-1 (EAB-0.5) chlorine, respectively. The chronic chlorine exposure of EAB boosted the contents of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in EAB-0.1 and EAB-0.5 by over secretion of extracellular polysaccharides. The EAB-0.1 and EAB-0.5 also presented lower electron exchange capacities (EECs) of EPS, coincided with reduced relative abundance of Geobacter from 61% in EAB-0 to 52% in EAB-0.5. This study provided new insights into the application of engineered EAB for wastewater treatment in a disinfection environment.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloro/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 356: 109364, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418698

RESUMO

Inactivation rate constant or inactivation coefficient (specific lethality) quantifies the rate at which a chemical sanitizer inactivates a microorganism. This study presents a modified disinfection kinetics model to evaluate the potential effect of organic content on the chlorine inactivation coefficient of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fresh produce wash processes. Results show a significant decrease in the bactericidal efficacy of free chlorine (FC) in the presence of organic load compared to its absence. While the chlorine inactivation coefficient of Escherichia coli O157:H7 is 70.39 ± 3.19 L/mg/min in the absence of organic content, it drops by 73% for a chemical oxygen demand (COD) level of 600-800 mg/L. Results also indicate that the initial chlorine concentration and bacterial load have no effect on the chlorine inactivation coefficient. A second-order chemical reaction model for FC decay, which utilizes a proportion of COD as an indicator of organic content in fresh produce wash was employed, yielding an apparent reaction rate of (9.45 ± 0.22) × 10-4 /µM/min. This model was validated by predicting FC concentration in multi-run continuous wash cycles with periodic replenishment of chlorine.


Assuntos
Cloro , Escherichia coli O157 , Manipulação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Viabilidade Microbiana , Modelos Biológicos , Cloro/farmacologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Escherichia coli O157/efeitos dos fármacos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos
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