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1.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(10): 3757-3761, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476557

RESUMO

Segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) are present in various animal species including pigs. The aim of this work was to analyze the occurrence of SFB in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract of piglets of different ages. A total of 377 DNA extracts from stomach, jejunum, ileum, cecum and colon digesta, and from feces collected on different time points, originating from 155 animals, were screened by qPCR method with primers specific for the SFB. SFB sequences were detected in 74 of 377 samples (19.6%) from 155 animals in total. SFB were most abundant in ileum (50.0%), cecum (45.0%), and colon (37.0%), followed by feces (14.6%). SFB prevalence in sows was 12.9% (13/101) and 75.9% (41/54) in individual piglets. Of the 41 SFB-positive piglets, only two samples were from pre-weaning animals, while the rest of samples originated from post-weaning piglets. SFB sequences are abundant in post-weaning piglets, but not in suckling or adult animals. They are most abundant in the ileum and cecum of pigs. Further studies are warranted to reveal the role of SFB in pigs.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal , Íleo , Animais , Ceco , Clostridiaceae , Feminino , Suínos , Desmame
2.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 457, 2021 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537883

RESUMO

The information of birth (10,017 records), weaning (9439 records), 6 months (7669 records), 9 months (4536 records), and yearling weights (417 records) collected from 1989 to 2016 by the Lori Bakhtiari (Sholi) sheep breeding station located in Shahrekord were used to estimate the genotypic and phenotypic parameters of growth traits of Lori Bakhtiari sheep. The components of variance and genetic parameters were estimated by the Bayesian statistical method based on the Gibbs sampling technique due to the high accuracy of this method. Factors including birth year, lamb sex, birth type, and maternal age at lambing have significant effects on all of these traits (P < 0.01) and were considered fixed effects in the statistical model for estimation of genetic parameters. Lamb weight at weaning was used as a covariate in the model. Based on the models with the lowest Akaike information criterion, direct heritability for birth, weaning, 6-month, 9-month, and yearling weights were 0.36, 0.18, 0.21, 0.27, and 0.32, respectively. The moderate heritability obtained for the studied traits pointed up the effectiveness of selection in genetic improvement, but the environmental conditions should be improved for better performance of weight traits.


Assuntos
Carneiro Doméstico , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Peso ao Nascer/genética , Peso Corporal , Fenótipo , Ovinos/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Desmame
3.
J Anim Sci ; 99(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343289

RESUMO

Sows mated in summer produce a greater proportion of born-light piglets (<1.1 kg) which contributes to increased carcass fatness in the progeny population. The reasons for the low birth weight of these piglets remain unclear, and there have been few successful mitigation strategies identified. We hypothesized that: 1) the low birth weight of progeny born to sows mated in summer may be associated with weight loss during the previous summer lactation; and 2) increasing early gestation feed allowance for the sows with high lactational weight loss in summer can help weight recovery and improve progeny birth weight. Sows were classified as having either low (av. 1%) or high (av. 7%) lactational weight loss in their summer lactation. All the sows with low lactational weight loss (LLStd) and half of the sows with high lactational weight loss received a standard gestation feeding regime (HLStd) (2.6 kg/d; day 0-30 gestation), whereas the rest of the sows with high lactational weight loss received a compensatory feed allowance (HLComp) (3.5 kg/d; day 0-30 gestation). A comparison of LLStd (n = 75) versus HLStd sows (n = 78) showed that this magnitude of weight loss over summer lactation did not affect the average piglet or litter birth weight, but such results may be influenced by the higher litter size (P = 0.030) observed in LLStd sows. A comparison of HLStd versus HLComp (n = 81) sows showed that the compensatory feeding increased (P = 0.021) weight gain of gestating sows by 6 kg, increased (P = 0.009) average piglet birth weight by 0.12 kg, tended to reduce (P = 0.054) the percentage of born-light piglets from 23.5% to 17.1% but reduced the litter size by 1.4 (P = 0.014). A subgroup of progeny stratified as born-light (0.8-1.1 kg) or -normal (1.3-1.7 kg) from each sow treatment were monitored for growth performance from weaning until 100 kg weight. The growth performance and carcass backfat of progeny were not affected by sow treatments. Born-light progeny had lower feed intake, lower growth rate, higher G:F, and higher carcass backfat than born-normal progeny (all P < 0.05). In summary, compensatory feeding from day 0 to 30 gestation in the sows with high weight loss during summer lactation reduced the percentage of born-light progeny at the cost of a lower litter size, which should improve growth rate and carcass leanness in the progeny population born to sows with high lactational weight loss.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Perda de Peso , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso ao Nascer , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Lactação , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Gravidez , Suínos , Desmame
4.
J Anim Sci ; 99(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350937

RESUMO

An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that hybrid rye can replace a part of the corn in gestation and lactation diets without negatively affecting sow and litter performance. For each phase, a corn-soybean meal diet and three diets in which hybrid rye replaced 25%, 50%, or 75% of corn were formulated. Two hundred sows were randomly allotted by parity to the four treatments. Results indicated that diet did not affect body weight or average daily gain (ADG) of sows or number of pigs born. The number of pigs weaned, litter weaning weight, and litter ADG increased and then decreased (quadratic, P < 0.05) as hybrid rye in diets increased. Pig mortality and number of crushed pigs tended (quadratic, P < 0.10) to be reduced as hybrid rye was added to the diet. Serum cytokines did not differ among treatments on day 105 of gestation or in pigs on the day of weaning, but interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, and IL-18 on day 13 of lactation increased and then decreased (quadratic, P < 0.05) as hybrid rye inclusion increased in diets. Milk urea N increased (linear, P < 0.05) as hybrid rye was included in the diet, but no other differences in milk composition were observed. Overall, replacing 25% or 50% of corn with hybrid rye resulted in improved lactation performance, and replacing 75% of corn with hybrid rye resulted in sow and litter performance that was not different from that of sows fed control diets.


Assuntos
Lactação , Zea mays , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Gravidez , Secale , Suínos , Desmame
5.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13618, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409709

RESUMO

The first secretion, 24-h post parturition of the mammary glands of sows, known as colostrum, is high in protein and low in lactose and fat. As a consequence of an insufficient ingestion of colostrum, more than 50% of piglets fail to reach weaning and die. The composition and some functions of colostrum have been previously reported. For example, colostrum carbohydrates consist of mainly lactose. Lipids in the colostrum are mostly triacylglycerols, but <1% is fatty acids, which may act as homeostasis regulators. Similarly, proteins are found mostly as casein and whey, the latter being ≥80% immunoglobulins. Colostrum-derived immunoglobulins and bioactive proteins such as azurocidin help the immune system of the piglet fend off infections. In addition, leukocytes and exosomes are other minor but nonetheless equally crucial bioactive components in the porcine colostrum. Modern pig farming has achieved increases in pig productivity and litter size, but this has been accomplished in detriment of the health and the survival rate of piglets. Therefore, porcine colostrum is now even more important in pig farming. In the present review, we discuss the current knowledge on the composition and physiological functions of the porcine colostrum and briefly propose future research directions.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Caseínas/análise , Colostro/imunologia , Colostro/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Lactose/análise , Suínos/imunologia , Suínos/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/análise , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/análise , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Colostro/citologia , Colostro/fisiologia , Exossomos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/análise , Lactente , Leucócitos , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Parto , Desmame , Soro do Leite
6.
J Anim Sci ; 99(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370023

RESUMO

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract (RE) has multiple pharmacological and biological activities, including the use as a food additive and medicine. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary RE supplementation on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, antioxidant capacity, intestinal morphology, and microbiota of weaning piglets. A total of 192 crossbred weaned piglets [Duroc × (Large White × Landrace)] (initial body weight = 6.65 ± 0.33 kg, weaned days = 23 ± 1 d) were group housed (six pigs per pen; n = 8 pens/treatment). Pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal-based control diet or the basal diet supplemented with 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg RE. Pigs were allowed ad libitum access to fed for 21 d. The growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients, and intestinal morphology and antioxidant status were evaluated. The components of the microbial microflora were also determined in the cecal samples. Compared with the control, dietary supplementation with RE increased the final body weight, average daily gain, and average daily feed intake (linear, P = 0.038, 0.016, and 0.009, respectively), and decreased the diarrhea ratio in piglets (linear, P < 0.05). The digestibility of crude protein (linear, P = 0.034) and gross energy (linear, P = 0.046) increased with treatment with RE. Piglets fed RE showed longer villus height (linear, P = 0.037 and 0.028, respectively) and villus height/crypt depth (linear, P = 0.004 and 0.012; quadratic, P = 0.023 and 0.036, respectively) in the jejunum and ileum, in addition to a lesser crypt depth in the jejunum (linear, P = 0.019) and ileum (quadratic, P = 0.042). The addition of RE increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (linear, P = 0.035 and 0.008, respectively) and glutathione peroxidase activity (linear, P = 0.027 and 0.039, respectively) and decreased the content of malondialdehyde (linear, P = 0.041 and 0.013; quadratic, P = 0.023 and 0.005, respectively) in the serum and liver. Dietary RE supplementation, compared with the control, increased the number of Bifidobacterium (linear, P = 0.034) and Bacteroidetes (linear, P = 0.029), while decreased Escherichia coli (linear, P = 0.008; quadratic, P = 0.014) in the cecal contents. Thus, dietary RE supplementation can improve growth performance, nutrient digestibility, antioxidant capacity, intestinal morphology, and the microbiota in weaned piglets, and 200 mg/kg may be considered the optimum dosage.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Rosmarinus , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Nutrientes , Extratos Vegetais , Suínos , Desmame
7.
Theriogenology ; 173: 128-132, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375939

RESUMO

Polymorphisms in µ-calpain (CAPN1) that beneficially associate with beef tenderness are reported to antagonistically associate with calving day in beef heifers and post-partum interval to estrus in beef cows. We, therefore, hypothesized that a molecular breeding value for slice shear force, calculated based on CAPN1 and calpastatin (CAST) genotypes, would demonstrate an antagonistic relationship between genomically predicted slice shear force and ordinal calving date in replacement beef heifers. A secondary objective of this study was to evaluate the association of a polymorphism in diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1) with reproductive traits in beef heifers. One hundred eighty-seven MARC III heifers (» Angus, » Hereford, » Red Poll, and » Pinzgauer) that had been selectively bred to increase the frequency of these polymorphisms were submitted for monthly ultrasound exams beginning at 333 d of age and continuing until the start of breeding to determine pubertal status. At the last exam before breeding, all antral follicles were counted, and the length and height of each ovary was measured to determine if genomic selection for slice shear force associated with ovarian follicle number. Calving date, calf gender, and calf birth weight were recorded at parturition. Regression analysis of the molecular breeding value for slice shear force of the heifers on ordinal calving date indicated no association between genomic prediction of tenderness and calving date (P = 0.16); however, there was a tendency for age at puberty to be delayed in heifers as genetic merit for tenderness improved (P = 0.09). The results of the present study indicate that within experimental precision, selecting for tenderness using genomic predictions had minimal or no antagonistic association with reproductive performance in heifers. Further analysis of reproductive performance as cows is needed within this population but applying these genetic markers to select for tenderness in steers does not antagonize reproductive traits influencing conception or first calf birth date and birth weight in replacement beef heifers.


Assuntos
Embaralhamento de DNA , Reprodução , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Embaralhamento de DNA/veterinária , Feminino , Parto , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Reprodução/genética , Desmame
8.
Animal ; 15(9): 100334, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392194

RESUMO

In a context of evolving concern over housing conditions of farmed rabbits, we developed a housing system that allows access to an outdoor area. The aim was to study the health status, growth and behaviour of rabbits raised at two stocking densities with access to a paddock, or not. We distributed 299 weaned rabbits in four groups (YH: 100, NH: 99, YL: 50 and NL: 50) using a 2 × 2 factorial design including access (Y: yes) or not (N: not) to a 23 m2 paddock and the indoor stocking density (H, high: 17 or L, low: 9 rabbits/m2). We measured the growth and health status of each animal weekly for 42 days (from 31 to 73 days of age) and performed reactivity tests to a new environment, a human and new object. We also assessed the rabbits' behaviour at days 26 and 40 by doing a visual scan of each animal at regular time intervals. Our results showed that stocking density had no effect on mortality, but mortality tended to increase with outdoor access from 3.0% to 7.0% (P < 0.10). Although the stocking density had no effect on average daily gain, it was higher in rabbits in the N group than in the Y group (+3.6 g/day; P < 0.05). Rabbits entered the paddocks for the first time in less time at the beginning of the trial (50 s at day 3 vs 10 min at day 31; P < 0.001). The proportion of rabbits outside after 20 min of the new environment test was higher among rabbits in the L group than in the H group (+24% points at day 3 and +11% points at day 20; P < 0.001). Regardless of the stocking density, more rabbits in the N group touched the experimenter's hand (16% vs 27%; P < 0.05) and the new object (34% vs 20%; P < 0.05) than rabbits in the Y group. Inactivity was more frequent in rabbits inside the pens than in the paddocks (70.0% vs 34.2% at days 26 and 40; P < 0.05). Locomotion was more frequent in the paddocks than in the indoor pens (20.0% vs 7.2% at days 26 and 40; P < 0.05). The stocking density did not affect the behavioural traits measured. In conclusion, providing rabbits access to a paddock could allow them to fulfil some natural behaviours but slightly reduced their growth.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Abrigo para Animais , Animais , Locomoção , Fenótipo , Coelhos , Desmame
9.
J Anim Sci ; 99(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435641

RESUMO

Visceral organs (VO) are essential for their role in the metabolism and distribution of consumed nutrients as well as other life functions in animals. Two experiments were conducted to assess the natural longitudinal changes that the VO undergo from birth through 150 kg body weight (BW). In Experiment 1, a total of 96 crossbred pigs were euthanized at birth (pre-suckle), d 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 (weaning), 22, 23, 24, 26, 28, 42, 49, and 63 of age. In Experiment 2, a total of 48 crossbred pigs were euthanized at 30, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 kg of BW. The absolute weight of VO, and the volume and length of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) were measured. In both experiments, the absolute weight of VO, GIT length, and their volume increased (linear, quadratic, and/or cubic, P < 0.05) as BW and age increased. In Experiment 1, the relative weight of VO (liver, kidney, heart, and lung) decreased after initially increasing within the first week of life (linear, quadratic, and/or cubic, P < 0.05), whereas the relative weight of all VO decreased as BW increased in Experiment 2 (linear and/or quadratic, P < 0.05). The relative length of small intestine decreased and that of large intestine increased as age increased in Experiment 1 (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05), whereas the relative length of the small and large intestine in Experiment 2 were relatively constant at 80% and 20% of the total length of the intestine, respectively. As age and BW increased, the relative volume of the large intestine to the total volume of the GIT increased (linear and/or quadratic, P < 0.05), while the relative volume of the small intestine decreased (linear and/or quadratic, P < 0.05). In conclusion, results showed that both absolute and relative measurements (weight, volume, and length) of VO were dependent on the BW (age) of the pig.


Assuntos
Dieta , Trato Gastrointestinal , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Feminino , Intestinos , Parto , Gravidez , Suínos , Desmame
10.
J Anim Sci ; 99(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333640

RESUMO

In beef cattle maternally influenced traits, estimates of direct-maternal genetic correlations (rdm) are usually reported to be negative. In international evaluations, rdm can differ both within countries (rdm_WC) and between countries (rdm_BC). The rdm_BC are difficult to estimate and are assumed to be zero in the current model for international beef cattle evaluations (Interbeef). Our objective was to investigate re-ranking of international estimated breeding values (IEBVs) in international beef cattle evaluations between models that either used estimated values for rdm or assumed them to be 0. Age-adjusted weaning weights and pedigree data were available for Limousin beef cattle from ten European countries. International EBVs were obtained using a multi-trait animal model with countries modeled as different traits. We compared IEBVs from a model that uses estimated rdm_BC (ranging between -0.14 and +0.14) and rdm_WC (between -0.33 and +0.40) with IEBVs obtained either from the current model that assumes rdm_BC to be 0, or from an alternative model that assumes both rdm_BC and rdm_WC to be 0. Direct and maternal IEBVs were compared across those three scenarios for different groups of animals. The ratio of population accuracies from the linear regression method was used to further investigate the impact of rdm on international evaluations, for both the whole set of animals in the evaluation and the domestic ones. Ignoring rdm_BC, i.e., replacing estimated values with 0, resulted in no (rank correlations > 0.99) or limited (between 0.98 and 0.99) re-ranking for direct and maternal IEBVs, respectively. Both rdm_BC and rdm_WC had less impact on direct IEBVs than on maternal IEBVs. Re-ranking of maternal IEBVs decreased with increasing reliability. Ignoring rdm_BC resulted in no re-ranking for sires with IEBVs that might be exchanged across countries and limited re-ranking for the top 100 sires. Using estimated rdm_BC values instead of considering them to be 0 resulted in null to limited increases in population accuracy. Ignoring both rdm_BC and rdm_WC resulted in considerable re-ranking of animals' IEBVs in all groups of animals evaluated. This study showed the limited impact of the current practice of ignoring rdm_BC in international evaluations for Limousin weaning weight, most likely because the estimated rdm_BC was close to 0. We expect that these conclusions can be extended to other traits that have reported rdm values in the range of rdm_WC values for weaning weight in Limousin.


Assuntos
Modelos Genéticos , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/genética , Modelos Lineares , Fenótipo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Desmame
11.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21847, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405464

RESUMO

Mounting evidence demonstrates that paternal diet programs offspring metabolism. However, the contribution of a pre-conception paternal high protein (HP) diet to offspring metabolism, gut microbiota, and epigenetic changes remains unclear. Here we show that paternal HP intake in Sprague Dawley rats programs protective metabolic outcomes in offspring. Compared to paternal high fat/sucrose (HF/S), HP diet improved body composition and insulin sensitivity and improved circulating satiety hormones and cecal short-chain fatty acids compared to HF/S and control diet (P < .05). Further, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing to assess gut microbial composition, we observed increased alpha diversity, distinct bacterial clustering, and increased abundance of Bifidobacterium, Akkermansia, Bacteroides, and Marvinbryantia in HP fathers and/or male and female adult offspring. At the epigenetic level, DNMT1and 3b expression was altered intergenerationally. Our study identifies paternal HP diet as a modulator of gut microbial composition, epigenetic markers, and metabolic function intergenerationally.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Dieta Rica em Proteínas , Epigênese Genética , Pai , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Insulina/metabolismo , Exposição Paterna , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adiposidade , Envelhecimento , Animais , Peso Corporal , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Sacarose na Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Fertilidade , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hormônios/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Gravidez , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Resposta de Saciedade , Desmame
12.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378042

RESUMO

Trehalose, a nonreducing disaccharide consisting of d-glucose with α,α-1,1 linkage, was evaluated as a functional material to improve the gut environment in preweaned calves. In experiment 1, 173 calves were divided into two groups; the trehalose group was fed trehalose at 30 g/animal/d with milk replacer during the suckling period, and the control group was fed nonsupplemented milk replacer. Medication frequency was lower in the trehalose group (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, calves (n = 20) were divided into two groups (control group [n = 10] and trehalose group [n = 10]) based on their body weight and reared under the same feeding regimens as in experiment 1. Fresh feces were collected from individual animals at the beginning of the trial (average age 11 d), 3 wk after trehalose feeding (experimental day 22), and 1 d before weaning, and the fecal score was recorded daily. Fecal samples were analyzed for fermentation parameters and microbiota. The fecal score was significantly lower in the trehalose group than in the control group in the early stage (at an age of 14 to 18 d; P < 0.05) of the suckling period. Calves fed trehalose tended to have a higher proportion of fecal butyrate on day 22 than calves in the control group (P = 0.08). Population sizes of Clostridium spp. were significantly lower (P = 0.036), whereas those of Dialister spp. and Eubacterium spp. tended to be higher in the feces of calves in the trehalose group on day 22 (P = 0.060 and P = 0.083). These observations indicate that trehalose feeding modulated the gut environment and partially contributed to the reduction in medication frequency observed in experiment 1.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Leite , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Diarreia/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fezes , Incidência , Trealose , Desmame
13.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48276

RESUMO

Estudo aponta a necessidade de investimento na atenção à saúde mental das mulheres no pós-parto, diminuindo o desmame precoce e melhorando as condições de vida da mulher e seu bebê.


Assuntos
Desmame , Depressão , Ansiedade , Aleitamento Materno , Período Pós-Parto , Saúde Mental , Saúde Materno-Infantil
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(9): 9769-9783, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218922

RESUMO

Vitamin E comprises 8 fat-soluble isoforms: α-, ß-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol and α-, ß-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienol. Yet the body preferentially uses α-tocopherol, and only α-tocopherol supplementation can reverse vitamin E deficiency symptoms. However, other isoforms influence many biological functions in the body, including inflammation and stress. Therefore, the study objective was to determine metabolic and performance responses in young calves fed diets containing a constant amount of α-tocopherol and increasing amounts of soybean oil-derived mixed γ- and δ-tocopherols. Holstein calves [n = 48; 2-3 d of age; 40.2 kg of initial body weight (BW), standard error = 0.54] were assigned to receive approximately 0, 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg of BW daily (treatments T0, T1, T2, and T3, respectively) of mixed tocopherols (TMIX) provided in milk replacer (MR) and calf starter. The TMIX liquid contained 86% γδ-tocopherols and 9% α-tocopherol. Milk replacers were formulated to contain approximately 0, 400, 800, or 1,200 mg of TMIX/kg for treatments T0, T1, T2, and T3, respectively. Calf starters were formulated to contain approximately 0, 250, 500, or 750 mg of TMIX/kg for treatments T0, T1, T2, and T3, respectively. Mean consumption of γδ-tocopherols was 0.0, 6.5, 14.3, and 20.5 mg/kg of BW, respectively. Milk replacer contained 24% crude protein (CP) and 20% fat on a dry matter (DM) basis. Calf starters were pelleted and offered for ad libitum consumption from 0 to 56 d. Starters contained 18 to 20% CP and 9 to 12% starch in the DM. On d 28, 4 calves per treatment were randomly selected for slaughter, and necropsy was performed. Samples of liver, duodenum, ileum, and trapezius muscle were collected and stored before analysis for α-, ß-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols and δ-tocotrienol. Data were analyzed using a completely randomized design using mixed model ANOVA with orthogonal polynomials to determine linear and quadratic effects of TMIX. Repeated-measures analyses were performed for data collected over time. Increasing dietary TMIX increased or tended to increase change in hip width at 28 and 56 d, respectively, and improved average daily BW gain and gain-to-feed ratio at 56 d. Increasing TMIX reduced plasma xanthine oxidase at 0 h and tended to reduce concentrations at 24 h following vaccination with 2 commercial vaccines on d 28; however, we detected no effect of TMIX following vaccination on d 56. Concentration of α-tocopherol in skeletal muscle declined quadratically with increasing TMIX, whereas ileal and liver γ-tocopherol increased linearly with increasing TMIX. The number of mucin-2 cells in the ileum increased more than 2-fold in calves fed T3. Addition of mixed tocopherols to diets of young dairy calves improved animal growth and altered indices of antioxidant metabolism.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Leite , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Tocoferóis , Desmame
15.
Eur J Neurosci ; 54(4): 5272-5292, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251729

RESUMO

Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a highly studied cellular process, yet determining the transduction and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) pathways that are the essential versus modulatory for LTP elicited by theta burst stimulation (TBS) in the hippocampal Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) area is still elusive, due to the use of different TBS intensities, patterns or different rodent/cellular models. We now characterised the developmental maturation and the transduction and GABAergic pathways required for mild TBS-induced LTP in hippocampal CA1 area in male rats. LTP induced by TBS (5x4) (five bursts of four pulses delivered at 100 Hz) lasted for up to 3 h and was increasingly larger from weaning to adulthood. Stronger TBS patterns - TBS (15x4) or three TBS (15x4) separated by 6 min induced nearly maximal LTP not being the best choice to study the value of LTP-enhancing drugs. LTP induced by TBS (5x4) in young adults was fully dependent on N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activity but independent of protein kinase A (PKA) or protein kinase C (PKC) activity. Furthermore, it was partially dependent on GABAB receptor activation and was potentiated by GABAA receptor blockade and less by GAT-1 transporter blockade. AMPA GluA1 phosphorylation on Ser831 (CaMKII target) but not GluA1 Ser845 (PKA target) was essential for LTP expression. The phosphorylation of the Kv4.2 channel was observed at Ser438 (CaMKII target) but not at Thr602 or Thr607 (ERK/MAPK pathway target). This suggests that cellular kinases like PKA, PKC, or kinases of the ERK/MAPK family although important modulators of TBS (5x4)-induced LTP may not be essential for its expression in the CA1 area of the hippocampus.


Assuntos
Região CA1 Hipocampal , Potenciação de Longa Duração , Animais , Estimulação Elétrica , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores , Hipocampo , Masculino , Ratos , Desmame
16.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206629

RESUMO

A perinatal high-salt (HS) diet was reported to elevate plasma triglycerides. This study aimed to investigate the hypothesis that a perinatal HS diet predisposed offspring to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the hepatic manifestation of abnormal lipid metabolism, and the possible mechanism. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet (0.5% NaCl) or HS diet (4% NaCl) during pregnancy and lactation and their offspring were sacrificed at weaning. The perinatal HS diet induced greater variation in fecal microbial beta-diversity (ß-diversity) and increased bacteria abundance of Proteobacteria and Bacteroides. The gut microbiota dysbiosis promoted bile acid homeostasis disbalance, characterized by the accumulation of lithocholic acid (LCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) in feces. These alterations disturbed gut barrier by increasing the expression of tight junction protein (Tjp) and occludin (Ocln), and increased systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels and hepatic inflammatory cytokine secretion (TNF-α and IL-6) in the liver. The perinatal HS diet also inhibited hepatic expression of hepatic FXR signaling (CYP7A1 and FXR), thus triggering increased hepatic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and hepatic lipid metabolism-associated genes (SREBP-1c, FAS, ACC), leading to unique characteristics of NAFLD. In conclusion, a perinatal HS diet induced NAFLD in weanling mice offspring; the possible mechanism was related to increased bacteria abundance of Proteobacteria and Bacteroides, increased levels of LCA and DCA in feces, and increased expressions of hepatic FXR signaling.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Acidose/etiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Dieta/métodos , Disbiose/etiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Homeostase/fisiologia , Lactação/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Gravidez , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Desmame
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281101

RESUMO

Complementary feeding methods have the potential to not only ensure a diet of nutritional adequacy but also promote optimal food-related behaviours and skills. While the complementary feeding practice known as baby-led weaning (BLW) has gained popularity, evidence supporting the potential benefits and/or risks for infant growth, development, and health warrants consideration. A review of 29 studies was conducted with findings indicating that parents who implement BLW typically have higher levels of education, breastfeed for longer, and differ in other personality traits. Fear of choking was an important factor in parents' decision not to implement BLW; however, this fear was not supported by the literature. Benefits of BLW included lower food fussiness, higher food enjoyment, lower food responsiveness, and higher satiety responsiveness. While this profile of eating behaviours confers a reduced obesity risk, few studies have examined the relationship between BLW and infant growth robustly. BLW does not seem to increase the risk of inadequate zinc or iron intake; however, emphasis needs to be given to ensuring adequate intake of these micronutrients among all infants. A better understanding of the impacts of BLW is needed to inform evidence-based recommendations to support and guide parents in complementary feeding methods.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Aleitamento Materno , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Alimentos Infantis , Medição de Risco , Desmame
18.
J Anim Sci ; 99(8)2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261131

RESUMO

Cow mature weight (MWT) is heritable and affects the costs and efficiency of a breeding operation. Cow weight is also influenced by the environment, and the relationship between the size and profitability of a cow varies depending on production system. Producers, therefore, need tools to incorporate MWT in their selection of cattle breeds and herd replacements. The objective of this study was to estimate breed and heterotic effects for MWT using weight-age data on crossbred cows. Cow's MWT at 6 yr was predicted from the estimated parameter values-asymptotic weight and maturation constant (k)-from the fit of the Brody function to their individual data. Values were obtained for 5,156 crossbred cows from the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) Germplasm Evaluation Program using 108,957 weight records collected from approximately weaning up to 6 yr of age. The cows were produced from crosses among 18 beef breeds. A bivariate animal model was fitted to the MWT and k obtained for each cow. The fixed effects were birth year-season contemporary group and covariates of direct and maternal breed fractions, direct and maternal heterosis, and age at final weighing. The random effects were direct additive and residual. A maternal additive random effect was also fitted for k. In a separate analysis from that used to estimate breed effects and (co)variances, cow MWT was regressed on sire yearling weight (YWT) Expected Progeny Differences by its addition as a covariate to the animal model fitted for MWT. That regression coefficient was then used to adjust breed solutions for sire selection in the USMARC herd. Direct heterosis was 15.3 ± 2.6 kg for MWT and 0.000118 ± 0.000029 d-1 for k. Maternal heterosis was -5.7 ± 3.0 kg for MWT and 0.000130 ± 0.000035 d-1 for k. Direct additive heritabilities were 0.56 ± 0.03 for MWT and 0.23 ± 0.03 for k. The maternal additive heritability for k was 0.11 ± 0.02. The direct additive correlation between MWT and k was negligible (0.08 ± 0.09). Adjusted for sire sampling, Angus was heaviest at maturity of the breeds compared. Deviations from Angus ranged from -8.9 kg (Charolais) to -136.7 kg (Braunvieh). Ordered by decreasing MWT, the breeds ranked Angus, Charolais, Hereford, Brahman, Salers, Santa Gertrudis, Simmental, Maine Anjou, Limousin, Red Angus, Brangus, Chiangus, Shorthorn, Gelbvieh, Beefmaster, and Braunvieh. These breed effects for MWT can inform breeding programs where cow size is considered a key component of the overall profitability.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Vigor Híbrido , Animais , Peso ao Nascer , Peso Corporal/genética , Bovinos/genética , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Vigor Híbrido/genética , Desmame
19.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205285

RESUMO

Breastfeeding and infant nutrition have an important impact on child health. The last representative data on breastfeeding in Austria was collected in 2006. The SUKIE-Study (Säuglings- und Kinderernährung) is a representative, longitudinal survey (online questionnaire) for participating mothers at four time points (14 days, four, six and 12 months post-partum). Questions on when other foods were first introduced were asked retrospectively. To ensure international comparisons, the World Health Organization's definitions for breastfeeding, including "Infant and Young Child Feeding" indicators, were used. After eligibility screening, 1214 of 1666 invited mothers were included in the analysis. The initial breastfeeding rate was 97.5% and was reduced to 40.8% after 12 months. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding at one week of age was 55.5% and decreased to 1.9% after six months. Half of the infants received infant formula for the first time within the first three days of life (median). Out of the mothers that did wean breastfeeding in the first 12 months, the median duration was 27 weeks (right-censored data). Compared with 2006, an increase (93.2% to 97.5%) in the initial breastfeeding rate was found. However, other findings show that breastfeeding duration, including exclusive breastfeeding rates, need further improvement.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Áustria , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Desmame , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Vet Res ; 82(8): 644-652, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296944

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations between weather conditions and management factors with the incidence of death attributable to bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in high-risk auction-sourced beef calves. ANIMALS: Cohorts (n = 3,339) of male beef calves (545,866) purchased by 1 large cattle feeding operation from 216 locations and transported to 1 of 89 feeding locations (backgrounding location or feedlot) with similar management protocols. PROCEDURES: Associations between weather conditions and management factors on the day of purchase (day P) and during the first week at the feeding location and cumulative BRDC mortality incidence within the first 60 days on feed were estimated in a mixed-effects negative binomial regression model. RESULTS: Significant factors in the final model were weaning status; degree of commingling; body weight; transport distance; season; precipitation, mean wind speed, and maximum environmental temperature on day P; environmental temperature range in the first week after arrival at the feeding location; and interactions between distance and wind speed and between body weight and maximum environmental temperature. Precipitation and wind speed on day P were associated with lower cumulative BRDC mortality incidence, but wind speed was associated only among calves transported long distances (≥ 1,082.4 km). Higher mean maximum temperature on day P increased the incidence of cumulative mortality among calves with low body weights (< 275.5 kg). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Several weather conditions on day P and during the first week after arrival were associated with incidence of BRDC mortality. The results may have implications for health- and economic-risk management, especially for high-risk calves and calves that are transported long distances.


Assuntos
Complexo Respiratório Bovino , Doenças dos Bovinos , Animais , Peso Corporal , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Febre/veterinária , Masculino , Desmame , Tempo (Meteorologia)
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