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1.
Vet Pathol ; 57(5): 642-652, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880235

RESUMO

In the small intestine, localized innate mucosal immunity is critical for intestinal homeostasis. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection induces villus injury and impairs digestive function. Moreover, the infection might comprise localized innate mucosal immunity. This study investigated specific enterocyte subtypes and innate immune components of weaned pigs during PEDV infection. Four-week-old pigs were orally inoculated with PEDV IN19338 strain (n = 40) or sham-inoculated (n = 24). At day post inoculation (DPI) 2, 4, and 6, lysozyme expression in Paneth cells, cellular density of villous and Peyer's patch microfold (M) cells, and the expression of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) were assessed in the jejunum and ileum by immunohistochemistry, and interleukin (IL)-1ß and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured in the jejunum by ELISA. PEDV infection led to a decrease in the ratios of villus height to crypt depth (VH-CD) in jejunum at DPI 2, 4, and 6 and in ileum at DPI 4. The number of villous M cells was reduced in jejunum at DPI 4 and 6 and in ileum at DPI 6, while the number of Peyer's patch M cells in ileum increased at DPI 2 and then decreased at DPI 6. PEDV-infected pigs also had reduced lysozyme expression in ileal Paneth cells at DPI 2 and increased ileal pIgR expression at DPI 4. There were no significant changes in IL-1ß and TNF-α expression in PEDV-infected pigs compared to controls. In conclusion, PEDV infection affected innate mucosal immunity of weaned pigs through alterations in Paneth cells, villous and Peyer's patch M cells, and pIgR expression.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Imunidade Inata , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Citocinas/análise , Íleo/imunologia , Íleo/patologia , Íleo/virologia , Mucosa Intestinal/química , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/virologia , Jejuno/imunologia , Jejuno/patologia , Jejuno/virologia , Receptores de Imunoglobulina Polimérica/metabolismo , Suínos , Desmame
2.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47779

RESUMO

Cientistas do Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas (ICB) da USP descobriram que o desmame precoce pode causar predisposição a doenças gástricas, de acordo com testes realizados em animais.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Desmame , Leite Humano , Pepsina A , Digestão
3.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1933): 20201544, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811318

RESUMO

Changes in the foraging environment and at-sea distribution of southern elephant seals from Kerguelen Islands were investigated over a decade (2004-2018) using tracking, weaning mass, and blood δ13C values. Females showed either a sub-Antarctic or an Antarctic foraging strategy, and no significant shift in their at-sea distribution was detected between 2004 and 2017. The proportion of females foraging in sub-Antarctic versus Antarctic habitats did not change over the 2006-2018 period. Pup weaning mass varied according to the foraging habitat of their mothers. The weaning mass of sub-Antarctic foraging mothers' pups decreased by 11.7 kg over the study period, but they were on average 5.8 kg heavier than pups from Antarctic foraging mothers. Pup blood δ13C values decreased by 1.1‰ over the study period regardless of their sex and the presumed foraging habitat of their mothers. Together, these results suggest an ecological change is occurring within the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean with possible consequences on the foraging performance of southern elephant seals. We hypothesize that this shift in δ13C is related to a change in primary production and/or in the composition of phytoplankton communities, but this requires further multidisciplinary investigations.


Assuntos
Focas Verdadeiras/sangue , Desmame , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Isótopos de Carbono/sangue , Feminino , Masculino
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236290, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785214

RESUMO

High and variable pre-weaning mortality is a persistent problem in laboratory mouse breeding. Assuming a modest 15% mortality rate across mouse strains, means that approximately 1 million more pups are produced yearly in the EU to compensate for those which die. This paper presents the first large study under practical husbandry conditions to determine the risk factors associated with mouse pre-weaning mortality. We analysed historical records from 219,975 pups from two breeding facilities, collected as part of their management routine and including information on number of pups born and weaned per litter, parents' age and identification, and dates of birth and death of all animals. Pups were counted once in their first week of life and at weaning, and once every one or two weeks, depending on the need for cage cleaning. Dead pups were recorded as soon as these were found during the daily cage screening (without opening the cage). It was hypothesized that litter overlap (i.e. the presence of older siblings in the cage when new pups are born), a recurrent social configuration in trio-housed mice, is associated with increased newborn mortality, along with advanced dam age, large litter size, and a high number and age of older siblings in the cage. The estimated probability of pup death was two to seven percentage points higher in cages with litter overlap compared to those without. Litter overlap was associated with an increase in death of the entire litter of five and six percentage points, which represent an increase of 19% and 103% compared to non-overlapped litters in the two breeding facilities, respectively. Increased number and age of older siblings, advanced dam age, small litter size (less than four pups born) and large litter size (over 11 pups born) were associated with increased probability of pup death.


Assuntos
Animais de Laboratório/fisiologia , Cruzamento/métodos , Ciência dos Animais de Laboratório/métodos , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/fisiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Idade Materna , Camundongos , Gravidez , Reprodução/fisiologia , Desmame
5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 1): e20180969, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756838

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of autolyzed yeast on performance, cecal microbiota, and leukogram of weaned piglets. A total of 96 piglets of commercial line weaned at 21-day-old were used. The experimental design was a randomized block design with four treatments (diets containing 0.0%, 0.3%, 0.6%, and 0.9% autolyzed yeast), eight replicates, and three animals per pen in order to evaluate daily weight gain, daily feed intake, and feed conversion in periods of 0 to 15, 0 to 26, and 0 to 36 days. Quadratic effects of autolyzed yeast inclusion were observed on the feed conversion from 0 to 15 days, on daily weight gain from 0 to 15 days, 0 to 26 days and, 0 to 36 days, indicating an autolyzed yeast optimal inclusion level between 0.4% and 0.5%. No effect from autolyzed yeast addition was observed on piglet daily feed intake, cecal microbiota, and leukogram; however, i.m. application of E. coli lipopolysaccharide reduced the values ​​of total leukocytes and their fractions (neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and rods). Therefore, autolyzed yeast when provided at levels between 0.4% and 0.5% improved weaned piglets' performance.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ração Animal , Animais , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Escherichia coli , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Suínos , Desmame
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237708, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817646

RESUMO

Parental high-fat diet (HFD) programs for obesity and hypertension in female offspring in rats, but it is unknown how the pregnancies of these offspring are impacted. Therefore, the hypothesis was tested that parental HFD exaggerates obesity and hypertension during pregnancy of the offspring. Wistar Hannover rat dams (the parental, P generation) were maintained on normal-fat diet (NFD) or HFD from weaning and were kept on respective diets through pregnancy and lactation. Their offspring (the first filial, F1 generation) were weaned onto the same diet as the P generation, or they were changed to the other diet to determine if combined HFD in the P and F1 generations exaggerates body weight and blood pressure levels during pregnancy in these offspring. This diet paradigm resulted in the following groups of pregnant F1 offspring: P-NFD/F1-NFD, P-HFD/F1-NFD, P-NFD/F1-HFD, and P-HFD/F1-HFD. Maternal body and adipose tissue weights were greatest in the P-HFD/F1-HFD group compared to the other 3 groups by the end of pregnancy. Plasma leptin and conscious mean arterial blood pressure were not significantly different between any group, although there was a main effect for increased blood pressure in the F1-HFD groups. Circulating levels of the antihypertensive pregnancy factor, placental growth factor (PlGF), were assessed. Although average PlGF levels were similar among all groups, correlative studies revealed that lower levels of PlGF were associated with higher blood pressure only in the P-HFD/F1-HFD group. In summary, HFD feeding from the P generation exaggerated HFD-induced body and adipose tissue weights in the pregnant offspring.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Placentário/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Adiposidade/genética , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Peso Corporal/genética , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Herança Materna/genética , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Desmame
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235080, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639959

RESUMO

Detailed information about the lives and deaths of children in antiquity is often in short supply. Childhood dietary histories are, however, recorded and maintained in the teeth of both juveniles and adults. Primary tooth dentinal collagen does not turn over, preserving a sequential record of dietary changes. The use of nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) isotope values of incrementally sampled dentin are used in the study of breastfeeding practices but evidence for the addition of weaning foods, both in terms of mode and, particularly, duration, has remained analytically inaccessible to date. Here, we demonstrate how the novel use hydrogen isotope (δ2H) values of sequentially micro-sampled dentin collagen, measured from individuals excavated from a Punic cemetery, in Sardinia, Italy, can serve as a proxy for weaning food type and duration in ancient childhood diet. The weaning rate and age, based on the decline in δ15N and δ13C values of permanent first molars and the concomitant increase in δ2H, appears to be broadly similar among six individuals. Hydrogen isotopes vary systematically from a low value soon after birth, rising through early childhood. The early post-birth values can be explained by the influence of 2H-depleted lipids from mother's breastmilk and the later δ2H rise is consistent with, among other things, a substantial portion of boiled foodstuffs, such as the higher δ2H values observed in porridge. Overall δ2H in dentin shows great promise to elucidate infant and childhood feeding practices, and especially the introduction of supplementary foods during the weaning process.


Assuntos
Dieta/história , Aleitamento Materno/história , Pré-Escolar , Colágeno/análise , Dentina/química , Deutério/análise , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Lactente , Itália , Desmame
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234610, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645008

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the physical form of starter and inclusion of hay in the diet of preweaning dairy calves on performance, digestibility, ruminal development, and mRNA expression of genes involved in ruminal metabolism. Holstein × Gyr crossbred male calves (n = 38 1day old) were assigned to 3 treatments for 9 weeks: Control (n = 13; pellet starter with 4 mm diameter and 18 mm length and 4% steam-flaked corn), Ground (n = 12; same starter of the control but ground pass through a 4.0 mm sieve), or Ground plus 5% chopped Tifton hay GH (n = 13). All calves were fed 4 L/d of whole milk up to 63 d of age and were abruptly weaned at 64 d of age. Water and diets were offered ad libitum. Samples of ruminal contents were obtained from all animals at 30, 45, and 60 d of age to evaluate pH, ammonia nitrogen, and volatile fatty acids (VFA). At 55 d of age, an apparent digestibility assay was performed using 18 animals (n = 6/ treatment). At 65 d of age, the 18 animals were euthanized to evaluate the development of the digestive tract. The physical form of starter and the dietary inclusion of hay did not influence starter intake (Control 326 g/d, Ground 314 g/d and GH 365 g/d), daily weight gain (Control 541g/d, Ground 531g/d and GH 606g/d), feed efficiency, apparent nutrient digestibility, energy partitioning, nitrogen balance, ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen concentration, VFA, the development of the digestive tract and the mRNA expression of genes involved in AGV metabolism.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Dieta/veterinária , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Masculino , Leite/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Rúmen/metabolismo , Desmame , Ganho de Peso , Zea mays/metabolismo
9.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(8): 673-680, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700995

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pharmacokinetics of sodium iodide (NaI) following oral administration to preweaned dairy calves, and to assess the efficacy of NaI for prevention of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in preweaned calves at a commercial calf-raising facility. ANIMALS: 434 healthy preweaned dairy calves. PROCEDURES: In the first of 2 experimental trials, each of 7 calves received NaI (20 mg/kg, PO) once. Blood and nasal fluid samples were collected at predetermined times before (baseline) and for 72 hours after NaI administration for determination of iodine concentrations. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by noncompartmental analysis. In the second trial, 427 calves at a calf-raising facility were randomly assigned to receive NaI (20 mg/kg, PO, 2 doses 72 hours apart; n = 211) or serve as untreated controls (216). Health outcomes were compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS: For all 7 calves in the pharmacokinetic trial, the iodine concentration in both serum and nasal fluid samples was significantly increased from the baseline concentration and exceeded the presumed therapeutic iodine concentration (6.35 µg/mL) throughout the sampling period. In the on-farm trial, the odds of being treated for BRD before weaning for NaI-treated calves were twice those for control calves (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.38 to 3.00). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested that, although oral administration of NaI (20 mg/kg) to preweaned dairy calves achieved iodine concentrations presumed to be effective in both serum and nasal fluid, it was not effective for prevention of BRD in preweaned calves at a commercial calf-raising facility.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Doenças Respiratórias/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Fazendas , Iodeto de Sódio , Desmame
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3285, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620774

RESUMO

The early life human gut microbiota exerts life-long health effects on the host, but the mechanisms underpinning its assembly remain elusive. Particularly, the early colonization of Clostridiales from the Roseburia-Eubacterium group, associated with protection from colorectal cancer, immune- and metabolic disorders is enigmatic. Here, we describe catabolic pathways that support the growth of Roseburia and Eubacterium members on distinct human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). The HMO pathways, which include enzymes with a previously unknown structural fold and specificity, were upregulated together with additional glycan-utilization loci during growth on selected HMOs and in co-cultures with Akkermansia muciniphila on mucin, suggesting an additional role in enabling cross-feeding and access to mucin O-glycans. Analyses of 4599 Roseburia genomes underscored the preponderance and diversity of the HMO utilization loci within the genus. The catabolism of HMOs by butyrate-producing Clostridiales may contribute to the competitiveness of this group during the weaning-triggered maturation of the microbiota.


Assuntos
Butiratos/metabolismo , Clostridiales/metabolismo , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Mucinas/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Bifidobacterium/metabolismo , Clostridiales/genética , Colo/microbiologia , Eubacterium/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Metabolismo/fisiologia , Leite Humano/química , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Verrucomicrobia/metabolismo , Desmame
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110899, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678747

RESUMO

Liver is the earliest target for AFB1 toxicity in both human and animals. In the last decade, plant derived by-products have been used in animal feed to reduce AFB1 induced toxicity. In the present study we investigated whether the presence of 8% grape seed meal by-product is able to counteract the hepatotoxic effects produced by AFB1 in liver of pig after weaning exposed to the toxin through the contaminated feed for 28 days. Twenty four weaned cross-bred TOPIGS-40 piglets with an average body weight of 9.13±0.03 were allocated to the following experimentally treatments: control diet without AFB1 (normal compound feed for weaned pigs); contaminated diet with 320 mg kg-1 AFB1; GSM diet (compound feed plus 8% grape seed meal) and AFB1+GSM diet (320 mg kg-1 AFB1 contaminated feed plus 8% grape seed meal). Pigs fed AFB1 diet had altered performance, body weight decreasing with 25.1% (b.w.: 17.17 kg for AFB1 vs 22.92 kg for control). Exposure of piglets to AFB1 contaminated diet caused liver oxidative stress as well as liver histological damage, manly characterized by inflammatory infiltrate, fibrosis and parenchyma cells vacuolation when compared to control and GSM meal group. 94.12% of the total analysed genes (34) related to inflammation and immune response was up-regulated. The addition of GSM into the AFB1 diet diminished the gene overexpression and ameliorate histological liver injuries and oxidative stress. The protective effect of GSM diet in diminishing the AFB1 harmful effect was mediated through the decreasing of gene and protein expression of MAPKs and NF-κB signalling overexpressed by AFB1 diet. The inclusion of grape seed by-products in the diet of pigs after weaning might be used as a novel nutritional intervention to reduce aflatoxin toxicity.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Ração Animal/análise , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/química , Vitis/química , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Dieta , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos , Desmame
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD012241, 2020 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Education of family members about infant weaning practices could affect nutrition, growth, and development of children in different settings across the world. OBJECTIVES: To compare effects of family nutrition educational interventions for infant weaning with conventional management on growth and neurodevelopment in childhood. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2018, Issue 5), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 26 June 2018), Embase (1980 to 26 June 2018), and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to 26 June 2018). We searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and references of retrieved articles. We ran an updated search from 1 January 2018 to 12 December 2019 in the following databases: CENTRAL via CRS Web, MEDLINE via Ovid, and CINAHL via EBSCOhost. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials that examined effects of nutrition education for weaning practices delivered to families of infants born at term compared to conventional management (standard care in the population) up to one year of age. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently identified eligible trial reports from the literature search and performed data extraction and quality assessments for each included trial. We synthesised effect estimates using risk ratios (RRs), risk differences (RDs), and mean differences (MDs), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included 21 trials, recruiting 14,241 infants. Five of the trials were conducted in high-income countries and the remaining 16 were conducted in middle- and low-income countries. Meta-analysis showed that nutrition education targeted at improving weaning-related feeding practices probably increases both weight-for-age z scores (WAZ) (MD 0.15 standard deviations, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.22; 6 studies; 2551 infants; I² = 32%; moderate-certainty evidence) and height-for-age z scores (0.12 standard deviations, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.19; 7 studies; 3620 infants; I² = 49%; moderate-certainty evidence) by 12 months of age. Meta-analysis of outcomes at 18 months of age was heterogeneous and inconsistent in the magnitude of effects of nutrition education on WAZ and weight-for-height z score across studies. One trial that assessed effects of nutrition education on growth at six years reported an uncertain effect on change in height and body mass index z score. Two studies investigated effects of nutrition education on neurodevelopment at 12 to 24 months of age with conflicting results. No trials assessed effects of nutrition education on long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Nutrition education for families of infants may reduce the risk of undernutrition in term-born infants (evidence of low to moderate certainty due to limitations in study design and substantial heterogeneity of included studies). Modest effects on growth during infancy may not be of clinical significance. However, it is unclear whether these small improvements in growth parameters in the first two years of life affect long-term childhood growth and development. Further studies are needed to resolve this question.


Assuntos
Família , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Desmame , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Viés , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Países Desenvolvidos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Lactente , Morte do Lactente , Alimentos Infantis , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido , Prevalência , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Nascimento a Termo
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236118, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667943

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate whether pre-weaning heifer calves divergent for residual feed intake (RFI) or residual feed intake and body weight gain (RIG) exhibit differences in thermography, blood, and ruminal parameters. Thirty-two Gyr heifer calves were enrolled in a 63-d trial and classified into 2 feed efficiency (FE) groups based on RFI and RIG (mean ± 0.5 SD). The groups were classified as high efficiency (HE) RFI (HE RFI, n = 9), HE RIG (HE RIG, n = 10), low efficiency (LE) RFI (LE RFI, n = 10), and LE RIG (LE RIG, n = 11). The amount of whole milk provided for each calf was calculated based on their metabolic weight at birth (42% x BW0.75). The liquid diet was divided into two meals at 0700 and 1400 h. The total solid diet (TSD) was composed of 92% concentrate and 8% of Tifton 85 hay chopped in 5-cm lengths, as fed. Intake was measured daily. Blood concentrations of insulin, beta hydroxybutyrate, urea, and glucose, and ruminal pH, N-NH3, and volatile fatty acids (VFA) were evaluated at 14, 28, 42, 56, and 70 days of age. Thermal images of the calves were taken with an infrared camera (FLIR T420, FLIR Systems Inc., Wilsonville, OR) on d 56 (±3) at 0600 h, before the morning feeding. Total VFA concentration and propionate as % of total VFA were 24.2% and 22.2% lower in HE RFI compared to LE RFI calves, respectively. On the other hand, acetate as % of total VFA was 10.6% greater in HE RFI than LE RFI calves. Blood urea concentration tended to be greater in LE RFI than HE RFI calves. High efficiency HE RIG tended to have 6.8% greater acetate and 15.4% lower propionate as % of total VFA than LE RIG. Blood insulin concentration was greater and blood glucose tended to be greater for LE RIG than HE RIG group. Low efficiency RIG group had greater left rib, left flank, and anus surface temperature measured by infrared thermography than the HE RIG group. Differences in ruminal fermentation do not seem to be associated with pre-weaning calves efficiency, while differences in protein metabolism seem to affect RFI during this phase. Infrared thermography appears to be correlated to RIG in pre-weaning heifer calves.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Termogênese , Desmame , Ganho de Peso , Animais , Células Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Bovinos , Ingestão de Energia , Ruminantes/metabolismo , Termografia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vegetarian and vegan weaning have increasing popularity among parents and families. However, if not correctly managed, they may lead to wrong feeding regimens, causing severe nutritional deficiencies requiring specific nutritional support or even the need for hospitalization. AIM: To assess the prevalence of vegetarian and vegan weaning among Italian families and to provide an up-to-date narrative review of supporting evidence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated 360 Italian families using a 40-item questionnaire. The narrative review was conducted searching scientific databases for articles reporting on vegetarian and vegan weaning. RESULTS: 8.6% of mothers follow an alternative feeding regimen and 9.2% of infants were weaned according to a vegetarian or vegan diet. The breastfeeding duration was longer in vegetarian/vegan infants (15.8 vs. 9.7 months; p < 0.0001). Almost half of parents (45.2%) claim that their pediatrician was unable to provide sufficient information and adequate indications regarding unconventional weaning and 77.4% of parents reported the pediatrician's resistance towards alternative weaning methods. Nine studies were suitable for the review process. The vast majority of authors agree on the fact that vegetarian and vegan weaning may cause severe nutritional deficiencies, whose detrimental effects are particularly significant in the early stages of life. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Our results show that alternative weaning methods are followed by a significant number of families; in half of the cases, the family pediatrician was not perceived as an appropriate guide in this delicate process. To date, consistent findings to support both the safety and feasibility of alternative weaning methods are still lacking. Since the risk of nutritional deficiencies in the early stages of life is high, pediatricians have a pivotal role in guiding parents and advising them on the most appropriate and complete diet regimen during childhood. Efforts should be made to enhance nutritional understanding among pediatricians as an unsupervised vegetarian or vegan diet can cause severe nutritional deficiencies with possible detrimental long-term effects.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegana , Dieta Vegetariana , Veganos , Desmame , Aleitamento Materno , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vegetarianos
15.
Oecologia ; 193(2): 349-358, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564187

RESUMO

Understanding how spring phenology influences early life can provide important insights into drivers of future development and survival. We combined unique, long-term data from a bighorn sheep population and satellite-derived phenology indices to quantify the relative importance of maternal and environmental influences on milk composition and lamb overwinter survival. Based on 216 milk samples from 34 females monitored over 6 years, we found that longer snow-free and vegetation growing seasons increased milk fatty acid, iron and lactose concentrations. Structural equation modelling revealed no causality between milk energy content, lamb weaning mass and lamb overwinter survival. Our results suggest that spring conditions can affect milk energy content, but we did not detect any effect on lamb overwinter survival either directly or indirectly through lamb weaning mass. The effect of green-up date on milk composition and energy content suggests that herbivores living in seasonal environments, such as the bighorn sheep, might rely on a strategy intermediate between 'capital' and 'income' breeding when energy demands are high.


Assuntos
Mamíferos , Leite , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Estações do Ano , Ovinos , Desmame
16.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 4(7): 526-535, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562634

RESUMO

Peanut allergy is an important public health concern and causes substantial psychosocial comorbidity. Although fatal anaphylaxis is rare (occurring at 0·03-0·3 per million person-years in the general population), peanuts are one of the most frequent causes of food allergy mortality. The Learning Early About Peanut study transformed prevention of peanut allergy by showing that early introduction of peanut into the diet of children at high risk (ie, those with an egg allergy or severe eczema) reduced the relative risk of peanut allergy at age 5 years by 81%. Following publication of this study, the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, convened an expert panel, which recommended that, for infants with severe eczema or egg allergy, health professionals should strongly consider evaluation with peanut-specific serological IgE or skin prick test (or both) and, if necessary, an oral food challenge before peanut introduction. In the USA, depending on test results, peanut-containing foods are recommended to be introduced from age 4-6 months in infants with severe eczema or egg allergy. Early introduction to peanuts is also advocated for children with either mild to moderate or no eczema, and in children who are not allergic to egg, but without screening before peanut introduction. However, the NIAID addendum guidelines contrast with other international approaches that do not advocate for allergy screening at a population level before introducing peanuts into infants' diets. In this Review, we evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of a pre-emptive screening approach before the early introduction of peanuts in infants at high risk of peanut allergy.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/diagnóstico , Alérgenos/administração & dosagem , Alérgenos/imunologia , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Eczema/complicações , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/complicações , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Lactente , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Testes Cutâneos , Desmame
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233809, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480402

RESUMO

Climate models agree in predicting scenarios of global warming. In endothermic species heat stress takes place when they are upper their thermal neutral zone. Any physiological or behavioural mechanism to mitigate heat stress is at the cost of diverting energy from other physiological functions, with negative repercussions for individual fitness. Tolerance to heat stress differs between species, age classes and sexes, those with the highest metabolic rates being the most sensitive to stressing thermal environments. This is especially important during the first months of life, when most growth takes place. Red deer (Cervus elaphus) is supposedly well adapted to a wide range of thermal environments, based on its worldwide distribution range, but little is known about the direct effect that heat stress may have on calf growth. We assessed the effect that heat stress, measured by heat stress indices and physical environment variables (air temperature, relative air humidity, wind speed and solar radiation), have on calf and mother body weights from calf´s birth to weaning. We used 9265 longitudinal weekly body weight records of calf and mother across 19 years in captive Iberian red deer. We hypothesised that (i) heat stress in hot environments has a negative effect on calf growth, especially in males, as they are more energetically demanding to produce than females; and that (ii) the body weight of the mother through lactation should be negatively affected by heat stress. Our results supported hypothesis (i) but not so clearly hypothesis (ii). By weaning (day 143) calves growing under low heat stress environment grew up to 1.2 kg heavier than those growing in high heat stress environment, and males were more affected by heat stress than females. The results have implications in animal welfare, geographical clines in body size and adaptation to climate change.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Tamanho Corporal , Cervos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Animais , Mudança Climática , Cervos/fisiologia , Feminino , Umidade , Masculino , Desmame
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233910, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502215

RESUMO

Farmers face difficulties in redeeming their investment in larger litter sizes since this comes with larger litter heterogenicity, lower litter resilience and risk of higher mortality. Dietary oligosaccharides, given to the sow, proved beneficial for the offspring's performance. However, giving oligosaccharides to the suckling piglet is poorly explored. Therefore, this field trial studied the effect of dietary short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS; 1g/day; drenched) supplementation to low (LBW, lower quartile), normal (NBW, two intermediate quartiles) and high (HBW, upper quartile) birth weight piglets from birth until 7 or 21 days of age. Performance parameters, gut microbiome and short-chain fatty acids profile of feces and digesta were assessed at birth (d 0), d 7, weaning (d 21.5) and 2 weeks post-weaning (d 36.5). Additional parameters reflecting gut health (intestinal integrity and morphology, mucosal immune system) were analysed at d 36.5. Most parameters changed with age or differed with the piglet's birth weight. Drenching with scFOS increased body weight by 1 kg in NBW suckling piglets and reduced the post-weaning mortality rate by a 100%. No clear difference in the IgG level, the microbiota composition and fermentative activity between the treatment groups was observed. Additionnally, intestinal integrity, determined by measuring intestinal permeability and regenerative capacity, was similar between the treatment groups. Also, intestinal architecture (villus lenght, crypt depth) was not affected by scFOS supplementation. The density of intra-epithelial lymphocytes and the expression profiles (real-time qPCR) for immune system-related genes (IL-10, IL-1ß, IL-6, TNFα and IFNγ) were used to assess mucosal immunity. Only IFNγ expression, was upregulated in piglets that received scFOS for 7 days. The improved body weight and the reduced post-weaning mortality seen in piglets supplemented with scFOS support the view that scFOS positively impact piglet's health and resilience. However, the modes of action for these effects are not yet fully elucidated and its potential to improve other performance parameters needs further investigation.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/imunologia , Animais , Animais Lactentes/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Desmame
19.
Pediatrics ; 146(1)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32518168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In-hospital formula feeding (IHFF) of breastfed infants is associated with shorter duration of breastfeeding. Despite evidence-based guidelines on when IHFF is appropriate, many infants are given formula unnecessarily during the postpartum hospital stay. To account for selection bias inherent in observational data, in this study, we estimate liberal and conservative bounds for the association between hospital formula feeding and duration of breastfeeding. METHODS: Infants enrolled in the Minnesota Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children were selected. Breastfed infants given formula were matched with infants exclusively breastfed (n = 5310) by using propensity scoring methods to adjust for potential confounders. Cox regression of the matched sample was stratified on feeding status. A second, more conservative analysis (n = 4836) was adjusted for medical indications for supplementation. RESULTS: Hazard ratios (HR) for weaning increased across time. In the first analysis, the HR across the first year was 6.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.9-7.5), with HRs increasing with age (first month: HR = 4.1 [95% CI 3.5-4.7]; 1-6 months: HR = 8.2 [95% CI 5.6-12.1]; >6 months: HR = 14.6 [95% CI 8.9-24.0]). The second, more conservative analysis revealed that infants exposed to IHFF had 2.5 times the hazard of weaning compared with infants who were exclusively breastfed (HR = 2.5; 95% CI 1.9-3.4). CONCLUSIONS: IHFF was associated with earlier weaning, with infants exposed to IHFF at 2.5 to 6 times higher risk in the first year than infants exclusively breastfed. Strategies to reduce IHFF include prenatal education, peer counseling, hospital staff and physician education, and skin-to-skin contact.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Fórmulas Infantis , Desmame , Hospitalização , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Fatores de Tempo
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233926, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492042

RESUMO

This study evaluated 53 primiparous cows (36.8±1.23 months old and 484±40.9 kg of body weight) performance tested (GrowSafe® System) from 22±5 to 190±13 days of lactation in order to obtain daily dry matter intake (DMI). The animals received a high-forage diet (forage-to-concentrate ratio of 90:10). Milk production of the cows was evaluated three times by mechanical milking and the energy-corrected milk yield (ECMY) was calculated. Energy status (through the indicators glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and ß-hydroxybutyrate), protein status (indicators albumin, urea, and creatinine), mineral status (indicators calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium), and hormonal status (indicators insulin and cortisol) were estimated four times throughout lactation. The residual feed intake (RFI) of cows was calculated considering DMI, average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic weight (BW0.75) obtained in early lactation (from 22±5 to 102±7 days), and the animals were classified as negative (most efficient) or positive RFI (least efficient). The RFI model explained 53% of the variation in DMI. The mean DMI, ADG, ECMY, and calf weight as a percentage of cow weight were 12.47±2.70 kg DM/day, 0.632±0.323 kg/day, 10.47±3.23 kg/day, and 36.6±5.39%, respectively. Negative RFI cows consumed 11.5% less DM than positive RFI cows, with performance and metabolic profile being similar to those of positive RFI cows, except for a lower milk protein content and higher blood cholesterol concentration. In conclusion, negative (most efficient) and positive RFI (least efficient) Nellore cows, fed an ad libitum high-forage diet, produced similar amounts of milk, fat and lactose and had similar subcutaneous fat thickness, weight, calf weight as a percentage of cow weight, and blood metabolite concentrations (except for cholesterol). Therefore, there are economic benefits to utilizing RFI in a cow herd since cattle had decreased DMI with similar overall performance, making them more profitable due to lower input costs.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Bovinos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Lactação/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Desmame , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
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