Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 13.152
Filtrar
1.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 82: 106753, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36027631

RESUMO

High circulating progesterone concentrations decrease the responses to stressful situations in farm ruminants. We hypothesized that administering a single dose of long-acting progesterone formulation reduces the stress response of anestrous ewes to weaning. The aim of this study was to compare the behavioral, cortisol, and blood protein responses to weaning of anestrous ewes treated or not, with a single dose of a long-acting progesterone formulation. A complementary aim was to characterize the bioavailability of progesterone after this treatment. Thirty-six multiparous single-lambing Corriedale ewes and their lambs were used in this study. The lambs were weaned at 6:30 h when they were 65 d old (d0), and were taken to another paddock without chemical, visual or auditory contact with their mothers, while the ewes remained in the same paddock. Immediately before weaning, while 19 ewes received oil based long-acting progesterone formulation, other 17 ewes remained as controls, receiving sunflower oil. Twelve ewes from each group were used for behavioral recordings, the other 5 untreated ewes and 7 treated ewes were used to characterize the cortisol response and the progesterone profile. Behaviors were recorded every 10th min for 3 h in the morning and 3 h in the afternoon on day minus 3, d0 and d2, and expressed as percentage of recordings each animal displayed each behavior on each day. Treated ewes were recorded more times standing up than ewes on the day of weaning (P < 0.05), but the reverse result was found 2 d after (P < 0.01). Treated ewes were recorded more times lying down than control ewes on d2 after weaning (P < 0.0001), when treated ewes were observed fewer times walking than control ewes (P = 0.0004), as also happened the day of weaning (P < 0.0001). On the day of weaning, treated ewes grazed and paced less than control ewes (P = 0.001 and P = 0.009). Treated ewes ruminated more than control ewes on the day of weaning (P = 0.02) and 2 d later (P = 0.0002). Control ewes also secreted more cortisol than progesterone-treated ewes (P = 0.03), with no effect of the treatment on the concentration of total proteins, albumin or globulins. While control ewes never had luteal progesterone concentrations (>0.5 ng/mL), treated ewes achieved luteal progesterone concentrations 2 h after its administration, and remained well above luteal levels until 15 h after administration. The administration of a single dose of long-acting progesterone formulation appears to be a viable choice in reducing the stress to weaning in ewes. Ewes treated with progesterone coped better with weaning, returning to their normal basal behavior earlier than untreated ones, and secreting lower cortisol levels.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Progesterona , Ovinos , Animais , Feminino , Desmame , Corpo Lúteo , Transporte Biológico
2.
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 32(6): 413-422, Nov-Dic. 2022. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-VR-355

RESUMO

Objetivo: Analizar la relación del retraso de la lactogénesisII con la percepción materna de leche insuficiente. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional longitudinal prospectivo, multicéntrico. Se obtuvieron datos al alta y entre 1 y 5meses posparto sobre la percepción de leche insuficiente y las variables relacionadas mediante un cuestionario autoadministrado y el posterior seguimiento postal y online. Para el desarrollo del modelo explicativo, se realizó un análisis de regresión logística. Resultados: Participaron un total de 260 puérperas. El 31,9% de ellas percibieron leche insuficiente y el 23,6% presentaron retraso de la lactogénesisII. Durante el ingreso posparto, se relacionó con la percepción materna de leche insuficiente el retraso de la lactogénesisII (OR=2,26; IC95%=1,07-4,79), la dificultad para amamantar (OR=1,02; IC95%=1,00-1,03) y la ayuda de los profesionales en la lactancia (OR=0,70; IC95%=0,50-0,97). Conclusiones: La aparición de dificultades en la lactancia durante el ingreso posparto y al alta, especialmente cuando existe un retraso de la lactogénesisII, deben considerarse indicadores de riesgo, que sugieren la necesidad de un apoyo adicional a los cuidados estandarizados. La percepción de leche insuficiente es un indicador adecuado para evaluar la calidad del apoyo profesional a la lactancia en intervenciones de mejora.(AU)


Aim: To analyze the relationship of delayed lactogenesisII with maternal perception of insufficient milk. Methods: A prospective, multicenter, longitudinal observational study was conducted. Data were obtained at discharge and between 1 and 5months postpartum on the perception of insufficient milk and related variables, by means of a self-administered questionnaire, and subsequent postal and online follow-up. Logistic regression analysis was used to develop the explanatory model. Results: A total of 260 puerperal mothers participated. Of these, 31.9% had insufficient milk and 23.6% had delayed lactogenesisII. During postpartum admission, delayed lactogenesis II (OR=2.26; 95%CI=1.07-4.79), difficulty in breastfeeding (OR=1.02; 95%CI=1.00-1.03), and professional help in breastfeeding (OR=0.70; 95%CI=0.50-0.97) were associated with maternal perception of insufficient milk.Conclusions: The occurrence of breastfeeding difficulties during postpartum admission and at discharge, especially when there is delayed lactogenesisII, should be considered risk indicators, suggesting the need for additional support to standardized care. The perception of insufficient milk is a suitable indicator to assess the quality of professional breastfeeding support in improvement interventions.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Aleitamento Materno , Desmame , Lactação , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(6): 376, 2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335175

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to estimate the genetic parameters for the feed efficiency traits in Barbari goats. The data records of 9332 progenies born to 413 sires and 2580 dams were collected with respect to the average daily weight gain (ADG), i.e., ADG1 (birth to weaning), ADG2 (weaning to 6 months), ADG3 (6 to 12 months), as well as derived trait Kleiber ratio (KR), i.e., KR1 (ADG1/3MW0.75), KR2 (ADG2/6MW0.75), and KR3 (ADG3/12MW0.75). The data were corrected for fixed covariates like period of kidding, the season of birth, sex, type of birth, and parity. Univariate and multivariate animal models with an average information function of restricted maximum likelihood (REML) were used to estimate genetic factors for these traits. The best model was evaluated based on the likelihood ratio test. The direct heritability estimates were 0.21 ± 0.03, 0.17 ± 0.03, 0.23 ± 0.04, 0.22 ± 0.04, 0.16 ± 0.04, and 0.26 ± 0.04 for ADG1, ADG2, ADG3, KR1, KR2, and KR3, respectively. However, they were inflated due to high and negative estimates of covariance between direct animal and maternal genetic effects. Moderate estimates of heritability augur the scope for improvement for feed efficiency traits. The maternal genetic effects (m2) significantly contributed to 3-12% of the total phenotypic variance. The realized heritability of mass selection, which takes into account direct and maternal genetic variance together, shows a low to moderate estimate of genetic variance for ADG and KR. The genetic correlation ranged from - 0.48 ± 0.11 (ADG1-KR3) to 0.95 ± 0.00 (ADG1-KR1), phenotypic correlation ranged from - 0.28 ± 0.01 (ADG2-KR3) to 0.94 ± 0.01 (ADG1-KR1), maternal genetic correlation ranged from - 0.22 (KR2-KR3) to 0.96 (ADG1-KR1) and - 0.69 (ADG1-KR3) to 0.95 (ADG1-KR1) for the maternal permanent environment, respectively. Kids can be indirectly chosen for higher feed efficiency since ADG and their associated KR have substantial genetic correlations. It is suggested that the KR should be used as a selection criterion for Barbari goats for improving feed efficiency.


Assuntos
Cabras , Aumento de Peso , Gravidez , Feminino , Animais , Cabras/genética , Aumento de Peso/genética , Fenótipo , Funções Verossimilhança , Desmame , Peso Corporal/genética
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18763, 2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335246

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of partial replacement of inorganic minerals (IM) with trace minerals in advance chelate components form in starter diets for calves of different birth weights on performance, health, and behavior of Holstein calves. Fifty-two calves were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two mineral sources (IM or advanced chelated minerals (ACMS)) and two birth weights (low or normal birth weight; LBW or NBW). Calves were weaned on d 56 and remained until d 71 of the study. Results showed that NBW calves had higher feed intake, withers and hip height, larger heart girth and lower fecal score than LBW calves throughout the study. Calves receiving ACMS tended to have higher feed intake, larger hip width, lower eye and nose scores, and lower rectal temperature throughout the study than IM calves. In addition, ACMS calves had larger abdominal girths at d 56 of the study compared to IM calves. Interactions between birth weights and mineral sources for preweaning average daily gain (ADG) and weaning and final BW showed that ACMS supplementation improved ADG and BW in LBW calves. Non-nutritive oral behavior was lower in ACMS calves compared to IM calves during all periods. Overall, ACMS feeding decreased non-nutritive oral behavior and improved calf health status during the study. In addition, feeding ACMS to dairy calves with LBW increased their ADG to a similar extent as to NBW calves, suggesting an improvement in their efficiency.


Assuntos
Rúmen , Oligoelementos , Bovinos , Animais , Ração Animal/análise , Peso ao Nascer , Desmame , Dieta/veterinária , Peso Corporal , Leite
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1024235, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36389706

RESUMO

The role of normal gut microbiota in asthma or ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma tolerance (OT) remains unclear. Here, we established mouse models of asthma and OT followed by 2 weeks of antibiotic treatment, to clear the gut microbiota. Antibiotic treatment was found to alleviate allergic asthma accompanied with a reduction of invariant natural killer (iNKT) cells. By RNA-seq analysis, we found that ß-adrenergic receptor (ADRB) genes, including Adrb1, Adrb2, and Adrb3, were downregulated in asthmatic lungs, but these changes were reversed in OT lungs. Moreover, Adrb2 and Adrb3 were significantly upregulated in asthmatic lungs after antibiotic treatment. Surprisingly, blocking ADRB with propranolol relieved allergic asthma while reducing T helper 2 (Th2) and Treg cell numbers. Further analyses using flow cytometry and immunofluorescence showed that the protein expression level of ADRB2 was higher in asthmatic lungs than that in the control and OT lungs. Notably, dendritic cells (DCs), especially the ADRB2+ DCs, were increased in asthmatic lungs compared to that in the control and OT lungs. In addition, ADRB2+ DCs were significantly reduced following the administration of the ADRB2-specific antagonist ICI118551. Our findings suggest that antibiotic treatment can alleviate OVA-induced allergic asthma via reducing the frequency of iNKT cells and function of ADRB2.


Assuntos
Asma , Células T Matadoras Naturais , Camundongos , Animais , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Desmame , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Asma/genética , Ovalbumina/efeitos adversos , Células Matadoras Naturais
6.
FASEB J ; 36(12): e22644, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36415994

RESUMO

Maternal obesity (MO) during pregnancy is linked to increased and premature risk of age-related metabolic diseases in the offspring. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain not fully understood. Using a well-established nonhuman primate model of MO, we analyzed tissue biopsies and plasma samples obtained from post-pubertal offspring (3-6.5 y) of MO mothers (n = 19) and from control animals born to mothers fed a standard diet (CON, n = 13). All offspring ate a healthy chow diet after weaning. Using untargeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomics analysis, we quantified a total of 351 liver, 316 skeletal muscle, and 423 plasma metabolites. We identified 58 metabolites significantly altered in the liver and 46 in the skeletal muscle of MO offspring, with 8 metabolites shared between both tissues. Several metabolites were changed in opposite directions in males and females in both liver and skeletal muscle. Several tissue-specific and 4 shared metabolic pathways were identified from these dysregulated metabolites. Interestingly, none of the tissue-specific metabolic changes were reflected in plasma. Overall, our study describes characteristic metabolic perturbations in the liver and skeletal muscle in MO offspring, indicating that metabolic programming in utero persists postnatally, and revealing potential novel mechanisms that may contribute to age-related metabolic diseases later in life.


Assuntos
Obesidade Materna , Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Gravidez , Desmame , Obesidade/metabolismo , Dieta , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Estilo de Vida , Puberdade
7.
Animal ; 16(11): 100667, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368266

RESUMO

Postweaning diarrhoea caused by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a threat to the pig industry. With an intensified focus on finding alternatives to the use of medical zinc oxide and antibiotics in newly weaned pigs, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of early inoculation of probiotics to suckling piglets on subsequently ETEC faecal shedding and immune parameters in ETEC F18-challenged weaned piglets. Sixty pigs weaned on day 28 of age were assigned to three treatment groups: (i) Negative Control (non-challenged), (ii) Positive Control (challenged) and (iii) Probiotic (challenged and inoculated with a multi-species probiotic product during suckling). On days 1 and 2 postweaning, pigs in the Positive Control and Probiotic groups were challenged with 5 × 108 colony-forming unit ETEC F18/pig/day, whereas pigs in the Negative Control group were provided with NaCl. Growth and diarrhoea incidence were not significantly affected by ETEC challenge or probiotic administration. ETEC F18 shedding and C-reactive protein concentration in plasma were significantly lower in the Negative Control group, confirming a successful challenge model. Pigs in the Probiotic group had a significantly reduced number of pigs shedding ETEC F18 and STb toxin in faeces compared with the Positive Control group. Probiotic application did not significantly impact the concentration of C-reactive protein, haptoglobin and cytokines in plasma nor haematology numbers. In conclusion, weaned pigs administered with a multi-species probiotic product early in life had a more rapid response towards the pathogen challenge and a faster clearance of ETEC compared with the Positive Control group. Administration of a multi-species probiotic to newborn piglets may thus promote resilience in the newly weaned pig. However, further studies with pigs subjected to a more severe pathogen challenge are needed to confirm these results and to investigate the mechanism of action of the probiotic intervention.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Probióticos , Doenças dos Suínos , Suínos , Animais , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Proteína C-Reativa , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/veterinária , Probióticos/farmacologia , Desmame
8.
Benef Microbes ; 13(5): 397-406, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36377579

RESUMO

The present study aimed to characterise in vitro properties of the strain Ligilactobacillus salivarius PS21603 and evaluate in vivo piglets' tolerance for its use as feed additive in swine. The ability of L. salivarius PS21603 of inhibiting enteropathogens' growth in vitro was evaluated using a co-culture assay. Low pH tolerance, bile tolerance, and resistance to osmotic changes were evaluated. The antibiotic susceptibility profile of L. salivarius PS21603 was assessed through broth microdilution method. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed to exclude the presence of antibiotic resistance genes. L. salivarius PS21603 showed a high antimicrobial activity in vitro, reducing in a mean of 6.16 log cfu/ml eight different enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains. Moreover, L. salivarius PS21603 showed resistance to osmotic changes and was able to survive to a pH above 3.5 during 24 h and up to pH 2 at least during 2 h. In addition, WGS revealed that L. salivarius PS21603 did not harbour any resistance genes and thus there was no risk of transmissibility. Finally, an in vivo 28-days safety and tolerance study was performed. For that, 384 healthy piglets (28±2 days old and 7.5±1.5 kg, at weaning) were divided into three treatment groups receiving a different dose of L. salivarius PS21603: T1, 109 cfu/day; T2, 107 cfu/day; T3, control. Piglet's health status was daily controlled. Individual bodyweight and feed intake per pen were weekly recorded to determine performance parameters. Blood samples were collected in 16 piglets from each treatment group on days 0 and 28 for determination of cytokine profiles. L. salivarius PS21603 was safe and well tolerated by piglets, there were no differences in performance nor cytokine profile between treatment groups. In conclusion, L. salivarius PS21603 is a potential candidate for a probiotic prevention strategy against pig diarrhoea.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica , Lactobacillus salivarius , Probióticos , Suínos , Animais , Probióticos/farmacologia , Diarreia , Desmame , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Citocinas , Ração Animal/análise
9.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(6): 366, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36318352

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to assess if weaning time (morning or evening) and feed provision (immediate or 4 h delayed) can influence growth performance and expression of juvenile lamb behaviour immediately after and at the age of 50-125 days old. Forty lambs were randomly assigned to 4 groups: E1 (evening + immediate), E2 (evening + delayed), M1 (morning + immediate) and M2 (morning + delayed). All lambs were especially active during the first hour after weaning. However, their activity within the first 24 h after weaning was mainly affected by their circadian rhythms, since lambs were more active during the day compared to night. On the other hand, no effect of alfalfa hay provision on lamb activity during these first 24 h was observed. At the age of 50-125 days old, body weight was measured, and an isolation and flight distance test was implemented. There were no significant differences among lambs in body weight, number of jumps and heart rates assessed during isolation test and flight distance. However, the number of vocalizations was lower (65-110th day, P < 0.05) for the E2 compared to E1 lambs. Breed also slightly affected (95th day, P < 0.05) the average heart rate of lambs, with greater values for Karagouniko compared to Chios lambs. It is concluded that no discernible effects of weaning or feeding time were observed on growth performance and the display of stress-induced behavioural components of juvenile lambs till the age of 125 days old.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Comportamento Alimentar , Ovinos , Desmame , Animais , Peso Corporal , Ovinos/fisiologia , Ovinos/psicologia , Carneiro Doméstico/fisiologia , Carneiro Doméstico/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Cell ; 185(23): 4280-4297.e12, 2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36323316

RESUMO

The gut microbiome has an important role in infant health and development. We characterized the fecal microbiome and metabolome of 222 young children in Dhaka, Bangladesh during the first two years of life. A distinct Bifidobacterium longum clade expanded with introduction of solid foods and harbored enzymes for utilizing both breast milk and solid food substrates. The clade was highly prevalent in Bangladesh, present globally (at lower prevalence), and correlated with many other gut taxa and metabolites, indicating an important role in gut ecology. We also found that the B. longum clades and associated metabolites were implicated in childhood diarrhea and early growth, including positive associations between growth measures and B. longum subsp. infantis, indolelactate and N-acetylglutamate. Our data demonstrate geographic, cultural, seasonal, and ecological heterogeneity that should be accounted for when identifying microbiome factors implicated in and potentially benefiting infant development.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium longum , Lactente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Bifidobacterium longum/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Desmame , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Bangladesh , Leite Humano , Fezes/microbiologia
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361666

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the immediate and continual perturbation to the gut microbiota of offspring in the weeks post-weaning and how these may be modulated by treating pregnant C57BL/6J dams with antibiotics (ABX). We used a broad-spectrum antibiotic cocktail consisting of ampicillin 1 mg/mL, neomycin 1 mg/mL, and vancomycin 0.5 mg/mL, or vancomycin 0.5 mg/mL alone, administered ad-lib orally to dams via drinking water during gestation and stopped after delivery. We analyzed the gut microbiota of offspring, cytokine profiles in circulation, and the brain to determine if there was evidence of a gut-immune-brain connection. Computationally predicted metabolic pathways were calculated from 16s rRNA sequencing data. ABX treatment can negatively affect the gut microbiota, including reduced diversity, altered metabolic activity, and immune function. We show that the maternal ABX-treatment continues to alter the offspring's gut microbiota diversity, composition, and metabolic pathways after weaning, with the most significant differences evident in 5-week-olds as opposed to 4-week-olds. Lower levels of chemokines and inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1α and IL-2, are also seen in the periphery and brains of offspring, respectively. In conclusion, this study shows maternal antibiotic administration alters gut microbiome profiles in offspring, which undergoes a continuous transformation, from week to week, at an early age after weaning.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Camundongos , Gravidez , Feminino , Desmame , Vancomicina , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Imunidade
12.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(6): 400, 2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36434172

RESUMO

Birth weight (BW), which is the first physiological record of the postnatal period, is an important indicator that affects growth and development, reproduction, and some yields of living things in the future. The present study was carried out using the birth records of 5417 heads of Awassi lambs from 2013 to 2018 in MeMuTa dairy sheep farm in Zengen town of Eregli district of Konya city in Türkiye. In this study, the effects of some environmental and genetic factors on birth and weaning weight in Awassi lambs were evaluated using both general linear model (GLM) and classification and regression tree (CART) analysis. As a result of the GLM analysis, the least squares' means of birth and weaning weights (BW and WW) were determined as 4.15 ± 0.05 kg and 16.39 ± 0.13 kg, respectively. Fixed genetic factors such as birth type and sex, and environmental factors such as season and year were found to be significant on birth weight (P < 0.01). As for weaning weight, other factors except birth type were found to be similarly important like birth weight (P < 0.01). Also, linear regression of birth weight on weaning weight was found to be significant (P < 0.01). In GLM and CART analyses, the determination coefficient (R2) was determined to be 23.80% and 11.70% for BW, and 24.11% and 13.18% for WW, respectively. The findings of the analysis results showed that the factors in the model have a similar tendency both in terms of their relative ratios in the total variation in the GLM analysis and in their relative importance in the CART algorithm. It was seen that CART data mining algorithm in the prediction of some genetic and environmental factors on birth and weaning weights using some factors in Awassi lambs produced successful results in predictive performance. Briefly, it was determined that there is a similar tendency to GLM analysis according to CART algorithm analysis in the current study.


Assuntos
Parto , Gravidez , Feminino , Ovinos , Animais , Desmame , Modelos Lineares , Peso ao Nascer/genética , Análise de Regressão
13.
Physiol Rep ; 10(22): e15421, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36394073

RESUMO

Acute right ventricular pressure overload (RVPO) occurs following congenital heart surgery and often results in low cardiac output syndrome. We tested the hypothesis that the RV exhibits limited ability to modify substrate utilization in response to increasing energy requirements during acute RVPO after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We assessed the RV fractional contributions (Fc) of substrates to the citric acid cycle in juvenile pigs exposed to acute RVPO by pulmonary artery banding (PAB) and CPB. Sixteen Yorkshire male pigs (median 38 days old, 12.2 kg of body weight) were randomized to SHAM (Ctrl, n = 5), 2-h CPB (CPB, n = 5) or CPB with PAB (PAB-CPB, n = 6). Carbon-13 (13 C)-labeled lactate, medium-chain, and mixed long-chain fatty acids (MCFA and LCFAs) were infused as metabolic tracers for energy substrates. After weaning from CPB, RV systolic pressure (RVSP) doubled baseline in PAB-CPB while piglets in CPB group maintained normal RVSP. Fc-LCFAs decreased significantly in order PAB-CPB > CPB > Ctrl groups by 13 C-NMR. Fc-lactate and Fc-MCFA were similar among the three groups. Intragroup analysis for PAB-CPB showed that the limited Fc-LCFAs appeared prominently in piglets exposed to high RVSP-to-left ventricular systolic pressure ratio and high RV rate-pressure product, an indicator of myocardial oxygen demand. Acute RVPO after CPB strongly inhibits LCFA oxidation without compensation by lactate oxidation, resulting in energy deficiency as determined by lower (phosphocreatine)/(adenosine triphosphate) in PAB-CPB. Adequate energy supply but also metabolic interventions may be required to circumvent these RV energy metabolic abnormalities during RVPO after CPB.


Assuntos
Disfunção Ventricular Direita , Suínos , Animais , Masculino , Pressão Ventricular/fisiologia , Desmame , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Metabolismo Energético , Lactatos
14.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 34(9): 1004-1008, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36377460

RESUMO

Due to primary diseases of neurocritical care unit (NCU) patients, they have particularities with low level of consciousness, poor airway protective ability, damaged respiratory drive and respiratory motor conduction pathway. Such patients have higher rates of weaning difficulty, delayed extubation, extubation failure and tracheostomy. There are several guidelines on weaning and extubation for intensive care unit (ICU) patients, while there are no guidelines for for NCU patients. Therefore, we reviewed current guidelines and recommendations on weaning and extubation in both ICU and NCU patients suggesting considerations of neurological condition, level of consciousness and presence of airway protective reflexes before extubation, moreover, we introduced researches about protocols of weaning for NCU patients and related predictors.


Assuntos
Extubação , Desmame do Respirador , Humanos , Extubação/métodos , Desmame do Respirador/métodos , Desmame , Traqueostomia/métodos , Cuidados Críticos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Respiração Artificial/métodos
15.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 393, 2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza A virus (IAV) is an important respiratory pathogen of pigs that affects pig health, well-being and productivity, has zoonotic potential, and has significant economic impact for producers. The ultimate goal is to maintain herds free from IAV. Due to the probability of IAV introduction into the herds, it is also desirable for herds to have some immunity to the virus. In this study, we evaluated a protocol that combined sow vaccination with the implementation of internal biosecurity practices during the pre-weaning period with the goal to wean IAV negative pigs. Five IAV positive breeding herds were vaccinated twice, 3 weeks apart with a herd-specific autogenous vaccine. For the subsequent 8 weeks, a biosecurity protocol was maintained, consisting of no pig movements after 3 days of age, no use of nurse sows, workers changing disposable gloves between litters, workers not stepping into farrowing crates, and daily disinfection of tools and materials used to handle pigs. RESULTS: Following these interventions, four of the five treatment farms had significant reductions in IAV detection (p value < 0.05). Three of the farms tested negative at all sampling points post-intervention and one farm had a 21% reduction in IAV positivity. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that a protocol that combines sow vaccination and enhanced biosecurity practices may limit IAV transmission among piglets and enable the weaning of groups of pigs free from the virus.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Suínos , Feminino , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Fazendas , Desmame , Biosseguridade , Vacinação/veterinária
16.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 382, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36320033

RESUMO

Host genotype is important for enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) susceptibility. We conducted two trials to evaluate the effect of CHCF1 genotype on incidence of ETEC diarrhea. In trial 1 (n = 15 pigs), pigs were inoculated with 108 CFU or 1010 CFU doses of an ETEC F4ac strain. In trial 2 (n = 33 pigs), pigs were inoculated with ETEC F4ab or F4ac. Across trials, all inoculated pigs that developed ETEC diarrhea were CHCF1 heterozygous susceptible (6/6). No inoculated CHCF1 homozygous resistant pigs developed ETEC diarrhea (0/26). Susceptibility towards ETEC F4ac/ab infection might correspond with CHCF1 genotype.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Doenças dos Suínos , Suínos , Animais , Desmame , Projetos Piloto , Doenças dos Suínos/genética , Diarreia/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Genótipo
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19425, 2022 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36371532

RESUMO

Farm animal personality traits are of interest since they can help predict individual variation in behaviour and productivity. However, personality traits are currently inferred using behavioural tests which are impractical outside of research settings. To meet the definition of a personality trait, between-individual differences in related behaviours must be temporally as well as contextually stable. In this study, we used data collected by computerised milk feeders from 76 calves over two contexts, pair housing and group housing, to test if between-individual differences in feeding rate and meal frequency meet the definition for a personality trait. Results show that between-individual differences in feeding rate and meal frequency were related, and, for each behaviour, between-individual differences were positively and significantly correlated across contexts. In addition, feeding rate and meal frequency were positively and significantly associated with weight gain. Together, these results indicate the existence of a personality trait which positions high meal frequency, fast drinking, fast growing calves at one end and low meal frequency, slow drinking, and slow growing calves at the other. Our results suggest that data already available on commercial farms could be harnessed to establish a personality trait.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Comportamento Alimentar , Bovinos , Animais , Desmame , Ração Animal/análise , Leite , Aumento de Peso , Personalidade , Dieta/veterinária
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16816, 2022 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36207385

RESUMO

In this study, we analysed the impact of dietary inclusion of Chlorella vulgaris and carbohydrases on general health, redox status, immune response, liver lipids and metabolites in weaned piglets. Forty-four male piglets were allocated into four diets: control (n = 11), CH (control diet with 5% CH, n = 10), CH+R (control diet with 5% CH plus 0.005% Rovabio Excel AP, n = 10), and CH+M (control diet with 5% CH plus 0.01% of a pre-selected four-CAZyme mixture, n = 11). After 15 days of trial, animals were slaughtered and samples of blood and liver collected. Spectrophotometry methods and commercial kits were used to determine blood parameters and gas and liquid chromatography for hepatic fatty acid and chlorophylls profiles, respectively. While total, LDL- and VLDL-cholesterol were increased by CH, the opposite was recorded for HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.001). Piglets fed CH-based diets presented an increase of IgG and a decrease of IgM (p < 0.001) which along with lymphocytes exacerbation contributed for piglets' survival after weaning. n-6 PUFA were reduced in piglets fed CH and the opposite occurred for n-3 PUFA (p < 0.001), thus benefiting n-6/n-3 ratio in the liver. Chlorophylls amount was not changed by the use of Rovabio or enzymatic mixture. The discriminant analysis applied to hepatic parameters revealed a clear separation between control and CH-based diets but failed to discriminate feed enzymes. Our findings indicate health promoting effects of CH as feed ingredient in piglets' nutrition at weaning, without negatively impacting on animals' performance.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Colesterol , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos , Nível de Saúde , Imunidade , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina M , Fígado , Masculino , Suínos , Desmame
19.
Brain Res ; 1796: 148108, 2022 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181781

RESUMO

The effects of anticancer drugs used in childhood on brain function in adulthood are unclear. Here, we report the long-term changes in the proliferation of neuronal stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus after treatment with cyclophosphamide (CYP), which is often used as a therapeutic medicine in childhood cancer. A systemic injection of CYP into 3-week-old mice decreased 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-incorporated cells in the hippocampal subgranular zone 2 and 55 days after the injection in a dose-dependent manner. Restraint stress induced increase in corticosterone level, which was enhanced by CYP at day 35 after injection. These findings suggest that CYP injection into post-weaning mice causes prolonged alteration in NPC proliferation in the hippocampus and the stress response.


Assuntos
Giro Denteado , Células-Tronco Neurais , Animais , Bromodesoxiuridina/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células , Corticosterona/farmacologia , Ciclofosfamida/farmacologia , Hipocampo , Camundongos , Neurogênese , Desmame
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...