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1.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 19(8): 1840-1845, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic influences a lot of aspects of human life. Particularly, hygienic habits are affected. OBJECTIVES: Changes in washing and cosmetic standards during the pandemic toward the past are in the focus of our interest. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The questionnaire study was conducted anonymously in 140 women. The examination concerned pre- and during-pandemic routine hygiene activities such as hands washing, hair washing, bathing, the use of disinfectants, and use of specific type of cosmetics. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Compared were data before and during pandemic. Responders declared increased handwashing and taking shower after coming back home and after using local city transportation. We found also that increased use of disinfectants during COVID-19 pandemic. In contrary to that, number of people washing their hair decreased slightly. Work documents that profile of used cosmetics was changed; increasing hand cream use and decreasing in makeup cosmetics. Nearly, half of the respondents declare that they will maintain new habits also after the pandemic has ended.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Higiene/normas , Controle de Infecções/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cosméticos/administração & dosagem , Cosméticos/normas , Desinfetantes/administração & dosagem , Desinfetantes/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of ready-to-use disinfectant wipes was previously assessed in standardized suspension tests, which were inadequate because they ignored that the wipes are rubbed against a surface. Thus, we assessed the effectiveness of commercially available disinfectant wipes impregnated with an alcoholic solution according to the 16615 standard, which includes a test with mechanical action. METHODS: According to the EN 16615 standard, under clean conditions, four squares (5cm x 5 cm), placed next to one another, were marked on a test surface. Enterococcus hirae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus were inoculated on the leftmost square, and a wipe impregnated with an alcoholic solution was placed to the left of that square. Then, the wipe was pressed with a 2.5 kg weight and moved to the right and back to the left. After contact times of 1, 5, 10, or 15 minutes, we measured the reduction in bacterial load. RESULTS: Alcohol-based ready-to-use commercial wipes did not show sufficient bactericidal activity at the contact times of 1, 5, 10 and 15 minutes. Wipes containing propan-1-ol and a mixture of propan-1-ol and propan-2-ol were active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa at the contact times of 1 minute and 15 minutes. None of the examined wipes were active against Enterococcus hirae or Staphylococcus aureus. CONCLUSION: Bactericidal parameters of ready-to-use disinfectant wipes should be determined in surface tests, in addition to suspension tests, because suspension tests do not simulate the conditions under which disinfectant wipes are used in practice.


Assuntos
1-Propanol/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , 1-Propanol/normas , Antibacterianos , Carga Bacteriana , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Desinfetantes/normas , Desinfecção , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Streptococcus faecium ATCC 9790/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo
3.
J Water Health ; 17(2): 227-236, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942773

RESUMO

Trial-and-error chlorination as a conventional practice for swimming pool water disinfection may fail to consistently maintain the pool's residual chlorine within regulatory limits. This study explored the variability of residual chlorine and other common water quality parameters of two sample swimming pools and examined the potential of using a mass balance model for proactive determination of chlorine consumption to better secure the hygienic safety of bathers. A lightly loaded Pool 1 with a normalized bather load of 0.038 bather/m3/day and a heavily loaded Pool 2 with a normalized bather load of 0.36 bather/m3/day showed great variances in residual free and combined chlorine control by trial-and-error methods due to dynamic pool uses. A mass balance model based on chemical and physical chlorine consumption mechanisms was found to be statistically valid using field data obtained from Pool 1. The chlorine consumption per capita coefficient was determined to be 4120 mg/bather. The predictive method based on chlorine demand has a potential to be used as a complementary approach to the existing trial-and-error chlorination practices for swimming pool water disinfection. The research is useful for pool maintenance to proactively determine the required chlorine dosage for compliance of pool regulations.


Assuntos
Cloro/análise , Desinfetantes/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Piscinas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cloro/normas , Desinfetantes/normas , Desinfecção/normas , Halogenação
4.
Plant Dis ; 103(4): 721-728, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30777802

RESUMO

Panama disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense has devastated banana production worldwide. This work aimed to determine effective disinfectants against two races of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense, race 1 and tropical race 4 (TR4), for implementation with on-farm biosecurity procedures against this disease following the outbreak of TR4 in North Queensland in 2015. A total of 32 commercial disinfectants were screened and their activity was assessed after ≤30 s, 5 min, 30 min, and 24 h of contact with an F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense suspension containing 105 chlamydospores/ml without and with soil added (0.05 g/ml). Of the disinfectants tested, the quaternary ammonium compounds containing ≥10% active ingredient were found to be the most effective against both F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense races. These products, when used at a 1:100 dilution, completely inhibited the survival of all F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense propagules across all the contact times regardless of the absence or presence of soil. The bioflavonoid product EvoTech 213 and bleach (10% sodium hypochlorite) used at a 1:10 dilution also eliminated all F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense propagules across all the contact times. None of the detergent-based or miscellaneous products tested were completely effective against both F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense races even used at a 1:10 dilution. Soil decreases the efficacy of disinfectants and therefore must be removed from contaminated items before treatments are applied.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fusarium , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/normas , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Musa/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Queensland
7.
J Fish Dis ; 41(11): 1625-1630, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30091241

RESUMO

Disease poses a major threat to aquaculture and commercial and recreational fisheries globally. Biosecurity measures have been implemented; however, empirical evidence of their efficacy in situ is lacking. Here, we present the results from a study conducted to examine the effectiveness of disinfectant net dips. Samples were collected from disinfectant net dips at 25 recreational fisheries in south-west England and assessed to determine (a) the level of bacterial contamination and (b) the reduction in titre of a target virus (infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, IPNV) following a contact time of 2 and 5 min. In addition, the study examined the reduction in target virus titre following exposure to laboratory prepared Virkon® , representing "clean," "dirty" and "diluted and dirty" conditions, for 2 and 5 min. Bacterial contamination was high in 64% of disinfectant samples, and, 76% of disinfectant samples did not effectively reduce the target virus titre in 2 or 5 min. Virus titre was successfully reduced following exposure to laboratory prepared Virkon® for 2 or 5 min, although dilution and contamination reduced the effectiveness. These results suggest that disinfectant net dips may not be working effectively on a high proportion of fishery sites. We provide recommendations for improving biosecurity.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Infecções por Birnaviridae/veterinária , Desinfetantes/normas , Equipamentos e Provisões/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Pesqueiros , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Birnaviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Birnaviridae/virologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Inglaterra , Equipamentos e Provisões/microbiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Vírus da Necrose Pancreática Infecciosa/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 637-638: 1607-1616, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29925195

RESUMO

Disinfection is an integral component of water treatment performed daily on large volumes of water worldwide. Chemical disinfection may result in the unintended production of disinfectant by-products (DBPs) due to reactions between disinfectants and natural organic matter present in the source water. Due to their potential toxicity, levels of DBPs have been strictly regulated in drinking waters for many years. With water reuse now becoming more common around the world DBPs are increasingly becoming a concern in recycled waters, where a much larger amount and variety of compounds may be formed due to a higher abundance and diversity of organic material in the source waters. Regulation of DBPs in recycled waters is limited; generally, drinking water regulations are applied in place of specific guidelines for recycled waters. Such regulations are set for only 11, commonly observed, compounds of the 600+ that may, potentially, be found. In this review an overview of current research in this area is provided, the types of compounds that have been observed, methods for their analysis and possible regulation are also discussed. Through this review it is evident that there is a knowledge gap for the occurrence of DBPs in recycled waters, especially when comparing this information to that available for drinking waters. The concentrations of DBPs observed in recycled waters are seen to be higher than those in drinking water, though still within potable threshold limits. It is clear that there is a need for the analysis and understanding of a larger suite of compounds in recycled waters, as these will most likely be the source of future, global renewable water.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/análise , Desinfecção/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Desinfetantes/normas , Desinfecção/legislação & jurisprudência , Reciclagem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/normas , Purificação da Água/legislação & jurisprudência
9.
Environ Res ; 165: 133-139, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29704774

RESUMO

We evaluated the efficacy of a new disinfectant product, HLE, to inhibit multiple species of planktonic and biofilm bacterial cultures. The HLE disinfectant comprised of EDTA, lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide, and our data indicated that the disinfectant had effective antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity even at low concentrations (0.15% to 0.4% HLE, v/v). Furthermore, the HLE disinfectant destabilized biofilm structures eradicated them due to the synergistic effect of EDTA and both antimicrobials (lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide), as revealed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Additionally, sub-inhibitory concentrations of HLE disinfectant, with EDTA as an efflux pump inhibitor, inhibited the expression of multidrug EfrAB, NorE and MexCD efflux pumps in both planktonic and biofilm cultures. This could provide an alternative way to disinfect surfaces to avoid spreading multi-drug resistant strains in the food chain and the environment by decreasing efflux pump expression and consequently reducing the antibiotic selective pressure caused by systemic antibiotics and disinfectant use.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/normas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
10.
Mil Med ; 183(11-12): e348-e353, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29635286

RESUMO

Introduction: A safe, easy-to-use, permanently bonded antiseptic that does not require post-exposure bioload reduction but maintains effectiveness over time would have far-reaching implications across multiple industries. Health care is one such arena, particularly in austere military settings where resources are at a premium. MicrobeCare XLP (MicrobeCare, Buffalo Grove, IL, USA) is a commercially available spray-on agent that is advertised to covalently bond to surfaces and provide a long-lasting antimicrobial coating inhospitable to >99.99% of surface microorganisms. A pilot study was devised to gather baseline data regarding product efficacy and laboratory parameters before consideration of extended investigations and military utilization. The product manufacturer recommends bioload reductions before product application, following product application, and after each pathogenic exposure. To investigate the product's efficacy in circumstances more closely simulating a military operational setting in which post-pathogenic exposure bioload reduction would not be possible, this step was deliberately excluded from the test sequences. Materials and Methods: Using autoclaved surgical forceps, growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii was evaluated in a controlled manner under multiple conditions. Test variations included duration of submersion in the MicrobeCare XLP solution and air-drying and a second autoclave sterilization. Control and treated forceps were exposed to a bacterial suspension and air-dried before being submerged in sterile saline and vortex mixed. The saline solution was serially diluted and plated on tryptic soy agar (TSA) II plates. Plates were incubated for 24 h and bacterial colony-forming units (CFU)/mL were counted. Results: Statistical significance was defined according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International passing criteria of 3 Log10 or 99.9% reduction of microorganisms. Additionally, p-values were calculated using two-tailed unpaired two-sample t-tests with unequal variance with a threshold of 0.05. In the S. aureus tests, none of the reduction calculations met the ASTM International passing criteria. In addition, the difference between the means of the colony counts in the MicrobeCare XLP-treated forceps and untreated control forceps was not statistically significant (p-value 0.109). Conversely, in the A. baumannii tests, each of the percent reduction calculations met the ASTM International passing criteria; the difference between the means of the colony counts in the treatment and control groups was statistically significant (p-value 0.008). Conclusion: In these independent tests, MicrobeCare XLP effectively prevented growth of A. baumannii but had unpredictable results suppressing S. aureus. These results may relate to inherent properties of the bacteria or autoclave exposure, although the manufacturer asserts that the coating withstands such degradation. Additional testing could be performed using a broader range of microorganisms and exposure to varying conditions including other sterilization methods.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/normas , Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle , Guerra , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Acinetobacter baumannii/patogenicidade , Desinfetantes/uso terapêutico , Desenho de Equipamento/normas , Hospitais Militares/organização & administração , Hospitais Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Esterilização/métodos , Esterilização/normas
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 189(7): 338, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28620710

RESUMO

In this study, the variations in concentrations of some disinfection chemicals such as cyanuric acid (CyA), free chlorine (FC), and residual chlorine (RC), which affect human health, were investigated in the water of swimming pools. In addition, quality parameters such as temperature, pH, and total alkalinity (TA) in 44 swimming pools located in the city center and districts of Canakkale, Turkey, were examined in the summer period. While FC and RC amounts were analyzed using tablet tests with N-N-diethyl phenylenediamine (DPD 1) and potassium iodine (DPD 3) using the colorimetric method in the comparator, TA and CyA levels were measured with a photometric method. Temperature and pH were measured using YSI 556 MPS. Levels of CyA, FC, RC, pH, temperature, and TA varied between 0.00 and 725.0 mg L-1 (108.0 ± 111.4 mg L-1), 0.00 and 5.00 mg L-1 (1.60 ± 0.962 mg L-1), 0 and 0.55 mg L-1 (0.087 ± 0.059), 6.40 and 8.20 mg L-1 (7.30 ± 0.038 mg L-1), 22.0 and 32.0 °C (27.6 ± 1.45 °C), and 0.00 and 391.0 mg L-1 (129.3 ± 89.0), respectively. The findings were compared to standard limit values of the Ministry of Health of the Turkish Republic and other countries. Not only maximum concentrations of CyA but also the average concentrations exceeded the standard limit values of different countries in July and August with high tourism activity in Turkey. Although there is no problem in view of average values of other quality parameters, there are some problems in view of the maximum values in pool waters compared to standard limit values.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Piscinas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Cloro/análise , Desinfetantes/normas , Desinfecção/métodos , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Triazinas , Turquia , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/normas , Qualidade da Água/normas
12.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 21(3): 193-203, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28557780

RESUMO

Compounding pharmacists must ensure that the sterile preparations they dispense are free of microbiologic contamination. Working in a cleanroom under controlled conditions (proper differential air pressure, temperature, and humidity; acceptable levels of viable and nonviable airborne particles and surface counts, etc.) and testing the efficacy of cleaning and disinfecting practices via environmental monitoring (viable-air and surface testing, glove-fingertip-thumb testing, etc.) are essential to preparing contamination-free medications. Sterile-compounding pharmacists must understand how to monitor their cleanroom environment and, if they perform testing in house, to interpret the results of simple microbiologic tests (a skill helpful even when tests are outsourced to a contract laboratory). In this article, which pertains to 503A sterile compounding, and is based on the current version of United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Chapter <797>, basic concepts in microbiology and the microbial tests that can be performed and interpreted in house and those that must be outsourced are discussed. Streamlining communication with contract laboratory personnel is reviewed. Requirements for an inhouse microbiology laboratory are presented, and the advantages and disadvantages of inhouse and outsourced testing are examined. A list of suggested reading is provided for easy reference. In a subsequent article, environmental monitoring and analysis will be addressed in detail.


Assuntos
Composição de Medicamentos/normas , Farmácias/normas , Esterilização/normas , Desinfetantes/normas , Desinfecção/normas , Contaminação de Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Ambiente Controlado , Monitoramento Ambiental/normas , Humanos , Farmacêuticos/normas
13.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 38(3): 300-305, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27866475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND We investigated an increase in the incidence of healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) that occurred following a change from a bleach disinfectant to a peracetic acid-based disinfectant. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of the peracetic acid-based disinfectant. DESIGN Laboratory-based product evaluation. METHODS The commercial peracetic acid-based product is activated on site by mixing a small volume of concentrated hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid present in a "SmartCap" reservoir with the remaining contents of the container. We measured concentrations of peracetic acid in newly activated and in-use product and determined the stability of nonactivated and activated product. We tested the efficacy of the product against C. difficile spores using the American Society for Testing and Materials standard quantitative carrier disk test method. RESULTS Measured concentrations of peracetic acid (50-800 parts per million [ppm]) were significantly lower than the level stated on the product label (1,500 ppm), and similar results were obtained for containers from multiple lot numbers and from another hospital. Product with peracetic acid levels below 600 ppm had significantly reduced activity against C. difficile spores. Peracetic acid concentrations were reduced markedly after storage of either activated or nonactivated product for several weeks. The Environmental Protection Agency confirmed the finding of low disinfectant levels and ordered discontinuation of sale of the product. CONCLUSION Use of a defective peracetic acid-based surface disinfectant may have contributed to an increase in healthcare-associated CDI. Our findings highlight the importance of evaluating the efficacy of liquid disinfectants in healthcare settings. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:300-305.


Assuntos
Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Desinfetantes/normas , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Ácido Peracético/farmacologia , Clostridium difficile/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfecção/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Recall de Dispositivo Médico , Ohio , Esporos Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
14.
VACCIMONITOR ; 26(2)20170000. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | CUMED | ID: cum-72035

RESUMO

En la industria biofarmacéutica, la desinfección se ha hecho parte fundamental de las actividades para controlar el nivel de microorganismos contaminantes que puedan llegar a comprometer la calidad del producto final. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la eficacia de los desinfectantes AniosSpecial DJP SF, Aniosurf Premium, Bacteranios SF, Aniospray 29, Aseptanios AD y Surfanios utilizados en la limpieza y desinfección del área aséptica de la Planta de Productos Parenterales 2 del Centro Nacional de Biopreparados (Mayabeque, Cuba). Se comprobó la eficacia con pruebas de desafío en superficies y en condiciones prácticas de uso. Se comparó estadísticamente el número de microorganismos aislados y la microbiota presente en el área antes y después del uso de los desinfectantes. Todos los desinfectantes cumplieron con los requisitos establecidos. Por lo tanto, se demostró su eficacia para realizar la limpieza de las áreas asépticas(AU)


In the biopharmaceutical industry, disinfection has become a fundamental part of the activities to control the level of contaminants microorganisms that could compromise the quality of the final product. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of the disinfectants Anios Special DJP SF, Aniosurf Premium, Bacteranios SF, Aniospray 29, Aseptanios AD and Surfanios for the cleaning and disinfection of the aseptic area at the Parenterals Products Plant 2 (PPP2) at the National Center for Bioproducts (Mayabeque, Cuba). The efficacy was checked with challenge tests in surfaces, in practical usage conditions. The number of isolated microorganisms and the microbiota present before and after use was compared statistically. All the disinfectants complied with the established requirements. Therefore, the efficacy of the disinfectants was demonstrated to perform the cleaning and disinfection of the aseptic areas(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Desinfetantes/normas , Indústria Farmacêutica , Biofarmácia , Cuba
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27785522

RESUMO

For infectious diseases caused by highly pathogenic agents (e. g., Ebola/Lassa fever virus, SARS-/MERS-CoV, pandemic influenza virus) which have the potential to spread over several continents within only a few days, international Health Protection Authorities have taken appropriate measures to limit the consequences of a possible spread. A crucial point in this context is the disinfection of an aircraft that had a passenger on board who is suspected of being infected with one of the mentioned diseases. Although, basic advice on hygiene and sanitation on board an aircraft is given by the World Health Organization, these guidelines lack details on available and effective substances as well as standardized operating procedures (SOP). The purpose of this paper is to give guidance on the choice of substances that were tested by a laboratory of Lufthansa Technik and found compatible with aircraft components, as well as to describe procedures which ensure a safe and efficient disinfection of civil aircrafts. This guidance and the additional SOPs are made public and are available as mentioned in this paper.


Assuntos
Aeronaves/normas , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Desinfetantes/normas , Desinfecção/normas , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Gestão da Segurança/normas , Algoritmos , Alemanha , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 188(5): 304, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27102773

RESUMO

Inactivating pathogens is essential to eradicate waterborne diseases. However, disinfection forms undesirable disinfection by-products (DBPs) in the presence of natural organic matter. Many regulations and guidelines exist to limit DBP exposure for eliminating possible health impacts such as bladder cancer, reproductive effects, and child development effects. In this paper, an index named non-compliance potential (NCP) index is proposed to evaluate regulatory violations by DBPs. The index can serve to evaluate water quality in distribution networks using the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN). BBN is a graphical model to represent contributing variables and their probabilistic relationships. Total trihalomethanes (TTHM), haloacetic acids (HAA5), and free residual chlorine (FRC) are selected as the variables to predict the NCP index. A methodology has been proposed to implement the index using either monitored data, empirical model results (e.g., multiple linear regression), and disinfectant kinetics through EPANET simulations. The index's usefulness is demonstrated through two case studies on municipal distribution systems using both full-scale monitoring and modeled data. The proposed approach can be implemented for data-sparse conditions, making it especially useful for smaller municipal drinking water systems.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/legislação & jurisprudência , Purificação da Água/legislação & jurisprudência , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Teorema de Bayes , Desinfetantes/normas , Desinfecção/métodos , Cinética , Modelos Químicos , Trialometanos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/normas , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Purificação da Água/métodos
18.
Lab Anim ; 50(4): 286-95, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26561578

RESUMO

With their highly sensitive olfactory system, the behaviour and physiology of mice are not only influenced by the scents of conspecifics and other species, but also by many other chemicals in the environment. The constraints of laboratory housing limit a mouse's capacity to avoid aversive odours that could be present in the environment. Potentially odorous items routinely used for husbandry procedures, such as sanitizing products and gloves, could be perceived by mice as aversive or attractive, and affect their behaviour, physiology and experimental results. A survey was sent to research institutions in the UK to enquire about husbandry practices that could impact on the olfactory environment of the mouse. Responses were obtained from 80 individuals working in 51 institutions. Husbandry practices varied considerably. Seventy percent of respondents reported always wearing gloves for handling mice, with nitrile being the most common glove material (94%) followed by latex (23%) and vinyl (14%). Over six different products were listed for cleaning surfaces, floors, anaesthesia and euthanasia chambers and behavioural apparatus. In all cases Trigene™ (now called Anistel™) was the most common cleaning product used (43, 41, 40 and 49%, respectively). Depending on the attribute considered, between 7 and 19% of respondents thought that cleaning products definitely, or were likely to, have strong effects on standardization, mouse health, physiology or behaviour. Understanding whether and how these odours affect mouse welfare will help to refine mouse husbandry and experimental procedures through practical recommendations, to improve the quality of life of laboratory animals and the experimental data obtained.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais de Laboratório/fisiologia , Camundongos/fisiologia , Adulto , Criação de Animais Domésticos/instrumentação , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Técnicos em Manejo de Animais/psicologia , Animais , Desinfetantes/análise , Desinfetantes/normas , Feminino , Luvas Protetoras/normas , Luvas Protetoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção Olfatória , Qualidade de Vida , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS Biol ; 13(10): e1002266, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26444324

RESUMO

The global crisis of antibiotic resistance has reached a point where, if action is not taken, human medicine will enter a postantibiotic world and simple injuries could once again be life threatening. New antibiotics are needed urgently, but better use of existing agents is just as important. More appropriate use of antibiotics in medicine is vital, but the extensive use of antibiotics outside medical settings is often overlooked. Antibiotics are commonly used in animal husbandry, bee-keeping, fish farming and other forms of aquaculture, ethanol production, horticulture, antifouling paints, food preservation, and domestically. This provides multiple opportunities for the selection and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Given the current crisis, it is vital that the nonmedical use of antibiotics is critically examined and that any nonessential use halted.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Saúde Global , Guias como Assunto , Animais , Desinfetantes/normas , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Resíduos de Drogas/toxicidade , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Triclosan/toxicidade , Drogas Veterinárias/administração & dosagem , Drogas Veterinárias/normas , Drogas Veterinárias/toxicidade , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/normas
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