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1.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(16): 2391-2392, 2020 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786329

RESUMO

The current outbreak has led to renewed interest in developing novel disinfectants/drugs to kill "a species" for the benefit of "another species." While the discovery of new antimicrobials will ensure our ability to counter such threats in the short term, the development of drug resistance through natural selection will lead to the evolution of more "superbugs." In this regard, there is a need to understand viral perspective and associated molecular mechanisms and whether we can regulate viral strategies for our benefit to coexist in the long term.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/imunologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Evolução Biológica , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/prevenção & controle , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Desinfetantes/uso terapêutico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia
3.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 71(2): 223-229, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593733

RESUMO

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) continues to spread globally. It has become a major cause of concern for health care professionals all over the world. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, awareness and hygiene practices regarding COVID-19 among private dental practitioners practicing in Tricity (Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali) in India during these critical times. Materials and Methods: A total of 245 private dentists participated in this cross-sectional survey and finally 215 constituted the final sample size. A self-administered, multiple choice type questionnaire (verified by a specialist) was administered to obtain information from the subjects. The questionnaire was divided into two parts and included 15 questions on knowledge and awareness regarding COVID-19. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA and Student's t-test. Results: Percentage of subjects who answered correctly regarding main symptoms of COVID-19 and primary mode of transmission was 87% and 82.5% respectively. One-third of the subjects were not aware regarding Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to be used while rendering dental treatment. 75% of subjects were of the opinion that supportive care is the current treatment regime for COVID-19. Less than one-third of subjects (30.2%) reported high scores. Education level (p=0.018) and health sector profile (p=0.024) of the subjects were significantly associated with mean knowledge scores. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed that some notable deficiencies in knowledge existed among dental professionals regarding some vital aspects of COVID-19. Therefore, there is an urgent need for improving dentists'knowledge via health education and training programs. Further studies on the subject are also warranted once the situation normalizes.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Odontólogos/psicologia , Desinfetantes/uso terapêutico , Desinfecção/normas , Saúde Bucal/normas , Higiene Bucal/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 71(2): 223-229, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519827

RESUMO

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) continues to spread globally. It has become a major cause of concern for health care professionals all over the world. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, awareness and hygiene practices regarding COVID-19 among private dental practitioners practicing in Tricity (Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali) in India during these critical times. Materials and Methods: A total of 245 private dentists participated in this cross-sectional survey and finally 215 constituted the final sample size. A self-administered, multiple choice type questionnaire (verified by a specialist) was administered to obtain information from the subjects. The questionnaire was divided into two parts and included 15 questions on knowledge and awareness regarding COVID-19. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA and Student's t-test. Results: Percentage of subjects who answered correctly regarding main symptoms of COVID-19 and primary mode of transmission was 87% and 82.5% respectively. One-third of the subjects were not aware regarding Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to be used while rendering dental treatment. 75% of subjects were of the opinion that supportive care is the current treatment regime for COVID-19. Less than one-third of subjects (30.2%) reported high scores. Education level (p=0.018) and health sector profile (p=0.024) of the subjects were significantly associated with mean knowledge scores. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed that some notable deficiencies in knowledge existed among dental professionals regarding some vital aspects of COVID-19. Therefore, there is an urgent need for improving dentists'knowledge via health education and training programs. Further studies on the subject are also warranted once the situation normalizes.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Odontólogos/psicologia , Desinfetantes/uso terapêutico , Desinfecção/normas , Saúde Bucal/normas , Higiene Bucal/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Int J Pharm ; 584: 119431, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-277012

RESUMO

The world is facing a medical crisis amid the CoViD-19 pandemic and the role of adequate hygiene and hand sanitisers is inevitable in controlling the spread of infection in public places and healthcare institutions. There has been a great surge in demand for hand sanitisation products leading to shortages in their supply. A consequent increase of substandard products in the market has raised safety concerns. This article, therefore, presents a critical review of hand sanitation approaches and products available on the market in light of the scientific evidence available to date. This review also provides a range of hand sanitisation product formulations, and manufacturing instructions to allow for extemporaneous preparations at the community and hospital pharmacies during this urgent crisis. In addition, this emergent situation is expected to continue, hence hand sanitisers will be in demand for an extended time, and the availability and purchase of substandard products on the market create an ongoing safety concern. Therefore, this article shall also provide various commercial organisations, interested in stepping forward the production and marketing of hand sanitisers, with a guide on the development of products of standardised ingredients and formulations.


Assuntos
Álcoois/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/uso terapêutico , Humanos
6.
Int J Pharm ; 584: 119431, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461194

RESUMO

The world is facing a medical crisis amid the CoViD-19 pandemic and the role of adequate hygiene and hand sanitisers is inevitable in controlling the spread of infection in public places and healthcare institutions. There has been a great surge in demand for hand sanitisation products leading to shortages in their supply. A consequent increase of substandard products in the market has raised safety concerns. This article, therefore, presents a critical review of hand sanitation approaches and products available on the market in light of the scientific evidence available to date. This review also provides a range of hand sanitisation product formulations, and manufacturing instructions to allow for extemporaneous preparations at the community and hospital pharmacies during this urgent crisis. In addition, this emergent situation is expected to continue, hence hand sanitisers will be in demand for an extended time, and the availability and purchase of substandard products on the market create an ongoing safety concern. Therefore, this article shall also provide various commercial organisations, interested in stepping forward the production and marketing of hand sanitisers, with a guide on the development of products of standardised ingredients and formulations.


Assuntos
Álcoois/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/uso terapêutico , Humanos
7.
J Glaucoma ; 29(7): 507-512, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459693

RESUMO

PRECIS: A survey among members of the American Glaucoma Society (AGS) and the American Optometry Association (AOA) on tonometer preference and tonometer disinfection indicates a shift to disposable tonometer tips compared with 1987. PURPOSE: This survey's purpose was to determine how eye care providers responded to the 2008 Centers of Disease Control (CDC) tonometer disinfection guidelines, which recommend 10% hypochlorite (dilute bleach) for reusable tonometers. Tonometers measure the eye pressure when they touch the cornea, an essential part of the eye examination. METHODS: AGS and AOA members were surveyed on tonometer preference, tonometer use, disinfection process, disinfectants, disinfection timing, and tonometer damage. RESULTS: Survey responses from 79 AOA members and 197 AGS members are included. The Goldmann tonometer is considered most accurate (70, 89% AOA and 161, 82% AGS). It is preferred by 54 (70%) AOA and 193 (98%) AGS members. Many providers (165) use reusable Goldmann tonometer tips (77, 79% AOA, 88, 45% AGS), and most clean with 70% isopropyl alcohol wipes 59 (77%) AOA and 54 (61%) AGS. In summary, 126 of 276 participants (8, 10% AOA and 118, 60% AGS) follow CDC guidelines by using disposable tips (2 AOA and 109 AGS) or disinfecting reusable tips with 10% hypochlorite (6 AOA and 9 AGS). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of AGS providers follow current CDC tonometer disinfection guidelines by shifting to disposable Goldmann tonometer tips. Only a minority of providers who use reusable tonometer tips disinfect with dilute bleach. Continued education on proper tonometer disinfection is critical to prevent eye-care related infection due to improper disinfection.


Assuntos
Desinfecção/métodos , Desinfecção/tendências , Tonometria Ocular/instrumentação , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Desinfetantes/uso terapêutico , Equipamentos Descartáveis , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular , Padrões de Prática Médica , Tonometria Ocular/tendências
8.
J Infect Chemother ; 26(8): 785-789, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To prevent contamination when taking blood culture, there are various effective interventions. Whether there is greater efficacy by using a combination of these interventions has not been widely evaluated. METHODS: Our six-element intervention bundle aimed to prevent contamination of blood culture in our emergency department (ED). Elements were: use of 1% chlorhexidine alcohol, alcohol wiping, hand hygiene, using sterile gloves, using holed sterile cover, and selection of upper extremities as the site of venipuncture. We compared the contamination rate of blood culture between the pre- and the post-intervention periods among all cases with two or more blood cultures taken in our ED. We also evaluated the rate of patients receiving vancomycin among all those transferred to the hospital from the ED. RESULTS: During the pre- and post-intervention periods, 460 and 450 cases were included in analysis, respectively. Contamination of blood culture occurred in 29 pre-intervention cases (6.3%) and five post-interventional cases (1.1%) (relative risk 0.18, 95% confidence interval 0.07 to 0.45; P < 0.001). After bundle implementation, there was significant increase in adherence to using 1% chlorhexidine alcohol, alcohol wiping, hand hygiene, and using holed sterile covers. Among patients admitted to hospital, fewer patients received vancomycin during the post-intervention period than in the pre-intervention period (5.4% vs. 3.2%, P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Our intervention bundle dramatically reduced the contamination rate when drawing blood culture in our ED.


Assuntos
Sangue/microbiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Contaminação de Equipamentos/prevenção & controle , Flebotomia/métodos , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Hemocultura/métodos , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Desinfetantes/uso terapêutico , Higiene das Mãos , Humanos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110949

RESUMO

Healthcare-associated transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)remains a persistent problem. The use of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) as a means of decolonizingpatients, either through targeted decolonization or daily bathing, is frequently used to supplementother interventions. We explore the potential of a long-acting disinfectant with a persistent effect,immediate decolonizing action in the prevention of MRSA acquisition, and clinical illness andmortality in an 18-bed intensive care unit, based on a previous model. A scenario with nointervention is compared to CHG bathing, which decolonizes patients but provides no additionalprotection, and a hypothetical treatment that both decolonizes them and provides protection fromsubsequent colonization. The duration and effectiveness of this protection is varied to fully explorethe potential utility of such a treatment. Increasing the effectiveness of the decolonizing agentreduces colonization, with a 10% increase resulting in a colonization rate ratio (RR) of 0.89 (95% CI:0.89,0.90). Increasing the duration of protection results in a much more modest reduction, with a 12-hour increase in protection resulting in an RR of 0.99 (95% CI: 0.99, 0.99). There is little evidence ofsynergy between the two.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Infecção Hospitalar , Desinfetantes , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Banhos , Desinfetantes/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Meticilina , Pele , Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle
10.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 21, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovine footrot caused by Dichelobacter nodosus (D nodosus) is an infectious disease affecting sheep worldwide. Switzerland plans a nationwide footrot eradication program, based on PCR-testing of interdigital swab samples. The aim of this study was to test for the presence of D nodosus in clinically footrot-free sheep flocks which had been subjected to different treatment strategies, to assess whether they were feasible for the eradication process, especially focussing on antimicrobial flock treatments. Clinical scoring and PCR-results were compared. Ten farms had used hoof bathing and hoof trimming without causing bleeding, ten had used individual treatments and flock vaccines to gain the free status and ten had become free through whole-flock systemic macrolide treatment. For every farm, three risk-based collected pool samples were analysed for the occurrence of virulent and benign D nodosus by PCR detection of aprV2/aprB2. RESULTS: Six flocks from any treatment group tested positive for aprB2 in all pools. Clinical signs were absent at the time of sampling, but some flocks had experienced non-progressive interdigital inflammation previously. Two flocks tested aprV2-positive in the high-risk pool. One of them underwent a progressive footrot outbreak shortly after sampling. Individual retesting indicated, that virulent D nodosus most likely was reintroduced by a recently purchased ram. In the second flock, a ram was tested positive and treated before clinical signs occurred. CONCLUSIONS: All treatment strategies eliminated the causative agent and were found to be suitable for implementation in the PCR-based eradication process. PCR-testing proved to be more sensitive than visual scoring, as it also detected clinically healthy carriers. It will be of benefit as a diagnostic tool in elimination and surveillance programs.


Assuntos
Dichelobacter nodosus/isolamento & purificação , Pododermatite Necrótica dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Dichelobacter nodosus/efeitos dos fármacos , Dichelobacter nodosus/patogenicidade , Desinfetantes/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Pododermatite Necrótica dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Pododermatite Necrótica dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/prevenção & controle , Casco e Garras/microbiologia , Macrolídeos , Masculino , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Suíça , Vacinação/veterinária
11.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(7)2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980429

RESUMO

The impact that nutrient level has on biofilm characteristics, biocide effectiveness, and the associated risk of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) was assessed using multispecies biofilms from two different oilfield consortia. A range of microbiological, microscopy, and corrosion methods demonstrated that the continuous flow of nutrients for the microbial growth resulted in higher activity, thickness, and robustness of the biofilms formed on carbon steel, which induced greater localized corrosion compared to biofilms formed under batch, nutrient-depleted conditions. Despite of the differences in biofilm characteristics, biofilms displayed comparable susceptibilities to glutaraldehyde biocide, with similar log10 reductions and percent reductions of microorganisms under both nutrient conditions. Nevertheless, nutrient replenishment impacted the effectiveness of the biocide in controlling microbial populations; a higher concentration of cells survived the biocide treatment in biofilms formed under a continuous flow of nutrients. Complementary DNA-/RNA-based amplicon sequencing and bioinformatics analysis were used to discriminate the active within the total populations in biofilms established at the different nutrient conditions and allowed the identification of the microbial species that remained active despite nutrient depletion and biocide treatment. Detection of persistent active microorganisms after exposure to glutaraldehyde, regardless of biofilm structure, suggested the presence of microorganisms less susceptible to this biocide and highlighted the importance of monitoring active microbial species for the early detection of biocide resistance in oil production facilities.IMPORTANCE Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a complex process that generates economic losses to the industry every year. Corrosion must be managed to prevent a loss of containment of produced fluids to the external environment. MIC management includes the identification of assets with higher MIC risk, which could be influenced by nutrient levels in the system. Assessing biofilms under different nutrient conditions is essential for understanding the impact of flow regime on microbial communities and the subsequent impact on microbial corrosion and on the effectiveness of biocide treatment. This investigation simulates closely oil production systems, which contain piping sections exposed to continuous flow and sections that remain stagnant for long periods. Therefore, the results reported here are useful for MIC management and prevention. Moreover, the complementary methodological approach applied in this investigation highlighted the importance of implementing RNA-based methods for better identification of active microorganisms that survive stress conditions in oil systems.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfetantes/uso terapêutico , Aço/química , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Corrosão , Nutrientes/análise
12.
Arch Oral Biol ; 110: 104600, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759184

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess whether subgingival irrigation with 0.12 % or 0.2 % chlorhexidine (CHX) immediately after scaling and root planing (SRP) enhances periodontal tissue repair compared to irrigation with saline solution (control). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Periodontitis was ligature-induced in rat molars for 7 days. Animals were distributed into three groups: 1) SRP group, SRP and irrigation with 0.9 % saline (n = 30); 2) SRP + 0.12 % CHX group, SRP and irrigation with 0.12 % CHX (n = 30); 3) SRP + 0.2 % CHX group, SRP and irrigation with 0.2 % CHX (n = 30). Animals were killed at 7, 15, and 30 days after treatment. Furcation region was histometrically analyzed to determine the bone area. Immunohistochemical reactions were performed for receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). RESULTS: Both chlorhexidine groups presented less inflammation and improved tissue repair along the entire experiment when compared with the SRP group. In the histometric analysis at 7, 15 and 30 days, SRP group (4.58 ±â€¯2.51 mm2, 4.21 ±â€¯1.25 mm2, 3.49 ±â€¯1.48 mm2), showed statistically less bone area than groups SRP + 0.12 % CHX (1.86 ±â€¯1.11 mm2; 0.79 ±â€¯0.27 mm2; 0.34 ±â€¯0.14 mm2) and SRP + 0.2 % CHX (1.14 ±â€¯0.51 mm2; 0.98 ±â€¯0.40 mm2; 0.41 ±â€¯0.21 mm2). Both chlorhexidine concentrations modulated the expression of TRAP, RANKL and OPG. CONCLUSIONS: Subgingival irrigation with chlorhexidine contributed for a quicker shift from a proinflammatory destructive profile to healing of periodontal tissues.


Assuntos
Clorexidina , Raspagem Dentária , Desinfetantes , Periodontite , Aplainamento Radicular , Animais , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Desinfetantes/uso terapêutico , Periodontite/terapia , Ratos
13.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 94: 0-0, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192974

RESUMO

Al día de hoy, el nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 se ha extendido ampliamente por el mundo y plantea nuevos desafíos para garantizar la salud y seguridad del personal sanitario. Debido a que dicho personal está en primera línea de la lucha contra el nuevo coronavirus, siendo uno de los grupos más afectados y vulnerables durante la pandemia, es necesario tener en cuenta que las medidas preventivas adoptadas por ellos son fundamentales. Especialmente en situaciones de emergencia, hay que tomar las medidas imprescindibles para la prevención de la exposición ocupacional durante esta nueva pandemia. Los profesionales sanitarios están trabajando con una gran intensidad y una enorme responsabilidad social pero, además de los aplausos, merecen más atención


Today, the novel coronavirus has spread widely throughout the world and poses new challenges to ensure the health and safety of health personnel. Because health personnel are at the frontlines in the fight against the novel coronavirus, which is one of the groups most affected and vulnerable during the pandemic, it is necessary to remind that the preventive measures adopted by health personnel are essential. Especially in emergency situations, essential measures must be taken to prevent occupational exposure during the novel coronavirus pandemic. Health professionals are working with great intensity and enormous social responsibility. In addition to the applause, they deserve more attention


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/uso terapêutico , Precauções Universais/métodos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde
14.
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 30: 0-0, 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188544

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Sintetizar la evidencia disponible sobre el uso de antisépticos y desinfectantes ante la infección de COVID-19MÉTODO: Búsqueda bibliográfica en las principales bases de datos (WOS, CCC, DIIDW, KJD, MEDLINE, RSCI, SCIELO, PubMed, BMJ Best Practice, Cochrane Library, UptoDate) y en web de organismos oficiales en marzo de 2020, mediante descriptores y truncamientos. La búsqueda se limitó a revisiones publicadas entre 2016-2020. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 36 documentos (sin duplicados) de los que se seleccionaron, por pertinencia y especificidad 17, a los que se añadió un documento de la de lectura de la bibliografía. En los documentos finalmente utilizados, no se localizaron evidencias, pero sí experiencias y recomendaciones de interés, destacando la importancia de la desinfección del material, del ambiente y de manera muy significativa de las manos. CONCLUSIÓN: No se aprecian claras evidencias, ni se identifican claras recomendaciones de usar uno u otro antiséptico, aunque se resalta la acción del hipoclorito de sodio, el etanol y el peróxido de hidrógeno frente a otros como el cloruro de benzalconio, el digluconato de clorhexidina, la povidona yodada y el alcohol étilico diluido. Especialmente se da importancia a utilizarlos en la higiene de manos, el uso de equipos de protección yde la desinfección del entorno


OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the available evidence on the use of antiseptics and disinfectants in the face of VIDOC-19 infectionMETHOD: Bibliographic search in the main databases (WOS, CCC, DIIDW, KJD, MEDLINE, RSCI, SCIELO, PubMed, BMJ Best Practice, Cochrane Library, UptoDate) and on the web of official bodies in March 2020, using descriptors and truncations. The search was limited to reviews published between 2016-2020. RESULTS: Thirty-six papers were identified (no duplicates) of which 17 were selected for relevance and specificity and one paper was added from the literature review. In the documents finally used, no evidence was located, but experiences and recommendations of interest were found, highlighting the importance of material, environmental and, very significantly, hand disinfection. CONCLUSION: There is no clear evidence, nor are there clear recommendations for the use of one or another antiseptic, although the action of sodium hypochlorite, ethanol and hydrogen peroxide is highlighted in comparison to others such as benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine digluconate, povidoeyodine and diluted ethyl alcohol. Particularimportance is attached to their use in hand hygiene, the use of protective equipment and environmental disinfection


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Higienizadores de Mão , Hipoclorito de Sódio , Etanol , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Compostos de Benzalcônio , Clorexidina , Povidona-Iodo , Incrustação Biológica
15.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 19(1): 202, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To report the clinical and microbiological features of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) related to contact lens use in a tertiary hospital in China. METHODS: In this retrospective study, the medical results of 61 cases of AK related to contact lens use from January 2000 to December 2017 were reviewed. The data included patients' demographics, lens type, history, risk factors, disease stages, corneal scraping and culture reports, and treatments. Moreover, genotypic identification of some of the isolates was carried out with a PCR assay and sequence analysis of the 18S ribosomal DNA gene. RESULTS: There were 64 eyes included in the study. A total of 32.8% of the patients wore soft contact lenses, and 67.2% of patients used overnight orthokeratology. In the cases (20 eyes) in the early stage, 65% (13 eyes) had positive results according to Giemsa-stained smears, and 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl) wet mounts revealed trophozoites in 7 eyes (35%). Six eyes (30%) were diagnosed by confocal microscopy combined with clinical signs. In the orthokeratology patients, 87.8% (36/41) rinsed their lenses and/or cases with tap water; 55% of soft-lens wearers wore their lenses while showering. The genotype of 9 isolates was determined, and all the strains belonged to genotype T4. In the orthokeratology group, the number of patients who required therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty after 2005 was less than that before 2005 (chi-square test, χ2 = 4.209, P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: More than two-thirds of the cases were associated with orthokeratology. Examinations with Giemsa-stained smears, 0.9% NaCl wet mounts and confocal microscopy should be performed for patients who are highly suspected of having early-stage AK to help with early diagnosis. In the orthokeratology group, the rate of therapeutic keratoplasty after 2005 was less than that before 2005.


Assuntos
Ceratite por Acanthamoeba/etiologia , Lentes de Contato/parasitologia , Úlcera da Córnea/etiologia , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/etiologia , Acanthamoeba/genética , Acanthamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Ceratite por Acanthamoeba/diagnóstico , Ceratite por Acanthamoeba/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Biguanidas/uso terapêutico , Criança , China , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Úlcera da Córnea/diagnóstico , Úlcera da Córnea/terapia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Desinfetantes/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Ceratoplastia Penetrante , Masculino , Microscopia Confocal , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
16.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e021, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508722

RESUMO

This study investigated the effectiveness of XP-Endo Finisher (XPF) associated with XP-Endo Shaper (XPS) or Reciproc Blue (RB) files in reducing bacterial load in oval-shaped root canals (RC) during chemomechanical preparation (CMP) using 0.9% saline solution (NaCl) or 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Eighty mandibular incisors with single oval-shaped RC were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. The teeth were randomly assigned to eight experimental groups (n = 10) according to the CMP, as follows: G1: XPS, G2: XPS + XPF, G3: RB, and G4: RB + XPF. CMP was performed with NaCl or NaOCl. The reduction of bacterial load was assessed by colony-forming unit count before (S1) and after (S2) CMP. Data normality was verified by using Shapiro-Wilk test. ANOVA, Tukey's test, and Bonferroni post-hoc test were used at a 5% significance level. Culturable bacteria were present in all S1 samples (p>0.05). All instrumentation techniques were effective in reducing bacterial load, irrespective of the irrigating solution (p < 0.05). With the use of NaCl, RB was more effective than XPS (p = 0.035). With the use of NaOCl, XPS and RB presented similar effectiveness (p = 0.779). XPF enhanced the bacterial reduction of both systems tested (p < 0.05). The use of NaOCl improved the CMP, irrespective of the instrumentation technique used (p < 0.05). In conclusion, XPS and RB files are effective in reducing bacterial levels in oval-shaped RC. The use of XPF as a method of agitation of the irrigating solution improved the cleaning efficiency of both file systems tested. Mechanical preparation performed with saline solution decreased culturable bacteria from the root canal, but antimicrobial substances such as NaOCl should be used to achieve a significantly better disinfection.


Assuntos
Carga Bacteriana , Instrumentos Odontológicos , Cavidade Pulpar/anatomia & histologia , Preparo de Canal Radicular/instrumentação , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Desinfetantes/uso terapêutico , Enterococcus faecalis/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Humanos , Incisivo , Teste de Materiais , Solução Salina/uso terapêutico , Hipoclorito de Sódio/uso terapêutico
17.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 60(2): E140-E146, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312743

RESUMO

Introduction: Evaluation of cleaning methods is the first step in the prevention of healthcare-associated infections. ATP hygiene monitoring tests are widely used for assessing the effectiveness of cleaning procedures. The test is easy to use and gives immediate results, however, ATP can be metabolized and degraded to ADP and AMP. Recently, a total adenylate [ATP + ADP + AMP(A3)] monitoring test has been developed. Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of the A3 test for cleaning verification in healthcare settings. Methods: The detection sensitivities of the ATP and the A3 tests were compared using blood, and debris derived from gloved-hand method and endoscopes immediately after endoscopic examination. The performance of the A3 test in monitoring cleanliness of high touch surfaces in the hospital and endoscopes at each cleaning step was also evaluated. Results: For the hemolysate, the measurement values of the A3 test were stable, although ATP was promptly degraded. In debris from hands, the amount of A3 was 20 times higher than that of ATP. The detection sensitivities of the A3 test on residues derived from gastroscopes and colonoscopes were 3 and 8 times higher, respectively, than those from the ATP test. A field study indicated that a large number of microorganisms tend to show high A3 values on high touch surfaces in the hospital and on endoscopes. Conclusions: The A3 test showed higher detection sensitivities than the conventional ATP test for organic debris associated with healthcare settings.


Assuntos
Difosfato de Adenosina/análise , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análise , Trifosfato de Adenosina/análise , Descontaminação , Instalações de Saúde , Descontaminação/métodos , Descontaminação/normas , Detergentes/uso terapêutico , Desinfetantes/uso terapêutico , Instalações de Saúde/normas , Hospitais/normas , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 161(6): 377-386, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145680

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Footrot in sheep should be eradicated in Switzerland in the future. Based on scientific findings, this can be achieved with disinfectant footbaths. It is unknown how many sheep farmers are already using this means and how it is used. The current study evaluated the farm operation, the design of the footbath, the use of disinfectants and footbath with a written survey of a representative sample of all sheep farmers. The sample population was selected randomly, however stratified by language region and herdsize to control for differences between these groups. 45.3% (n=1134) of the distributed questionnaires were received for evaluation. On average 32.8% of the respondents used a footbath. Even on large farms (> 50 animals), which were more frequently affected by footrot, a footbath was available only in 52.6% of the farms in the French-speaking part and 67.7% in the German/Italian speaking part of Switzerland. The footbaths were correctly applied in most respects (e.g., pre-claw cleaning, liquid level and concentration of disinfectants, time in the footbath, post-bath drying phase) in the current study. Most commonly mobile plastic baths were in use. The disinfectants used were mainly formalin, copper and zinc sulfate. The incorrect disposal of the heavy-metal containing copper and zinc sulfate solutions was identified as an important problem: In 59% of the sheep farms the remaining footbath solutions were disposed in the slurry pit or manure storage. In summary the current study recommends (i) to motivate sheep farmers to use a footbath for the treatment and prevention of footrot, and (ii) to replace the currently used disinfectants with substances that are non-toxic to humans, animals and the environment.


Assuntos
Banhos/veterinária , Desinfetantes/uso terapêutico , Pododermatite Necrótica dos Ovinos/terapia , Doenças dos Ovinos/terapia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Casco e Garras/microbiologia , Ovinos , Suíça
19.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 29(4): 387-389, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925969

RESUMO

Application of ozone is recommended for sterilisation in dental procedures. This study explored the antimicrobial effect of 0.1 ppm ozonated-water on selected common oral commensals. Based on deviation of their growth curves pattern upon ozone treatment, the inhibitory effect of ozone was determined. SEM examination of the ozone-treated microbes recorded its possible morphological effect. Findings suggested a bacteriostatic action of ozone when microbes were treated at the early phase, while, it was bactericidal when treated during the active phase of the growth cycle. Hence, suggesting rinsing the oral cavity with ozonated-water at 0.1 ppm immediately after tooth brushing may suppress microbial growth and slow biofilm formation. While, rinsing on already developed biofilm may result in microbial cell lysis that halted microbial growth and reduce microbial population in the biofilm. Both justify the great potential of ozone (0.1 ppm) for use as antimicrobial agent for the control of biofilm development in the oral cavity.


Assuntos
Boca/efeitos dos fármacos , Boca/microbiologia , Ozônio/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Água , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Desinfetantes/uso terapêutico , Humanos
20.
Int Wound J ; 16(3): 753-760, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883044

RESUMO

Appropriate and effective wound cleaning represents an important process that is necessary for preparing the wound for improved wound healing and for helping to dislodge biofilms. Wound cleaning is of paramount importance to wound bed preparation for helping to enhance wound healing. Surfactant applications in wound care may represent an important area in the cleaning continuum. However, understanding of the role and significance of surfactants in wound cleansing, biofilm prevention and control, and enhancing cellular viability and proliferation is currently lacking. Despite this, some recent evidence on poloxamer-based surfactants where the surfactants are present in high concentration have been shown to have an important role to play in biofilm management; matrix metalloproteinase modulation; reducing inflammation; and enhancing cellular proliferation, behaviour, and viability. Consequently, this review aims to discuss the role, mode of action, and clinical significance of the use of medically accepted surfactants, with a focus on concentrated poloxamer-based surfactants, to wound healing but, more specifically, the role they may play in biofilm management and effects on cellular repair.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Crescimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfetantes/uso terapêutico , Tensoativos/uso terapêutico , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecção dos Ferimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
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