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1.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(10): 1125-1133, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408364

RESUMO

Mammary gland involution is a regressive process for the gland to return to its prepregnancy state after lactation and comprises an initial reversible and second remodeling stage. Although many genes and the multiple expression profiles of their mRNAs have been found in this process, the mechanisms controlling the profiles are largely unknown. In this study, we identified and analyzed transcription factor Sox4 in mammary gland involution. Elevated expression of Sox4 gene in the first stage (48 h after weaning) was observed at the mRNA and protein levels in the mouse mammary gland. Immunohistochemistry of the involuting gland indicated that Sox4 was located in the nuclei of epithelial cells. Nuclear Sox4 was also detected in the second stage, but unlikely to be involved in cell death, one of the characteristic events of involution. To clarify the functional roles of Sox4 in involution, we introduced a model, including a normal mammary epithelial cell line, for finding candidate target genes of this transcription factor and examined its effect on tenascin C mRNA expression.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/genética , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXC/genética , Tenascina/genética , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Morte Celular , Linhagem Celular , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Lactação/fisiologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/citologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Gravidez , Ligação Proteica , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOXC/metabolismo , Tenascina/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Desmame
2.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 36, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345246

RESUMO

Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is associated with severe diarrhea in calves, winter dysentery in adult cattle, and respiratory diseases in cattle of all ages. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between white blood cell counts and haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA) levels in post-weaned calves with diarrhea caused by BCoV and those that recovered from diarrhea. Blood and fecal samples were collected twice from the same animals; 17 post-weaned calves with diarrhea (first) and 15 post-weaned calves that recovered from diarrhea (second). Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that all 17 fecal samples from post-weaned calves with diarrhea and one out of 15 from diarrhea-recovered calves were positive for BCoV and negative for Cryptosporidium spp., Escherichia coli K99, Salmonella spp., bovine rotavirus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus. No Eimeria oocysts were detected using the flotation method. In comparison with post-weaned calves with diarrhea, in diarrhea-recovered calves, the lymphocyte count was significantly higher (P = 0.018), and the monocyte count was significantly lower (P = 0.001); however, the number of monocytes was still high. Post-weaned calves with diarrhea had a significantly higher Hp concentration (P < 0.001) compared with diarrhea-recovered calves. The results indicated that increased Hp concentration and monocytosis but not SAA may be associated with diarrhea caused by BCoV. The present study suggests that the monitoring of Hp concentration and monocyte count is useful in the diagnosis of post-weaned calves with diarrhea caused by BCoV in this field.


Assuntos
Reação de Fase Aguda/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Diarreia/veterinária , Reação de Fase Aguda/sangue , Reação de Fase Aguda/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Coronavirus Bovino , Diarreia/sangue , Diarreia/etiologia , Diarreia/imunologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Haptoglobinas/análise , Contagem de Linfócitos , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/análise , Desmame
3.
Prev Vet Med ; 169: 104702, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311628

RESUMO

In modern livestock farming, there is an increasing understanding that antimicrobial (AM) consumption must be kept low - preferably without compromising animal welfare or productivity. This requires an understanding of the relationship between AM use, productivity, biosecurity, vaccination and herd demographics. To obtain this, we undertook an Additive Bayesian Network analysis using data from 2014 to 2015, covering 157 Danish sow herds with weaners. In general, productivity and biosecurity were high, and AM consumption low. No association was found between prescribed AM and productivity. Other variables, such as biosecurity and enrolment in the Danish Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) system, had stronger associations with sow productivity than AM consumption. In the weaner unit, an association between AM consumption and certain vaccination practices was found, suggesting that vaccines might be used to control preexisting problems. The results reveal that most Danish sow producers are able to maintain productivity while using low amounts of AMs. This conclusion must be interpreted within the context of Danish pig farming i.e. generally high biosecurity and many years of official restrictions aiming at reducing AM consumption.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/métodos , Teorema de Bayes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinação/veterinária , Desmame
4.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 239, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Probiotics are important for pigs to enhance health and intestinal development, which are potential alternative to antibiotics. Many studies have reported the functions of single bacterial strain as probiotic on the animals. In this study, we evaluated effects of combined probiotics on growth performance, inflammation and intestinal microbiota in weaned pigs. One hundred and eight pigs, weaned at 28 day old (7.12 ± 0.08 kg), were randomly divided into the 3 dietary treatments with 6 pens and 6 pigs per pen (half male and half female). The experimental period lasted for 28 days and treatments were as follows: i. CONTROL: basal diet; ii. Antibiotic: the basal diet plus 75 mg· kg- 1 chlortetracycline; and iii. Probiotics: basal diet plus 4% compound probiotics. RESULTS: Supplementation probiotics improved average daily gain over the entire 28 days (P < 0.01) and feed efficiency in the last 14 days (P < 0.05) compared with the other two groups. Both probiotics and antibiotic supplementation decreased concentrations of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (P < 0.05) and interferon-γ (P < 0.01). Probiotics group had greater abundance of Lactobacillus in the caecal digesta and Firmicutes in the colonic digesta, while both probiotics and antibiotic supplementation inhibited Treponema_2 and Anaerovibrio in the caecal digesta. Caecal acetic and propionic acid (P < 0.05) of probiotics group were higher than the other two groups, whereas concentrations of colonic lactic acid and propionic acid (P < 0.05) of antibiotic group were lower than control and probiotics groups. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that combined supplementation of Lactobacillus fermentum and Pediococcus acidilactici regulate the gut health and improve the host ADG and F/G by decreasing serum pro-inflammatory factors (IL-6, IFN-γ), promoting beneficial bacteria (Lactobacillus in the caecal digesta and Firmicutes in the colonic digesta), enhancing production of short chain fatty acids, and inhibiting pathogens (Treponema_2, Anaerovibrio in the caecal digesta).


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus fermentum/metabolismo , Pediococcus acidilactici/metabolismo , Animais , Probióticos/farmacologia , Suínos , Desmame , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Animal ; 13(S1): s20-s25, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280742

RESUMO

Mammary development takes place during the growing and gestation periods in swine but it also continues after farrowing. In fact, a significant proportion of mammary accretion occurs during lactation and is stimulated by suckling. After piglets are weaned, there is involution of the mammary glands and the process of mammogenesis starts again during the next parity. Suckling of a teat for the first 12 to 14 h after farrowing is not sufficient to maintain lactation, and mammary involution accompanied by alterations in gene transcription will take place. The involution process is reversible within 1 day postpartum but is not reversible if a mammary gland is unsuckled for 3 days. Mammary glands that undergo involution early in lactation do not show further involution in the post-weaning period. The action of a teat being suckled does not only affect mammary development in the ongoing lactation but it also impacts mammogenesis in the following lactation. Indeed, when a mammary gland is not suckled in first parity it has a diminished development and lower milk yield in second parity. Furthermore, it was shown that suckling of a teat for only the first 2 days postpartum in primiparous sows is sufficient to ensure optimal mammary development and milk yield from that teat in the next lactation. The behavior of nursing piglets in early lactation is also affected by whether or not a teat was previously used. Such knowledge on lactation biology is essential in order to develop the best adapted management strategies for the currently used hyperprolific sow lines and to optimize growth rate of their piglets. This review gives an update on the role of suckling for mammary development in lactating sows and on how it can affect management strategies of primiparous sows.


Assuntos
Lactação/fisiologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Feminino , Paridade , Estimulação Física , Gravidez , Desmame
6.
Animal ; 13(S1): s4-s10, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280752

RESUMO

Historically, pre-pubertal development of the bovine mammary gland (MG) has received little attention compared to later development. Recent evidence suggests not only that this period represents a very active time in the development of the MG but also that the first 90 days of life can partially dictate future productivity of the lactating cow. The MG, often considered quiescent during early life (first 3 months), is now known to increase in size by over 60-fold in the same period. The importance of sex steroids in MG development is well classified, but a complex signaling network exists among estrogen, progesterone and other growth factors and hormones. Complicating our understanding of this developmental period further is the discovery that pre-weaning nutrition of the calf not only influences the growth of the mammary parenchyma but may also alter the way in which it responds to mammogenic stimuli. Recent data suggest that feeding calves a higher plane of nutrition improves the ability of the mammary epithelium to respond to estradiol and also alters the way in which the mammary parenchyma and fat pad communicate. It is clear that early life nutrition, although able to influence the MG, is still poorly understood mechanistically. For example, additional evidence suggests that increased feeding rates in early life alter the morphology of myoepithelial cells in the mammary epithelium. Further data have also suggested a role for other cell types, such as immune cells, in the penetration of the mammary parenchyma into the fat pad during the early life development of the MG suggesting that mammary development is not only controlled by the local tissue population (parenchyma and fat pad) but perhaps systemically by other tissue types (i.e., immune system). Understanding the roles of these various stimuli and signaling pathways as they relate to the development of the MG in early life may hold the key to unlocking the potential for the optimal development of this crucial organ and, in turn, may lead to improvements in other phases of mammary development and milk yield potential.


Assuntos
Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leite/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Estradiol/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Feminino , Lactação , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional , Progesterona/metabolismo , Desmame
8.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(1): 44-51, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274343

RESUMO

The study evaluated the effects of different doses of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) on growth performance, immune function and antioxidative capacity in piglets. In a 21-d trial, 35 weaned pigs were divided into five groups and diets were supplemented with 5.5 (control), 43.0, 80.5, 118.0 and 155.5 µg 25(OH)D3/kg, respectively. No treatment effects were observed for average daily gain, average daily feed intake and feed to gain ratio. Increasing dietary 25(OH)D3 levels increased serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations linearly (p < 0.01), decreased the frequency of CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T cells (p < 0.01), and the serum level of complement component 3 (p < 0.05). Supplementation of 80.5 and 118.0 µg 25(OH)D3/kg enhanced the activity of serum glutathione peroxidase (p < 0.05) and addition of 43.0 µg 25(OH)D3/kg increased the malondialdehyde concentration (p < 0.05). Overall, feeding high-dose 25(OH)D3 to weaned pigs partly improved immune functions and the antioxidative capacity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Calcifediol/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Calcifediol/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sus scrofa/imunologia , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Desmame
9.
Vet J ; 249: 24-32, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239161

RESUMO

This meta-analysis evaluated the use of potential dietary feed additives (pDFA) with antibacterial effects and their impact on the perfomance of weaned piglets. Twenty-three peer-reviewed in vivo studies, comprising 50 trials, were identified between January 2010 and January 2017. The pDFA in these studies could be grouped in 5 classes: antimicrobial peptides, chitosan, lysozyme, medium chain fatty acids/ triglycerides and plant extracts. Mixed-effect meta-analyses with type of pDFA as fixed effect were performed for the growth parameters 'average daily gain' (ADG) and 'feed conversion ratio' (FCR), which are the two most important and used economic performance parameters for farmers. For each class of pDFA, results of the meta-analysis showed significantly higher average daily gain in the group with pDFA compared to the negative control group, while no significant difference with the positive control group was observed. Furthermore, a positive effect on FCR was found, i.e. significantly less feed was needed to gain 1 kg of body weight in the group with pDFA compared to the negative control group. No significant differences with positive control groups were observed for each class of pDFA, except for plant extracts, where the FCR was also significantly reduced in the treatment group. These results suggest that pDFA could reduce the use of antimicrobials without significant negative effects on performance indicators.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Desmame , Ganho de Peso
10.
Vet Microbiol ; 234: 110-118, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213266

RESUMO

Control of Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis) associated disease is currently hindered by limited knowledge of the epidemiology and ecology of this organism. A prospective longitudinal investigation was conducted to determine the dynamics of M. hyorhinis colonization in two swine production systems. In each system (A, B), 51 young sows (parities 1, 2) and 56 older sows (>parity 2) were selected at farrowing and tested by qPCR of nasal swabs and for antibodies by serum ELISA. From each sow, a piglet was randomly selected, and nasal and serum samples were collected at birth, weaning, and 10 days post-weaning. Two further samplings were performed in the nursery and finishing stages during the high-risk periods for M. hyorhinis-associated disease, and 12 pigs were euthanized and necropsied at these later sampling events. The prevalence of M. hyorhinis colonization in sows was low (<5%). No associations were found between sow parity or sow serum titer and piglet nasal colonization at either birth or weaning. In contrast to the low prevalence (0.95-2.70%) observed in piglets pre-weaning, most pigs became colonized during the first four weeks after weaning and remained positive throughout the nursery and finishing stages. The detection of M. hyorhinis in oral fluids followed similar patterns as those observed using nasal swabs. ELISA results showed decreased detection of maternal antibodies at around 3 weeks of age and a subsequent increase after natural exposure. The role of M. hyorhinis in polyserositis and arthritis was demonstrated in these two herds. Establishing the temporal dynamics of exposure and infection with M. hyorhinis in pigs will enable more strategic implementation of intervention strategies in affected herds.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma hyorhinis/patogenicidade , Nariz/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Estudos Longitudinais , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Suína Micoplasmática/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Desmame
11.
Gen Physiol Biophys ; 38(4): 365-368, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219430

RESUMO

The role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in chronic stress and neurodevelopmental disorders is of growing research interest. Here we show that post-weaning isolation rearing of rats decreased gene expression of VEGF in the hippocampus. Gene expression of VEGF upstream regulator fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) or its downstream mediator endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was unchanged. Other signaling pathways appear to be involved in isolation-induced reduction in VEGF gene expression. Sex differences in VEGF and eNOS gene expression with significantly higher mRNA levels in females than males were revealed.


Assuntos
Regulação para Baixo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Isolamento Social , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Desmame , Animais , Feminino , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética , RNA Mensageiro/análise , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ratos
12.
Parasitol Res ; 118(7): 2065-2077, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187222

RESUMO

This study tested for association between Toxoplasma gondii and pregnancy and abortion to investigate sub-optimal reproduction in farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus). Sera from a sub-sample (n = 2304) of pregnant and non-pregnant hinds in early gestation at first pregnancy scan (scan 1) and approximately at the end of second trimester at second pregnancy scan (scan 2) were tested for T. gondii antibodies using a validated ELISA. Foetuses and/or uteri from pregnant, non-pregnant, and aborting hinds at scan 1, scan 2, or weaning were tested for T. gondii DNA by nested PCR. At scan 1, 31.1% of 861 rising two-year-old (R2) and 28.3% of 357 mixed-aged (MA, ≥ 2 years) hinds were sero-positive. There was no association between scan 1 serology and non-pregnancy at animal (R2, p = 0.05 and MA, p = 0.43) or herd level (R2, p = 0.37). Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in 3/18 placenta and 4/18 foetal brains from aborting R2 hinds and 15/157 R2 and 3/21 MA uteri from non-pregnant hinds at scan 1. At scan 2, sero-prevalence was higher (odds ratio = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.04-2.48) in aborted (34.3% of 268) than in non-aborted (23.5% of 446) R2 hinds (p = 0.03) and 7.9% of abortions between scans were attributable to T. gondii exposure. Within-herd sero-prevalence at scan 2 was positively associated with daily abortion rate in R2 herds with aborted hinds (p < 0.001) but not in MA herds (p = 0.07). Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in 27/169 uteri, 2/20 cotyledons, and 1/5 foetal brains from aborted hinds at scan 2 and in uteri from 5/33 hinds not rearing a calf to weaning. Toxoplasma gondii RFLP genotyping of five loci revealed a unique type I/III genotype pattern, TgRDNZ1, in a foetal brain sample, not been previously reported in deer. These findings provide serological and molecular evidence that T. gondii infection is associated with abortion in red deer, possibly in all three trimesters.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/veterinária , Cervos/parasitologia , Reprodução , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Fazendas , Feminino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Placenta/parasitologia , Gravidez , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal , Desmame
13.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 6108-6113, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nucleotides are key constituents of milk, where they are utilized in cell replication, although there are limited studies for weaned piglets. This study evaluated the effects of uridine monophosphate (UMP) with uridine (UR) feed supplementation on the intestinal development and nucleotide transport in weaned piglets. RESULTS: Supplementation with UMP significantly increased (P < 0.05) plasma glucose, and UR supplementation significantly reduced (0.05 < P < 0.10) the plasma total cholesterol (TC) of piglets when compared with that of the control group, although non-significant difference (P > 0.05) in growth performance was observed among three groups. Piglets fed supplementary UR exhibited greater (P < 0.05) crypt depth in the duodenum and ileum when compared with those in the supplementary UMP and control groups. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) results revealed that UR supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the relative mRNA levels of genes encoding the transmembrane proteins ZO-1 and occludin in the duodenum mucosa, and ZO-1 in the jejunum mucosa (P < 0.05). Similarly, UR supplementation increased (P < 0.05) expression of solute carriers SLC28A1 and SLC29A1 in the duodenum mucosa. Conversely, claudin-1 expression in the duodenum mucosa was inhibited (P < 0.05) by dietary supplementation with UMP or UR. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our data indicated that dietary supplementation with UMP or UR was conducive to stimulating intestinal development and promoting nucleotide transport in weaned piglets. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Intestino Delgado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Uridina Monofosfato/metabolismo , Uridina/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Claudina-1/genética , Claudina-1/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Mucosa Intestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Masculino , Suínos/genética , Suínos/metabolismo , Desmame
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 6084-6088, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microalgae can serve as an alternative to animal feed additives or supplements in the diet of weaning pigs, to increase their potential and performance. Two experiments were conducted with three dietary treatments: CON (basal diet), MA1 (basal diet + 0.5% microalgae), and MA2 (basal diet + 1.0% microalgae). In Experiment 1, 150 crossbred weaning pigs were used in a 5-week experiment. In Experiment 2, 15 cannulated barrows were used. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of Schizochytrium microalgae on growth performance, blood profiles, apparent total tract digestibility, and ileal nutrient digestibility in weaning pigs. RESULTS: In Experiment 1, pigs fed with MA2 had higher growth (P < 0.05) than pigs fed with MA1 from day 8 to day 21 but the experimental result showed no significant effects (P > 0.05) on growth performance, white blood cell, total cholesterol, and triglyceride among the treatments. However, lymphocytes (%) of pigs fed with MA1 and MA2 diets were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of pigs fed with a CON diet at day 35. In Experiment 2, the apparent total tract digestibility and ileal nutrient digestibility of dry matter and nitrogen were higher (P < 0.05) in pigs fed with MA1 and MA2 than in those fed with a CON diet. CONCLUSION: Dietary microalgae supplementation had more dramatic and beneficial effects on nutrient digestibility than a CON diet. It also increased lymphocyte concentration but had no significant effect on growth performance in weaning pigs. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Íleo/metabolismo , Estramenópilas/química , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Digestão , Feminino , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Microalgas , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Suínos/sangue , Suínos/metabolismo , Desmame
15.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 6076-6083, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to evaluate the health benefits to weaning pigs, raised under low sanitary conditions, of dietary supplementation with a multi-strain yeast fraction product (Cyberlindnera jadinii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae). In total, 160 weaning pigs (7.21 ± 1.05 kg) were randomly allotted to two dietary treatments in a 6-week feeding trial. The dietary treatments included a corn-soybean meal-based basal diet (CON) and CON + 2 g kg-1 multi-strain yeast fraction product (MsYF) during weeks 1-2 and 0.4 g kg-1 MsYF during weeks 3-6. RESULTS: The MsYF supplementation increased (P < 0.05) body weight (BW) at day 42 and average daily gain (ADG) during days 1-14 and days 1-42 (P < 0.05) compared to CON. The total tract digestibility of dry matter (DM), fecal Lactobacillus counts, and serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration at day 42 were higher (P < 0.05) in pigs fed a MsYF supplemented diet. The concentration of serum haptoglobin in pigs receiving a MsYF-supplemented diet was higher (P < 0.05) at days 7, 14, and 42 than those receiving CON. The mRNA expression for INF-γ and TNF-α genes were lower (P < 0.05) at days 14 and 7 respectively and the expression of IL-6 and TLR-2 genes was lower (P < 0.01) at days 7 and 14 in pigs fed an MsFY supplemented diet than those fed CON. CONCLUSION: Supplementation with a multi-strain yeast fraction product had a positive effect on ADG during the early post-weaning period and led to better health in weaning pigs. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leveduras/química , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Higiene , Interferon-alfa/genética , Interferon-alfa/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Suínos/genética , Suínos/imunologia , Suínos/microbiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Desmame
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 7168-7178, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155247

RESUMO

We examined the effect of replacing corn silage (CS) with reconstituted alfalfa hay (RAH) or reconstituted beet pulp (RBP) in the starter diets on feeding behavior, sorting, and health criteria using 54 neonatal female Holstein calves that were assigned randomly to 3 groups receiving starter diets containing CS (10% on a dry matter basis), RAH, or RBP. The starter diets had the same nutrient composition and moisture level but differed in particle size distribution. Calves fed CS tended to have a lower intermeal interval compared with calves fed RAH before weaning; however, meal frequency and duration, eating rate, and meal size were not affected by treatment before and after weaning, which resulted in no changes in feed intake and time spent eating. Rumination frequency was higher for calves fed CS than for calves fed RAH or RBP after weaning. Feeding RBP decreased rumination duration compared with CS and RAH after weaning; however, calves fed RBP had a higher rumination bout interval compared with calves fed CS. Calves fed CS spent more time ruminating compared with calves fed RAH or RBP after weaning. Feeding CS tended to decrease and decreased time devoted to standing and lying, respectively, compared with calves fed RBP; however, calves fed RBP tended to spend more time on nonnutritive oral behaviors compared with calves fed RAH. Calves fed CS sorted against particles retained on the 8-mm sieve of the Penn State Particle Separator (PSPS) and for particles retained on the 1.18-mm sieve of the PSPS. Feeding RAH increased sorting for particles retained on the 8- and 1.18-mm sieves of the PSPS. Calves fed RBP sorted only for particles retained on the 1.18-mm sieve of the PSPS. Calves fed RBP tended to be more susceptible to developing pneumonia compared with calves fed CS or RAH; however, frequency and duration of diarrhea and pneumonia or number of days needed to medicate the diseases were unchanged across treatment groups. Initial (d 3) blood total protein concentration was similar (6.51 g/dL) across treatment groups. Overall, replacing CS with RAH or RBP did not affect time devoted to eating and feed intake due to no significant changes in meal size or intermeal interval before and after weaning. Calves showed feed sorting at the extent to which they balanced intake of nutrients and met their nutritional needs. Calves in general were healthy; therefore, CS, RAH, or RBP can be used interchangeably based on availability and competitive feed price.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Preferências Alimentares , Silagem/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Distribuição Aleatória , Desmame , Zea mays
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 7320-7328, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202642

RESUMO

Mortality in preweaned dairy calves is a significant source of economic loss for dairy producers. In particular, bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a leading cause of death in preweaned dairy calves. The objectives of this study were to investigate management practices and their effects on mortality, both that specifically attributed to BRD and overall mortality due to all causes, in preweaned dairy calves. Rates of failure of passive transfer of immunity (FPT) are also reported. The study consisted of a convenience sample of 5 dairies across California, selected based on management practices, calf records, location, and size. Trained study personnel performed comprehensive calf management surveys on every dairy at least once every season. Calves were enrolled in the study at birth and followed until weaning. Mixed-effect logistic regression models were specified for the outcomes all-cause mortality (any death before weaning) and mortality attributed to BRD. The 2 final models included a total of 11,470 calves that were born on the study dairies and followed until weaning. The study cohort's overall crude mortality was 2.8%, with crude mortality of individual dairies ranging from 1.7 to 7.2%. The proportion of mortality attributed to BRD was 19.3%, with a range of 0 to 27.1% on the study dairies. Increasing the frequency of changing maternity pen bedding was associated with a decreased risk of mortality due to BRD. Calves diagnosed with BRD in the spring had an increased risk of mortality compared with calves born in the summer; mortality in calves with fall and winter BRD diagnoses did not different significantly from that in summer. Season of mortality was not significant in either model. Feeding ≥5.7 L of milk per day per calf (vs. ≤3.7 L/d) decreased the risk of mortality in calves over 21 d of age. Twins had a 68% increased risk of all-cause mortality compared with calves born as singletons. Both mortality models showed an association between administration of a modified live vaccine in dams (targeting BRD pathogens) and a decreased risk of mortality in calves. Using a serum total protein cut-off of 5.2 g/dL, 16.8% of calves had FPT, with a mean serum total protein concentration of 5.94 ± 0.06 g/dL across all calves sampled.


Assuntos
Complexo Respiratório Bovino/etiologia , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/mortalidade , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Desmame , Animais , California , Bovinos , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais , Leite , Parto , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 7329-7344, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202651

RESUMO

Clinical scoring systems for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in weaned dairy calves have been developed in the past with calves experimentally infected with specific respiratory pathogens. In this prevalent case control study, a BRD clinical scoring system for weaned calves was developed using field data from 689 dairy calves housed in group pens on 5 dairies in California. Of the 689 calves in the study, 89 were selected because they appeared sick based on the display of lethargy, depression, or separation from the group, whereas the remaining 600 were randomly selected. Clinical signs were recorded for all calves, and BRD case status was determined by thoracic auscultation and ultrasound examinations, which were interpreted in parallel. Of the 689 calves, 238 were identified as BRD cases. Five survey-adjusted generalized linear mixed models with a logit link function, calf as the unit of analysis, and dairy as a random intercept were assessed using 3-fold cross-validation. The best model chosen based on performance and parsimony contained the variables cough (2 points), abnormal respiration (1 point), low body condition (5 points), sunken eyes (4 points), and a 24-h ambient temperature range >15°C (1 point) with a 2-point cutoff for a BRD suspect score. An alternative model did not contain a score for the covariate 24-h ambient temperature range and had a 1-point cutoff. The best model was tested on 174 observations not used for model training and resulted in 77.0% screening sensitivity, 100% diagnostic sensitivity, and 61.9% specificity. Adding rectal temperature ≥39.2°C (102.5°F) as a second-tier test increased specificity to 76.7% and lowered the screening sensitivity to 64.8% and diagnostic sensitivity to 76.9%. The alternative model had a screening sensitivity of 84.2%, diagnostic sensitivity of 100%, and specificity of 45.7%. Adding rectal temperature ≥39.2°C (102.5°F) as a second-tier test for score-positive animals improved specificity of the alternative model to 62.6% while lowering its screening sensitivity to 70.5% and diagnostic sensitivity to 76.9%. Use of a 2-tier California BRD postweaning scoring system may provide producers and veterinarians with a new tool to monitor BRD in group-housed dairy calves. Furthermore, the scoring system may aid in judicious medical intervention for BRD cases and reduce unnecessary treatments of animals with antimicrobials.


Assuntos
Complexo Respiratório Bovino/diagnóstico , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Desmame , Animais , Auscultação , Composição Corporal , Temperatura Corporal , California , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bovinos , Respiração , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ultrassonografia/veterinária
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 7306-7319, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202655

RESUMO

Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is one of the leading causes of death in dairy heifers. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to characterize the epidemiology of BRD in preweaned dairy calves and to identify management practices associated with decreased risk of BRD. Dairies were chosen for the study based on management practices, location, size, and willingness to participate. A total of 6 dairies, ranging in size from 700 to 3,200 milking cows, in 6 counties across California's Central Valley, were enrolled in the study for at least 1 year. A total of 11,945 calves were born on the study dairies and followed until weaning. Incidence of BRD was estimated using treatment records. Trained study personnel performed comprehensive calf management surveys and estimated BRD prevalence on every dairy at least once every season. A shared frailty model was used to model the associations between management practices and BRD hazard. The final models included data from complete records of 11,470 calves. The overall BRD study period prevalence across the study herds was 22.8%. The mean BRD incidence density rate on all the study dairies was 0.17 BRD cases [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.16-1.74] per calf-month at risk. The shared frailty model identified that feeding only waste or saleable milk (compared with use of milk replacer), feeding over 3.8 L of milk per day to calves under 21 d of age, frequent changing of maternity pen bedding, and administration of modified live or killed BRD vaccines to dams before calving significantly reduced the risk of BRD. Risk factors for BRD included housing calves in wooden hutches with metal roofs, compared with all-wood hutches, twin births, and perception of dust occurring "regularly," as reported by calf managers, compared with a perception of "no dust" in the calf-raising area. All 4 seasons were analyzed, and both summer (hazard ratio = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.32) and spring (hazard ratio = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.44) were associated with a higher risk of BRD compared with winter. The current longitudinal study identified specific housing and feeding practices that could be modified to decrease risk of BRD. In addition, season was observed to have a strong effect on calves' risk of developing BRD on California dairies.


Assuntos
Complexo Respiratório Bovino/epidemiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Desmame , Animais , California/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais , Estudos Longitudinais , Leite , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Vacinas/administração & dosagem
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 7288-7305, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202656

RESUMO

The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine how management practices on California dairies may be associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in preweaned calves. A convenience sample of 100 dairies throughout California, providing a study population of 4,636 calves, were visited between May 2014 and April 2016. During each farm visit, in-person interviews with the herd manager or calf caretaker were conducted to collect information about herd demographics, maternity pen, colostrum and calf management, herd vaccinations, and dust abatement. A random sample of preweaned calves was identified and evaluated for the presence of BRD using a standardized tool. A survey-adjusted generalized linear mixed model with a logit link function was fitted with calf as the unit of analysis and dairy as the random effect. Mean study herd size (±SE) was 1,718 (±189.9) cows. Survey-adjusted estimates of breed types in the sample were 81.6% (±0.6) Holstein, 13.1% (±0.4) Jersey, and 5.3% (±0.5) crossbred or other purebred breeds, and calf sex proportions were 73.8% (±1.0) female and 26.2% (±1.0) male. Overall survey-adjusted BRD prevalence in the study herds was 6.91% (±0.69). Housing factors positively associated with BRD were metal hutches compared with wood hutches [odds ratio (OR) = 11.19; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.80-44.78], calf-to-calf contact in calves >75 d of age (OR = 9.95, 95% CI = 1.50-65.86), feeding Holstein calves <2.84 L of milk or replacer per day (OR = 7.16, 95% CI = 1.23-41.68), and lagoon water used for flushing manure under hutches compared with no flush (OR = 12.06, 95% CI = 1.93-75.47). Providing extra shade over hutches (OR = 0.08; 95% CI = 0.02-0.37), feeding calves at least 90% saleable milk (OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.13-0.54) or pasteurized milk (OR = 0.10; 95% CI = 0.03-0.36), and feeding >5.68 L of milk or replacer per day to Jersey calves (OR = 0.04; 95% CI = 0.01-0.28) were negatively associated with BRD. Our study identified management practices on California dairies with variability and that may contribute to differences in BRD prevalence, which will be incorporated into a risk-assessment tool to control and prevent BRD in preweaned dairy calves.


Assuntos
Complexo Respiratório Bovino/epidemiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Desmame , Animais , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/prevenção & controle , California/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Colostro , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/veterinária , Fazendas , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais , Masculino , Leite , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Medição de Risco
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