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1.
Tex Med ; 116(9): 4, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023284

RESUMO

While the World Health Organization estimates that climate change will cause approximately 250,000 additional deaths per year worldwide from malnutrition, malaria, diarrhea, and heat stress, these estimates are based on assumptions using models that have not been validated using real world, observational data.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Aquecimento Global , Educação em Saúde , Saúde , Causas de Morte , Diarreia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Malária , Desnutrição , Texas
2.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (10): 95-103, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047592

RESUMO

The article presents an algorithm for perioperative nutritional support of surgical patients operated on as planned. Today, planned surgical care is provided in accordance with the canons of the accelerated rehabilitation Program (ARP). The relevance of the problem of nutritional insufficiency, which is an important component of ARP, is due to the dependence of the results of surgical treatment on the initial nutritional status of the patient. Methods of screening for nutritional deficiency and options for correcting protein-energy disorders are described. The predominant method is the enteral delivery of nutrients and energy. Oral supplemental nutrition by sipping is a convenient way to correct nutritional disorders at all stages of the perioperative period.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Desnutrição/terapia , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Administração Oral , Deficiências Nutricionais/diagnóstico , Deficiências Nutricionais/terapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Recuperação Pós-Cirúrgica Melhorada , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Humanos , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento , Estado Nutricional , Período Perioperatório
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027397

RESUMO

Poverty, malnutrition and neglected tropical diseases such as soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) interact in a multi-causal feedback network. This study aimed to assess the relationships between STHs, income and nutritional status of children in impoverished communities in the city of Caxias, Maranhao State, Northeastern Brazil. A cross-sectional survey (n=259 children) was carried out with the collection of fecal samples and assessment of sociodemographic, anthropometric, dietary and sanitation data. Hookworm infection and ascariasis presented prevalence rates of 14.3% and 9.3%, respectively. The logistic regression analysis showed that hookworm infection was more frequent in males (odds ratio [OR]=3.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.45-8.08), children aged 11-15 years old (OR=3.72; 95% CI=1.19-11.62), children living in poor families (OR=2.44; 95% CI=1.04-5.68) and those living in rented houses (OR=5.74; 95%CI=1.91-17.25). Concerning ascariasis, living in the Caldeiroes community (OR=0.01; 95%CI=0-0.17) and belonging to the 11-15 years age group (OR=0.21; 95%CI=0.04-1.02) were protection factors. Poor children have a significantly lower frequency of consumption of meat, milk, vegetables, tubers and fruits than not poor children. The frequent consumption of meat, milk and tubers was associated with significant higher values in the parameter height-for-age, whereas the consumption of meat and milk positively influenced the weight-for-age. The frequencies of stunting, underweight and wasting were 8.1%, 4.9% and 2.9%, respectively. The multivariate model demonstrated that stunting was significantly associated with economic poverty (OR=2.82; 95%CI=1.03-7.70) and low weight was associated with male sex (OR=6.43; 95% CI=1.35-30.68). In conclusion, the study describes the interactions between the dimensions of development represented by income, STHs and nutritional status revealing the importance of raising income levels to improve the living conditions of families in impoverished communities in Northeastern Brazil.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Pobreza , Solo/parasitologia , Adolescente , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino
8.
J Frailty Aging ; 9(4): 226-231, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 90-day mortality and rehospitalizations are important hospital quality metrics. Biomarkers that predict these outcomes among malnourished hospitalized patients could identify those at risk and help direct care plans. OBJECTIVES: To identify biomarkers that predict 90-day (primary) and 30-day (secondary) mortality or nonelective rehospitalization. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: An analysis of the ability of biomarkers to predict 90- and 30-day mortality and rehospitalization among malnourished hospitalized patients. SETTING: 52 blood biomarkers were measured in 193 participants in NOURISH, a randomized trial that determined the effects of a nutritional supplement on 90-day readmission and death in patients >65 years. Composite outcomes were defined as readmission or death over 90-days or 30-days. Univariate Cox Proportional Hazards models were used to select best predictors of outcomes. Markers with the strongest association were included in multivariate stepwise regression. Final model of hospital readmission or death was derived using stepwise selection. MEASUREMENTS: Nutritional, inflammatory, hormonal and muscle biomarkers. RESULTS: Mean age was 76 years, 51% were men. In univariate models, 10 biomarkers were significantly associated with 90-day outcomes and 4 biomarkers with 30-day outcomes. In multivariate stepwise selection, glutamate, hydroxyproline, tau-methylhistidine levels, and sex were associated with death and readmission within 90-days. In stepwise selection, age-adjusted model that included sex and these 3 amino-acids demonstrated moderate discriminating ability over 90-days (C-statistic 0.68 (95%CI 0.61, 0.75); age-adjusted model that included sex, hydroxyproline and Charlson Comorbidity Index was predictive of 30-day outcomes (C-statistic 0.76 (95%CI 0.68, 0.85). CONCLUSIONS: Baseline glutamate, hydroxyproline, and tau-methylhistidine levels, along with sex and age, predict risk of 90-day mortality and nonelective readmission in malnourished hospitalized older patients. This biomarker set should be further validated in prospective studies and could be useful in prognostication of malnourished hospitalized patients and guiding in-hospital care.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Desnutrição/mortalidade , Desnutrição/terapia , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Br J Community Nurs ; 25(Sup8): S6-S10, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936703

RESUMO

The impact of nutrition on recovery from various illnesses is well recognised. Malnutrition can affect duration of hospitalisation and impede recovery, and therefore it is important to monitor this condition, especially in at-risk groups, such as older adults and those with chronic disease. Underlying malnutrition impairs the immune system, potentially making people more vulnerable to infections such as COVID-19 and impacting recovery. Patients recovering from severe illness are likely to have muscle wasting or feel weak and may have increased protein needs. In addition individuals who have been discharged from hospital may need ongoing nutritional rehabilitation. This article explores the range of symptoms of COVID-19 that can interfere with dietary intake, such as respiratory issues, loss of taste and smell and fatigue and weakness. It goes on to describe how community nurses can identify risk of malnutrition and dietary issues when working remotely. Additionally, it signposts to a range of resources developed to assist patients and carers in accessing appropriate dietary advice.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Enfermagem em Saúde Comunitária , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Desnutrição/etiologia , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Estado Nutricional , Apoio Nutricional , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
10.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32992538

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with high risk of malnutrition, primarily in older people; assessing nutritional risk using appropriate screening tools is critical. This systematic review identified applicable tools and assessed their measurement properties. Literature was searched in the MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS databases. Four studies conducted in China met the eligibility criteria. Sample sizes ranged from six to 182, and participants' ages from 65 to 87 years. Seven nutritional screening and assessment tools were used: the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002), the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), the MNA-short form (MNA-sf), the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), the Nutritional Risk Index (NRI), the Geriatric NRI (GNRI), and modified Nutrition Risk in the Critically ill (mNUTRIC) score. Nutritional risk was identified in 27.5% to 100% of participants. The NRS-2002, MNA, MNA-sf, NRI, and MUST demonstrated high sensitivity; the MUST had better specificity. The MNA and MUST demonstrated better criterion validity. The MNA-sf demonstrated better predictive validity for poor appetite and weight loss; the NRS-2002 demonstrated better predictive validity for prolonged hospitalization. mNUTRIC score demonstrated good predictive validity for hospital mortality. Most instruments demonstrate high sensitivity for identifying nutritional risk, but none are acknowledged as the best for nutritional screening in older adults with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Avaliação Geriátrica , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Avaliação Nutricional , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
Enferm. nefrol ; 23(3): 244-251, jul.-sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193707

RESUMO

La prevalencia de malnutrición en paciente con Enfermedad Renal Crónica es elevada, aumentando en pacientes con infección por SARS-CoV-2. La relación existente entre inflamación y nutrición es conocida en la enfermedad renal, por lo que la presencia previa de cuadros de malnutrición empeora el pronóstico de la infección. El objetivo del presente artículo es la creación de recomendaciones dietéticas específicas para pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica e infección o post-infección por SARS-CoV-2, adaptadas al estadio de enfermedad y a la etapa del proceso de infección. El abordaje nutricional comienza por la valoración del estado nutricional, para lo que se recomiendan minimizar el contacto físico mediante la utilización de los criterios Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM), y el cuestionario rápido de sarcopenia (SARC-F). Las recomendaciones dietéticas deben considerar el estadio de enfermedad renal crónica, la etapa de infección por SARS-CoV-2 y las complicaciones surgidas que comprometan la ingesta oral, entre las más comunes se encuentran: anorexia, ageusia, disfagia y diarrea. En el presente documento se han elaborado tablas de raciones de ingestas diarias adaptadas a las diferentes situaciones. En aquellos pacientes que no cubran los requerimientos nutricionales se recomienda comenzar con la suplementación nutricional de manera precoz, considerando las consecuencias de la infección descrita. Debido al elevado riesgo de malnutrición en pacientes con enfermedad renal cónica e infección por SARS-CoV-2, se recomienda la adaptación de la valoración del estado nutricional y su tratamiento, así como realizar una monitorización tras la fase de infección activa


The prevalence of malnutrition in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease is high, increasing in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The relationship between inflammation and nutrition in kidney disease is known, so the previous presence of malnutrition conditions worsens the prognosis of infection. The objective of this article is the creation of specific dietary recommendations for patients with chronic kidney disease and infection or post-infection by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, adapted to the stage of the disease and the stage of the infection process. The nutritional approach begins with the assessment of nutritional status, recommending minimizing physical contact through the use of the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) criteria and the rapid sarcopenia questionnaire (SARC-F). The dietary recommendations should consider the stage of chronic kidney disease, the stage of infection by SARS-CoV-2 and the complications arising that compromise oral intake, among the most common are: anorexia, ageusia, dysphagia and diarrhea. In this document, tables of daily intakes have been prepared adapted to different situations. In those patients who do not meet the nutritional requirements, it is recommended to start with an early nutritional supplementation, considering the consequences of the infection described. Due to the high risk of malnutrition in patients with chronic kidney disease and SARS-CoV-2 infection, it is recommended to adapt the assessment of nutritional status and treatment, as well as to carry out monitoring after the active infection phase


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/dietoterapia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Diálise Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 24(7): 696-698, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744563

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is posing an unprecedented challenge to healthcare systems worldwide. Older adults, which frequently present multiple chronic comorbidities, are more susceptible to COVID-19 and experience more likely negative outcomes, in terms of disease severity and mortality. However, chronological age per se may not entirely explain the dramatic scenario described among the frailest and oldest persons. Comorbidities and functional status may indeed play a relevant role. Patients at high risk of adverse clinical outcomes in COVID-19 infection are the same at risk of malnutrition, namely older adults and multimorbid individuals. In fact, COVID-19 can negatively impact on nutritional status, both in patients admitted to the hospital with the most severe manifestations of the infection, as well as in those who experience milder/asymptomatic forms of the disease. Despite being quite difficult in these emergency circumstances, nutritional status needs to be assessed in all COVID-19 patients upon admission and during hospital stay. Early nutritional support should be guaranteed in order to improve several malnutrition-related adverse outcomes. The evaluation of the nutritional status is today even more crucial than in normal times given the delicate status of older patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/dietoterapia , Idoso Fragilizado , Estado Nutricional , Apoio Nutricional , Pneumonia Viral/dietoterapia , Idoso , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
13.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(2): 423-435, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740600

RESUMO

Plastic surgery patients span the nutritional spectrum from generally healthy, nutritionally competent patients to inherently catabolic, nutritionally deficient, and chronic wound patients. Therefore, plastic and reconstructive surgery affords the opportunity to investigate the impact of nutrition across a heterogeneous patient population following a wide variety of procedures. Although patients may be nutritionally deficient in certain vitamins warranting perioperative repletion, other supplements have the potential to benefit all patients, regardless of nutritional status. Despite these putative benefits, there is a dearth of information regarding nutritional optimization, with the limited, available literature focusing mostly on herbal supplements and their potential side effects. A significant barrier to supplement use is the lack of education and available supporting information regarding the indications, contraindications, and physiology of these adjuncts. The goal of this article is to provide a comprehensive, evidence-based review of available nutritional supplements that can be considered for the plastic surgery patient in the perioperative period to optimize surgical outcomes while minimizing risk. Prospective, well-designed studies using validated, high-quality supplements will be critical in determining the significance that perioperative supplementation can have for surgical outcomes. Until well-done prospective studies are performed, the supplement, dose, and duration should be determined on an individual, patient-per-patient basis at the discretion of the operating surgeon.


Assuntos
Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Desnutrição/complicações , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Estado Nutricional , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD011504, 2020 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After decades of decline since 2005, the global prevalence of undernourishment reverted and since 2015 has increased to levels seen in 2010 to 2011. The prevalence is highest in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), especially Africa and Asia. Food insecurity and associated undernutrition detrimentally affect health and socioeconomic development in the short and long term, for individuals, including children, and societies. Physical and economic access to food is crucial to ensure food security. Community-level interventions could be important to increase access to food in LMICs. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of community-level interventions that aim to improve access to nutritious food in LMICs, for both the whole community and for disadvantaged or at-risk individuals or groups within a community, such as infants, children and women; elderly, poor or unemployed people; or minority groups. SEARCH METHODS: We searched for relevant studies in 16 electronic databases, including trial registries, from 1980 to September 2019, and updated the searches in six key databases in February 2020. We applied no language or publication status limits. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster randomised controlled trials (cRCTs) and prospective controlled studies (PCS). All population groups, adults and children, living in communities in LMICs exposed to community-level interventions aiming to improve food access were eligible for inclusion. We excluded studies that only included participants with specific diseases or conditions (e.g. severely malnourished children). Eligible interventions were broadly categorised into those that improved buying power (e.g. create income-generation opportunities, cash transfer schemes); addressed food prices (e.g. vouchers and subsidies); addressed infrastructure and transport that affected physical access to food outlets; addressed the social environment and provided social support (e.g. social support from family, neighbours or government). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts, and full texts of potentially eligible records, against the inclusion criteria. Disagreements were resolved through discussion or arbitration by a third author, if necessary. For each included study, two authors independently extracted data and a third author arbitrated disagreements. However, the outcome data were extracted by one author and checked by a biostatistician. We assessed risk of bias for all studies using the Effective Practice and Organization of Care (EPOC) risk of bias tool for studies with a separate control group. We conducted meta-analyses if there was a minimum of two studies for interventions within the same category, reporting the same outcome measure and these were sufficiently homogeneous. Where we were able to meta-analyse, we used the random-effects model to incorporate any existing heterogeneity. Where we were unable to conduct meta-analyses, we synthesised using vote counting based on effect direction. MAIN RESULTS: We included 59 studies, including 214 to 169,485 participants, and 300 to 124, 644 households, mostly from Africa and Latin America, addressing the following six intervention types (three studies assessed two different types of interventions). Interventions that improved buying power: Unconditional cash transfers (UCTs) (16 cRCTs, two RCTs, three PCSs): we found high-certainty evidence that UCTs improve food security and make little or no difference to cognitive function and development and low-certainty evidence that UCTs may increase dietary diversity and may reduce stunting. The evidence was very uncertain about the effects of UCTs on the proportion of household expenditure on food, and on wasting. Regarding adverse outcomes, evidence from one trial indicates that UCTs reduce the proportion of infants who are overweight. Conditional cash transfers (CCTs) (nine cRCTs, five PCSs): we found high-certainty evidence that CCTs result in little to no difference in the proportion of household expenditure on food and that they slightly improve cognitive function in children; moderate-certainty evidence that CCTs probably slightly improve dietary diversity and low-certainty evidence that they may make little to no difference to stunting or wasting. Evidence on adverse outcomes (two PCSs) shows that CCTs make no difference to the proportion of overweight children. Income generation interventions (six cRCTs, 11 PCSs): we found moderate-certainty evidence that income generation interventions probably make little or no difference to stunting or wasting; and low-certainty evidence that they may result in little to no difference to food security or that they may improve dietary diversity in children, but not for households. Interventions that addressed food prices: Food vouchers (three cRCTs, one RCT): we found moderate-certainty evidence that food vouchers probably reduce stunting; and low-certainty evidence that that they may improve dietary diversity slightly, and may result in little to no difference in wasting. Food and nutrition subsidies (one cRCT, three PCSs): we found low-certainty evidence that food and nutrition subsidies may improve dietary diversity among school children. The evidence is very uncertain about the effects on household expenditure on healthy foods as a proportion of total expenditure on food (very low-certainty evidence). Interventions that addressed the social environment: Social support interventions (one cRCT, one PCS): we found moderate-certainty evidence that community grants probably make little or no difference to wasting; low-certainty evidence that they may make little or no difference to stunting. The evidence is very uncertain about the effects of village savings and loans on food security and dietary diversity. None of the included studies addressed the intervention category of infrastructure changes. In addition, none of the studies reported on one of the primary outcomes of this review, namely prevalence of undernourishment. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The body of evidence indicates that UCTs can improve food security. Income generation interventions do not seem to make a difference for food security, but the evidence is unclear for the other interventions. CCTs, UCTs, interventions that help generate income, interventions that help minimise impact of food prices through food vouchers and subsidies can potentially improve dietary diversity. UCTs and food vouchers may have a potential impact on reducing stunting, but CCTs, income generation interventions or social environment interventions do not seem to make a difference on wasting or stunting. CCTs seem to positively impact cognitive function and development, but not UCTs, which may be due to school attendance, healthcare visits and other conditionalities associated with CCTs.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Assistência Alimentar/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Renda , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Criança , Cognição , Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Dieta , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Transtornos do Crescimento/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Apoio Social , Síndrome de Emaciação/prevenção & controle
15.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(8): 882-886, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800036

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the nutritional recovery status of children with moderate or severe malnutrition during hospitalization after discharge. METHODS: The children with moderate or severe malnutrition were given nutrition support during hospitalization. They received a regular follow-up and nutrition guidance after discharge. The weight-for-age and height-for-age Z-scores reaching above -2 SD were considered the nutrition criterion for ending follow-up. RESULTS: Among the 298 children with moderate or severe malnutrition, 174 (58.4%) reached the criterion for ending follow-up, 100 (33.6%) were lost to follow-up, 18 (6.0%) died, and 6 (2.0%) did not reach the criterion for ending follow-up after 18 months of follow-up. The children with malnutrition in the department of surgery had a significantly higher proportion of children reaching the criterion for ending follow-up than those in the department of internal medicine (P<0.05). The children with severe malnutrition had a significantly higher loss to follow-up rate than those with moderate nutrition (P<0.05). The majority of children with emaciation reached the criterion for ending follow-up at month 3 after discharge, while those with growth retardation reached such the criterion at months 3-6 after discharge. Up to 1 year after discharge, more than 80% of the children with different types of malnutrition reached the nutrition criterion for ending follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the children with malnutrition who adhere to follow-up can reach the expected nutrition criterion within 1 year after discharge. The children with growth retardation have slower nutritional recovery than those with emaciation.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Alta do Paciente , Criança , Criança Hospitalizada , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estado Nutricional
16.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 61(7): 750-752, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759561

RESUMO

A 72-year-old man with ileocecal lymphadenopathy was found to have Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma using open biopsy, and an ileostoma was created. R-CHOP-like chemotherapy was initiated, but his malnutrition did not improve. After 3 cycles of chemotherapy, a 2-m-long Cestoda was removed from the stoma and was identified as Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense using mitochondria cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 targeted polymerase chain reaction analysis. Although D. nihonkaiense infections are asymptomatic, the ileostomy was thought to have exacerbated the malabsorption in this patient. Parasitic infections are rare; however, they should be added to the differential diagnosis of malnutrition of unknown cause during chemotherapy for hematological malignancies.


Assuntos
Diphyllobothrium , Linfoma , Desnutrição , Idoso , Animais , Difilobotríase , Humanos , Masculino , Mitocôndrias
17.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(8): 1079-1086, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788485

RESUMO

Background: Poor growth and nutritional status are common features of sickle cell anemia (SCA) in children. The rising trend of obesity in children in developing countries has been reported despite a huge burden of undernutrition in these settings. In SCA, overweight/obesity is being increasingly reported. Aims: To evaluate the nutritional status and its determinants in children with SCA and to compare the same with hemoglobin AA (HbAA) controls of similar age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional analytical study involving 175 subjects and controls aged 1-18 years who met the inclusion criteria. Weight and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Z scores were computed for the anthropometric measurements using the World Health Organization (WHO) standard reference. Hemoglobin concentration was determined using HemoCue Hb201+ Analyzer. Results: Subjects had significantly lower Z- scores for weight, height, and BMI compared with controls. Stunting, wasting, and overweight/obesity were observed in 10.9%, 24.6%, and 5.1% of subjects compared with 2.3%, 5.7%, and 9.7% respectively in controls. Wasting, stunting and overweight/obesity in SCA were significantly associated with age while overweight/obesity was significantly associated with upper social class (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Poor growth and nutritional status are still prevalent while overweight and obesity are emerging comorbidities among children with SCA in our environment. Regular nutritional assessment of children with SCA should be encouraged while those at risk of under/over-nutrition should receive adequate nutritional rehabilitation to prevent possible complications.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/complicações , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Prevalência , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
J. Hum. Growth Dev. (Impr.) ; 30(2): 209-215, May-Aug. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1114929

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The nutritional transition in Brazil is reaching the child population. In this context, studies have shown high prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren. : To analyze the nutritional and anthropometric status of children in a public school between the years 2013 and 2015METHODS: This is a longitudinal research using a study from 2013 as a baseline. The sample consisted of 73 students aged between 3 and 9 years old. Socioeconomic, anthropometric and school feeding information were collected using questionnaires according to the age of the student. The nutritional status was determined by collecting weight and height measurements, which were later used to express Weight/Age and Height/Age scores. Statistical analysis was done with the SPSS programRESULTS: The results showed that a significant portion of the students remained overweight and obese according Weight/Age index (21.8%) and at risk of low weight by the Height/Age and Weight/Age indexes (4.1% and 3.6%). These students had growth and weight gain within the normal range and most of them with an appropriate weight for their age, however there was a significant portion of students underweight and overweight/obeseCONCLUSION: The early identification of factors, which affect the growth and weight gain in childhood, may contribute to design strategies between the health team and the school crew to promote healthy eating habits among this audience


INTRODUÇÃO: A transição nutricional no Brasil vem alcançando também a população infantil. Neste âmbito, estudos tem demostrado altas prevalências de sobrepeso e obesidade em crianças em idade escolarOBJETIVO: Analisar o estado nutricional e antropométrico de crianças de uma escola pública entre os anos de 2013 e 2015MÉTODO: Foi desenvolvido um estudo longitudinal utilizando um estudo de 2013 como baseline. A amostra final foi composta de 73 escolares com idade inicial entre 3 e 9 anos. Foram coletadas informações socioeconômicas, antropométricas e de prática de alimentação escolar utilizando questionários de acordo com a idade do escolar. O estado nutricional for determinado pela coleta de medidas de peso e altura, posteriormente estas foram utilizadas para expressão z escores de Peso/Idade e Altura/Idade. Utilizou-se o SPSS para análises estatísticasRESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que uma expressiva parcela dos escolares se manteve em sobrepeso e obesidade a partir do índice Peso/Idade (21,8%) e em risco de baixo peso pelos índices Altura/Idade e Peso/Idade (4,1% e 3,6%). Estes escolares apresentaram um crescimento e ganho de peso dentro dos padrões de normalidade e a maioria apresentou peso adequado para a idade, no entanto existiu uma parcela expressiva de escolares que apresentam baixo peso e sobrepeso/obesidadeCONCLUSÃO: O estado nutricional de crianças está relacionado a diversos fatores que devem ser trabalhados por meio de ações de desenvolver ações de vigilância alimentar e nutricional e de educação alimentar e nutricional com os escolares para promover hábitos alimentares saudáveis


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Alimentação Escolar , Vigilância Nutricional , Criança , Estado Nutricional , Desnutrição , Sobrepeso
19.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 217, ago. 2020. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1103536

RESUMO

Los primeros mil días de vida son parte del Curso de Vida, al tomar en consideración la Epigenética, término postulado por Waddington en 1942: modifica la expresión genética SIN cambiar la secuencia de las bases de ADN. El proyecto internacional llamado DOHaD (Developmental Origins of Health and Disease) u ODSE (Orígenes del Desarrollo de la Salud y Enfermedad), está inserto dentro de la Transición Alimentaria y Nutricional (TAN), que, en países en desarrollo­ocurre en forma muy rápida ­produce tanto la malnutrición por déficit como por exceso; es decir la doble carga nutricional. La TAN es producto en nuestro país, de una urbanización acelerada y anárquica, y de cambios socioculturales, como la incorporación de la mujer al mercado de trabajo con menos tiempo para cocinar; está acompañada de una transición epidemiológica con la emergencia y prevalencia de la obesidad y de las enfermedades crónicas como morbiletalidad. Esta doble carga nutricional se modificó, por la situación país, y prevalece más el déficit que el exceso. Se presenta el PROYECTO FUNDACIÓN BENGOA ­ SVPP ­ SOGV ­ CANIA, cuya meta es: Elaborar una agenda preventiva común contra la malnutrición tanto por déficit como por exceso y sus comorbilidades, bajo el enfoque de los primeros mil días de vida y su efecto sobre todo el curso de vida. Se realizó el diseño y aplicación de tres cuestionarios digitales, que se utilizaran para la elaboración de esta meta. Se consolidó un CONSENSO NACIONAL formado por profesionales de la salud involucrados en los primeros mil días de vida(AU)


The first 1000 days of life is the new paradigm that determines health and nutrition during the life course, based on epidemiological models that incorporate the concept of Epigenetics, term introduced by Waddington, that refers to changes that affect the genetic expression without changing the DNA sequence, within the international program DOHaD/ODSE as well as the Food and Nutrition Transition(FNT). This FNT, product of an accelerated and anarchic urbanization that led to sedentary activities, plus the incorporation of women to the work media, with less time for cooking, with the substitution of the traditional diet for one much more practical and efficient in time and effort. It is accompanied by demographic and epidemiologic changes and transitions. The Double Burden of Nutrition in VENEZUELA has changed due to the effect of the recent crisis with a rise in malnutrition and a fall in obesity/overweight. The current project: Fundación Bengoa- Pediatric Society Venezuela (SVPP) ­ CANIA - Obstetric Society of Venezuela (SOGV) is called Developmental Origins of Health and Disease in Venezuela (DOHaD Venezuela): and by means of a national consensus of medical societies and institutions, its goal is "To elaborate a Preventive Agenda both for Malnutrition and for Overweight and Obesity and its comorbidities, considering the First 1000 Days of life and its effect over the life course"


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Gravidez na Adolescência , Características da População , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Mortalidade Materna , Epigenômica , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Epidemiologia , Desnutrição , Transição Nutricional
20.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 216, ago. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1103452

RESUMO

Los primeros mil días de vida, desde la concepción hasta el final de los primeros dos años de vida, constituye un período crucial para establecer el desarrollo de la enfermedad o de la salud en la vida futura de los individuos. La exposición a ambientes adversos determinará las alteraciones temporales en el ADN que perduran en el tiempo que dicha exposición exista. Las políticas y programas destinados a garantizar el bienestar durante esta ventana crítica del crecimiento son cruciales para que la población goce de las mejores condiciones posibles que permitan la expresión de su máximo potencial, al cual están programados para desarrollar. Palabras clave: condiciones ambientales, programas y políticas(AU)


The first thousand days of life, from the conception until the end of the first two years of life, constitutes a key period in which the development of disease or health establishes in the future lives of individuals. Exposure to adverse environments will determine the temporary impairments in DNA that last as long as the exposure exists. Policies and programs aimed at guaranteeing well-being during this critical window of growth are crucial for the population to enjoy the best possible conditions that allow the expression of their maximum potential, to which they are programmed to develop(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Condições Sociais , Programas de Nutrição , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Pobreza , Desnutrição , Nutrição Pré-Natal
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