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1.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 40: 214-219, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Nutritional knowledge in patients with SARS-Cov2 infection (COVID-19) is limited. Our objectives were: i) to assess malnutrition in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, ii) to investigate the links between malnutrition and disease severity at admission, iii) to study the impact of malnutrition on clinical outcomes such as transfer to an intensive care unit (ICU) or death. METHODS: Consecutive patients hospitalized in a medicine ward at a university hospital were included from March 21st to April 24th 2020 (n = 114, 60.5% males, age: 59.9 ± 15.9 years). Nutritional status was defined using Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) criteria. Clinical, radiological and biological characteristics of COVID-19 patients were compared according to the presence of malnutrition. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between nutritional parameters and unfavourable outcomes such as transfer to intensive care unit (ICU) or death. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of malnutrition was 42.1% (moderate: 23.7%, severe: 18.4%). The prevalence of malnutrition reached 66.7% in patients admitted from ICU. No significant association was found between nutritional status and clinical signs of COVID-19. Lower albumin levels were associated with a higher risk of transfer to ICU (for 10 g/l of albumin, OR [95%CI]: 0.31 [0.1; 0.7]; p < 0.01) and this association was independent of age and CRP levels. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 in medical units dedicated to non-intensive care is associated with a high prevalence of malnutrition, especially for patients transferred from ICU. These data emphasize the importance of early nutritional screening in these patients to adapt management accordingly.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Hospitalização , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Desnutrição/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação Nutricional , Pandemias , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
2.
Rev. clín. esp. (Ed. impr.) ; 220(8): 511-517, nov. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193711

RESUMO

La infección por SARS-CoV-2 se relaciona con un riesgo alto de malnutrición, principalmente por el aumento de los requerimientos nutricionales y la presencia de un estado inflamatorio severo y universal. Los síntomas asociados contribuyen a la hiporexia, que perpetúa el balance nutricional negativo. Además, la disfagia, especialmente posintubación, empeora y hace poco segura la ingesta. Este riesgo es mayor en pacientes ancianos y multimórbidos. La inflamación en distinto grado es el nexo común entre la COVID-19 y la aparición de desnutrición, siendo más correcto hablar de desnutrición relacionada con la enfermedad (DRE). La DRE empeora el mal pronóstico de la infección por SARS-CoV-2, sobre todo en los casos más severos. Por ello es necesario identificar y tratar precozmente a las personas en riesgo, evitando la sobreexposición y el contacto directo con el paciente. No podemos olvidarnos del papel que juega la dieta saludable tanto en la prevención como en la recuperación tras el alta


SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with a high risk of malnutrition, mainly due to increased nutritional requirements and the presence of a severe and universal inflammatory state. Associated symptoms contribute to hyporexia, which perpetuates the negative nutritional balance. Furthermore, dysphagia, especially post-intubation, worsens and makes intake unsafe. This risk is greater in elderly and multimorbid patients. Inflammation to varying degrees is the common link between COVID-19 and the onset of malnutrition, and it is more correct to refer to disease-related malnutrition (DRM). DRM worsens the poor prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, especially in the most severe cases. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and treat people at risk early, avoiding overexposure and direct contact with the patient. We cannot forget the role that a healthy diet plays in both prevention and recovery after discharge


Assuntos
Humanos , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Desnutrição/complicações , Citocinas/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/complicações , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/complicações , Mediadores da Inflamação/análise , Inflamação/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Apoio Nutricional/métodos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239570, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052920

RESUMO

Data on residual clinical damage after Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) are lacking. The aims of this study were to investigate whether COVID-19 leaves behind residual dysfunction, and identify patients who might benefit from post-discharge monitoring. All patients aged ≥18 years admitted to the Emergency Department (ED) for COVID-19, and evaluated at post-discharge follow-up between 7 April and 7 May, 2020, were enrolled. Primary outcome was need of follow-up, defined as the presence at follow-up of at least one among: respiratory rate (RR) >20 breaths/min, uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) requiring therapeutic change, moderate to very severe dyspnoea, malnutrition, or new-onset cognitive impairment, according to validated scores. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) served as secondary outcome. 185 patients were included. Median [interquartile range] time from hospital discharge to follow-up was 23 [20-29] days. 109 (58.9%) patients needed follow-up. At follow-up evaluation, 58 (31.3%) patients were dyspnoeic, 41 (22.2%) tachypnoeic, 10 (5.4%) malnourished, 106 (57.3%) at risk for malnutrition. Forty (21.6%) patients had uncontrolled BP requiring therapeutic change, and 47 (25.4%) new-onset cognitive impairment. PTSD was observed in 41 (22.2%) patients. At regression tree analysis, the ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) and body mass index (BMI) at ED presentation, and age emerged as independent predictors of the need of follow-up. Patients with PaO2/FiO2 <324 and BMI ≥33 Kg/m2 had the highest odds to require follow-up. Among hospitalised patients, age ≥63 years, or age <63 plus non-invasive ventilation or diabetes identified those with the highest probability to need follow-up. PTSD was independently predicted by female gender and hospitalisation, the latter being protective (odds ratio, OR, 4.03, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.76 to 9.47, p 0.0011; OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.92, p 0.033, respectively). COVID-19 leaves behind physical and psychological dysfunctions. Follow-up programmes should be implemented for selected patients.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dispneia/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Assistência ao Convalescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/reabilitação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/reabilitação
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027397

RESUMO

Poverty, malnutrition and neglected tropical diseases such as soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) interact in a multi-causal feedback network. This study aimed to assess the relationships between STHs, income and nutritional status of children in impoverished communities in the city of Caxias, Maranhao State, Northeastern Brazil. A cross-sectional survey (n=259 children) was carried out with the collection of fecal samples and assessment of sociodemographic, anthropometric, dietary and sanitation data. Hookworm infection and ascariasis presented prevalence rates of 14.3% and 9.3%, respectively. The logistic regression analysis showed that hookworm infection was more frequent in males (odds ratio [OR]=3.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.45-8.08), children aged 11-15 years old (OR=3.72; 95% CI=1.19-11.62), children living in poor families (OR=2.44; 95% CI=1.04-5.68) and those living in rented houses (OR=5.74; 95%CI=1.91-17.25). Concerning ascariasis, living in the Caldeiroes community (OR=0.01; 95%CI=0-0.17) and belonging to the 11-15 years age group (OR=0.21; 95%CI=0.04-1.02) were protection factors. Poor children have a significantly lower frequency of consumption of meat, milk, vegetables, tubers and fruits than not poor children. The frequent consumption of meat, milk and tubers was associated with significant higher values in the parameter height-for-age, whereas the consumption of meat and milk positively influenced the weight-for-age. The frequencies of stunting, underweight and wasting were 8.1%, 4.9% and 2.9%, respectively. The multivariate model demonstrated that stunting was significantly associated with economic poverty (OR=2.82; 95%CI=1.03-7.70) and low weight was associated with male sex (OR=6.43; 95% CI=1.35-30.68). In conclusion, the study describes the interactions between the dimensions of development represented by income, STHs and nutritional status revealing the importance of raising income levels to improve the living conditions of families in impoverished communities in Northeastern Brazil.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Pobreza , Solo/parasitologia , Adolescente , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO5309, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111808

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the discriminative power of Nutritional Risk Screening 2002. METHODS: A cross sectional study involving one hundred participants aged ≥60 years. The original and adapted versions of Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 and the Mini Nutritional Assessment were used. Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 adaptation consisted of a lower age cutoff (60 years or older) for addition of one extra point to the final score. RESULTS: Screening using Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 revealed higher nutritional risk among patients aged ≥70 years (p=0.009), whereas screening using the adapted version of Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 revealed similar nutritional risk in both age groups (60-69 years and ≥70 years; p=0.117). Frequency of nutritional risk was highest when the Mini Nutritional Assessment was administered (52.7%), followed by the adapted and original versions of Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (35.5% and 29.1%, respectively). CONCLUSION: The adapted version of Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 was more effective than the original version. However, further studies are needed to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Avaliação Nutricional , Idoso , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Medição de Risco
6.
Enferm. nefrol ; 23(3): 244-251, jul.-sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193707

RESUMO

La prevalencia de malnutrición en paciente con Enfermedad Renal Crónica es elevada, aumentando en pacientes con infección por SARS-CoV-2. La relación existente entre inflamación y nutrición es conocida en la enfermedad renal, por lo que la presencia previa de cuadros de malnutrición empeora el pronóstico de la infección. El objetivo del presente artículo es la creación de recomendaciones dietéticas específicas para pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica e infección o post-infección por SARS-CoV-2, adaptadas al estadio de enfermedad y a la etapa del proceso de infección. El abordaje nutricional comienza por la valoración del estado nutricional, para lo que se recomiendan minimizar el contacto físico mediante la utilización de los criterios Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM), y el cuestionario rápido de sarcopenia (SARC-F). Las recomendaciones dietéticas deben considerar el estadio de enfermedad renal crónica, la etapa de infección por SARS-CoV-2 y las complicaciones surgidas que comprometan la ingesta oral, entre las más comunes se encuentran: anorexia, ageusia, disfagia y diarrea. En el presente documento se han elaborado tablas de raciones de ingestas diarias adaptadas a las diferentes situaciones. En aquellos pacientes que no cubran los requerimientos nutricionales se recomienda comenzar con la suplementación nutricional de manera precoz, considerando las consecuencias de la infección descrita. Debido al elevado riesgo de malnutrición en pacientes con enfermedad renal cónica e infección por SARS-CoV-2, se recomienda la adaptación de la valoración del estado nutricional y su tratamiento, así como realizar una monitorización tras la fase de infección activa


The prevalence of malnutrition in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease is high, increasing in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The relationship between inflammation and nutrition in kidney disease is known, so the previous presence of malnutrition conditions worsens the prognosis of infection. The objective of this article is the creation of specific dietary recommendations for patients with chronic kidney disease and infection or post-infection by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, adapted to the stage of the disease and the stage of the infection process. The nutritional approach begins with the assessment of nutritional status, recommending minimizing physical contact through the use of the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) criteria and the rapid sarcopenia questionnaire (SARC-F). The dietary recommendations should consider the stage of chronic kidney disease, the stage of infection by SARS-CoV-2 and the complications arising that compromise oral intake, among the most common are: anorexia, ageusia, dysphagia and diarrhea. In this document, tables of daily intakes have been prepared adapted to different situations. In those patients who do not meet the nutritional requirements, it is recommended to start with an early nutritional supplementation, considering the consequences of the infection described. Due to the high risk of malnutrition in patients with chronic kidney disease and SARS-CoV-2 infection, it is recommended to adapt the assessment of nutritional status and treatment, as well as to carry out monitoring after the active infection phase


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/dietoterapia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Diálise Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 24(7): 696-698, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744563

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is posing an unprecedented challenge to healthcare systems worldwide. Older adults, which frequently present multiple chronic comorbidities, are more susceptible to COVID-19 and experience more likely negative outcomes, in terms of disease severity and mortality. However, chronological age per se may not entirely explain the dramatic scenario described among the frailest and oldest persons. Comorbidities and functional status may indeed play a relevant role. Patients at high risk of adverse clinical outcomes in COVID-19 infection are the same at risk of malnutrition, namely older adults and multimorbid individuals. In fact, COVID-19 can negatively impact on nutritional status, both in patients admitted to the hospital with the most severe manifestations of the infection, as well as in those who experience milder/asymptomatic forms of the disease. Despite being quite difficult in these emergency circumstances, nutritional status needs to be assessed in all COVID-19 patients upon admission and during hospital stay. Early nutritional support should be guaranteed in order to improve several malnutrition-related adverse outcomes. The evaluation of the nutritional status is today even more crucial than in normal times given the delicate status of older patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/dietoterapia , Idoso Fragilizado , Estado Nutricional , Apoio Nutricional , Pneumonia Viral/dietoterapia , Idoso , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
8.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(8): 1079-1086, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788485

RESUMO

Background: Poor growth and nutritional status are common features of sickle cell anemia (SCA) in children. The rising trend of obesity in children in developing countries has been reported despite a huge burden of undernutrition in these settings. In SCA, overweight/obesity is being increasingly reported. Aims: To evaluate the nutritional status and its determinants in children with SCA and to compare the same with hemoglobin AA (HbAA) controls of similar age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional analytical study involving 175 subjects and controls aged 1-18 years who met the inclusion criteria. Weight and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Z scores were computed for the anthropometric measurements using the World Health Organization (WHO) standard reference. Hemoglobin concentration was determined using HemoCue Hb201+ Analyzer. Results: Subjects had significantly lower Z- scores for weight, height, and BMI compared with controls. Stunting, wasting, and overweight/obesity were observed in 10.9%, 24.6%, and 5.1% of subjects compared with 2.3%, 5.7%, and 9.7% respectively in controls. Wasting, stunting and overweight/obesity in SCA were significantly associated with age while overweight/obesity was significantly associated with upper social class (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Poor growth and nutritional status are still prevalent while overweight and obesity are emerging comorbidities among children with SCA in our environment. Regular nutritional assessment of children with SCA should be encouraged while those at risk of under/over-nutrition should receive adequate nutritional rehabilitation to prevent possible complications.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/complicações , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Prevalência , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD011504, 2020 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After decades of decline since 2005, the global prevalence of undernourishment reverted and since 2015 has increased to levels seen in 2010 to 2011. The prevalence is highest in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), especially Africa and Asia. Food insecurity and associated undernutrition detrimentally affect health and socioeconomic development in the short and long term, for individuals, including children, and societies. Physical and economic access to food is crucial to ensure food security. Community-level interventions could be important to increase access to food in LMICs. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of community-level interventions that aim to improve access to nutritious food in LMICs, for both the whole community and for disadvantaged or at-risk individuals or groups within a community, such as infants, children and women; elderly, poor or unemployed people; or minority groups. SEARCH METHODS: We searched for relevant studies in 16 electronic databases, including trial registries, from 1980 to September 2019, and updated the searches in six key databases in February 2020. We applied no language or publication status limits. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster randomised controlled trials (cRCTs) and prospective controlled studies (PCS). All population groups, adults and children, living in communities in LMICs exposed to community-level interventions aiming to improve food access were eligible for inclusion. We excluded studies that only included participants with specific diseases or conditions (e.g. severely malnourished children). Eligible interventions were broadly categorised into those that improved buying power (e.g. create income-generation opportunities, cash transfer schemes); addressed food prices (e.g. vouchers and subsidies); addressed infrastructure and transport that affected physical access to food outlets; addressed the social environment and provided social support (e.g. social support from family, neighbours or government). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts, and full texts of potentially eligible records, against the inclusion criteria. Disagreements were resolved through discussion or arbitration by a third author, if necessary. For each included study, two authors independently extracted data and a third author arbitrated disagreements. However, the outcome data were extracted by one author and checked by a biostatistician. We assessed risk of bias for all studies using the Effective Practice and Organization of Care (EPOC) risk of bias tool for studies with a separate control group. We conducted meta-analyses if there was a minimum of two studies for interventions within the same category, reporting the same outcome measure and these were sufficiently homogeneous. Where we were able to meta-analyse, we used the random-effects model to incorporate any existing heterogeneity. Where we were unable to conduct meta-analyses, we synthesised using vote counting based on effect direction. MAIN RESULTS: We included 59 studies, including 214 to 169,485 participants, and 300 to 124, 644 households, mostly from Africa and Latin America, addressing the following six intervention types (three studies assessed two different types of interventions). Interventions that improved buying power: Unconditional cash transfers (UCTs) (16 cRCTs, two RCTs, three PCSs): we found high-certainty evidence that UCTs improve food security and make little or no difference to cognitive function and development and low-certainty evidence that UCTs may increase dietary diversity and may reduce stunting. The evidence was very uncertain about the effects of UCTs on the proportion of household expenditure on food, and on wasting. Regarding adverse outcomes, evidence from one trial indicates that UCTs reduce the proportion of infants who are overweight. Conditional cash transfers (CCTs) (nine cRCTs, five PCSs): we found high-certainty evidence that CCTs result in little to no difference in the proportion of household expenditure on food and that they slightly improve cognitive function in children; moderate-certainty evidence that CCTs probably slightly improve dietary diversity and low-certainty evidence that they may make little to no difference to stunting or wasting. Evidence on adverse outcomes (two PCSs) shows that CCTs make no difference to the proportion of overweight children. Income generation interventions (six cRCTs, 11 PCSs): we found moderate-certainty evidence that income generation interventions probably make little or no difference to stunting or wasting; and low-certainty evidence that they may result in little to no difference to food security or that they may improve dietary diversity in children, but not for households. Interventions that addressed food prices: Food vouchers (three cRCTs, one RCT): we found moderate-certainty evidence that food vouchers probably reduce stunting; and low-certainty evidence that that they may improve dietary diversity slightly, and may result in little to no difference in wasting. Food and nutrition subsidies (one cRCT, three PCSs): we found low-certainty evidence that food and nutrition subsidies may improve dietary diversity among school children. The evidence is very uncertain about the effects on household expenditure on healthy foods as a proportion of total expenditure on food (very low-certainty evidence). Interventions that addressed the social environment: Social support interventions (one cRCT, one PCS): we found moderate-certainty evidence that community grants probably make little or no difference to wasting; low-certainty evidence that they may make little or no difference to stunting. The evidence is very uncertain about the effects of village savings and loans on food security and dietary diversity. None of the included studies addressed the intervention category of infrastructure changes. In addition, none of the studies reported on one of the primary outcomes of this review, namely prevalence of undernourishment. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The body of evidence indicates that UCTs can improve food security. Income generation interventions do not seem to make a difference for food security, but the evidence is unclear for the other interventions. CCTs, UCTs, interventions that help generate income, interventions that help minimise impact of food prices through food vouchers and subsidies can potentially improve dietary diversity. UCTs and food vouchers may have a potential impact on reducing stunting, but CCTs, income generation interventions or social environment interventions do not seem to make a difference on wasting or stunting. CCTs seem to positively impact cognitive function and development, but not UCTs, which may be due to school attendance, healthcare visits and other conditionalities associated with CCTs.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Assistência Alimentar/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Renda , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Criança , Cognição , Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Dieta , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Transtornos do Crescimento/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Apoio Social , Síndrome de Emaciação/prevenção & controle
10.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104943, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to examine whether variables including D-dimer, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), hemoglobin, platelet count, and nutritional status mediate the pathway between cancer and ischemic stroke outcomes. METHODS: We reviewed data from consecutive patients with ischemic stroke admitted to Osaka University Hospital between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2016. Patients with ischemic stroke were grouped according to the presence of cancer. Nutritional status was assessed using Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) scores. Mediation analyses were utilized to address the study aims. RESULTS: Among 1,570 patients with ischemic stroke, 185 (12%) had active cancer. Relative to patients with ischemic stroke in the non-cancer group, those in the cancer group exhibited higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores on admission, higher D-dimer and hsCRP levels, lower hemoglobin levels and platelet counts, higher CONUT scores, and poorer modified Rankin Scale scores at discharge. Mediation analysis revealed that D-dimer, hsCRP, hemoglobin, platelet count, and CONUT scores acted as mediators of poor prognosis in the cancer group. The association between the exposure and outcome variables was no longer significant in the models containing D-dimer and CONUT scores as mediator variables, suggesting that they were strong mediators. Regarding the association between the mediator and outcome variables, hemoglobin, platelet count, and CONUT exhibited non-linearity (p for non-linearity < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: D-dimer, hsCRP, hemoglobin, platelet count, and CONUT score act as mediators of poor prognosis in patients with ischemic stroke with comorbid cancer. Such abnormalities can help to predict ischemic stroke outcomes.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Avaliação da Deficiência , Doenças Hematológicas/diagnóstico , Testes Hematológicos , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Idoso , Plaquetas , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Comorbidade , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Doenças Hematológicas/sangue , Doenças Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Hematológicas/terapia , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Desnutrição/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
11.
Sante Publique ; Vol. 32(1): 113-122, 2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706221

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Madagascar has adopted strategies to fight against maternal malnutrition, but the evaluation of their implementation is not effective.Purpose of research: The present study aims to describe beneficiary appreciation of interventions to fight maternal malnutrition and to identify their expectations. METHOD: A qualitative study was conducted in the Amoron’i Mania region, Madagascar. The study included mothers of children under 5, pregnant women, and other family members and community members (fathers, grandmothers, matrons and community workers). Six focus groups and 16 individual interviews were conducted to collect the data. The thematic analysis was used. RESULTS: Food supplementation, improved production of agriculture and livestock, and nutrition education, operated by NGOs, are the best-known interventions. The health centers were not mentioned as interveners and their interventions were ignored. The effectiveness of the intervention is generally judged on the benefits perceived by the beneficiaries. Interveners working on a project basis were assessed as unsustainable. Two main problems were mentioned: first, the insufficiency of agricultural production resulting in the inaccessibility of the ingredients required for the nutrition education, and second the low coverage of the interventions. The improvement of agricultural production is the main suggestion mentioned to fight against maternal undernutrition. CONCLUSIONS: Beneficiaries thought that existing interventions in the region are insufficient to address the problem of malnutrition among mothers.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Madagáscar/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa
12.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(3): 135-138, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669522

RESUMO

Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) due to anti-tubercular treatment (ATT) leads to increased morbidity and mortality in patients with tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to find the impact of malnutrition on the development of DILI. This was a prospective cohort study (September 2017 to August 2019) in which all newly diagnosed in-patients with tuberculosis above the age of 18 years were included. Those patients with a body mass index (BMI) of < 18.5 kg/m2 were considered malnourished. The patients were monitored for the development of DILI. Liver function tests were done at the baseline (before initiation of ATT), on the third day and at discharge in all the patients. Chi-square tests and conditional multiple logistic analysis was performed to identify risk factors associated with DILI. Out of the 319 subjects who were enrolled, a total of 138 patents chose to follow up at our hospital. A total of 14 patients (10%) developed DILI. The median time to onset of DILI was found to be ten days. Extra-pulmonary TB, low BMI and high baseline liver enzyme levels had a significant association with the development of DILI (p < 0.05). Low serum albumin had increased odds ratio but wasn't statistically significant. Malnutrition is an important risk factor for TB-DILI.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/diagnóstico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/tendências , Adulto , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Desnutrição/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tuberculose/sangue , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0232998, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609719

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study tried to determine if malnutrition (underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight) and enamel defects (enamel hypoplasia, hypomineralized second molar, amelogenesis imperfecta, fluorosis) were associated with early childhood caries (ECC). The study also examined whether malnutrition was associated with the presence of enamel defects in 0-5-year-old children. METHODS: The study was a secondary analysis of primary data of a cross-sectional study assessing the association between maternal psychosocial health and ECC in sub-urban Nigerian population collected in December 2018 and January 2019. One hundred and fifty nine children were recruited. Exploratory variables were malnutrition and enamel defects. The outcome variables were the prevalence of ECC in 0-2-year-old, 3-5-year-old, and 0-5-year-old children. Multivariable Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the associations, and socioeconomic status, oral hygiene status, and frequency of in-between-meals sugar consumption were adjusted for. The adjusted prevalence ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and p values were calculated. RESULTS: The prevalence of ECC was 2.1% in 0-2-year-old children and 4.9% in 3-5-year-old children. In adjusted models, underweight, stunting, and wasting/overweight were not significant risk indicators for ECC in either age group. 0-2-year-old children who had amelogenesis imperfecta (p<0.001) and fluorosis (p<0.001) were more likely to have ECC than were children who did not have these lesions. 3-5-year-old children who had hypoplasia (p = 0.004), amelogenesis imperfecta (p<0.001) and fluorosis (p<0.001) were more likely to have ECC than were children who did not have these lesions. 0-5-year-old children with hypoplasia (p<0.001) and fluorosis (p<0.001) were more likely to have ECC than were children who did not have these lesions. There were significant associations between various types of malnutrition and various types of enamel defects. CONCLUSION: Although different types of malnutrition were associated with enamel defects, and enamel defects were associated with ECC, malnutrition was not associated with ECC. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between malnutrition and genetically and toxin-induced enamel defects.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Esmalte Dentário/patologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Desnutrição/complicações , Nigéria , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 35: 70-74, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654854

RESUMO

As the coronavirus pandemic extends to low and middle income countries (LMICs), there are growing concerns about the risk of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in populations with high prevalence of comorbidities, the impact on health and economies more broadly and the capacity of existing health systems to manage the additional burden of COVID-19. The direct effects of COVID are less of a concern in children, who seem to be largely asymptomatic or to develop mild illness as occurs in high income countries; however children in LMICs constitute a high proportion of the population and may have a high prevalence of risk factors for severe lower respiratory infection such as HIV or malnutrition. Further diversion of resources from child health to address the pandemic among adults may further impact on care for children. Poor living conditions in LMICs including lack of sanitation, running water and overcrowding may facilitate transmission of SARS-CoV-2. The indirect effects of the pandemic on child health are of considerable concern, including increasing poverty levels, disrupted schooling, lack of access to school feeding schemes, reduced access to health facilities and interruptions in vaccination and other child health programs. Further challenges in LMICs include the inability to implement effective public health measures such as social distancing, hand hygiene, timely identification of infected people with self-isolation and universal use of masks. Lack of adequate personal protective equipment, especially N95 masks is a key concern for health care worker protection. While continued schooling is crucial for children in LMICs, provision of safe environments is especially challenging in overcrowded resource constrained schools. The current crisis is a harsh reminder of the global inequity in health in LMICs. The pandemic highlights key challenges to the provision of health in LMICs, but also provides opportunities to strengthen child health broadly in such settings.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Aglomeração , Educação , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Saneamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(10): 1791-1792, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640492

RESUMO

In March of 2020, the World Health Organization declared the SARS­Cov2 2019 (COVID­19) outbreak a global pandemic after documenting community scale transmission in every region, including Latin America. The risk factors associated with severity of disease include older age, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular and lung diseases, and immune suppression. Additional evidence strongly suggests that obesity is also a risk factor for severe forms of COVID­19 disease, while other types of malnutrition increase the risk of hospitalization from influenza­like diseases, regardless of the causative agent of the illness (1). Although detailed data are not yet available on the impact of under nutrition in the evolution of COVID­19, given the known inflammatory response caused by this condition, it is reasonable to expect a suboptimal immune response and higher risk of severity, as found with obesity (2).


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Masculino , Desnutrição/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Organização Mundial da Saúde
16.
BMJ ; 370: m2397, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699176

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of food supplementation on improving working memory and additional measures including cerebral blood flow in children at risk of undernutrition. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: 10 villages in Guinea-Bissau. PARTICIPANTS: 1059 children aged 15 months to 7 years; children younger than 4 were the primary population. INTERVENTIONS: Supervised isocaloric servings (≈1300 kJ, five mornings each week, 23 weeks) of a new food supplement (NEWSUP, high in plant polyphenols and omega 3 fatty acids, within a wide variety and high fortification of micronutrients, and a high protein content), or a fortified blended food (FBF) used in nutrition programs, or a control meal (traditional rice breakfast). MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome was working memory, a core executive function predicting long term academic achievement. Additional outcomes were hemoglobin concentration, growth, body composition, and index of cerebral blood flow (CBFi). In addition to an intention-to-treat analysis, a predefined per protocol analysis was conducted in children who consumed at least 75% of the supplement (820/925, 89%). The primary outcome was assessed by a multivariable Poisson model; other outcomes were assessed by multivariable linear mixed models. RESULTS: Among children younger than 4, randomization to NEWSUP increased working memory compared with the control meal (rate ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.41, P=0.03), with a larger effect in the per protocol population (1.25, 1.06 to 1.47, P=0.009). NEWSUP also increased hemoglobin concentration among children with anemia (adjusted mean difference 0.65 g/dL, 95% confidence interval 0.23 to 1.07, P=0.003) compared with the control meal, decreased body mass index z score gain (-0.23, -0.43 to -0.02, P=0.03), and increased lean tissue accretion (2.98 cm2, 0.04 to 5.92, P=0.046) with less fat (-5.82 cm2, -11.28 to -0.36, P=0.04) compared with FBF. Additionally, NEWSUP increased CBFi compared with the control meal and FBF in both age groups combined (1.14 mm2/s×10-8, 0.10 to 2.23, P=0.04 for both comparisons). Among children aged 4 and older, NEWSUP had no significant effect on working memory or anemia, but increased lean tissue compared with FBF (4.31 cm2, 0.34 to 8.28, P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Childhood undernutrition is associated with long term impairment in cognition. Contrary to current understanding, supplementary feeding for 23 weeks could improve executive function, brain health, and nutritional status in vulnerable young children living in low income countries. Further research is needed to optimize nutritional prescriptions for regenerative improvements in cognitive function, and to test effectiveness in other vulnerable groups. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03017209.


Assuntos
Anemia/dietoterapia , Disfunção Cognitiva/dietoterapia , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Sucesso Acadêmico , Anemia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Alimentos Fortificados/provisão & distribução , Guiné-Bissau/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento/métodos , Masculino , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Micronutrientes/provisão & distribução , Medição de Risco
17.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 87, 2020 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-538889

RESUMO

Due to the ongoing nationwide lockdown in Nepal, women and children face a greater risk of malnutrition and eventually leading to mortality and morbidity. To harness the progress made so far in improving the nutritional status of women and children, a focus on nutrition should be a part of the COVID-19 response plan.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Estado Nutricional , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Nepal/epidemiologia , Pandemias
19.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 20(8): 759-764, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570290

RESUMO

AIM: Malnutrition is common in older patients and is associated with adverse outcomes. The Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) has been developed as an objective index to assess nutritional risk in these patients. However, there is limited evidence regarding the association between GNRI and postoperative delirium (POD) as well as length of stay (LOS) in surgical older patients. Therefore, our goal was to examine the impact of poor nutrition, evaluated by the GNRI, on POD and length of stay in older patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, older patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery from April to June of 2015 were included. Preoperative nutritional status was assessed by the GNRI within the first 48 h after hospital admission. The outcomes were POD and LOS. Multivariable logistic regression and linear regression analyses were used to assess the role of GNRI in predicting these outcomes. RESULTS: In the whole sample (N = 288), the prevalence of severe/moderate (GNRI <92) and low (GNRI 92-98) nutritional risk was 15.6% and 29.5%, respectively. The median length of hospital stay was 14 days. Delirium was present in 49 patients (17%). A linear regression analysis showed that low (ß = 4.56, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.18-6.94) and severe/moderate (ß = 3.70, 95% CI: 0.74-6.65) nutritional risk were associated with prolonged LOS. Moreover, a multivariate analysis revealed that patients with severe/moderate nutritional risk were more likely to develop POD compared with those without (odds ratio = 2.56, 95% CI: 1.11-5.89). CONCLUSION: Preoperative malnutrition, as assessed using the GNRI, predicted LOS and the development of POD in elderly non-cardiac surgical patients. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 759-764.


Assuntos
Delírio/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Hospitalização , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233908, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This paper investigates actions that combine nutrition and physical activity which hold potential for 'double duty action' to tackle multiple forms of malnutrition simultaneously. Expanding on previous research on single component actions, we assessed the state of the literature to map integrated interventions across the life course to analyse potential double duty effects, and identify knowledge gaps and needs for future design, implementation, evaluation and research for effective double duty action. METHODS: A scoping review of peer-reviewed and grey literature was conducted to explore the pathways that extend from combined physical activity and nutrition promotion interventions, with potential synergistic effects on outcomes other than obesity. Electronic databases were searched for studies published between 1 January 2010 and 31 January 2020. Out of 359 articles retrieved, 31 peer-reviewed and 5 grey literature sources met inclusion criteria. Findings from 36 papers reporting on 34 interventions/initiatives were organised into 6 categories, based on implementation across multiple stages of the life course. Double-duty potential was assessed through a further stage of analysis. FINDINGS: This review has identified actions that hold potential for tackling not only obesity, but healthy diets, sedentary behaviour and quality of life more generally, as well as actions that explicitly tackle multiple forms of malnutrition. Importantly, it has identified crucial gaps in current methods and praxis that call for further practice-oriented research, in order to better understand and exploit the synergistic effects of integrated interventions on outcomes other than obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from across implementation settings suggest that even in situations where interventions are aimed at, or framed in terms of, obesity prevention and control, there are unexploited pathways for broader outcomes of relevance to nutrition and health and wellbeing more generally. Future design and evaluation of multisectoral approaches will benefit from an explicit framing of interventions as double-duty oriented.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Carga Global da Doença , Humanos , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida
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